nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒10‒30
25 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Variations in Pass-Through from Global Agricultural Commodity Prices to Domestic Food Inflation By Daniel Hyun; Jacky Lee
  2. Options to achieve net-zero emissions from agriculture and land use changes in Latin America and the Caribbean By Dumas, Patrice; Wirsenius, Stefan; Searchinger, Tim; Andrieu, Nadine; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
  3. The Impact of Smart Subsidies on Agricultural Production: Innovative Evidence from Argentina Using Survey and Remote Sensing Data By Schling, Maja; Pazos, Nicolás
  4. Jobs, Food and Greening: Exploring Implications of the Green Transition for Jobs in the Agri-food System By Nico, Gianluigi; Christiaensen, Luc
  5. MATS Report: "Ukrainian Commodities for Global Food Security and Ukrainian Farmer Security" By Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
  6. Agricultural Subsidies in the Economy of Ecuador – An Assessment of Impact Through CGE Modelling By García Merchán, Gabriela
  7. Dairy production evolution in an export-oriented country. By Garcia Suarez, Federico; Perez Quesada, Gabriela
  8. The Role of Sanctions and Spillovers in Forest Conservation By João Pedro Vieira; Ricardo Dahis; Juliano Assunção
  9. Social Learning for the Green Transition Evidence from a Pesticide Reduction Policy By Rose Deperrois; Adélaïde Fadhuile; Julie Subervie
  10. Endline Study Report and Policy Study for the ConVERGE Project By Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Briones, Roehlano M.; Ballesteros, Marife M.; Galang, Ivory Myka R.; Espineli, Isabel B.
  11. Climate Change and Political Participation: Evidence from India By Amrit Amirapu; Irma Clots-Figueras; Juan Pablo Rud
  12. How Social Networks Influence Access and Utilization of Weather and Climate Information: The Case of Upland Farming Communities in the Philippines By Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
  13. DIVERSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AS A SOURCE OF SUSTAINABILITY OF INCOMES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS AND A PATHWAY TO DECREASE THE ECOLOGICAL EXTRENALITIES By Strokov, Anton (Строков, Антон); Potashnikov, Vladimir (Поташников, Владимир); Potapova, Alexandra (Потапова, Александра); Shishkina, Elena (Шишкина, Елена)
  14. Analisis de fronteras estocasticas de produccion y eficiencia: tipologias agricolas para Mexico para priorizar inversiones aplicada a caña de azucar, maiz blanco, leche y bovinos By Ortega-Diaz, Araceli
  15. The G20 initiative for rural youth employment: A better future for rural youth By OECD
  16. Innovations to Get Markets Right: Emerging Ecosystem of Agritech Startups and FPOs By Ashok Gulati; Manasi Phadke; Bhushana Karandikar
  17. Costs of Horn Fly Control for Cow-Calf Producers in Tennessee and Texas By Griffith, Andrew P.; Smith, Katy V.; DeLong, Karen; Boyer, Christopher N.; Martinez, Charley C.; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout
  18. Higher breaks for the development: The price volatility on agro-products in the Chilean Market By Cerecera, Francisco
  19. Ocean Salinity, Early-Life Health, and Adaptation By Guimbeau, Amanda; Ji, Xinde James; Long, Zi; Menon, Nidhiya
  20. European Union-Mercosur Agreement: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis for the Milk Powder Production Chain in Brazil By Mendes, Krisley; Luchine, Andre
  21. Drought Shocks and Labor Reallocation in Rural Africa: Evidence from Ethiopia By Musungu, Arnold L.; Kubik, Zaneta; Qaim, Matin
  22. Opportunities and challenges for the new generation of Sustainable AgTech startups in LAC By Navarro, Ana; Camusso, Jorge
  23. Blockchain's role in promoting quality, safety and sustainability in the food and beverage industry By Kshetri, Nir
  24. Water Markets as a Coping Mechanism for Climate-Induced Water Changes on the Canadian Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach By Jorge Garcia-Hernandez; Roy Brouwer
  25. Climate Change and Health Transitions: Evidence From Antananarivo, Madagascar By Klein, Jordan D.; Rasoanomenjanahary, Anjarasoa

  1. By: Daniel Hyun; Jacky Lee
    Abstract: This paper examines factors that affect the transmission of fluctuations in global agricultural commodity prices to domestic food inflation. Using panel regressions on data from 53 advanced and emerging-market countries, we investigate how factors such as local crop production conditions, the extent of food industry development and the net agricultural trade status interact with global agricultural prices to affect pass-through to local food prices. Results show that pass-through varies significantly based on these factors. Pass-through decreases during better-than-normal crop conditions, highlighting the importance of local production. Countries with less-developed food industries experience higher pass-through, likely due to the greater importance of raw commodities in diets and less-complex supply chains. Interestingly, net exporters of agricultural commodities exhibit greater pass-through, potentially due to strategic trade adjustments that take advantage of global supply and demand dynamics. These variations in pass-through suggest potential avenues for managing food price inflation in response to shocks to global food prices under different scenarios.
