nep-ara New Economics Papers
on Arab World
Issue of 2009‒11‒07
seven papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. Mapping Islamic Evolutionary in the Context of Social Justice and Poverty: A Complexity Approach By Hardiansyah, Suteja
  2. Female Labor Force Participation in Urbanization Process: The Case of Turkey By Mustafa Kemal, Bicerli; Naci, Gundogan
  3. Infrastructure and economic growth in the Middle East and North Africa By Um, Paul Noumba; Straub, Stephane; Vellutini, Charles
  4. A bibliometric review of the research papers of the Central Bank of Turkey By Yucel, M. Eray
  5. The dynamic effects of countercyclical fiscal stimulus on output in Tunisia By Diop, Ndiame; Ben Abdallah, Nizar
  6. The Intersectoral Linkage Effects in Turkish Economy: An Application of Static Leontief Model By Gülsün Gürkan Yay; Serkan Keçeli
  7. Are public policies effective in alleviating family income inequality in Iran? By Khiabani, Nasser; Mazyaki, Ali

  1. By: Hardiansyah, Suteja
    Abstract: Why Islamic tradition in Morocco and Indonesia is different? Why Islamic patterns in urban communities such as Jakarta different with Islamic patterns of rural communities? Variation in Islam is an interesting challenge to be answered. Islam, even in aspects substance, namely spirituality, is still a historical thing. The substance of Islam manifested and expressed in public life. When embodied in aspects of life, the manifestation and expression became a tradition. The model Islam as such is the accumulation of tradition, which in this paper called Islamic religiousity (keberislaman). With modeled Islam like this, this paper discusses the dynamics of Islam in the context of social justice and poverty. Will be shown how the Muslim experience of cultural evolution, from simple becomes complex. The conclusion of this paper is that variation is a result of Islam of cultural evolution.
    Keywords: accumulative tradition; meme; cultural evolution; adaptive complex system; complexity paradigm; social justice; poverty; perennial (religio perennis); Islamic tradition
    JEL: Z12 I39 A13 Z0 A14
    Date: 2009–05–15
  2. By: Mustafa Kemal, Bicerli; Naci, Gundogan
    Abstract: Urbanization -as a worldwide pheonemenon- has increased its pace especially in the twentieth century in all over the World. Turkey is no exception of this process. In Turkey, urbanization has been accelerated since 1950 and it still carries on by increasing its speed. While only 25% of the population had lived in cities in 1927, nowadays this portion of the population has reached to aproximately 70.0 %. Like in many developing countries, women in rural labor markets of Turkey mostly work as unpaid family workers in agriculture and in some non-market activities such as home production and voluntary jobs. It is observed that from 1950’s to today women’s labor force participation rates (LFPRs) in urban areas have been diminished dramatically. Besides other factors that reduces women’s LFP in urban areas, ongoing migration from rural to urban areas seems to play the dominant role in this result. It appears that as a result of migration rural female workers are left without any jobs in the cities. Several factors can be taken into account to explain this transformation such as; cultural values against women’s participation in market work, women’s lack of education and marketable skills, unfavorable labor market conditions and increases in enrollment rates in all levels of schooling. In this paper, we have explained the characteristics, causes and dimensions of female labor force participation in urbanization process of Turkey.
    Keywords: Urbanization; female labor force participation in Turkey; unemployment; gender discrimination
    JEL: J21 J82 J16
    Date: 2009
  3. By: Um, Paul Noumba; Straub, Stephane; Vellutini, Charles
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of infrastructure on growth of total factor productivity and per capita income, using both growth accounting techniques and cross-country growth regressions. The two econometric techniques yield some consistent and some different results. Regressions based in the growth accounting framework suggest that electricity production helps explain cross-country differences in total factor productivity growth in the Middle East and North Africa region. Growth regressions support that conclusion, while also stressing an effect of telecommunications infrastructure. Finally, growth regressions also indicate quite consistently that the returns to infrastructure have been lower in the Middle East and North Africa region than in developing countries as a whole.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Achieving Shared Growth,Economic Growth,E-Business,Energy Production and Transportation
    Date: 2009–10–01
  4. By: Yucel, M. Eray
    Abstract: This paper presents a bibliometric assessment of the research papers produced in the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey from 1988 to 2009. Concentration over subjects and the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) classification codes are provided in addition to the time distribution of bibliography cited in the research papers. Overall, it is observed that the examined series did provide an adequate pool of knowledge for both academics and the general public.
