nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒11‒20
38 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Enhancing climate resilience in Nigerian agriculture: Implications for sustainable adaptation and livelihood diversification By Amare, Mulubrhan; Balana, Bedru; Onilogbo, Omobolanle
  2. Gendered effect of climate shocks on resilience to food insecurity: the role of kinship norms By Immacolata Ranucci; Donato Romano; Luca Tiberti
  3. Repurposing agricultural support policies for shared prosperity in rural Fiji By Kym Anderson
  4. Sustainable practices in cocoa production. The role of certification schemes and farmer cooperatives By Katharina Krumbiegel; Pascal Tillie
  5. Climate, women’s resilience and mediating channels in rural Benin By Teresa Cappelli; Luca Tiberti; Elisa Ticci
  6. Agro-Economic Determinants of Violations of Protected Areas in Western Africa By Marco Rogna
  7. FOOD DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES OF RUSSIA AND THE USA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS By Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр); Kurakin, Alexander (Куракин, Александр); Trotsuk, Irina (Троцук, Ирина)
  8. The Effects of Rising Prices on Maize Production in Western African Countries By Marco Rogna
  9. The Bitter Taste of Brazil’s Temporary Import Ban on Robusta Coffee By Otgun, Hanifi (University of Nebraska Lincoln); Beghin, John (University of Nebraska Lincoln); Maximiliano, Fernando (StoneX)
  10. Quantitative analysis of food waste from wholesale to households in Colombo, Sri Lanka By Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Aheeyar, Mohamed; Drechsel, Pay; Bucatariu, C.
  11. Understanding collective action for the achievement of EU water policy objectives in agricultural landscapes: Insights from the Institutional Design Principles and Integrated Landscape Management approaches By Laurence Amblard; Carsten Mann
  12. Land Security and Mobility Frictions By Tasso Adamopoulos; Loren Brandt; Chaoran Chen; Diego Restuccia; Xiaoyun Wei
  13. Demographic Shifts and Potential Food Trade Impacts: A case of ASEAN food export By Wanissa Suanin; Panit Wattanakoon
  14. Natural world preservation and infectious diseases: Land-use, climate change and innovation By William Brock; Anastasios Xepapadeas
  15. Assessing Land Management Strategies and Social Implications of PLAS Beneficiaries in Mahikeng, South Africa By Joseph Awoamim Yacim; Grace Boitshoko Merafe; Benita G. Zulch; Partson Paradza
  16. Sinking Land: Optimal Control of Subsidence By Suphi Sen; Dewy Verhoeven; Hans-Peter Weikard
  17. Innovative agro-food industries in the EU Outermost Regions By OECD
  18. Customary Land Secretariats in Ghana as Champions of Efficient Customary Land Governance By Gad Asorwoe Akwensivie; Evans Agbenyegah; Adams Kamel
  19. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors in children By Archontoula Drouka; Dora Brikou; Céline Causeret; Nur Al Ali Al Malla; Stéphane Sibalo; Concha Ávila; Gabriela Alcat; Anastasia E; Patricia Gurviez; Nawel Fellah-Dehiri; Marine Masson; Meropi D Kontogianni; Mary Yannakoulia
  20. Open for business: pathways to strengthen CGIAR's responsible engagement with the private sector By Cummings, S.; Koerner, J.; Schut, M.; Lubberink, R.; Minh, Thai; Spielman, D.; Vos, J.; Kropff, M. (Ed.); Leeuwis, C. (Ed.).
  21. Ambiguity, value of information and forest rotation decision under storm risk By Patrice Loisel; Marielle Brunette; Stéphane Couture
  22. Climate change’s impact on real estate prices in Chile By Hernández, Karla; Luna, Facundo; Madeira, Carlos
  23. Unlocking the power of partnership to address Yemen’s food crisis and strengthen food system resilience By Ecker, Olivier; ElAzzouzi, Adra; Kurdi, Sikandra; Qasem, Adeeb
  24. An Experimental Analysis of Quality Misperception in Food Labels By Francisco Scott
  25. The National Rural Development Programme in France: How Does It Contribute to the Attractiveness of Regions? By Marielle Berriet-Solliec; Abdoul Diallo; Cédric Gendre; Vincent Larmet; Denis Lépicier; Lionel Védrine
  26. Think Globally, Act Globally: Opportunities to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries By Rachel Glennerster; Seema Jayachandran
  27. Climate change, temperature extremes, and conflict: Evidence from mainland Southeast Asia By André Tashi Gasser; Bruno Lanz
  28. Biodigester and Biogas Technology as Veritable Tool for Poultry Waste Management in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria By Kehinde Abraham Ogunsanya
  29. Climate Change and Government Borrowing Costs: A Triple Whammy for Emerging Market Economies By Benedict Clements; Sanjeev Gupta; João Jalles; Bernat Adrogue
  30. Ex-ante assessment of the cost-effectiveness of public policies to sequester carbon in soils By Jean-Marc Blazy; Julie Subervie; Jacky Paul; François Causeret; Loic Guindé; Sarah Moulla; Alban Thomas; Jorge Sierra
  31. Geoeconomic Fragmentation and Commodity Markets By Mr. Jorge A Alvarez; Mehdi Benatiya Andaloussi; Chiara Maggi; Alexandre Sollaci; Martin Stuermer; Petia Topalova
  32. Endogenous rural dynamics: an analysis of labour markets, human resource practices and firm performance By Anne Margarian; Cécile Détang-Dessendre; Aleksandra Barczak; Corinne Tanguy
  33. A Common Data Environment for Biodiversity Integration in Real Estate Development By Mihaela Meslec; Chiara Catalano
  34. Institutional work: how lenders transform land titles into collateral in urban Tanzania By Pani, Erica
  35. Hidden semi-Markov models for rainfall-related insurance claims By Shi, Yue; Punzo, Antonio; Otneim, Håkon; Maruotti, Antonello
  36. Global value chains in developing countries: a relational perspective from coffee and garments By Boudreau, Laura; Cajal-Grossi, Julia; Macchiavello, Rocco
  37. Rural-urban migration as a risk coping strategy: The role of income differentials By Sylvie Démurger; Siwar Khelifa; Béatrice Rey
  38. The Sponge Cake Dilemma over the Nile: Achieving Fairness in Resource Allocation through Rawlsian Theory and Algorithms By Dwayne Woods

  1. By: Amare, Mulubrhan; Balana, Bedru; Onilogbo, Omobolanle
    Abstract: Key Highlights: Changes in temperature, measured in harmful degree days (HDDs), and precipitation have a significant negative impact on agricultural productivity in Nigeria, which highlights the adverse effects of extreme weather on crop yields. Climate changes affect income sources for farming households. We found that an increase in HDDs reduces households’ income share from crops and nonfarm self-employment, implying threats to household food security for smallholders whose livelihoods depend on subsistence farming and food consumption from own sources. In response to the risks posed by climate change, farmers adopt changes in crop mixes (for example, reducing the share of land allocated to cereals) and input use decisions (for example, reducing fertilizer use and purchased seeds) as an adaptation strategy. Adaption strategies that lead to low use of yield-enhancing modern inputs could worsen agricultural productivity and household food insecurity. However, we found that farmers in Nigeria respond to extreme climate by switching to drought tolerant root or tuber crops. Such strategies could partially offset the adverse effects of climatic shocks on households’ welfare. Climate changes negatively impact agricultural productivity for both poor and non-poor households, but the effects are more pronounced among poorer households, according to our heterogenous effects analysis on household’s initial endowments (based on wealth indicators measured in asset and livestock holdings). This implies low adaptive capacity on the part of poor households and thus their high vulnerability to climate-related shocks. Suggested policy recommendations include interventions to incentivize adoption of climate-resilient agriculture, targeted pro-poor interventions such as low-cost financing options for improving smallholders’ access to climate-proof agricultural inputs and technologies, and policy measures to reduce the inequality of access to livelihood capital, such as land and other productive assets.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; climate resilience; resilience; climate change; agriculture; sustainability; livelihood diversification; heat stress; extreme weather events; crop yield; employment; off-farm employment; smallholders; harmful degree days