    Keywords: Inflation and prices; International topics
    JEL: E31 Q02 Q11 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2023–10
  2. By: Dumas, Patrice; Wirsenius, Stefan; Searchinger, Tim; Andrieu, Nadine; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
    Abstract: Eleven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have committed to achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. Changes in the food system are critical to achieving these carbon neutrality goals, as agriculture and the resulting land use changes are responsible for almost half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the region. We quantified the effects of options on the supply side (eg, yield improvements, silvopastoralism, agroforestry) and on the demand side (eg, waste and loss reduction, dietary change) seeking to reduce emissions and transform the land use system into a net carbon sink by 2050 while improving the nutrition of a growing population. We considered both direct emissions from agriculture and the pressure that food production exerts on changes in land use, and separately tracked emissions from the region and those linked to trade. Our results confirm that livestock play a major role, emitting around 60% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and land use changes. Achieving a net-negative emissions food system, capable of balancing emissions from the rest of the economy, will require ambitious and ongoing improvements in yields and changes in diets to moderate the growing demand for beef, continuously decrease the proportion of dedicated land to agriculture and instead increase those dedicated to carbon sequestration and the preservation of biodiversity.
    Keywords: Agriculture;Forestry and Other Land Use;AFOLU;food;yields;diets;decarbonization
    JEL: Q15 Q17 Q18 Q54
    Date: 2022–09
  3. By: Schling, Maja; Pazos, Nicolás
    Abstract: This study assesses the impact of the Program for Rural Development and Family Agriculture (PRODAF), a smart subsidies project that benefited the family farming stratum in northeastern Argentina. The evaluation draws on two complementary data sources. The first is a survey of agricultural households with a sample of 898 farmers (534 treated and 364 control) conducted after the end of the project. The second uses plot georeferencing to measure agricultural yields with satellite data for a subsample of 195 farmers over a 10-year period. Using the inverse probability weighting methodology, we find that PRODAF increased the technology adoption rate by 21 percentage points, and increased access to credit by 47 percentage points. Overcoming these barriers enabled the beneficiary farmers to increase the value of their sales and net income, although impacts varied among the four prioritized chains. In contrast, the analysis only detected a significant impact on yields for the citrus chain, which may be due to the type of technology adopted in this chain. Finally, we construct the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to estimate productivity in the cotton and citrus chains. Applying the event study method, we confirm that technology adoption is a complex process whose full impact on yields only materializes between the second and third year post-treatment. We additionally confirm that the use of satellite data is an effective tool that accurately estimates yield changes and can be used to monitor and assess this type of intervention in real time and at a low cost.
    Keywords: Technology Adoptation;Productivity;Remote Sensing;Impact Evaluation;Argentina
    JEL: H43 O12 O13 Q12 Q16
    Date: 2022–08
  4. By: Nico, Gianluigi; Christiaensen, Luc
    Abstract: The agri-food system (AFS) employs about one third of the global workforce and contributes about one third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This together with its large exposure to the effects of climate change and environmental degradation makes what happens in AFS central to the green transition and its implications for jobs and the structural transformation. Microeconomic evidence suggests that the adoption of climate smart agricultural practices will increase labor requirements, at least in the short run and at lower levels of incomes, when its mechanization is still limited. Econometric macro-model-based simulations suggest however that especially substantial investment in climate friendly agricultural R&D as well as soil and water preserving practices and market integration will more than offset the negative effects of climate change and even accelerate the structural transformation, especially in Sub Saharan Africa. Overall, the findings underscore the tremendous potential of increasing agricultural and climate friendly R&D investment for brokering an environmentally sustainable structural transformation. Repurposing of agriculture’s current US$ 638 billion support package towards supporting more climate friendly practices, including to overcome the time lag between the moment of investment and the realization of the benefits, provides an important policy entry point.
