nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒11‒06
twenty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona


  1. Does Agricultural Intensification Pay? By Aihounton, Ghislain; Christiaensen, Luc
  2. Adoption and impacts of agricultural technologies and sustainable natural resource management practices in fragile and conflict affected settings: A review and meta-analysis By Nshakira-Rukundo, Emmanuel; Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul Jr.; Gebrekidan, Bisrat Haile; Agaba, Monica; Surendran-Padmaja, Subash; Dhebibi, Boubaker
  3. Agricultural Productivity in El Salvador: A Preliminary Analysis By Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Njuki, Eric; Palacios, Ana Claudia; Salazar, Lina
  4. Determinants and impact of farmers' participation in social media groups: Evidence from irrigated areas of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan By Tadjiev, Abdusame; Kurbanov, Zafar; Djanibekov, Nodir; Govind, Ajit; Akramkhanov, Akmal
  5. Exploring the Link Between Diet and Sustainability in Europe: A Focus on Meat and Fish Consumption By Diana Kmetkova; Milan Scasny; Iva Zverinova; Vojtech Maca
  6. Technology adoption constraints and Laser Land Levelling: evidence from Karnataka, India By Lisa Capretti
  7. The (perceived) quality of agricultural technology and its adoption: Experimental evidence from Uganda By Miehe, Caroline; Sparrow, Robert; Spielman, David; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
  8. Innovativeness, innovation adoption and priming: Nudging farmers in a large-scale randomized experiment in France By Douadia Bougherara; Lea Gosset; Raphaële Préget; Sophie Thoyer
  9. Determinants of Agricultural Fires: An Aggregative Games Approach By Wilfredo L. Maldonado; Jessica A. Barbosa
  10. Tackling Food Inflation: Is restricting exports and imposing stocking limits the optimal policy? By Ashok Gulati; Raya Das; Sanchit Gupta; Manish Kumar Prasad
  11. Benefit of Hindsight: Did the 2015 Oil Price Shock and Policy Response Play Any Role in Household Food Insecurity in Nigeria? By Justin Quinton; Glenn P. Jenkins; Godwin Olasehinde-Williams
  12. The political economy of food system transformation: Pathways to progress in a polarized world: Synopsis By Resnick, Danielle, ed.; Swinnen, Johan, ed.
  13. FOOD INSECURE HOUSEHOLD GROUPS: DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS By Uzun, Vasily (Узун, Василий); Shagaida, Natalia (Шагайда, Наталья); Ternovskiy, Denis (Терновский, Денис); Potapova, Alexandra (Потапова, Александра); Shishkina, Ekaterina (Шишкина, Екатерина)
  14. The economics of tropical deforestation By Balboni, Clare; Berman, Aaron; Burgess, Robin; Olken, Benjamin A.
  15. Rwanda smallholder agriculture commercialization survey: Overview using selected categorical variables By Warner, James; Rosenbach, Gracie; Benimana, Gilberthe; Mugabo, Serge; Niyonsingiza, Josue; Mukangabo, Emerence; Dushimayezu, Bertrand; Nshimiyimana, Octave; Ingabire, Chantal; Spielman, David J.
  16. Farmers' social media groups for better extension and advisory services By Djanibekov, Nodir; Kurbanov, Zafar; Tadjiev, Abdusame; Govind, Ajit; Akramkhanov, Akmal
  17. DIRECTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN RURAL PERIPHERY By Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр); Gusakov, Timur (Гусаков, Тимур); Trotsuk, Irina (Троцук, Ирина)
  18. India-Africa in G21: The Challenge of Nutrition Security By Ashok Gulati; Shyma Jose
  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Argentina's Exports: A Decomposition Exercise By Jalile, Ileana Raquel; Moncarz, Pedro E.