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Immacolata Ranucci; Donato Romano; Luca Tiberti
    Abstract: Social and cultural institutions interact with environmental and individual factors, shaping resilience against external shocks. Limited evidence exists regarding the impact of social and cultural norms on climate-induced food insecurity resilience. This study examines the influence of kinship norms on gender-specific food resilience outcomes among rural households facing drought. Leveraging data from the Malawi Integrated Household Survey spatially matched with climate data, matrilineal-matrilocal villages exhibit higher resilience to food insecurity (dietary diversity and nutritional quality) than other communities. Households with female land management residing in Matrilineal-Matrilocal communities show greater dietary diversity resilience. However, in the case of drought, they are found to be less resilient to food insecurity than their counterparts in other areas. We find suggestive evidence of different reallocations of men’s and women’s work hours when hit by a drought in Matrilineal-Matrilocal and other communities, possibly explaining our main result. The study highlights the need to consider socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological interactions when assessing resilience and advocates policies enhancing women’s agricultural resilience and a broader range of outside options.
    Keywords: Development resilience, Food security, Kinship norms, Gender, Drought, Malawi.
    JEL: J16 Q15 Q18 Q54 Z13
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Kym Anderson
    Abstract: Notwithstanding the increasing place of tourism exports, the rural sector and its agricultural production remain important contributors to Fiji’s economy. But their contribution is compromised by policies and institutions that distort the farm sector’s resource use, with too many resources employed by sugar and livestock producers at the expense of other farmers and producers of non-farm products. Subsidies to the sugar industry could be used instead to boost investment in rural public goods such as infrastructure and agricultural research. That would benefit a much larger proportion of rural people, many of whom are below the poverty line. So too would a lowering of tariffs on imports of meat and milk products. And by thereby lowering food prices in urban areas, such re-purposing of support would benefit their poorest households most. It would also lower the prices of high-protein livestock products and nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables, which could well improve nutrition and health.
    Keywords: Repurposing agricultural policies, Reduction in import tariffs, Nominal rates of assistance, Investments in rural public goods, Shared prosperity
    JEL: F13 F63 N47 O13 Q17
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Katharina Krumbiegel (European Commission - JRC); Pascal Tillie (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Many small-scale cocoa producers in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana grow cocoa on unshaded or low-shaded cocoa plots. This has dire consequences for farm biodiversity, resulting in lower species richness and depleted soils. To measure the extent of sustainable agricultural practices’ use in the cocoa sector, we develop a scale that incorporates dimensions of agroforestry, soil conservation, pest and disease management and farm sanitation. We use a representative data set of more than 1700 cocoa producers in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana to assess farmer participation in different organizational structures and market channels and their roles in promoting sustainable practices. We apply a multinomial endogenous switching regression model to control for potential selection bias and derive the average treatment effect of the treated (ATT) and the untreated (ATU) for three participation options: 1) certification scheme only, 2) farmer cooperative only and 3) both. In Côte d’Ivoire, econometric results show that joint participation in both a certification scheme and a farmer cooperative leads to a significantly higher sustainability score than alternative options. In comparison, certification scheme membership shows the highest effect in Ghana. Different findings may be explained by differences in the organization of the cocoa value chain across the two countries. Governmental extension services in Ghana provide support to cocoa farmers, which otherwise farmer cooperatives would potentially offer.
    Keywords: Certification schemes, sustainable agricultural practices, farmer cooperatives, cocoa
    JEL: O13 Q13 Q56
    Date: 2023–10
  5. By: Teresa Cappelli; Luca Tiberti; Elisa Ticci
    Abstract: We investigate the gender gap in resilience to climate anomalies and the mediation channels between weather conditions and women’s agricultural outcomes in Benin. We find that, compared to a man, agricultural production is lower and more vulnerable to adverse rainfall conditions when the parcel manager is a woman. We also show that the Plans Fonciers Ruraux (PFR), a land titling RCT reform that started in Benin in 2008, does not significantly mitigate the gendered effects of rainfall deviations. Moreover, we provide new suggestive evidence on the role of gender-based intra-household differences when climate variations occur. We find that adverse weather conditions would push female parcel managers to reduce cultivated land, agricultural investment and labour supply more than male managers. We argue that, in rain-fed agriculture, adverse climate events can increase household competition over resources; in such an environment, the differential in intra-household bargaining power may become relevant and result in larger gender gaps.
    Keywords: eCommerce, Adverse climate events; Resilience; Gender gap in agriculture; Land tenure; Benin.
    JEL: Q12 Q15 Q18 Q54 J16
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Marco Rogna (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Protected areas are a widely diffused instrument for preserving the environment by restricting human activities in locations with a high natural value. However, such restrictions may create discontent on nearby inhabitants or on economic actors that are prevented from exploiting the resources present in protected areas. This may easily lead to violations. Encroachment, the use of land inside protected areas for agricultural purposes, is a common violation. The present paper investigates the determinants of encroachment in Western African countries. The focus is placed on the agro-economic determinants. Protected areas in locations with strong agricultural vocation or with high percentage of protected land are more likely to be subject to violations. Furthermore, economic deprivation and land profitability are other two mild drivers of encroachment together with mechanization. Other indicators of modern practices such as irrigation and use of inorganic fertilizers, instead, do not increase the probability of violations to protected areas.