    Keywords: Agri-food system; global workforce; climate change; green transition; jobs; agricultural practices; structural transformation.
    Date: 2023–05–16
  5. By: Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
    Abstract: The latest report on "Repairing Broken Food Trade Routes Ukraine – Africa” covers: Ukraine’s role as a global exporter Decrease of production and exports from Ukraine Current impediments for Ukrainian agricultural exports: seaports and western border This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme “Making Agricultural Trade Sustainable” (MATS) programme ( The role of MATS/WTI in this programme is to identify and explore “broken” Ukrainian - African food trade routes due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Starting with a food trade flow chart pre- and post-24 February 2022, it will assess, first, whether Ukrainian (or African) traders can again supply these products (Output 1). Failing that, whether the new EU-financed “Crisis Management” (or another) programme can possibly make up for lost Ukrainian agrifood exports (Output 2). It will also identify alternative exporters (if any) which might already have filled in agrifood demand in Africa (Output 3). Importantly, the Project also looks at the potential effect of these developments on competing farm production in Africa (Output 4). For further information and/or offer to assist in project implementation, please write to Christian Häberli ( or to Bogdan Kostetsky (
    Date: 2023–10–10
  6. By: García Merchán, Gabriela
    Abstract: Abstract Many countries use agricultural subsidies to support their farmers, with the aim of fostering the rural economy, supplementing farm income, increasing productivity, and many other aims. However, different types of subsidies have diverse effects, and certain types can have a detrimental impact on the economy, on international trade, as well as on the environment. Numerous researchers and international organizations have made recommendations on how to reform agricultural support in order to curtail or eliminate these adverse effects. Often, different types of minimally distorting “green box” subsidies are suggested as an alternative to highly distorting, environmentally adverse “amber box” subsidies. Using the power of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE), we construct a model of the economy of Ecuador, which we use to simulate the alternate application of two different types of subsidies. We then analyze and compare the effects that each of them has on agricultural production activities, on the production factors, on agricultural output, on the income of farmers’ households, on foreign trade, and on GDP, taking into consideration the specific characteristics of Ecuador’s agricultural economy and subsidy structure, as well as the limitations of the model. In Scenario 1, three types of subsidies (output, input and land factor subsidies) are provided at a level corresponding to a weighted average of all OECD countries. This experiment produced mixed effects in terms of prices and output, depending on the specific sector. It also produced negative effects on the trade balance, but gave positive results for GDP and farm income. The subsidy with the strongest effect was the land factor subsidy. In Scenario 2, the target was the level of farm income produced by the subsidies in Scenario 1, but only through green box subsidies, specifically decoupled land payments. Direct payments were not the most economically efficient, causing important decreases in allocative efficiency and national GDP. On the other hand, price and output effects were also more generally positive, with increase of exports and improvement of the trade balance. Targeting of subsidies to small and medium producers is recommended. About the author Gabriela García Merchán
    Date: 2023–10–12
  7. By: Garcia Suarez, Federico; Perez Quesada, Gabriela
    Abstract: Uruguay is a small market with a large export-oriented agribusiness sector. That imposes a challenge for being competitive on the international markets. One of the sectors that is most affected by the international competition is dairy production, where subsidies and market power of large enterprises rules the market. Its main export products are commodities, making it contingent on international prices. Over the years the dairy systems have shifted from an extensive grass-fed model into more intensive farming combining cultivated pastures and larger amounts of high-quality feed. Production saw a maximum in 2013 and a decline since 2014. Another side of this intensification is that as production increases, dairy farms decreases. Between 2011 and 2020 the number of dairy farms dropped 25% while the daily milk production per cow increased more than 50%. Comparing the results of the surveys it seems clear that there are farms running out of business from all sizes, so it is not only a scale issue. This put a question on whether the intensification is sustainable or not and challenge the sector on what are the causes that push farms out of business. To assess these questions, we propose a technical efficiency analysis using two national dairy farm surveys conducted by INALE (Instituto Nacional de Lechería) in 2014 and 2019 using a meta frontier approach to compare the change over time since the surveys are independent and do not compose a panel. The meta frontier allows to compare each survey as a unique group but as of using a technological common source for which a Propensity Score Match is necessary to address biases from observables. From this estimation we can find technical efficiency scores by survey and meta technical efficiency scores that reports the distance to the meta frontier. From that result we can infer if the yield improvement from one survey year to the next is due to movement towards the frontier (improved efficiency) or a productivity improvement due to a shift in the frontier. From the results we expect to provide technology paths that show better performance as possible extension and policy leading recommendations. At this point we are working on the database set up to perform the estimation, so we do not have preliminary results.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2023
  8. By: João Pedro Vieira (Department of Economics, PUC-Rio); Ricardo Dahis (Department of Economics, Monash University); Juliano Assunção (Department of Economics, PUC-Rio)
    Abstract: We study how environmental sanctions and spillovers improve forest conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. Using a difference-in-differences framework and novel farm-level data, we show that sanctions curbed deforestation and promoted reforestation among punished farmers and their neighbors. Heterogeneity analysis reveals that even sanctions with limited incapacitation potential elicited relevant behavioral changes. In particular, farmers’ responsiveness to sanctions coincided with the government’s commitment to enforcement. We do not find substantial evidence of spatial displacement or monitoring evasion. Overall, sanctions prevented 1.6 billion tons of CO2 emissions between 2006 and 2019, equivalent to 31% of US emissions in 2021.