  20. Challenges in data management in the agri-food industry. A systematic comparison of permissioned blockchain-based IT business applications By Martínez-Castañeda, Mónica; Feijoo, Claudio

  1. By: Aihounton, Ghislain; Christiaensen, Luc
    Abstract: Modern inputs and mechanization are promoted across Africa to raise smallholder labor productivity and broker the structural transformation. Yet, adoption has remained low and the implications for returns to labor and labor allocation remain poorly understood. This paper explores the effects of different intensification packages on farm performance, market orientation, and food security using data from lowland rice farmers in Côte d'Ivoire. Employing a multinomial treatment effect model, the findings reveal that intensification increases land and labor productivity, especially when agro-chemicals and mechanized land preparation are combined. Returns to labor double to triple, inducing specialization and greater market orientation as well as greater food security, while productively releasing agricultural labor for other activities. Labor in agriculture becomes more waged. The gender balance remains the same. Child labor input does not decrease. The findings call for greater attention to labor productivity and confirm that agricultural intensification can pay, and enhance rural transformation.
    Keywords: Food security; labor productivity; agricultural labor; rural transformation; structural transformation; market orientation; agricultural wage.
    Date: 2023–04–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:jbsgrp:32579493&r=agr
  2. By: Nshakira-Rukundo, Emmanuel; Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul Jr.; Gebrekidan, Bisrat Haile; Agaba, Monica; Surendran-Padmaja, Subash; Dhebibi, Boubaker
    Abstract: Climate change and conflicts co-exist in many countries with significant welfare and socio-environmental implications. Different approaches are being promoted to adapt and build resilience to these fragilities including the adoption of sustainable farm practices that have the potential to increase agricultural productivity and maintain environmental sustainability. We undertake a systematic review and perform a meta-analysis to understand and synthesize the adoption and impacts of agricultural technologies and natural resource management practices with a special attention to fragile and conflict affected settings. We employ state of the art machine learning methods to enable process and selection of appropriate papers from a universe of over 78, 000 papers from leading academic databases. We find that studies on adoption and impact of agricultural technologies and natural resource management practices are highly clustered around Ethiopia and Nigeria. We do not find any studies on Small Island States. We observe a wide array of characteristics that influence adoption of these technologies. Of the over 1400 estimates of determinants collected, majority predict input technologies while very few studies and estimates are found in relation to risk management and mechanisation technologies. Our meta-analysis shows an average effect size of 7 - 9% for the different technologies and practices. For the outcomes: land productivity, food security and household welfare, we obtain effect sizes of 6, 8 and 9% respectively. We do not observe much in terms of publication bias. Both climate and conflict vulnerability not only cause far more food insecurity, poverty, and degradation of the environment on their own but also reinforce each other through the climate change – conflict linkage. For these detrimental effects to be curtailed, utilisation of climate-smart agricultural technologies and natural resource management practices need to be encouraged. We thus lend credence to the development, dissemination and upscaling of these sustainable practices. We observe a lot of space for growth and adoption of these technologies.
    Keywords: technology adoption; natural resources management; fragility; conflicts; climate change; impact resilience; agricultural technology; mechanization; food security; poverty
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:136912&r=agr
  3. By: Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Njuki, Eric; Palacios, Ana Claudia; Salazar, Lina
    Abstract: The need to enhance food security while reducing poverty along with the growing threat imposed by climate change clearly reveal that it is imperative to accelerate agricultural productivity growth. This paper estimates micro-level production models to identify the major factors that have contributed to productivity growth in El Salvador, including irrigation, purchased inputs, mechanization, technical assistance, and farm size, among others. The econometric framework adopted in this investigation is grounded on recent panel data stochastic production frontier methodologies. The results obtained from the estimation of these models are used to calculate Total Factor Productivity (TFP) change and to decompose such change into different factors, including technological progress, technical efficiency (TE), and economies of scale. The findings imply that efforts are needed to improve productivity in both technological progress and technical efficiency where the latter is a measurement of managerial performance. This in turn indicates that resources should be devoted to promoting the adoption and diffusion of improved technologies while enhancing managerial capabilities through agricultural extension.