    Keywords: Africa; Agriculture; Encroachment; Protected Areas; Tobit.
    JEL: Q12 Q18 Q24 Q57
    Date: 2023–10
  7. By: Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Kurakin, Alexander (Куракин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Trotsuk, Irina (Троцук, Ирина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of the food superpower study is determined not only by the scientific interest of agrarian economics, sociology or history, but, primarily, by the tasks of agricultural policy, by the need in strategic and practical decisions of the subjects of public administration. The study aims at a comparative analysis of the food development strategies of Russia and the United States in the historical and contemporary perspectives. The subject is food-development and food-security strategies applied by Russia and the USA. Interdisciplinary and comparative methods are used to identify the key features of the food and agro-industrial development in two countries. Based on the results, the study presents not only environmental or technological factors in the formation of the agrarian strategies of the USA and the USSR, but also political and economic factors (American depression and Soviet collectivization; NeoNEP in the USSR and the New Deal in the USA). The paper concludes with a set of variables for the study of strategies for becoming a food superpower and for keeping this status: at the stage of becoming a food superpower – state policy to support agriculture, introduction of new technologies and methods of farming, development of consulting services, agricultural cooperation, wholesale markets and supply chains, social development of the village and information infrastructure, integration with world markets and expansion of food trade; at the stage of keeping and strengthening the status – the use of the newest technologies and agricultural practices, effective consulting services, expanding links with retail markets and international food trade, regional climate resilience. The novelty of the study is determined by the attempt to model a path for becoming a food superpower based on the comparative analysis of the US and Russia food strategies, and by testing of the hypothesis that there are two stages in the evolution of a food superpower. Based on the study of the real global leadership of Russia and the United States as wheat exporting countries and of the planned development of organic food production, the paper provides some recommendations on the possible ways for combining these two strategies and overcoming their limitations.
    Keywords: food security, food superpower, agriculture, agricultural production, economic strategy, food development strategy, Russia, USA
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Marco Rogna (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The intensification of the Russo-Ukrainian war started in February 2022 with the Russian invasion of Ukraine has generated a dramatic increase in the price of several goods. In particular, energy, gas and oil have been the most interested by this spike in prices, followed by several agricultural commodities. Fertilizers, whose production is energy intensive and/or directly dependent from oil derivatives, have also experienced a sharp increase in prices. This has risen concerns for food insecure countries, particularly in Africa, since, besides a lower possibility to purchase food commodities on the international market, they will likely decrease their own production due to a lower utilization of fertilizers. Quantifying this potential decrease in agricultural production is important in order to fully assess their vulnerability in terms of food security. The present paper tries to accomplish this task by forecasting the change in maize production in 2022 and 2023 compared to 2021 in seven Western African countries. We find an overall decline in maize production of 10% circa in both years with a strong heterogeneity among countries. Trivial users of fertilizers, such as Niger, experience a very modest decline in production (less than 2%) whereas others, such as Benin and Togo, have a double digit decline: approximately 13% the former and 32% the latter.
    Keywords: Crop models; Food security; Maize yields; Western Africa; Yields forecast.
    JEL: Q12 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2023–09
  9. By: Otgun, Hanifi (University of Nebraska Lincoln); Beghin, John (University of Nebraska Lincoln); Maximiliano, Fernando (StoneX)
    Abstract: Brazil, one of the world's largest producers and exporters of Robusta coffee can experience droughts and poor harvest and becomes a temporary importer of Robusta. The 2016-17 drought lowered Brazilian Robusta production and depleted stocks. Imports of one million 60-kg bags of Robusta coffee were temporarily allowed in the spring of 2017. An import ban was set before imports occurred, due to rent-seeking pressures of coffee farmers. We analyze the welfare and trade implications of this drought episode and coffee import ban for various actors in the Robusta bean and soluble markets. The ban increased Brazilian Robusta producers’ welfare between $174 and $277 million nearly offsetting the impact of the drought. The ban hurt Brazilian soluble processors by raising their cost by 10% and lowered final consumers’ surplus in Brazil between $109 and $173 million. Deadweight losses were small as these markets are price inelastic. Major Robusta exporters lost 32 to 69 thousand metric tons (tmt) of exports to Brazil and faced up to 9 % lower prices on their total exports of Robusta. Foreign consumers of Brazilian soluble coffee lost between $62 and $107 million of consumer welfare because of higher prices. The world price in the absence of the ban would have been 12$/bag higher for these stakeholders. The import ban benefited Robusta buyers in the rest-of-the-world (RoW). The drought itself created large rents for the RoW net exporters of Robusta but at the cost of net importers of Robusta beans and soluble coffee, globally.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2023–11–06
  10. By: Jayathilake, Nilanthi (International Water Management Institute); Aheeyar, Mohamed (International Water Management Institute); Drechsel, Pay (International Water Management Institute); Bucatariu, C.
    Keywords: Food waste; Wholesale markets; Households; Quantitative analysis; Waste management; Food service; Food losses; Waste reduction; Urban wastes; Solid wastes; Waste collection; Landfills; Recycling; Policies; Strategies; Feeds; Local authorities; Municipal governments; Social impact; Environmental impact; Sustainable Development Goals; Case studies
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Laurence Amblard (Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Carsten Mann
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify drivers and barriers to the achievement of EU water policy objectives in the agricultural sector by adopting an institutional perspective on water quality management at the landscape level. We apply a conceptual framework combining Integrated Landscape Management (ILM) and Institutional Design Principles (IDP) perspectives to analyze cooperation initiatives involving water suppliers and agricultural stakeholders to protect drinking water catchments from agricultural diffuse pollution. Three cases representing different forms of cooperation in rural landscapes in France were investigated on the basis of primary data collected at the local, water-basin and national levels. The results show that the success of multi-stakeholder collective action depends on both local factors such as characteristics of the water resource and stakeholders (knowledge, resources, trust and social capital) and on factors linked to the EU and national water and agricultural policy frameworks. In addition to the identification of drivers of and constraints on the implementation of EU water policy in agricultural landscapes, the analysis highlights the conceptual added value in combining the IDP and ILM approaches to understand policy implementation processes at the landscape level.
