nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒10‒23
forty-nine papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Climatic Effects and Farming Performance: An Overview of Selected Studies By Neubauer, Florian; Wall, Alan; Njuki, Eric; Bravo-Ureta, Boris
  2. Climate change's effects on food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) By Rahal, Imen; Elloumi, Abdelkarim
  3. Heterogeneous impact of extreme temperatures on household farms: evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Fernando M. Aragon, Juan Pablo Rud
  4. Biodiversity and pollination benefits trade off against profit in an intensive farming system By Jeroen Scheper; Isabelle Badenhausser; Jochen Kantelhardt; Stefan Kirchweger; Ignasi Bartomeus; Vincent Bretagnolle; Yann Clough; Nicolas Gross; Montserrat Vilà; Carlos Zaragoza-Trello; David Kleijn
  5. Combining nature-based solutions and green taxes for transformative agri-environmental policy: the case of riparian buffers in Uruguay By Alpizar, Francisco; Holmgren, Milena; Carriquiry, Miguel; Borges, Magdalena
  6. Drivers and consequences of tenure insecurity and mechanisms for enhancing tenure security: A synthesis of CGIAR research on tenure security (2013–2020) By McLain, Rebecca
  7. Farm Size and Income Distribution of Latin American Agriculture New Perspectives on an Old Issue By Gáfaro, Margarita; Ibáñez, Ana María; Sánchez-Ordoñez, Daniel; Ortiz, María Camila
  8. Climate Change, Drought, and Agricultural Production in Brazil By Cavalcanti, Francisco; Helfand, Steven M.; Moreira, Ajax
  9. The impact of pasture recovery in the agricultural GPV of Brazil’s Cerrado By Guimaraes, Pablo Miranda; Braga, Marcelo Jose
  10. Insights into land size and productivity in Ethiopia: What do data and heterogenous analysis reveal? By Ashok Mishra; Kamel Louhichi; Giampiero Genovese; Sergio Gomez y Paloma
  11. Piloting ecosystem services valuation in Uruguay By Borges, Magdalena; Hein, Lars
  12. Technical efficiency and technology adoption in beef By Aguirre, Emilio; Garcıa Suarez, Federico; Sicilia, Gabriela
  13. Adapting a participatory modelling method to forecast food system scenarios: a case study on the pork value-chain By Romy Lynn Chaib; Catherine Macombe; Rallou Thomopoulos
  14. Estimating the Long-term Effects of a Fruit Fly Eradication Program Using Satellite Imagery By Salazar, Lina; Agurto Adrianzen, Marcos; Alvarez, Luis
  15. Technical efficiency and technological change of value chains in five Nigerian states By Paliwal, Neha; Songsermsawas, Tisorn; Azzarri, Carlo; Bravo-Ureta, Boris
  16. Impacts of agricultural taxation in Sub‐Saharan Africa: Insights from agricultural produce cess in Tanzania By Kamel Louhichi; Aymeric Ricome; Sergio Gomez y Paloma
  17. GM technology over the agricultural productivity in Brazilian Cerrado By Guimaraes, Pablo Miranda; Braga, Marcelo Jose
  18. Asia’s Transition to Net Zero: Opportunities and Challenges in Agriculture By Panda, Architesh; Yamano, Takashi
  19. Determining factors of the international competitiveness of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) from Spain and Chile By Boza, Sophia; Núñez-Mejía, Aracely; Mora, Marcos; Lopez, Dorotea
  20. How are vineyards management strategies and climate-related conditions affecting economic performance? A case study of Chilean wine grape growers By Bopp, Carlos; Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Engler, Alejandra; Araya-Alman, Miguel
  21. Equestrian practitioners: essential services to support self-organization By Camille Eslan; Céline Vial; Sandrine Costa
  22. Agriculture Economy and Rural Development - Trends and Challenges By Dragomir, Vili; Rodino, Steliana
  23. New Foods Produced with Genome-Editing Technique in the Global Marketplace By Marette, Stephan; Disdier, Anne-Celia; Beghin, John
  24. Do individual PES buyers care about additionality and free-riding? A choice experiment By Oliver Frings; Jens Abildtrup; Claire Montagné-Huck; Salomé Gorel; Anne Stenger
  25. Agricultural policies in Uruguay: specific support quantification in 2017-2020 and its link to greenhouse gas emissions. By García, Felipe; Ackermann, Maria Noel; Cortelezzi, Ángela; Barboza, Natalia; Costa, Nocolas; Román, Natalia; Muñoz, Gonzalo; De Salvo, Carmine
  26. Les risques de rendements en agriculture française: une analyse du lien entre fertilisation azotée et assurance récolte By Edith Kouakou; Marielle Brunette; Philippe Delacote; Richard Koenig
  27. Forecasting Global Maize Prices From Regional Productions By Rotem Zelingher; David Makowski
  28. Trade-offs between economic, environmental and social sustainability on farms using a latent class frontier efficiency model: Evidence for Spanish crop farms By Amer Ait Sidhoum; H Dakpo; Laure Latruffe
  29. Rural underemployment and urbanization: Insights from a nine year household panel survey from Malawi By Van Capellen, Hanne; De Weerdt, Joachim