    Keywords: agriculrure;agriculture productivity;El Salvador;Agriculture policy
    JEL: Q10 Q18 Q12
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:brikps:11984&r=agr
  4. By: Tadjiev, Abdusame; Kurbanov, Zafar; Djanibekov, Nodir; Govind, Ajit; Akramkhanov, Akmal
    Abstract: The spread of information and communications technology (ICT) in Central Asia has reached a point where most farmers use smartphones with mobile internet access, providing an opportunity for a cost-effective and timely access to agricultural information and extension services. When extension service provision is poor and does not reflect farmers' immediate needs, farmers often seek other sources of information, such as exchanging knowledge with their peers via social media groups in instant messaging applications (apps). Using the findings of a farm-level survey conducted in 2022 in irrigated areas of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, we study behavior and attitudes of farmers in terms of participation in smartphone-based social media groups and its impact of farm performance. We find that in the two country contexts underlying reasons for participation in social groups differ. In Kazakhstan, participation decisions are made by those who have better access to a mobile internet connection, are younger, have agriculture-related education, have a wider communication circle on phone with more than four individuals, cultivate fewer crops, have lands with low soil quality and poor irrigation water access, as well as located in remote areas. In Uzbekistan participation decisions are made by those who see the relevance of mobile internet for their farm business, have own agronomic knowledge, are open to new things, care less about the opinion of other farmers, have higher perception about freedom in crop choice, have off-farm work, as well as poor irrigation water access. These findings suggest farmers' participation in agricultural information-sharing groups (AISG) is influenced less by the type of cultivated crops or farm size, but by their institutional environment. The findings are relevant for developing private strategies and public policies to spread digital technologies among Central Asia's farmers. When introducing smartphone-based digital advisory services policymakers are recommended to start scaling up with younger and more educated farmers who rely on their own knowledge and are more open to embracing new ways of farming and interaction. Farmers' decision-making autonomy will be crucial for converting digital transformation in agriculture into farm benefits.
    Keywords: Extension services, self-help groups, knowledge exchange, partcipation determinants, Central Asia
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:iamodp:201&r=agr
  5. By: Diana Kmetkova (Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, Prague, Czech Republic); Milan Scasny (Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, Prague, Czech Republic); Iva Zverinova (Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, Prague, Czech Republic); Vojtech Maca (Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: Global food production practices and consumption patterns have changed notably in the last few decades. Current dietary patterns are characterized by increased consumption of refined sugars as well as higher intakes of heavily-processed and animal-source foods, which results in higher obesity rates and increased prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Moreover, diets high in animal products are associated with a larger environmental burden. The aim of this paper is to examine the association between the consumption of meat and fish and economic and socio-demographic factors, different consumption habits and behaviours of individuals in five European countries. Using household-level data, descriptive analysis is presented and regressions using Heckman’s standard sample selection model are conducted. The main reasons for not eating meat or fish are ethics, environment, taste and health. Our findings also suggest that though income results to be significant, its positive effect on meat and fish intake is rather small. Regarding fish, the price of groceries seems to have a significant negative impact while it does not affect the consumption of white meat. This indicates that if we want to lower the consumption of (especially red) meat, we should focus on other factors, such as gender, age, healthy habits and behavioural traits or values (especially factors that are part of the decisionmaking process during food purchases like price, taste, habit, family and appearance). Moreover, meat and fish intakes differ significantly among analysed countries, hence, the policy recommendations should be based on a local context.
    Keywords: income, meat and fish consumption, animal protein, healthy and sustainable diet, behavioural analysis
    JEL: C34 C38 I15 O12 O13 Q56
    Date: 2023–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fau:wpaper:wp2023_26&r=agr
  6. By: Lisa Capretti (Department of Social Sciences and Economics, Sapienza University of Rome)
    Abstract: Climate-smart agriculture can address many of the challenges faced by agriculture in semi-arid areas. However, in many developing countries, the adoption and use of this kind of technology are still low. Knowledge constraints represent a critical barrier to adoption; hence, an effective extension system is key. In India, extension programs are characterized by partnerships involving the public sector, the private sector and NGOs. The latest approaches take advantage of mass media and video-based extension services. In this article, I assess the role of extension services on the adoption of laser land leveling among 604 households in the Indian state of Karnataka. Laser land leveling is a modern way of leveling fields using a laser machine; it also brings environmental, economic and social benefits. Using propensity score matching, I find that visiting the extension center Raita Samparka Kendra (RSK) or receiving visit from RSK officials at least once in a year increases the likelihood of using LLL. Furthermore, a causal mediation analysis reveals that after explaining the advantages of the technology and its cost, farmers develop a perception about the affordability of laser land leveling that mediates the treatment effects of the extension service on laser land leveling adoption. Another mechanism that mediates this relationship, even to a lesser extent, is the increase in farmers’ welfare, proxied by household expenditure.