    Keywords: EU Water Framework Directive, diffuse pollution, Institutional Design Principles (IDP), Integrated Landscape Management (ILM), social-ecological systems, landscape perspective
    Date: 2021–11
  12. By: Tasso Adamopoulos; Loren Brandt; Chaoran Chen; Diego Restuccia; Xiaoyun Wei
    Abstract: Frictions that impede the mobility of workers across occupations and space are a prominent feature of developing countries. We disentangle the role of insecure property rights from other labor mobility frictions for the reallocation of labor from agriculture to non-agriculture and from rural to urban areas. We combine rich household and individual-level panel data from China and an equilibrium quantitative framework featuring sorting of workers across locations and occupations. We explicitly model the farming household and the endogenous decisions of who operates the family farm and who potentially migrates, capturing an additional channel of selection within the household. We find that land insecurity has substantial negative effects on agricultural productivity and structural change, raising the share of rural households operating farms by over 40 percentage points and depressing agricultural productivity by more than 20 percent. Comparatively, these quantitative effects are as large as those from all residual labor-mobility frictions. We measure a sharp reduction in overall labor mobility barriers over 2004-2018 in the Chinese economy, all accounted for by improved land security, consistent with reforms covering rural land in China during the period.
    Keywords: land, labor mobility, agriculture, misallocation, household, productivity, China.
    JEL: O11 O14 O4 E02 Q1
    Date: 2023–10–28
  13. By: Wanissa Suanin; Panit Wattanakoon (Faculty of Economics, Thammasat University)
    Abstract: Despite the declining fertility rates, demographic changes are anticipated to increase the world's population over the next several decades. Due to this shift, elderly people will outnumber younger ones. Because of age-related dietary preferences and food production efficiency, population demographics may have an impact on food trade patterns. The study uses structural gravity analysis to investigate the impact of demographic shifts on ASEAN food exports. The findings indicate that global population growth influences demand for ASEAN food exports. However, import demand is dwindling with age, particularly in developed countries and the European Union (EU). In contrast, the United States and China are prospective markets for ASEAN food exporters. These also apply to healthy food exports. A demographic shift toward an aging population also boosts ASEAN's export capacity.
    Keywords: Food trade, Healthy food, Demographic shifts, ASEAN
    JEL: F10 F14 Q18
    Date: 2023–10
  14. By: William Brock; Anastasios Xepapadeas
    Abstract: Scientific evidence suggests that anthropogenic impacts on the environment, such as land use changes and climate change, promote the emergence of infectious diseases (IDs) in humans. We develop a tworegion epidemic-economic model which unifies short-run disease containment policies with long-run policies which could control the drivers and the severity of IDs. We structure our paper by linking susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-recovered models with an economic model which includes land-use choices for agriculture and climate change and accumulation of knowledge that supports landaugmenting technical change. The contact number depends on shortrun containment policies (e.g., lockdown, vaccination), and long-run policies affecting land use, the natural world and climate change. Climate change and land-use change have an additional cost in terms of IDs since they might increase the contact number in the long run. We derive optimal short-run containment controls for a Nash equilibrium between regions, and long-run controls for climate policy, land use and knowledge at an open loop Nash equilibrium and the social optimum and unify the short- and long-run controls. We explore the impact of ambiguity aversion and model misspecification in the unified model and provide simulations which support the theoretical model.
    Keywords: infectious diseases, SIS and SIR models, natural world, climate change, land use, containment, Nash equilibrium, OLNE, social optimum, land-augmenting technical change
    JEL: I18 Q54 D81
    Date: 2023–11–08
  15. By: Joseph Awoamim Yacim; Grace Boitshoko Merafe; Benita G. Zulch; Partson Paradza
    Abstract: Governments of several countries adopted land reform as a tool to promote equitable land distribution. Whilst this is a welcome development, making the highest and best use of the land by beneficiaries is a matter of concern. Previous studies found nonchalance and improper utilisation of landed property assets among beneficiaries. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the social implications and land management strategies of the PLAS beneficiaries in Mahikeng, South Africa. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically using Atlas-ti software (version 22). Findings from the interviews confirmed that beneficiaries were acquiring farming skills, taking permissions from the Department before improving the farm's infrastructure, assessing the farm's reproductive value, piping the farm, maintaining the infrastructure, and making boreholes and dams. It was concluded that the social implications of PLAS in Mahikeng municipality included averting social unrest, promoting equity, alleviating hunger, contributing to the food chain and enterprise development, and facilitating practical training. Accordingly, the study recommends that the Department of Rural Development and Lands monitor and evaluate the land redistribution process to ensure that it meets its goals and objectives and identifies any challenges or areas for improvement.
    Keywords: Land redistribution; land reform; Social justice; South Africa; Strategies to manage real property
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2023–01–01
  16. By: Suphi Sen; Dewy Verhoeven; Hans-Peter Weikard
    Abstract: Land subsidence threatens the living conditions of roughly 1.2 billion people worldwide in deltaic regions characterized by soft top soil. Economic activity in deltaic regions requires lowering the groundwater levels to keep the land sufficiently dry to maintain productivity, which, however, leaves future generations worse off by accelerating subsidence and increasing future costs. The current policymaking is often myopic by ignoring this intertemporal trade-off. This paper provides a model recognizing this trade-off: we integrate the dynamics of land subsidence and groundwater management to derive optimal paths for controlling the groundwater level. Applying our model to the paradigm case of Dutch agricultural peatlands, we find that the welfare costs of ignoring dynamic efficiency can be in the order of 10 percent of the land value. Our results support current proposals to slow down subsidence by increasing the groundwater levels even in the absence of its social benefits such as avoided carbon dioxide emissions.
    Keywords: land subsidence, agricultural production, intertemporal trade-offs, water management, optimal control
    JEL: C61 Q15 Q24 Q25 Q50
    Date: 2023
  17. By: OECD
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of agro-food value chains in the EU Outermost Regions (EU ORs). It assesses emerging trends, discusses opportunities and challenges, reviews the policy frameworks and tools that can strengthen the beneficial participation of EU ORs in international agro-food value chains, and proposes priority actions. The paper is developed within the framework of the EU-OECD project on Global Outermost Regions.
    Keywords: Agriculture and Natural Resources, EU Outermost Regions, Global Value Chains, Regional Development
    JEL: L15 L66 O13 O52 O55 R11 R58 O54
    Date: 2023–10–25
  18. By: Gad Asorwoe Akwensivie; Evans Agbenyegah; Adams Kamel
    Abstract: Although Customary Land Secretariats (CLSs) in Ghana have been in existence for two decades, research on the institution has remained for a long time an unchartered territory except for periodic works by students. As a result, not much is known about the innovations some CLSs have employed to improve on land governance at the customary level in Ghana. This work reviewed the entire working processes of 18 high performing Customary Land Secretariats selected from both Stool and family land areas in rural and urban Ghana to identify and explain how these Secretariats are operating within the ambit of the Land Act 2020, Act 1036 to improve efficiency of land management in terms of streamlining Customary Land Administration, maintaining reliable and up-to-date record of land transactions and settling disputes through Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms. Results show that in areas where Customary Land Secretariats have been established, there is now credible data on land grants for use by investors. There is also a reduction in the number of disputes contrary to belief and that CLSs are making strides in public education and sensitization of the rural folks. The work makes a number of recommendations that will enable developing economies to improve land management at the local level. E.g., The work buttresses the call for a system of monitoring of CLSs by CSOs based at the local level to check and expose abuse by traditional leaders in their role as trustees of the land. Overall, the work points to the fact that, the Ghanaian example provides useful lessons for other African countries seeking to improve on participatory approaches to land management at the local level.