    Keywords: Law Enforcement, Spillovers, Deforestation
    JEL: K42 Q23 Q28 Q58
    Date: 2023–10
  9. By: Rose Deperrois; Adélaïde Fadhuile; Julie Subervie
    Abstract: Social learning and the diffusion of innovations through peers are key components of agro-ecological transition, as they contribute to the generalization of good practices and improve the efficiency of public policies by increasing the number of farmers reached at no additional cost. We evaluated the spillover effects of a pesticide reduction scheme, implemented in France during the 2010s, which was designed to train farmers in pesticide-saving practices and encourage knowledge diffusion beyond the scope of enrolled farms. We estimated a fixed-effect model using pseudo-panel data collected at the national scale and found that doubling the share of enrolled farms within cohorts would reduce pesticide use by 7.3% to 10% on average. We found an additional effect of a similar magnitude when doubling the share of farms attending demonstration days hosted by farmers trained through the program, this impact being all the stronger as the share of enrolled farms is high. These results suggest that agricultural training programs with peer-sharing component are likely to generate spillover effects and increase the adoption of new practices at a lower cost than traditional programs.
    Keywords: Agricultural Policy, Pesticide, Social Learning, Public Policy Evaluation
    JEL: Q15 Q18 Q25 Q28 Q53
    Date: 2023–09
  10. By: Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Briones, Roehlano M.; Ballesteros, Marife M.; Galang, Ivory Myka R.; Espineli, Isabel B.
    Abstract: The Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), in partnership with the International Fund for Agricultural Development, implemented the project Convergence on Value Chain Enhancement for Rural Growth and Empowerment (ConVERGE) with the goal of empowering Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries (ARBs) to drive rural economic growth across 10 provinces spanning 3 regions. DAR engaged the Philippine Institute for Development Studies to undertake baseline and endline studies, serving as a crucial assessment tool for the project's performance and providing insights to inform the comprehensive ARC Cluster Development (ARCCD) Strategy aimed at advancing smallholder agriculture in the Philippines. This endline report provides the analysis of the baseline and endline datasets. It discusses the following key points: (i) results of the impact evaluation study, (ii) result of final process evaluation, and (iii) recommendations for the ARCCD Strategy. ​ The quantitative analysis part of the study indicates a significant 41-percent average treatment effect from the project, validating its theory of change in boosting income for ARC cluster households through value chain interventions. The process evaluation generally confirms the assumptions and impact pathways, with some deviations and shortfalls. Although the beneficiaries express satisfaction with the project, they have limited understanding of its rationale. The clustering method, which links small farmers to value chains by forming ARBs into lead and participating ARB organizations (ARBOs), appears to enhance government support efficiency for organized groups. The paper underscores the importance of additional capacity building for both lead and participating ARBOs, and it recommends a more active engagement of other government agencies to address value-adding technologies, food processing standards, credit accessibility, and market facilitation. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agrarian reform beneficiary organizations;ARBOs;ARBs;DAR;IFAD;ConVERGE;value chains;treament effects;endline;baseline;Agrarian Reform Communities Cluster Development;ARC;ARCCD;Mindanao;clustering;cluster;impact evaluation;difference-in-difference;regression;process evaluation
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Amrit Amirapu (University of Kent); Irma Clots-Figueras (University of Kent/IZA); Juan Pablo Rud (University of London/IZA/Institute of Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: We study the effects of temperature shocks on electoral outcomes in Indian elections. Taking advantage of localized, high-frequency data on temperatures, we find that exposure to extreme temperatures the year before an election increases voter turnout, changes the composition of the candidate pool, and leads to different electoral outcomes (e.g. winning candidates are more likely to have an agricultural background). The effects are driven by reductions in agricultural productivity and are strongest in rural areas. We also show that temperature shocks increase the value voters place on agricultural issues and on policies which mitigate the effects of extreme temperatures, such as irrigation.