    Keywords: Climate-smart agriculture, Extension services, Mediation analysis
    JEL: Q15 Q16 O12 O13 C31
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:saq:wpaper:1/23&r=agr
  7. By: Miehe, Caroline; Sparrow, Robert; Spielman, David; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
    Abstract: Recently, issues related to the (perceived) quality of inputs and technologies have been proposed as an important constraint to their adoption by smallholder farmers in low income countries. Taking maize seed embodying genetic gain as a case, we train random agro-dealers to test whether under-adoption by farmers is caused by low quality due to sellers' lack of knowledge about proper storage and handling. In a second hypothesis, we randomly introduce an information clearinghouse similar to popular crowd-sourced review platforms such as yelp.com or trustpilot.com to test whether information asymmetries crowd out quality seed. We find that the information clearinghouse treatment improves outcomes for both agro-dealers and farmers, with agro-dealers receiving more customers and reporting higher revenues from maize seed sales, and farmers reporting significantly higher use of improved maize seed varieties obtained from agro-dealers, leading to higher maize productivity after two seasons. The primary mechanisms behind this impact appear to be an increased effort to signal quality by agro-dealers and a general restoration of trust in the market for improved seed. The agro-dealer training does not have a clear impact on agro-dealers, nor on farmers in associated catchment areas. However, we do find that the information clearinghouse increases agro-dealer knowledge about proper seed storage and handling. Upon exploring interaction effects between the training and the clearinghouse treatment, we also find that the training becomes effective for agro-dealers that are also in the clearinghouse treatment group. This underscores the importance of incentives to make supply side interventions such as trainings effective.
    Keywords: UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agricultural technology; technology adoption; farm inputs; knowledge; information transfer; information infrastructure; smallholders; agro-dealers; information clearinghouse
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2198&r=agr
  8. By: Douadia Bougherara (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Lea Gosset (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Raphaële Préget (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Sophie Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: This article is an empirical contribution on measuring farmers' ability to innovate, and on the effectiveness of a nudge-type non-monetary incentive on their (stated) intention to adopt an innovation such as the French "Label bas carbone", a voluntary scheme that certifies carbon credits. We propose an original methodology for measuring farmers' capacity to innovate ("innovativeness"), adapting the scale of Goldsmith and Hofacker (1991) to the specificities of farmers' decisions in a professional setting. Based on an online survey with more than 6, 000 responses from French farmers, we validate this scale and evaluate with a randomized experiment included in the questionnaire the net impact of a priming nudge targeting the most innovative farmers. The results indicate that the nudge tested has no significant or detectable impact on the surveyed sample, leading us to discuss the effectiveness of nudges when trying to influence high-stakes decisions.
    Keywords: Innovation, Carbon farming, Nudge, Behaviour, Experiment, Innovation -Carbon farming -Nudge -Behaviour -Experiment
    Date: 2023–08–29
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04227775&r=agr
  9. By: Wilfredo L. Maldonado; Jessica A. Barbosa
    Abstract: The effects of deforestation through land fires used by farmers (specially, smallholders) are twofold. From the individual point of view, they prepare the land improving its fertility. On the other side, the aggregate decision has a negative impact on air and water quality, degrading the environment, and this is reverted as a negative impact of the productivity of the land. In this work we present an aggregative game framework which includes those effects and allows us to analyze the impact of cost fires variations and number of farmers. Finally, using data from Brazilian research institutes, we test the sign and the size of the impacts of those determinants on the aggregate deforestation in Brazil for the period 2009 to 2018.
    Keywords: aggregative games, land use, deforestation
    JEL: C72 D62 Q5
    Date: 2023–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:een:camaaa:2023-51&r=agr
  10. By: Ashok Gulati (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)); Raya Das (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)); Sanchit Gupta; Manish Kumar Prasad
    Abstract: India faces a challenging macroeconomic scenario as retail inflation, measured by the year-on-year Consumer Price Index (CPI), persists above the Reserve Bank of India's upper tolerance limit, reaching 6.83 percent in August 2023. This surge, primarily driven by soaring food prices. The Government of India (GOI) has implemented a series of measures, including export ban on non-basmati white rice, stocking limits on wheat, and export duties on onion, parboiled rice often seen as abrupt and reactionary and impact farmers' income. Our study estimates that these market restrictive policy measures have taken a toll on our farmers, slashing their earnings by a staggering Rs.39, 829 crores. This policy brief advocates for a more rational and dependable trade policy that balances the interests of producers and consumers while containing food inflation.