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2023–01–01
  19. By: Archontoula Drouka (Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece); Dora Brikou (Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece); Céline Causeret (VIF (Vivons en forme), Lille, France); Nur Al Ali Al Malla (Comocomoschool, Madrid, Spain); Stéphane Sibalo (VIF (Vivons en forme), Lille, France); Concha Ávila (Federación Española de Industrias de Alimentación y Bebidas, Madrid, Spain); Gabriela Alcat (Federación Española de Industrias de Alimentación y Bebidas, Madrid, Spain); Anastasia E (Federation of Hellenic Food Industries, Neo Psychico, Greece); Patricia Gurviez (SayFood - Paris-Saclay Food and Bioproduct Engineering - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Nawel Fellah-Dehiri (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marine Masson (SayFood - Paris-Saclay Food and Bioproduct Engineering - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Meropi D Kontogianni (Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece); Mary Yannakoulia (Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece)
    Abstract: The objective of this review was to summarize existing literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions, implemented in Europe, under the aim of promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors in children (6 -10 years old). A search of PubMed, Scopus, EFSA and Google Scholar databases was performed for studies published from January 2016 until June 2022. Specific search terms and exclusion criteria were used. Based on the results, diet and physical activity interventions had favorable effects in a series of health outcomes, including anthropometric parameters, biomarkers, eating behavior and self-efficacy. Diet-only interventions had a positive impact specifically on eating habits, mostly on water consumption. Most successful interventions lasted for 1 school year and they were characterized by parents' participation in training and teachers' training.
    Date: 2023–10–10
  20. By: Cummings, S.; Koerner, J.; Schut, M.; Lubberink, R.; Minh, Thai (International Water Management Institute); Spielman, D.; Vos, J.; Kropff, M. (Ed.); Leeuwis, C. (Ed.).
    Keywords: Private sector; CGIAR; Public-private partnerships; Governance; Risk management; Multi-stakeholder processes; Research programmes; Innovation scaling; Investment; Institutions; Policies; Funding; Climate services; Sustainable Development Goals; Farmers
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Patrice Loisel (MISTEA - Mathématiques, Informatique et STatistique pour l'Environnement et l'Agronomie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Marielle Brunette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stéphane Couture (MIAT INRAE - Unité de Mathématiques et Informatique Appliquées de Toulouse - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Date: 2023–06–20
  22. By: Hernández, Karla; Luna, Facundo; Madeira, Carlos
    Abstract: Climate change should deteriorate the value of real estate, but studies are lacking for developing economies which may suffer the worst weather changes. We match an administrative register of all the real estate properties' transactions in Chile between 2002 and 2020 with a high spatial resolution dataset of local temperatures and precipitation. Even after controlling for a wide set of home characteristics or fixed-effects for each property, we find that fluctuations in temperatures had an impact on the prices of residential homes and agricultural properties.
    Keywords: global warming; real estate prices; climate change; Chile; Latin America
    JEL: O44 O54 Q51 R11 R30
    Date: 2022–11–22
  23. By: Ecker, Olivier; ElAzzouzi, Adra; Kurdi, Sikandra; Qasem, Adeeb
    Abstract: Key Messages • Yemen is experiencing one of the world’s largest humanitarian crises resulting from prolonged conflict, with about half the population suffering from food insecurity. • Food availability and affordability in Yemen is extremely vulnerable to external shocks because of the fragility of the national food system and its heavy dependence on food imports by the private sector and international humanitarian agencies. • A recent workshop jointly organized by IFPRI and HSA Group reviewed the state of collaboration between key actors in Yemen’s food system and discussed avenues to building strong cross-sector partnerships for ending the current food crisis and strengthening food system resilience. • Limited collaboration among the public, private, and third sectors (for example, in the form of collective action, multistakeholder partnerships) contributes to inefficiencies in food supply chains and food aid delivery. • Currently, collaborations are often ad hoc, limited to peer-to-peer partnerships, and constrained by a siloed mentality. • With a potential peace agreement, new opportunities for cross sector collaboration and strategic partnerships between food system actors are emerging. • Enhanced communication among the public, private, and third sectors is an important first step toward improving mutual understanding, building trust, exchanging critical information and ideas, and realizing opportunities for effective collective action.
    Keywords: YEMEN; ARAB COUNTRIES; MIDDLE EAST; SOUTHWESTERN ASIA; ASIA; food security; shock; conflicts; food systems; imports; resilience; humanitarian organizations; collective action
    Date: 2023
  24. By: Francisco Scott
    Abstract: The size and distribution of surplus in markets where credence quality attributes of food (e.g., organic, non-GMO) are conveyed through some informational mechanism (typically labels) crucially depend on 1) how information changes consumers’ perception of quality and 2) producers’ strategic choice of quality provision in response to changes in consumers’ perception of quality. This paper examines the hypothesis that consumers’ misperception of quality information can provide incentives to sellers to increase quality and offset the lower quality that exists in markets where firms imperfectly compete in quality and prices. Using previously derived theoretical predictions of a two-stage game in which firms sequentially choose qualities—which are misperceived by consumers—to then simultaneously choose prices, I conduct a laboratory experiment that emulates changes in consumers’ perception of quality and examines their effects on producers’ provision of quality and market surplus. My results indicate that total surplus increases mainly with overvaluation of the high-quality product, confirming theoretical predictions. But contrary to the theory, I find that low-quality sellers try to compete by raising their quality levels too much when low quality is overvalued, dampening their quality-adjusted prices. As a result, welfare approaches first-best only when the high-quality product produced by the market leader is overvalued. These results highlight the importance of examining the market structure when designing informational policies.