    Keywords: Bibliometrics; Central bank research; Economic research
    JEL: A39 Z0 Y9
    Date: 2009–11–03
  5. By: Diop, Ndiame; Ben Abdallah, Nizar
    Abstract: With the global financial crisis hitting many countries, policymakers around the world have been weighing different countercyclical policies to support aggregate demand and restore growth. The analysis in this paper estimates a Structural Vector Error Correction model for Tunisia in order to identify the impact of fiscal policy shocks on real output. The authors find that public investment has a small impact on output in the short run but is an important medium-term growth-enhancing countercyclical instrument that has a robust impact on growth. Raising public investment by 1 dinar yields 0.12 dinar the first year, 0.30 dinar the second year, half a dinar the third year, and 1.08 dinars the sixth year. An increase in recurrent expenditure has a smaller but positive and persistent impact on real output. For Tunisia to obtain a larger short-term impact of public spending on output, procurement processes should be made faster and simpler. Finally, the analysis finds a countercyclical pattern of real public investment vis-à-vis real output and a relative rigidity/inelasticity of recurrent expenditures to output fluctuations.
    Keywords: Debt Markets,Economic Stabilization,Economic Theory&Research,Emerging Markets,Investment and Investment Climate
    Date: 2009–10–01
  6. By: Gülsün Gürkan Yay (Yildiz Technical University, Department of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey); Serkan Keçeli (Turkish Statistical Institute, Turkey)
    Abstract: In this study, the leading activities of Turkish Economy whose changes in their structure of production, value-added and employment are interrelated with the other activities of the economy, are found by using the input-output model which is presented and called as an ‘Application of the General Equilibrium Theory’ by Leontief. For this purpose; firstly theoretical foundations of the input-output model are examined. After that, 59 activities of the 2002 Input-Output Table of the Turkish Economy are aggregated at 52 sectors and classified into three categories as Ricardo Sectors, High-Technology Sectors and Heckscher-Ohlin Sectors like Dasgupta and Chakraborty did for the Indian Economy in 2005. Then, the leading, key or strong activities of the economy that are more interrelated with other activities are calculated and found by the Static Leontief Model which is used by the Traditional Methods as the techniques to calculate the linkage effects like Chenery-Watanabe and Rasmussen methods to determine the sectors having the highest priority at investment policies according to the Hirschmanian Unbalanced Growth Model. As a result of the interpretation of Leontief Model, using the traditional methods of Chenery-Watanabe and Rasmussen while calculating the linkage effects rather than the hypothesis extraction methods like Strassert’s Original Extraction Method, Cella’s Extraction Method, Sonis’ Pure Linkage Method and Dietzenbacher and Van der Linden’s Method or a SAM (Social Accounting Method) model which does not omit the income generating process (distributing income among primary factors and households as a result of production) of a sector, in Turkey, the Heckscher-Ohlin Sectors mostly seen in the manufacturing industry which Kaldor refers as the engine of growth, are stronger than the other sectors.
    Keywords: Leontief Input-Output Model, Ricardo Sectors, Heckscher-Ohlin Sectors and High-Technology Sectors, General Equilibrium Analysis, Multiplier Analysis
    JEL: C67 D57
    Date: 2009–03
  7. By: Khiabani, Nasser; Mazyaki, Ali
    Abstract: Redistributing incomes has always been one of the main goals of Iranian policy makers, although political regimes have changed frequently between 1991 and 2004. We have applied a microsimulation using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition and a Heckman correction for sample selection bias to compare simulation results for a hypothetical unchanged situation with the actual policy shift observed. While we are able to identify the years in which policy shifts occurred, our results suggest that the intended redistribution goals were at most partially achieved, affecting only some occupations and being offset by changes to the level of family incomes.
    Keywords: Income Distribution; Policy Evaluation; Oaxaca-Blinder; Heckit
    JEL: D0 B21 C5 C81 C8 O12
    Date: 2009–09

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