    Keywords: Food Inflation, retail inflation, Basmati, trade policy, food prices, icrier
    Date: 2023–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdc:ppaper:15&r=agr
  11. By: Justin Quinton (Department of Economics, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada); Glenn P. Jenkins (Department of Economics, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada and Cyprus International University, North Cyprus); Godwin Olasehinde-Williams (Department of Management Information Systems Istanbul Ticaret University, Turkey)
    Abstract: In this paper, the determinants of household food insecurity and the impact of the 2015 oil price shock in Nigeria are investigated using panel data from three waves (2012, 2015 and 2018) of the General Household Survey. This survey is a nationally representative sample of approximately 5, 000 households that have been surveyed six times across the three waves. It is found that despite the decline in real food prices globally, Nigeria experienced a marked rise in food insecurity, from approximately 26% of households in 2012/2015 to 43.7% in 2018. The precipitous decline in oil prices in 2015 led to a devaluation of the Nigerian naira which in turn increased the price of imported goods. Nigeria had become more reliant on imported food between 2004 and 2015 as foreign exchange became readily available and the appreciated naira at that time made imported food relatively cheap. Although oil prices crashed in 2015, the full effect was not felt until 2018. Had the Nigerian government been prepared to act quickly, a substantial amount of the effect of the food crisis could have been avoided. The total value of food imports is found to decline overall. From the regression analysis on food insecurity status, a novel result emerges concerning the impact of gender of the head of the household. Previous studies report that female head of household is a key determinant of household food insecurity; however, once single parent status, household size and the proportion of children in the household are accounted for, the gender of the head of the household becomes inconsequential. Thus, it is the composition of the household that is relevant for food insecurity rather than just the gender of the head of the household.
    Keywords: Food insecurity, GHS-P, Nigeria, Oil price shock, Policy.
    JEL: D10 E2 Q17
    Date: 2023–10–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:qed:dpaper:4611&r=agr
  12. By: Resnick, Danielle, ed.; Swinnen, Johan, ed.
    Abstract: The current structure of the global food system is increasingly recognized as unsustainable. In addition to the environmental impacts of agricultural production, unequal patterns of food access and availability are contributing to non-communicable diseases in middle- and high-income countries and inadequate caloric intake and dietary diversity among the world’s poorest. While the need to transform food systems is widely accepted, the policy pathways for achieving such a vision often are highly contested, and the enabling conditions for implementation are frequently absent. Moreover, transformation implicitly requires reforms that depart from the status quo, which will generate resistance from those groups that stand to lose the most.
    Keywords: food systems; reforms; policies; agricultural policies; governance; Sustainable Development Goals
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:synops:136909&r=agr
  13. By: Uzun, Vasily (Узун, Василий) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Shagaida, Natalia (Шагайда, Наталья) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Ternovskiy, Denis (Терновский, Денис) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Potapova, Alexandra (Потапова, Александра) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Shishkina, Ekaterina (Шишкина, Екатерина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of the topic - assessing the level of economic access to food - remains poorly developed in Russia. This study aims to fill this gap within the framework of the main ideas of the Food Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation. The purpose of this work is to develop approaches for assessing the level of food security among household members and highlight the main characteristics of households with different levels of food insecurity. The statistical basis for this study is the microdata from budget surveys conducted by Rosstat. The main content and results of this study are as follows: The concept of "food insecurity of the household" and its members is introduced. An overview of approaches used in different countries to identify individuals experiencing food insecurity is provided. The focus of the assessment shifts from evaluating the level of economic affordability of food based on decile groups and available resources to assessing the level of economic affordability of food for each household member. This analysis highlights the main characteristics of households or their members with varying levels of food insecurity.