    Keywords: agriculture; consumer behavior; Food industry and trade
    JEL: C9 Q18
    Date: 2023–10–19
  25. By: Marielle Berriet-Solliec (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Abdoul Diallo (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Cédric Gendre (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Vincent Larmet (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Denis Lépicier (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Lionel Védrine (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Since the 2000s, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has become one of the key components of rural development policy, which takes the form of a national programme in France; however, few studies have been dedicated to assessing its impact on the attractiveness of rural areas. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the specific impacts, during the period from 2007 to 2013, of the European rural development measures and measures relating to quality of life and diversification of the rural economy applied in France on the economic and residential attractiveness of the municipalities benefiting from the measures. The impacts of the projects are estimated using a difference‑in‑differences method with propensity score matching. The evaluation reveals little impact on residential attractiveness. However, it also allows for the identification of positive impacts on face‑to‑face jobs linked to local services, with around 80, 000 jobs having been created during this period at a cost of EUR 18, 000 per job, which is lower than has been seen with comparable policies.
    Abstract: Depuis les années 2000, la Politique agricole commune est devenue une des composantes majeures de la politique de développement rural, déclinée en France dans un programme hexagonal, mais peu de travaux ont été consacrés à l'évaluation de ses effets sur l'attractivité des territoires ruraux. Cet article présente les résultats d'une évaluation des effets propres, sur la période 2007-2013, des mesures européennes de développement rural, mesures relatives à la qualité de vie et la diversification de l'économie rurale appliquées en France sur l'attractivité économique et résidentielle des communes bénéficiaires. Les effets des projets sont estimés à l'aide de la méthode des doubles différences avec appariement sur score de propension. L'évaluation met en évidence des effets peu marqués sur l'attractivité résidentielle. En revanche, elle permet d'identifier des effets positifs sur les emplois présentiels liés aux services de proximité avec, sur la période, environ 80 000 emplois créés, pour un coût de 18 000 euros par emploi, plus faible que celui de politiques comparables.
    Keywords: Second pillar of the CAP, Rural development, Impact assessment, Difference‑in‑differences, Propensity score matching, Second pilier de la PAC, Développement rural, Evaluation d’impacts, Doubles différences, Appariement sur score de propension
    Date: 2022–10–18
  26. By: Rachel Glennerster (University of Chicago); Seema Jayachandran (Princeton University)
    Abstract: Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are a global public good, which makes it efficient to act globally when addressing this challenge. We lay out several reasons that high-income countries seeking to mitigate climate change might have greater impact if they invest their resources in opportunities in low- and middle-income countries. Specifically, some of the easiest and cheapest options have already been tapped in high-income countries, land and labor costs are lower in low- and middle-income countries, it is cheaper to build green than to retrofit green, and global targeting matters in integrated economies. We also discuss economic counterarguments such as the challenge of monitoring emissions levels in low and middle-income countries, ethical considerations, the importance of not double counting mitigation funding as development aid, and policy steps that might help to realize this opportunity.
    Keywords: Climate change, mitigation, Paris Agreement, greenhouse gas emissions
    JEL: F18 O13 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2023–06
  27. By: André Tashi Gasser; Bruno Lanz
    Abstract: We exploit 0.5x0.5 degree raster data for mainland Southeast Asia from 2010 to 2020 to document a non-linear relationship between extreme temperature days and conflict. We show that the occurrence of conflict events increases with extreme maximum temperature days, whereas days with extreme minimum temperature decrease the occurrence of conflict. Because climate change makes both maximum and minimum temperature extremes more likely, these effects partially offset each other on aggregate. However, our results further suggest that the impact of extreme maximum and minimum temperature days differs for the type of conflict, actors involved and population affected, indicating complex distributional consequences.
    Keywords: Climate change; adaptation; conflict; extreme temperature
    JEL: Q54 O13 H56 D74 P48
    Date: 2023–10
  28. By: Kehinde Abraham Ogunsanya
    Abstract: Poultry waste managementis multidimensional and involves public health, waste management, utilization of fertilizing value, and fuel and energy production issues. The poultry industry in FCT Abuja, Nigeria, faces significant challenges in managing the large quantities of organic waste generated, which can have detrimental effects on the environment and public health if not properly handled. This thesis explores the potential of biodigester and biogas production as a sustainable and efficient technology for poultry waste management in FCT Abuja, Nigeria. The study aims to assess the feasibility, economic viability, benefits, and limitations of biodigester and biogas technology in managing poultry waste, providing valuable insights for policymakers, poultry farmers, and environmental stakeholders. The intent of the study is also to show that the chicken waste used as feed material to produce biogas can tap additional energy from the otherwise wasted energy and make the poultry industry co-exist with the environment of the neighbours. This research will identify and evaluate the economic feasibility of producing biogas from poultry waste. The research is of particular interest to the poultry farmers and to Waru community of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria, as the people are becoming very conscious of the environmental impact due to pollution. This will also solve the crisis of offensive smell emanating from the poultry farm, causing disputes between the poultry farmer and the host Waru Community.
    Keywords: Bio-digestion; Biogas; biomass; Poultry Waste; Renewable Energy; Slurry
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2023–01–01
  29. By: Benedict Clements; Sanjeev Gupta; João Jalles; Bernat Adrogue
    Abstract: Climate change is a systemic risk to the global economy. While there is a large body of literature documenting the potential economic consequences of climate change, there is relatively little research on the link between vulnerabilities to climate change, the buildup of climate debt by countries with historically large carbon dioxide emissions, and how well financial markets incorporate (or not) these risks to sovereign governments. This paper investigates the impact of both climate debt and climate vulnerabiities/resiliency on sovereign bond yields and spreads in advanced and emerging market economies, using a novel dataset. We find that changes in climate debt are an important determinant of spreads, but only in emerging market economies. Countries with high vulnerabilities and low resilency to climate change also pay higher spreads. This implies a triple whammy of challenges for emerging market economies as they confront the economic damages of climate change, the high fiscal costs of climate adaptation, and high borrowing costs.
    Keywords: climate change vulnerability; government bond spreads; sovereign risk; panel data; social cost of carbon.
    JEL: C23 E21 H5 H63 H74 Q54
    Date: 2023–10
  30. By: Jean-Marc Blazy (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Julie Subervie (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Jacky Paul (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); François Causeret (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Loic Guindé (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sarah Moulla (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Alban Thomas (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Jorge Sierra (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Soil organic carbon stocks have been declining for more than a century, mostly in the tropics. Maintaining soil organic matter is critical to tackling climate change and controlling soil health. One way to address this problem is to encourage farmers to improve soil carbon on their farms. We provide an ex-ante assessment of the cost-effectiveness of innovative Agri-Environmental Measures (AEM) that subsidize the use of compost. To do so, we ran a choice experiment in Guadeloupe, in the northeastern Caribbean, where there is an urgent need to preserve soil organic matter levels. The 305 farmers who participated were asked to choose one of several AEM that offer financial support in exchange for using compost in their farming activities, as well as free technical assistance, a collective financial bonus, and the possibility of combining chemical fertilisers with composts. We found that offering free technical assistance increases the participation rate by 30 percentage points and offering a collective bonus increases it by 14 percentage points. In contrast, including a requirement on the reduction of chemical fertilization would decrease the probability of participation by only two percentage points. We then estimated the amount of carbon that would be sequestered in the soil using compost as prescribed under each of the AEM proposed. We found that the most effective AEM would sequester up to 25, 000 teqCO2 per year at the territory level and that the most cost-effective scheme would reach this target at a cost of about 500 euros per teqCO2. Finally, we find that the so-called 4 per 1000 target could be reached through AEM under a variety of scenarios..