  30. Monitoring biosecurity in poultry production: an overview of databases reporting biosecurity compliance from seven European countries By Mattias Delpont; Luis G. Salazar; Jeroen Dewulf; Artur Zbikowski; Piotr Szeleszczuk; Anne-Christine Dufay-Lefort; Nathalie Rousset; Annick Spaans; Arthi Amalraj; Giuditta Tilli; Alessandra Piccirillo; Aitor Devesa; Sandra Sevilla-Navarro; Hilde van Meirhaege; László Kovács; Ákos Bernard Jóźwiak; Jean-Luc Guerin; Mathilde C. Paul
  31. Results report on a stakeholder workshop reflecting on a theory of change for low-emission food system transformation in Nandi county, Kenya: A contribution to the establishment of A Living Lab 4 People on Food System Innovations for Climate Change Mitigation under the CGIAR Research Initiative on Low-Emission Food Systems (MITIGATE+) By Falk, Thomas; Walter, Kibet
  32. Heat and Economics: Climate Change’s Influence on Madagascar’s GDP By ANDRIAANDY, Josué R.; Randriamifidy, Fitiavana M.; Andrianavony, Jovianah K.
  33. Transforming Rural Trade: The Impact of Government-Initiated E-commerce Platform on Local Specialty Sales By Xintong Han; Jan Victor Dee; Shaojia Wang
  34. Restoring Property rights: The Effects of Land Restitution on access to credit By Bogliacino, Francesco; Posso, Christian M; Villaveces, Juanita
  35. To tax or to ban? A discrete choice experiment to elicit public preferences for phasing out glyphosate use in agriculture By Amalie Bjørnåvold; Maia David; Vincent Mermet-Bijon; Olivier Beaumais; Romain Crastes Dit Sourd; Steven van Passel; Vincent Martinet
  36. Climate-Related Trade Measures: Assessing Impacts for Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru By Cosbey, Aaron; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
  37. Why companies might under‐communicate their efforts for sustainable development and what can be done? By Alice Falchi; Gilles Grolleau; Naoufel Mzoughi
  38. The Contribution of Food Subsidy Policy to Monetary Policy in India By William Ginn; Marc Pourroy
  39. Benchmarking the nutrition-related commitments and practices of major French food companies By Iris van Dam; Stefanie Vandevijvere
  40. The role of mandatory and voluntary joint bidding in promoting efficiency in conservation auction By Anne Stenger; Jens Abildtrup; Géraldine Bocquého; Kene Boun My; Tuyen Tong Tiet
  41. Comparison of visual attention and purchase intention of traffic light and warning disc supplementary nutritional labels in the Zamorano University student population By Sandoval, Luis; Menendez, Francisco; Ajche, Juan Garcia; Mamani, Brenda; Hernández, Adriana
  42. Comparative and absolute competitiveness of governing structures in Bulgarian farming By Bachev, Hrabrin
  43. Environmental Productivity Assessment: an Illustration with the Ecuadorian Oil Industry By Arnaud Abad; Michell Arias; Paola Ravelojaona
  44. Economic and productive risk analysis in livestock systems By Lacelli, Gabriel; Domínguez, Jorge; Eramo, Romina
  45. Fostering sustainable land management in sub-Saharan Africa : Evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso By Nguyen Huy, Tung
  46. From Extreme Events to Extreme Seasons: Financial Stability Risks of Climate Change in Mexico By Michaela Dolk; Mr. Dimitrios Laliotis; Sujan Lamichhane
  47. A Time-Series Examination of the Quality of Industry-Level U.S. Productivity Data By Lence, Sergio H.; Plastina, Alejandro
  48. Effective policies to promote sugar reduction in soft drinks: lessons from a comparison of six European countries By Olivier Allais; Géraldine Enderli; Franco Sassi; Louis-Georges Soler
  49. Diversity of long and dynamic sectors of transition of agri-food systems in the territories : the case of legumes in the Occitanie region By Cécile Guibert; Julien Frayssignes; Michaël Pouzenc

  1. By: Neubauer, Florian; Wall, Alan; Njuki, Eric; Bravo-Ureta, Boris
    Abstract: The connection between farm productivity and climatic effects is of growing importance around the globe, as farmers are expected to satisfy a rising demand for food and agricultural products driven by an increasing population and income while contending with mounting uncertainty imposed by climate change. This presentation is a component of a larger project which seeks to establish the connection between the productivity performance of farming units and climatic effects. We seek to shed light on two specific issues: (i) what variables are most commonly-used to capture climatic effects; and (ii) to what extent does the choice of climatic indicators in production models affect the agricultural productivity measures obtained across different types of farming systems. An a priori requirement imposed when searching the literature and selecting the papers included in the analysis is that they apply stochastic production frontier (SPF) methods. The advantages and popularity of this methodology in agricultural productivity studies and beyond is well established (Fried et al., 2008, O’Donnell; 2018). The agricultural productivity literature has seen considerable growth in recent years, motivated