    Date: 2023–10
  12. By: Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
    Abstract: Social norms and structures are vital factors that shape people’s behavior and attitudes. Therefore, analyzing such underlying forces in creating strategies to influence behavior and activities is useful. Agricultural extension services, such as information dissemination and farmers’ training, are some of the interventions that can benefit from such analyses, especially within a context of limited human and financial resources. The lessons learned from analyzing social networks and norms can be used to identify potential local knowledge and information disseminators, thereby aiding the extension services. It also helps in formulating more contextualized approaches to reach the underserved and hard-to-reach areas. Applying this approach, this study used the case of a remote upland area in Atok, Benguet, a major vegetable producer. A social network analysis was used to develop insights for designing more effective extension strategies. The results show that interventions like information and education campaigns can be improved by acknowledging the nuances in social relation structures.
    Keywords: social network analysis;information and education campaign;Philippines;Benguet farming;upland farming
    Date: 2023
  13. By: Strokov, Anton (Строков, Антон) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Potashnikov, Vladimir (Поташников, Владимир) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Potapova, Alexandra (Потапова, Александра) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Shishkina, Elena (Шишкина, Елена) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of the study is determined by the need to analyze the consequences of monocultures in crop production in the regions of Russia, not only from an economic point of view, but also from an environmental one. The objective of the study is to develop ways for the sustainable development of agriculture in Russia, taking into account the possibilities for the development of diversification and the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The subject of the presented research is the production and environmental indicators of crop production in the regions of Russia. In the course of the work, traditional scientific methods were used - descriptive, analytical, statistical and methods of economic and mathematical modeling. The sources of information were Russian and foreign scientific publications, official publications of regulatory and legal documents and statistical data of Russian state authorities, as well as foreign databases on agricultural statistics. The results of the study conclude that in the period 2011-2019, the increase in crop production took place mainly in the Central Black Earth and South-Western regions of the country, where the plowing of abandoned lands was accompanied by an increase in crop yields (intensification), which led to a relatively low carbon track per unit of output. On the contrary, in the regions of the Far East, where the plowing of the fallow has led to an increase in soybean crops (usually low-yielding), this has affected a higher carbon footprint, which cannot be considered a sustainable characteristic for further development. Thus, the scientific novelty of the study lies in the development of scientific and analytical tools for the correct identification of regional and global environmental risks in assessing the efficiency of crop production in the regions of Russia. Thus, in our study, regional risks were assessed through the concentration of crops in the region or through the diversification index (variety of cultivated crops). Global risks were assessed through the indicator of greenhouse gas emissions, which also allowed us to estimate the so-called cumulative "carbon footprint" of each region in terms of grain unit of crop production. As a result of the study, policy recommendations were developed to improve statistical reporting on the agricultural sector. It is also recommended to promote knowledge about new and old practices for introducing diversification, incl. and the classic method of growing legumes in crops, which is not being successfully implemented by all regions so far.