    Abstract: Les stocks de carbone organique du sol sont en baisse depuis plus d'un siècle, principalement dans les régions tropicales. Le maintien de la matière organique du sol est essentiel pour lutter contre le changement climatique et contrôler la santé des sols. L'une des façons de résoudre ce problème est d'encourager les agriculteurs à améliorer le carbone du sol dans leurs exploitations. Nous fournissons une évaluation ex ante du rapport coût-efficacité des mesures agro-environnementales (MAE) innovantes qui subventionnent l'utilisation du compost. Pour ce faire, nous avons mené une expérience de choix en Guadeloupe, dans le nord-est des Caraïbes, où il existe un besoin urgent de préserver les niveaux de matière organique du sol. Les 305 agriculteurs qui ont participé ont été invités à choisir l'une des nombreuses AEM qui offrent un soutien financier en échange de l'utilisation du compost dans leurs activités agricoles, ainsi qu'une assistance technique gratuite, une prime financière collective et la possibilité de combiner les engrais chimiques avec les composts. Nous avons constaté qu'offrir une assistance technique gratuite augmente le taux de participation de 30 points de pourcentage et qu'offrir un bonus collectif l'augmente de 14 points de pourcentage. En revanche, l'inclusion d'une exigence sur la réduction de la fertilisation chimique ne diminuerait la probabilité de participation que de deux points de pourcentage. Nous avons ensuite estimé la quantité de carbone qui serait séquestrée dans le sol en utilisant du compost tel que prescrit par chacune des MAE proposées. Nous avons constaté que le MAE le plus efficace permettrait de séquestrer jusqu'à 25 000 teqCO2 par an au niveau du territoire et que le dispositif le plus rentable atteindrait cet objectif pour un coût d'environ 500 euros par teqCO2. Enfin, nous constatons que l'objectif dit de 4 pour 1000 pourrait être atteint grâce à l'AEM dans le cadre de divers scénarios...
    Keywords: Soil carbon, Compost, Climate change, Choice experiment, Guadeloupe
    Date: 2021–12–01
  31. By: Mr. Jorge A Alvarez; Mehdi Benatiya Andaloussi; Chiara Maggi; Alexandre Sollaci; Martin Stuermer; Petia Topalova
    Abstract: This paper studies the economic impact of fragmentation of commodity trade. We assemble a novel dataset of production and bilateral trade flows of the 48 most important energy, mineral and agricultural commodities. We develop a partial equilibrium framework to assess which commodity markets are most vulnerable in the event of trade disruptions and the economic risks that they pose. We find that commodity trade fragmentation – which has accelerated since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine – could cause large price changes and price volatility for many commodities. Mineral markets critical for the clean energy transition and selected agricultural commodity markets appear among the most vulnerable in the hypothetical segmentation of the world into two geopolitical blocs examined in the paper. Trade disruptions result in heterogeneous impacts on economic surplus across countries. However, due to offsetting effects across commodity producing and consuming countries, surplus losses appear modest at the global level.
    Keywords: Commodities; international trade; sanctions; spillovers; prices; geoeconomic fragmentation; trade disruption; price change; commodity producer; net-commodity-importing country; trade fragmentation; Commodity markets; Commodity price fluctuations; Agricultural commodities; Inflation; Global
    Date: 2023–10–03
  32. By: Anne Margarian (Thünen Institute of Market Analysis); Cécile Détang-Dessendre (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Aleksandra Barczak (Département EcoSocio - Département Économie et Sciences Sociales pour l'Agriculture, l'Alimentation et l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Corinne Tanguy (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Abstract Some rural locations in industrialized countries have experienced considerable employment growth in the last decades, while others suffer from depopulation and decline. The paper aims to contribute to the development of an evolutionary approach that allows for the identification of those often difficult-to-observe evolving factors that explain success and failure of rural locations. It also wants to show how the combined recognition of evolutionary labour market perspectives, the dynamic capability view of the firm, and human resource management (HRM) theories can serve the operationalisation of evolutionary explanations in this context. According to the derived model, apparent locational disadvantages might be compensated for by subtle, potentially self-enforcing labour market dynamics that generate opportunities for certain firms and industries. Empirically, the ideas are substantiated by means of a mediation model. The empirical analysis is based on latent class analysis and discrete choice models using data from an own survey of 200 food-processing firms in urban and rural locations of one German federal state. For these observations, our results support the idea that the exploitation of HRM opportunities may be more important for good performance in rural labour markets than the direct implementation of specific innovation modes. Investment in HRM allows rural firms in our sample to realise those gains in terms of innovation and growth offered by the creation of a stable and experienced workforce. Their focus on internal labour markets potentially generates external effects, which further encourages neighbouring firms to also invest in involved HRM measures.
    Keywords: Agglomeration advantages, Innovation, Human resource management, Mediation
    Date: 2022–07–05
  33. By: Mihaela Meslec; Chiara Catalano
    Abstract: Integrating biodiversity considerations into urban development projects has become increasingly important for developers, as it contributes to ecosystem services and supports occupiers’ well-being. Moreover, despite the increasing regulation (ESG, EU Taxonomy, SDGs) there are very few successful projects because there is a lack of methods to effectively manage and integrate complex and diverse data from various sources, such as urban ecology, environmental impact assessments, biodiversity surveys or spatial planning data. Based on emerging technologies, a common data environment (CDE) can provide a solution to manage and integrate these data sets effectively. In this paper, we explore the potential of a CDE for biodiversity integration in a Swiss Real Estate Development project. We employed a mixed-methods research approach, incorporating one case study, action research, and iterations to create a minimum viable product (MVP) for testing the technical solution. Additionally, we analysed the potential business case for a CDE in managing biodiversity data and supporting biodiversity integration in real estate projects. Upon examination of the project documentation, it has been observed that the incorporation of biodiversity into real estate development projects is impeded by the insufficient specification of the data requirements, integration, and management of biodiversity. Additionally, the study found that the absence of a business case for developers that incorporates ecosystem services is a significant obstacle to the integration of biodiversity in urban development. This can be attributed to the lack of a business case for developers that incorporates ecosystem services. To address both issues, a collaborative data environment (CDE) can serve as a potential solution by enabling the sharing, collaboration, and management of biodiversity data. For this purpose, an Eco-Module was developed which contain enhanced ecological data such as animal species distribution, habitat and vegetation types as part of the ecological data requirements. Three GeoBIM technological solutions were explored and tested using a Minimum Viable Product (MVP) approach to integrate GIS-specific biodiversity data sets such as shapefiles and raster data with the BIM model. Furthermore, the study has investigated the added value for real estate owners/investors by recommending to further use the data to quantify the overall benefits of eco-services as a base for a solid business case. The incorporation of ecosystem services in the business case for developers can incentivize biodiversity integration in real estate development. A common data environment can provide an effective solution for managing and integrating complex and diverse biodiversity data sets from different scales. The added value comes from the data analysis and ecological simulations such as habitat suitability and species distribution models. In addition, hydrological and climatic data can enrich the CDE. By implementing an ecologically enriched CDE with dedicated Eco-Modules, the platform can raise awareness during the lifecycle of the project on important ecological issues, showing the potential use of biodiversity information for landscape-architectural-urban design and concrete financial and environmental benefits to decision-makers.