    Keywords: Food security, food insecurity, households, economic affordability of food, balanced food assortment, vulnerable population groups based on economic affordability of food, Rosstat budget surveys
    JEL: Q18 Q11 R00
    Date: 2023–07–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rnp:wpaper:w20220256&r=agr
  14. By: Balboni, Clare; Berman, Aaron; Burgess, Robin; Olken, Benjamin A.
    Abstract: Two factors have elevated recent academic and policy interest in tropical deforestation: first, the realization that it is a major contributor to climate change; and second, a revolution in satellite-based measurement that has revealed that it is proceeding at a rapid rate. We begin by reviewing the methodological advances that have enabled measurement of forest loss at a fine spatial resolution across the globe. We then develop a simple benchmark model of deforestation based on classic models of natural resource extraction. Extending this approach to incorporate features that characterize deforestation in developing countries—pressure for land use change, significant local and global externalities, weak property rights, and political economy constraints—provides us with a framework for reviewing the fast-growing empirical literature on the economics of deforestation in the tropics. This combination of theory and empirics provides insights not only into the economic drivers and impacts of tropical deforestation but also into policies that may affect its progression. We conclude by identifying areas where more work is needed in this important body of research.
    Keywords: climate change; environmental economics; tropical deforestation; environmental degradation; biodiversity loss; natural resource management; land use change; remote sensing; externalities; common-property resources; political economy; Graduate Research Fellowship under grant 1745302; Advanced Grant 743278
    JEL: F18 H23 O13 O40 Q23 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2023–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:120074&r=agr
  15. By: Warner, James; Rosenbach, Gracie; Benimana, Gilberthe; Mugabo, Serge; Niyonsingiza, Josue; Mukangabo, Emerence; Dushimayezu, Bertrand; Nshimiyimana, Octave; Ingabire, Chantal; Spielman, David J.
    Abstract: This report provides a comprehensive statistical overview of agricultural household data collected by IFPRI from a smallholder commercialization survey in late 2022. Sampled to be representative to the provincial level, ten households were surveyed in 202 villages for a total of 2, 020 households interviewed. The survey covers a wide range of topics including household demographics, agricultural farm holdings, input use, crop choice, levels of commercialization and other non-farm sources of income. The statistical tables are generally presented by principal categorical variables of interest which include provinces, gender and age of household head (youth/mature), as well as size of land holdings. These designations are meant to provide general insights into the current state of agricultural households in Rwanda. Building on this report, future research, on more specific topics of interest, will be performed to build a more comprehensive understanding of agricultural household economic behavior for broader understanding as well as potential policy engagement.
    Keywords: RWANDA; CENTRAL AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; households; smallholders; surveys; inputs; crops; commercialization; income
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:rsspwp:8&r=agr
  16. By: Djanibekov, Nodir; Kurbanov, Zafar; Tadjiev, Abdusame; Govind, Ajit; Akramkhanov, Akmal
    Abstract: The spread of information and communications technology (ICT) in Central Asia has reached a point where most farmers use smartphones with mobile internet access providing an opportunity for a low-cost and timely access to agricultural information and advisory services. When extension service is poor and does not cater to the farmers' needs, farmers seek other sources of information, such as exchanging knowledge with their peers and engaging in social media groups using instant messaging applications (apps) such as Telegram and WhatsApp. Analysis of a farm-level survey conducted in 2022 in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, suggests that farmers' participation in online groups for information exchange is influenced by the enabling environment rather than by the type of cultivated crops or farm size. The findings are relevant for developing private sector strategies and public policies to spread digital technologies among Central Asia's farmers with a holistic plan for a digital transformation. When introducing smartphone- or web-based digital technologies, policymakers are recommended to start scaling up with younger and more technologically-savvy farmers who on the one hand rely on their own knowledge but on the other hand are more open to embracing new ways of farming and interaction. Decision-making autonomy is an important factor to facilitate digital transformation in agriculture in the Central Asian context.