    Keywords: externalities, monoculture, diversification, greenhouse gas emissions, carbon footprint, agricultural policy
    JEL: Q15 Q53 C39
    Date: 2023–05–03
  14. By: Ortega-Diaz, Araceli
    Abstract: In the present study, an analysis was carried out to know which microregions have greater potential and productive efficiency, and high levels of poverty, with the aim of outlining impact investment plans. The FAO-IFPRI stochastic frontiers methodology was used (Maruyama, 2018) that estimates the productive frontier considering production inputs, as well as technological factors that mitigate climate risks, and others that may be out of the scope of the producer, which are understood as random. With this stochastic frontier, productive efficiency is predicted to determine if the region is priority (high potential and high poverty). This was done considering four agricultural investment products in Mexico: sugar cane, white corn, sale of cattle and milk. The results show that there are 5 federal entities that contain municipalities classified as priorities: Chiapas, Durango, Michoacán, San Luis Potosí and Veracruz. To validate this finding, interviews were conducted with expert actors. With their inside, types of investment were determined. Typology of areas of low potential but high poverty would require a source of long-term investment in infrastructure, training and social programs, to form a cluster that moves these areas forward. In contrast, there are other regions that are not an urgent priority but have a typology of high potential and medium poverty, which need to be exposed to international markets to increase their competitiveness, support them with financial investment and innovation in marketing their products. The areas with high priority typology (high potential and high poverty), require investments in the short, medium and long term that graduate producers with programs in different stages of need, they need investment in research, development and commercialization of technologies which help to improve irrigation, coupled with roads that communicate products directly from the producer to the market, so as not to be prey to intermediaries that limit their income. Additionally, they need a pricing system that communicates transparently and on time all market actors. An outstanding argument was the need of training required for the new generations not to leave the countryside; land tenure for women not only men, organization of farmers who are dispersed and have no bargaining power to ask for credit, loans or fair prices, as well as an investment that is of benefit to the producer, a competitive and innovative rural development bank is urgent.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023
  15. By: OECD
    Abstract: Between 2017 and 2022, G20 members invested over USD 20 billion in 671 projects related to rural youth employment in Africa. The G20 Initiative for Rural Youth Employment (RYE), launched in 2017, overachieved the targets set to provide employment-related skills to 5 million youth and create 1.1 million jobs by 2022. The most common types of interventions were those focused on agriculture value chain development, skills training, and the promotion of entrepreneurship and small and medium-sized businesses. The paper assesses the achievements of the G20 Initiative for RYE, analyses different RYE programmes and provides recommendations for future G20 initiatives and RYE programming. Despite great progress, much remains to be done to tackle rural youth employment challenges.
    Keywords: agri-food value chain, agriculture, employability, jobs, rural youth employment, youth
    JEL: J13 J43 J62 P25 Q18
    Date: 2023–10–13
  16. By: Ashok Gulati (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)); Manasi Phadke; Bhushana Karandikar
    Abstract: The research objective was to understand how the evolving interface of agritech startups and FPOs is impacting farmers in terms of economic returns, and what important lessons can be drawn to strengthen the existing policy framework. The study included mapping of the landscape of agritech startups and FPOs in the area of agriculture marketing; a deep dive into the experience of agritech startups and FPOs working together; a measure of the early impact and direction of progress through case study approach; and coming up with policy recommendations that can help strengthen this ecosystem for larger sustainable gains for the farmers. The research findings clearly demonstrate the potential of technology and institutional innovations in improving agriculture market efficiency and delivering higher returns to the farmers. We hope this research will add value to the discourse on how innovations are critical for getting market right, and both practitioners and policymakers can benefit from the case study findings and policy recommendations presented in this report.
    Keywords: Agriculture Market, Value Chain, Fintech Solutions, Innovation, NCEDX, icrier
    Date: 2023–08
  17. By: Griffith, Andrew P.; Smith, Katy V.; DeLong, Karen; Boyer, Christopher N.; Martinez, Charley C.; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout
    Abstract: Horn flies (Haematobia irritans (L.)) are a common livestock pest. They feed 20-40 times per day, resulting in blood loss, pathogen introduction, production inefficiencies, and hide damage, which could reduce profitability in livestock production. Horn fly management strategies can reduce the severity of these problems. Several studies have found greater weight gains in cattle with fewer flies compared with cattle with heavy infestations. Kunz et al. (1991) estimated the monetary damages of horn flies to the United States (US) livestock industry to be $876 million, which is $1.75 billion in 2021 dollars. Since horn flies can cause monetary losses, it is important to evaluate the economic impact of using different control methods in cattle production. One measurable aspect is how much producers spend managing horn flies, which may include chemical delivery methods (e.g. ear tags, pour-ons, sprays, feedthroughs) and non-chemical methods (e.g., walk through traps, BT technology, and pasture management). We surveyed Tennessee and Texas cow-calf producers regarding their horn fly management costs and approaches and estimated the factors influencing their horn fly management costs. This information is important because horn fly management costs are likely to differ based on location, demographics, perceptions, and traditional practices. Additionally, producers and researchers may be interested in the factors affecting producer decision making and horn fly management expenditures.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2023–10–09