    Keywords: Common Data Environment; Ecosystem services; Real Estate Development; Urban Biodiversity
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2023–01–01
  34. By: Pani, Erica
    Abstract: We examine the ‘institutional configuration’ that makes land titles work as collateral in Tanzania’s nascent credit market, through the ‘institutional work’ of local lenders. This work is effective and precarious: while lenders seek out and create institutional complementarities across diverse domains, they also require higher-level regulation to help stabilise land titles’ fungibility as collateral. Our results contribute to knowledge on path-dependency, contingency and uneven trajectories in the property-credit nexus development, and advance understandings of institutional interdependencies and coevolution in the situated economy. By combining deep contextualisation and institutional analysis, we progress an empirical engagement with institutional research in economic geography.
    Keywords: institutions; institutional configuration; institutional complementarity; property rights formalisation; credit markets development; Tanzania; the Richard Oram Fund (through Regional and Urban Planning Studies at the LSE); (ES/W005719/1); (ECF-2022-193); OUP deal
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2023–09–13
  35. By: Shi, Yue (Dept. of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics); Punzo, Antonio (Dept. of Economics and Business, University of Catania); Otneim, Håkon (Dept. of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics); Maruotti, Antonello (Dept. GEPLI, LUMSA University)
    Abstract: We analyze the temporal structure of a novel insurance dataset about home insurance claims related to rainfall-induced damage in Norway, and employ a hidden semi-Markov model to capture the non-Gaussian nature and temporal dynamics of these claims. By exploring a wide range of candidate distributions and evaluating their goodness-of-fit as well as commonly used risk measures, we identify a suitable model for effectively modeling insurance losses stemming from rainfall-related incidents. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal aspects of weather-related insurance claims and demonstrate that the proposed hidden semi-Markov model adeptly captures this feature. Moreover, the model estimates reveal a concerning trend: the risks associated with heavy rain in the context of home insurance have exhibited an upward trajectory between 2004 and 2020, aligning with the evidence of a changing climate. This insight has significant implications for insurance companies, providing them with valuable information for accurate and robust modeling in the face of climate uncertainties. By shedding light on the evolving risks related to heavy rain and their impact on home insurance, our study offers essential insights for insurance companies to adapt their strategies and effectively manage these emerging challenges. It underscores the necessity of incorporating climate change considerations into insurance models and emphasizes the importance of continuously monitoring and reassessing risk levels associated with rainfall-induced damage. Ultimately, our research contributes to the broader understanding of climate risk in the insurance industry and supports the development of resilient and sustainable insurance practices.
    Keywords: Mixtures; Non-Gaussian distributions; EM algorithm; Risk measures; Rainfall data
    JEL: C02 C40 C60
    Date: 2023–11–06
  36. By: Boudreau, Laura; Cajal-Grossi, Julia; Macchiavello, Rocco
    Abstract: There is a consensus that global value chains have aided developing countries' growth. This essay highlights the governance complexities arising from participating in such chains, drawing from lessons we have learned conducting research in the coffee and garment supply chains. Market power of international buyers can lead to inefficiently low wages, prices, quality standards, and poor working conditions. At the same time, some degree of market power might be needed to sustain long-term supply relationships that are beneficial in a world with incomplete contracts. We discuss how buyers' market power and long-term supply relationships interact and how these relationships at the export-gate could be leveraged to enhance sustainability in the domestic part of the chains. We hope that the lessons learned by combining detailed data and contextual knowledge in two specific chains—coffee and garments—have broader applicability to other global value chains.
    Keywords: 818767
    JEL: L14 F14 F23 J81 L66 L67 O14
    Date: 2023–08–01
  37. By: Sylvie Démurger; Siwar Khelifa; Béatrice Rey
    Abstract: This paper investigates how rural-urban income differentials interact with the risk coping motive to shape households' migration behavior. Using a model of migration behavior under agricultural income risk, our theoretical results suggest that while income differentials remain crucial in determining the migration decision, they are additionally determined by the agricultural income risk the household is facing. Empirical findings on Chinese farm households indicate that the incidence of migration as a risk coping mechanism is lower for households with a negative expected urban-to-rural income difference. Moreover, we find that, when these households care about the human capital of their children, their marginal utility of income increases as the educational performance of their children deteriorates, implying that, when migration is used as a risk coping strategy, households with lower educational performance of children may be more likely to send a parent for migration. This result also suggests that the best specification of the utility function to consider for these households is the non-separability between the household's earnings and their children's human capital.
    Date: 2023–10
  38. By: Dwayne Woods
    Abstract: This article examines water disputes through an integrated framework combining normative and positive perspectives. John Rawls' theory of justice provides moral guidance, upholding rights to reasonable access for all riparian states. However, positive analysis using cake-cutting models reveals real-world strategic constraints. While Rawls defines desired ends, cake-cutting offers algorithmic means grounded in actual behaviors. The Nile River basin dispute illustrates this synthesis. Rawls suggests inherent rights to water, but unrestricted competition could enable monopoly. His principles alone cannot prevent unfavorable outcomes, given limitations like self-interest. This is where cake-cutting provides value despite biased claims. Its models identify arrangements aligning with Rawlsian fairness while incorporating strategic considerations. The article details the cake-cutting theory, reviews water conflicts literature, examines the Nile case, explores cooperative vs. non-cooperative games, and showcases algorithmic solutions. The integrated framework assesses pathways for implementing Rawlsian ideals given real-world dynamics. This novel synthesis of normative and positive lenses enriches the study of water disputes and resource allocation more broadly.
    Date: 2023–10

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