nep-ara New Economics Papers
on Arab World
Issue of 2011‒06‒25
eleven papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. An Economic Analysis of Tobacco Control Policies in Turkey By Selin Arslanhan; Asena Caner; Ismail Kerem Helvacioglu; Ismail Saglam; Tuncay Teksoz
  2. Scarcity, self-interest and maximization from Islamic angle By Hasan, Zubair
  3. "Islamic house financing:current models and a proposal from social perspective By Hasan, Zubair
  4. المسؤولية الاجتماعية للشركات :التحديات والأفاق من أجل التنمية فى الدول العربية By elasarg, hussein
  5. Saudi Aramco and the oil market By Anton Nakov; Galo Nuño
  6. Hypothesis of Currency Basket Pricing of Crude Oil: An Iranian Perspective By Melhem Sadek; Diallo Abdul Salam; Terraza Michel
  7. السيادة والسياسة ، والهيمنة والبقاء By Mohamed, Issam A.W.
  8. Challenges of formal social security systems in Sudan By Mohamed, Issam A.W.
  9. Social protection and economic growth in the Sudan: Trends, perspectives, cointegration and causality By Mohamed Hassan, Hisham
  10. Does Customer Relationship Management Matter in the Banking System? The Case of Iran By Dehghan Nejad, Omid
  11. Optimization of hydroelectric power generation, case study of Roseires Dam in Sudan By Mohamed, Issam A.W.

  1. By: Selin Arslanhan; Asena Caner; Ismail Kerem Helvacioglu; Ismail Saglam; Tuncay Teksoz
    Date: 2011–06
  2. By: Hasan, Zubair
    Abstract: This paper clarifies some misinterpretations of three foundational concepts in mainstream economics from Islamic viewpoint. These are scarcity of resources, pursuit of self-interest and maximizing behavior of economic agents. It argues that stocks of resources that God has provided are inexhaustible. But important is the availability of resources out of stocks to mankind. Availability is a function of human effort and the state of knowledge about resources over time and space. In that sense resources are scarce in relation to multiplicity of human wants for Islamic economics as well. Self-interest must be distinguished from selfishness. The motive operates on both ends of human existence: mundane and spiritual. Its pursuit does not preclude altruism from human life. Counter interests keep balance in society and promote civility. Islam recognizes the motive as valid. Maximization relates to quantifiable ex ante variables. Uncertainty of future outcomes of actions makes maximization a heuristic but useful analytical tool. The concept is value neutral. What is maximized, how and to what end alone give rise to moral issues. Modified in the light of Shari’ah requirements the three concepts can provide a firmer definition for Islamic economics centered on the notion of falah.
    Keywords: Scarcity; self-interest; opportunity cost; maximization; Islamic Economics; israf;; heuristics
    JEL: A22 B22 B13 B11
    Date: 2011–03–08
  3. By: Hasan, Zubair
    Abstract: Shelter is one of the basic needs for human beings. Its availability for the people is an Islamic imperative. In view of the appalling living conditions of a substantial proportion of the population in most countries around the world, especially Muslim, Islamic banks have entered the field with various schemes for home financing. In this infant industry, this effort is understandably guided by the profit motive, but a social dimension has to surface in the course of time.Unfortunately, the models banks currently use for home financing remain under the juridical gaze, more so as the practice is not always found to be transparent. This paper looks at Islamic home financing models in a broader societal context. It evaluates the efficacy of the current financing structures practised and suggests a new approach.The proposed model is shown as superior to the existing ones. It meets the norms of equity, fair play and openness does not, presumably,violate any other Islamic norm. Finally, the paper makes some policy suggestions to integrate Islamic home financing into the broader social goals of an Islamic economy.
    Keywords: Housing problem; basic needs; resource allocation; ruralurban migration; conventional model; BBA in housing; the MMP model; diminishing balances; planning.
    JEL: D10 G28 D60 G21
    Date: 2010–12–08
  4. By: elasarg, hussein
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and problems for Establishment of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Arab countries. The paper explores the nature and concept of CSR, particularly the Arab initiatives. As well as studying the activation of the corporate social responsibility role in the economic and social development of Arab countries.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Development ; Arab countries
    JEL: M14
    Date: 2011–06
  5. By: Anton Nakov (European Central Bank, DG Research, Neue Mainzer Strasse 66, D-60311 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.); Galo Nuño (Banco de España, Economía and Asuntos Internacionales, Alcalá 48, 28014 Madrid, Spain.)
    Abstract: We present a general equilibrium model of the global oil market, in which the oil price, oil production, and consumption, are jointly determined as outcomes of the optimizing decisions of oil importers and oil exporters. On the supply side the oil market is modelled as a dominant firm – Saudi Aramco – with competitive fringe. We establish that a dominant firm may exist as long as it enjoys a cost advantage over the fringe. We provide an expression for the optimal markup and compute the spare capacity maintained by such a firm. The model produces plausible dynamics in response to oil supply and oil demand shocks. In particular, it reproduces successfully the jump in oil output of Saudi Aramco following the output collapse of Iraq and Kuwait during the first Gulf War, explaining it as the profit-maximizing response of the dominant firm. Oil taxes and subsidies affect the oil price and welfare through their effect on the trade-off between oil production efficiency and oil market competition. JEL Classification: E32, Q43.