  18. By: Cerecera, Francisco
    Abstract: Productivity and efficiency in the agrifood system require a study that analyzes volatility within and between classes of agro-products. This document studies the change in volatility and level price in the domestic markets that affect rural development in an open small economy. Results: A high volatility and a change in the price level of different agricultural products that are related to rural and sustainable agriculture are observed in the last 3 years compared to the beginning of the 2010 decade. Mainly within the group of vegetables, tubers, and species. Discussion: The change in the price level and the high volatility began before the covid pandemic, and is possibly more related to the times in which the social outbreak that affected the economy and internal markets occurred. Conclusion: The descriptive analysis is still useful to view the change in the dynamics and the need for structural relations between agro-products in hard times with covid pandemic, international conflicts, and other external situations that added volatility to the economy. The last is useful for building resilience policy economic and public policy strategies to resolve problems for consumers and the primary sectors and rural development.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Marketing
    Date: 2023
  19. By: Guimbeau, Amanda (University of Sherbrooke); Ji, Xinde James (University of Florida); Long, Zi (Brandeis University); Menon, Nidhiya (Brandeis University)
    Abstract: We study the effects of in utero exposure to climate change induced high ocean salinity levels on children's anthropometric outcomes. Leveraging six geo-referenced waves of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys merged with gridded data on ocean salinity, ocean chemistry and weather indicators (temperature, rainfall and humidity) from 1993 to 2018, we find that a one standard deviation increase in in utero salinity exposure leads to a 0.11 standard deviation decline in height-for-age. Effects on weight-for-height and weight-for-age for a similar magnitude increase in salinity are 0.13 and 0.15 standard deviations, respectively. Analyses of parental investments and health-seeking behaviors demonstrate that compensating actions along these dimensions to attenuate the detrimental effects of salinity are few and restricted to poorer households. Using satellite-sourced datasets on agriculture and land-use, we find that increasing salinity constrains farmers' land use choices, leading to lower agricultural profitability. In particular, the effects of salinity on child health originate in areas with lower agricultural intensity caused by the progressive salinization of productive lands. These results highlight highlight the costs of environmental insults on early-life health outcomes in vulnerable populations.
    Keywords: ocean salinity, early-life health, climate change, height-for-age, weight-for-height, weight-for-age, children, adaptation, Bangladesh
    JEL: Q54 Q15 Q56 I15 O13 J13
    Date: 2023–09
  20. By: Mendes, Krisley; Luchine, Andre
    Abstract: Milk is one of the few agricultural products in which Brazil is not competitive. The domestic market is served by domestic production and imports from Argentina and Uruguay. The Mercosur-European Union Bi-regional Association Agreement provides for the elimination of tariffs and the harmonization of non-tariff measures (NTMs) between the parties. Because the EU is one of the most competitive regions in the world market for powdered milk, this study analyzes the effects of the agreement on the links in this production chain in the Brazilian market. A constant, nested, multisectoral, and vertically integrated elasticity of substitution model is structured incorporating uncertainty in the estimates of Armington elasticities through Monte Carlo simulations, as in Hallren and Opanasets (2018). The model allows projecting the price effect (Armington) and the preference effect in the market shares of Brazil, Mercosur, and the EU on the domestic market. The results, in the most ambitious scenario of the agreement and in the most conservative estimate, show that Brazil would lose 71.7 percentage points in the domestic market. This means reducing Brazilian production by 475 thousand tons of powdered milk. The national agricultural link in this scenario would lose 15% of the current dairy demand. This loss benefits the EU, which would participate in the national market with a market share of 58.75%. Mercosur would add 13.41 percentage points to its current share of the Brazilian market.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2023
  21. By: Musungu, Arnold L.; Kubik, Zaneta; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: We study how rural households in Ethiopia adapt to droughts through labor reallocation. By using three waves of panel data and exploiting spatial-temporal variations in drought exposure, we find that households reduce on-farm work and increase off-farm self-employment in response to both short-term and persistent droughts, without abandoning family farming. Diversification into off-farm activities is driven by drought-related productivity declines in agriculture and contributes to consumption smoothing. Households with better access to markets and financial services find it easier to reallocate labor off-farm. Our results highlight the importance of strengthening the rural non-farm economy to enhance rural households’ climate resilience.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2023–10–08
