nep-ara New Economics Papers
on Arab World
Issue of 2011‒02‒19
six papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. Brain Drain from Turkey: Return Intentions of Skilled Migrants By Nil Demet Güngör; Aysit Tansel
  2. Wage Inequality and Returns to Education in Turkey: A Quantile Regression Analysis By Aysit Tansel; Fatma Bircan
  3. Performance of islamic banks across the world: an empirical analysis over the period 2001-2008 By KABLAN, Sandrine; YOUSFI, Ouidad
  4. Turkey and the EU: A ‘new’ European identity in the making? By Ingrid Kylstad
  5. Total Factor Productivity within the Tunisian manufacturing sectors and international convergence with OECD countries By Patrick Plane; Mohamed Chaffai; Dorra Triki
  6. Qui sont les salariés payés au niveau du salaire minimum? Une analyse empirique à partir de données turques By Calavrezo, Oana; Pelek, Selin

  1. By: Nil Demet Güngör (Atýlým University); Aysit Tansel (Middle East Technical University and Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: The study estimates an empirical model of return intentions using a dataset compiled from an internet survey of Turkish professionals residing abroad. In the migration literature, wage differentials are often cited as an important factor explaining skilled migration. The findings of our study suggest, however, that non-pecuniary factors, such as the importance of family and social considerations, are also influential in the return or non-return decision of the highly educated. In addition, economic instability in Turkey, prior intentions to stay abroad and work experience in Turkey also increase non-return. Female respondents also appear less likely to return indicating a more selective migration process for females.
    Keywords: Skilled migration, Brain drain, Return intentions, Turkey
    JEL: F20 F22
    Date: 2011–02
  2. By: Aysit Tansel (Middle East Technical University and Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt); Fatma Bircan (Karaelmas University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the male wage inequality and its evolution over the 1994-2002 period in Turkey by estimating Mincerian wage equations using OLS and quantile regression techniques. Male wage inequality is high in Turkey. While it declined at the lower end of the wage distribution it increased at the top end of wage distribution. Education contributed to higher wage inequality through both within and between dimensions. The within-groups inequality increased and between-groups inequality decreased over the study period. The latter factor may have dominated the former contributing to the observed decline in the male wage inequality over the 1994-2002. Further results are provided for the wage effects of experience, cohort effects, public sector employment, geographic location, firm size, industry of employment and their contribution to wage inequality. Recent increases in FDI inflows, openness to trade and global technological developments are discussed as contributing factors to the recent rising within-groups wage inequality.
    Keywords: Wage Inequality, Returns to Education, Quantile Regression, Turkey
    JEL: J31 J23 J24 I21
    Date: 2011–02
  3. By: KABLAN, Sandrine; YOUSFI, Ouidad
    Abstract: Our study aims at analyzing Islamic bank efficiency over the period 2001-2008. We found that they were efficient at 92%. The level of efficiency could however vary according to the region where they operate. Asia displays the highest score with 96%. Indeed, country like Malaysia made reforms in order to allow these banks to better cope with the existing financial system, display the highest scores. On the contrary countries with Islamic banking system do not necessarily display efficiency scores superior to the average. The subprime crisis seems to have impacted those banks indirectly. And market power and profitability have a positive impact on Islamic banks efficiency, while it is the contrary for their size. The latter implies that they do not benefit from scale economy, may be because of the specificity of Islamic financial products.
    Keywords: Islamic Finance; Islamic Banks; performance; efficiency; stochastic frontier analysis.
    JEL: C23 G32 G21
    Date: 2011–02–07
  4. By: Ingrid Kylstad
    Abstract: This paper conducts an ontological inquiry into the identity of the European Union, and seeks to establish whether its core identity is of a cultural or political nature through looking at the debate generated by Turkey’s application for EU membership. The concepts of ‘the other’, the nation-state and a secularism rooted in Christianity contributes towards a peculiar culturalist understanding of the EU project both on the left and on the right side of the political spectrum. The debate also demonstrates that there is a gap between what the EU ought to be judging from its fundamental documents, and what kind form of the EU ‘Europe’ is ready for. The liberal idea of the EU being a purely political union based on Kantian ideals will require a whole new language for talking about Europe.
    Keywords: European identity; enlargement
    Date: 2010–11–01
  5. By: Patrick Plane (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Mohamed Chaffai (Université de Sfax - Université de Sfax); Dorra Triki (Université de Tunis - Université de Tunis)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of six Tunisian manufacturing sectors and to compare these productivities with those of OECD countries. The analysis covers the period 1983-1999. First, TFP is measured and some of the main economic and financial determinants are identified. In carrying out this econometric exercise we are careful to take into account the problem of the direction of causality between variables. For the empirical analysis, panel data causality tests are conducted. The results suggest that TFP growth rates are sensitive to variables reflecting international openness. Secondly, the paper investigates the evolution of the TFP gaps between Tunisia and OECD countries. A stochastic convergence has been considered here. Two panel data unit root tests are employed. A global convergence is evidenced for five sectors.
    Keywords: cerdi
    Date: 2011–02–09
  6. By: Calavrezo, Oana (Laboratoire d’Economie d’Orléans); Pelek, Selin (Galatasaray University Economic Research Center)
    Abstract: Au cours des dernières décennies, la littérature internationale a accordé un intérêt particulier à l’analyse du salaire minimum dans les pays émergents. Dans ce travail, nous nous intéressons au cas de la Turquie. Nous souhaitons contribuer à une littérature économique quasi inexistante concernant les caractéristiques socioéconomiques des salariés payés au salaire minimum. Ainsi, l’objectif principal de ce papier est de dégager un profil pour les salariés rémunérés au salaire minimum. Des techniques économétriques simples (modèle logit dichotomique, modèle logit multinomial ordonné généralisé) sont mises en œuvre dans un but purement descriptif. Nous mobilisons des données originales issues de l’enquête « Budget » de l’Institut des statistiques de Turquie couvrant la période 2003-2006. A partir de l’affiliation des individus à la sécurité sociale, nous pouvons faire la distinction entre l’emploi formel et l’emploi informel. Ces deux « marchés » de l’emploi ont un fonctionnement assez différent. Par conséquent, nous travaillons sur deux populations : celle des salariés concernés par l’emploi formel et celle des salariés concernés par l’emploi informel. Nous confirmons pour le cas de la Turquie, que le fait de toucher le salaire minimum est associé plus fréquemment à des populations considérées généralement comme « fragiles » (femmes, jeunes, personnes résidant à la campagne, individus ayant peu d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise et personnes qui perçoivent des aides de la part de l’Etat). En outre, ces caractéristiques socio-économiques influencent de la même manière la propension d’être payé autour du salaire minimum pour les populations de salariés formels et informels. En revanche, des caractéristiques comme le niveau du diplôme, le secteur d’activité ou la taille de l’entreprise ont des effets différents sur la probabilité de toucher une rémunération proche du salaire minimum pour les salariés formels et les salariés informels.
    Keywords: Salaire minimum; emploi formel; emploi informel; structure salariale; Turquie; logit dichotomique; logit multinomial ordonné généralisé
    JEL: C35 J31 J38 J83
    Date: 2011–02–13

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