    Keywords: oil price, oil production, dominant firm, Saudi Aramco, oil tax.
    Date: 2011–06
  6. By: Melhem Sadek; Diallo Abdul Salam; Terraza Michel
    Abstract: The decline in the value of US dollar and the emergence of other currencies has opened the debate within OPEC, of whether it is possible to resort to the pricing of crude oil in alternative currencies. The debate was limited because of the inadequate liquidity of most other currencies. In this paper, we focus on the implications of the shift in the pricing of Iran’s crude oil to other currencies than the US dollar. The results demonstrated that the pricing for Iranian oil in US dollar had high reaction potential and responded moderately to the change in the exchange rate, when compared to the pricing in Euro and in Yen. Consequently, it appeared that stability on the financial market led to partial stability in the oil market.
    Keywords: Crude Oil Pricing, Currency Basket, OPEC, Exchange Rate of Dollar, Euros, Yen.
    Date: 2011–06
  7. By: Mohamed, Issam A.W.
    Abstract: Since the beginning of the year 2011, the political crisis of Sudan expands everyday. The inevitable secession of Southern Sudan amplifies with the chronic crisis of Abyei pocket between the north and the south. However, most analysts vocalize their astonishment at irrational official behavior as the de facto state of war that currently prevails in the country and call it pure stupidity. In this paper we analyze what is behind the regime structure and the conception of the Hakimya that makes their regime fortified from accepting rationality, resilience and sense of truth to respond for solutions and help of the international society.
    Keywords: Hakimya; Institutional Void; Hegemony; Political Crisis
    JEL: O1 D7 O17 A1 D72 P48 P1 P16
    Date: 2011–05
  8. By: Mohamed, Issam A.W.
    Abstract: The present paper discusses issues of challenges of social security systems in Sudan. Following parameters advanced by ILO and UNCOSOC, those systems are analyzed. The conclusions focus on their applicability that faces axial difficulties mainly presented in the state of institutional interregnum facing the country. Moreover, it is important to revisit aspects of social cohesion that serves greater role in traditional social security in the Sudan.
    Keywords: Sudan;institutional interregnum; Social Cohesion; Social Security
    JEL: D0 H55 A13 A12 A19 D02 H5 A10 A14
    Date: 2011
  9. By: Mohamed Hassan, Hisham
    Abstract: This paper takes into account the recent role of social protection on economic growth as a socio-economic-political stabilizer. Social protection outcome in Sudan is influenced by limited targeting actions with very low interventions between results in economic growth and accesses to basic social services. These may affects the social protection contributes to the process of development in the Sudan during the period under consideration. The results show that more social spending increase output which enhances GDP per capita growth by 0.5% with 3.1% towards convergence equilibrium in the long run. Moreover, universal approach and expanded cover to social protection services which aim at building a social protection as a productive factor may have contributed to enhancing income security, education and health outcomes, reducing the poverty, income inequality, socio-political stability, encouraged poor productive activities and enhancing economic growth lead to sustainable development.
    Keywords: Social Protection; Growth; Cointegration; causality; Sudan
    JEL: C51 A13 B22 G28 C01
    Date: 2010–05
  10. By: Dehghan Nejad, Omid
    Abstract: In the last few years, the Iranian banking system has consistently ignored customer-orientation and its fundamental. Therefore, the banking system has not been able to use recent modern marketing very well, because of various economic and social problems such as the governmental banking system and the excess of the demand rate over supply. People do not have any incentive to use Iranian banking system, because banking system do not pay attention to their priority values and needs and just present similar services in all branches of country’s banks. Therefore, the customers refer to the banks inevitably to satisfy their elementary needs, in other words it should said that, in the current situation the people serve the banks, not the banks serve people. Regarding the environmental changes that are front of us, the banks should emphasize on its equipping, recognizing the customer’s need and expectations and regard to market situation. Because every bank can recognize and secure these needs before rivals will success in the competition field. This study attempted to analysis the role of customer communication management in Iranian banks and its weakness, strengths and goals, in addition, its executing effects and the basic role of customer as a basic and critical element for remaining the banking system. Finally, some suggestions present for reforming and improving the quality of services in the banking system.
    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management, customer, satisfaction, services
    JEL: G2 O32 J53 J5
    Date: 2011–06–05
  11. By: Mohamed, Issam A.W.
    Abstract: Water reservoirs are large pools of water created stream or river catchment's areas and torrential rains and for storing water for use in many ways, and perhaps electric power generation is one of the most important uses of these reservoirs and for agriculture. That is extremely beneficial considering a rare and limited economic resources. Applied stochastic processes model has been applied in the work of Roseires dam, in order to develop a system to generate the highest possible power in the resources available. The current paper aims to apply another model, which is a dynamic programming model to verify the possibility of developing the same system and thus generate the highest possible electricity from the reservoir. Data collected from the Ministry of Irrigation and the National Electricity Cooperation and international information network during the years 2006-2007.
    Keywords: Englsih
    JEL: C00 C0 C40 A10 C01 C80
    Date: 2011

This nep-ara issue is ©2011 by Quentin Wodon. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.