  22. By: Navarro, Ana; Camusso, Jorge
    Abstract: This paper identifies key issues and obstacles faced by Sustainable AgTech startups in the Latin America and Caribbean region. Our empirical approach is based on the analysis of statistical data from the Sustainable AgTech Challenge 2021 (created and launched by UNEP and the Yield Lab Institute with Yield Lab LATAM and Universidad Austral as key partners) and interviews with various stakeholders and experts in the AgTech area. We found that the AgTech sector is providing dynamic solutions that target multiple SDGs, but that the general awareness of sustainability and how to track impacts must continue to improve for AgTech startups to maximize their contribution to sustainable agriculture, while increase their possibilities for growth and scalability. These startups still face difficulties in accessing capital and markets, as well as bureaucratic obstacles and heterogeneous regulations within the region. Finally, based on our analysis of the current state of the Sustainable AgTech sector, we propose thirteen policy recommendations focused on building a support ecosystem that maximizes innovation and the impact of AgTech startups.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2023
  23. By: Kshetri, Nir
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential roles of blockchain in ensuring quality, and safety and promoting sustainability in the production and distribution of food and beverage products. A multiple case study approach has been chosen as the principal methodology. The article highlights how blockchain deployment in inter-organizational transactions reduces uncertainty in the actions of supply chains participants and makes dependence among value chain partners more symmetric, which can help improve quality and safety and promote sustainability in the food and beverage industry. It describes how blockchain's impact on interfirm governance structures in the food and beverage industry can be improved by increasing the number and types of participants. Also discussed is how blockchain's impact on reducing interfirm governance structures in the food and beverage industry can be improved by combining this technology with other emerging technologies. Finally, it considers how blockchain-based solutions can increase the degree of distributive fairness in the food and beverage industry and improve small-holder farmers' chance of being integrated in the global economy. The article gives special consideration to blockchain's potential in improving interfirm governance in the food and beverage industry. It explains how blockchain may reduce uncertainty in the actions of supply chain participants. The article shows how blockchain can make dependence among supply chain partners more symmetric. It suggests that by stimulating entrepreneurial opportunities for marginalized groups and promoting distributive fairness, blockchain can help take actions that are socially responsible.
    Keywords: blockchain, food and beverage industry, interfirm relationships, smart contracts, sustainability, uncertainty
    Date: 2023
  24. By: Jorge Garcia-Hernandez; Roy Brouwer
    Abstract: Water markets represent a policy tool that aims at finding efficient water allocations among competing users by promoting reallocations from low-value to high-value uses. In Canada, water markets have been discussed and implemented at the provincial level; however, at the national level a study about the economic benefits of its implementation is still lacking. This paper fills this void by implementing a water market in Canada and examine how water endowment shocks would affect the economy under the assumptions of general equilibrium theory. Our results show a water market would damp the economic loss in case of reductions in water endowment, but it also cuts back on the economic expansion that would follow from an increase on it. These results provide new insights on the subject and will provide a novel look and reinvigorate informed discussions on the use of water markets in Canada as a potential tool to cope with climate-induced water supply changes.
    Date: 2023–07
  25. By: Klein, Jordan D. (Princeton University); Rasoanomenjanahary, Anjarasoa
    Abstract: BACKGROUND Global climate change poses grave risks to population health, especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs). It both threatens the sustainability of nascent epidemiological transitions and raises prospects for counter transitions driven by indirect climate impacts on mortality such as those from reemerging infectious diseases and by direct impacts of extreme climatic events. OBJECTIVE We investigate how the relationship between climate and mortality has changed as Antananarivo, Madagascar progressed through the stages of the epidemiological transition focusing on enteric infection mortality in children under 5. METHODS Using death registration, precipitation, and temperature time series data spanning over four decades we model the climate-cause-specific mortality relationships during each stage of the epidemiological transition using generalized additive models. CONCLUSIONS While we find that childhood enteric infection mortality has become less sensitive to low rainfall and higher temperatures, it has become more sensitive to heavy rainfall. Mortality from other causes has also become less sensitive to high temperatures but has become slightly more sensitive to heavy rainfall while significantly more sensitive to low temperatures. CONTRIBUTION This is the first multidecade climate-mortality study of a city in Sub-Saharan Africa outside of South Africa.
    Date: 2023–09–22

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