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:iamopb:46&r=agr
  17. By: Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Gusakov, Timur (Гусаков, Тимур) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Trotsuk, Irina (Троцук, Ирина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that in recent decades, peripheralization of rural spaces in Russia has intensified in the form of the expansion of abandoned agricultural lands, disappearance of rural settlements, and a general long-term social-demographic depression. Concerning the spatial and food security of Russia, the re-development of peripheral rural territories is the most important condition for the viability and sustainable development of the country. The study aims at presenting a typology of models of rural development and rural differentiation in the peripheral territories of Russia as based on regional resources and the potential of local territories – in order to integrate them into the all-Russian programs of rural development. The subject is specific Russian cases of the development of rural peripheral territories and general trends in the revival of the depressed rural periphery. The methods combine the elements of the quantitative (statistical data, secondary analysis) and qualitative (expert semi-formalized interviews) approaches within the case study. Based on the results of the study, the paper describes the latest trends in the peripheralization of even the old-developed Russian regions, i.e., measures for the centralization of spatial development often exacerbate the depth of peripherization. The paper concludes with the main indicators of the rural periphery viability (ability to cope with systemic shocks and uncertainty, ability to radically change the trajectory of one’s development) and the features of the sustainable peripheral rural system. The novelty of the study is determined by an attempt to develop a typology of rural periphery and by a systematic analysis of its problems within both the agrarian re-development strategies and projects of ecological-recreational and cultural-historical types. The paper provides some recommendations on the development of rural periphery: more diverse economic activities of rural residents; more market-oriented institutions to ensure a transition from informal economic interactions to the formalized ones; stronger social capital in order to more easily mobilize internal and external resources.
    Keywords: periphery, center, agrarian policy, depressed areas, innovations, ecology, re-development, rural development, rural differentiation, models
    Date: 2022–11–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rnp:wpaper:w20220215&r=agr
  18. By: Ashok Gulati (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)); Shyma Jose (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER))
    Abstract: This policy brief, titled "India-Africa in G21: The Challenge of Nutrition Security", seeks to provide way forward for achieving nutrition security by 2030, with a particular focus on the Global South, especially Africa. These recommendations are informed by India's experiences in improving nutrition security and reducing mortality rates. By assessing India's progress in this area, we can identify critical factors that require focused interventions, fostering South-South learning to address this complex issue effectively. Our study finds that access to nutritious food alone cannot address the multi dimensional problem of undernutrition in these regions. They require targeted and multi-pronged strategies to accelerate nutrition security.
    Keywords: G21, Nutrition, mortality rate, agriculture, food, icrier
    Date: 2023–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdc:ppaper:16&r=agr
  19. By: Jalile, Ileana Raquel; Moncarz, Pedro E.
    Abstract: Two databases are constructed on GHG emissions associated with Argentina's international trade between 2000 and 2017, emissions derived from the production of exported goods and those associated with the international transport of exports and imports. Food, beverages, and tobacco, and agriculture, hunting, and related activities, followed by manufactures of metal and chemical products, are the main sectors that explain GHG emissions linked to exports. Petroleum, gas, and mining became less significant. The same sectors explain most of the CO2 emissions linked to the international transportation of exports. For emissions linked to the transportation of imports used in the production of exports, the main contributing sectors are those relating to industrial manufacturing. A decomposition exercise reveals that for emissions linked to the production of exports, the scale effect contributed more significantly in 2000-2011 than in 2012-2017, although in both cases its effect was positive. The composition effect was much less significant. For the emissions associated with international transportation, the main drivers were the scale, sector, and partner effects. Changes in the sector structure of exports appear to have caused more emissions between 2000 to 2011, but the opposite was observed between 2011 and 2017. In the case of emissions from international transportation, changes in the sector structure increased pollution in the case of the transportation of exports, while the opposite was the case for the transportation of imports.
    Keywords: exports
    JEL: F10 F18
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:brikps:12153&r=agr
  20. By: Martínez-Castañeda, Mónica; Feijoo, Claudio
    Abstract: This article includes a bibliographic study to identify, evaluate, and interpret existing research regarding the effectiveness of blockchain technology applications in the field of agricultural production condition accreditation. Drawing from the review, and to illustrate the technical architecture of the blockchain-based logistics tracking system, the article focuses on the management of raw data as a system parameter that will determine the advantages and limitations of existing business solutions. Additionally, considerations are incorporated into the system construction to reduce information asymmetry and increase the business power of producers when using public databases. Basically, the bibliographic compilation and analysis are aimed at improving two aspects: the veracity and relevance of the production data collected in the blockchain systems, and offering tentative handling methods that increase the producers' power of control over the systems by using data and verifications already completed for the administration for other purposes.
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:itse23:278000&r=agr

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