by significant methodological developments and the increasing availability of microdata sets in some regions (e.g., LSMS-ISA data for Africa). An increasing body of productivity research is being devoted to the connection between farm output, food security and climatic effects, as well as to the role of different farming technologies or practices that can serve in strategies to promote adaptation. Two clear examples are the adoption of irrigation and improved seed varieties. The specific focus here is on three subsets of studies found in the received literature: (1) Dairy productivity studies published using data from different countries; 2) Water, irrigation, and precipitation studies again using data from different countries; and 3) Total Factor Productivity (TFP) studies that explicitly account for the climatic component in TFP in Latin America (LA) as well as in other geographical areas. Taken together, these studies provide a useful point of departure for our future work. Our choice of papers at this point is somewhat arbitrary but serves as an initial step towards undertaking a systematic search of the literature to cover a more comprehensive set of studies. We justify our current focus by noting the importance of dairy in farming systems in both the developed and developing world (Bravo-Ureta, Wall, and Neubauer 2022) and the critical role water plays in the adaptation of farming to climate change (Bopp et al. 2022). 1. Dairy Productivity Studies The measurement of TFP in dairy farming and its decomposition into different elements (e.g., technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, scale effects and technical change) has been the subject of several stochastic frontier studies going back at least to Ahmed and Bravo-Ureta (1995). Parametric output distance functions have been used to measure and decompose productivity in dairy farming by Brümmer et al. (2002) for Dutch, German and Polish farms, Newman and Matthews (2006) for Irish farms and Emvalomatis (2012) for German farms. All these studies report that TFP growth has been driven fundamentally by technological progress. Cechura et al. (2017) analyze the impact of technological progress in a study of 24 EU Member States. Aside from technical change (and efficiency gains) as drivers of TFP growth, Parikoglou et al. (2022) found that extension services contributed to the productivity growth-of Irish farms. Parametric input distance functions have been used to study dairy farm productivity by Sipiläinen et al. (2014), who investigated the profitability and productivity dynamics of Finnish and Norwegian farms; Sauer and Latacz-Lohmann (2015), who analyzed TFP change for German farms (with a Luenberger index); and Singbo and Larue (2016) for farms from Quebec. The climatic effect has been clearly absent in much of this work. 2. Water, Irrigation and Precipitation Studies Water is critical in the adaptation of farming to climate change. Therefore, we review studies that consider precipitation as a climatic variable in their models. Bravo-Ureta et al. (2016) identify 110 water studies in a meta-analysis of technical efficiency in agriculture and find that most ignore climatic effects. Among the studies that use SPF methods, only five considered a precipitation variable. McGuckin et al. (1992) specify a continuous rainfall variable in a study analyzing maize farmers in the USA. Sherlund et al. (2002) use the number of rainy days and the quantity of rain in a study of rice producers in Ivory Coast. Mariano et al. (2010) define dummies for dry and wet seasons in a rice farming study in the Philippines. Hussain et al. (2012) employ a composite variable for the number of irrigations and rainfall in a sample of wheat farmers in Pakistan. Ndlovu et al. (2014) incorporated a location dummy for high rainfall areas of maize farming in Zimbabwe. We complement these studies with 11 papers that have been published more recently. 3. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) Studies with a Climatic Component. We focus explicitly on work that examines the climatic component in TFP in LA as well as in other geographical areas. Agriculture is a major sector in the economy of most LA countries. To implement effective policies addressing climate change and promoting the adaptation of farming to the rising climatic threat, it is critical to have a thorough understanding of what drives productivity change and the role climatic effects have in the region’s agricultural productivity growth. However, a recent review by Bravo-Ureta (2021) reveals that productivity research for LA is limited and based primarily on aggregate county-level data with scant inclusion of climatic effects. We conjecture that the limited supply of studies for LA is likely due to data limitations and lack of funding to conduct the necessary work. We highlight around 10 recent articles that address the connection between climatic effects and TFP and explicitly quantify the effect of a climatic component in TFP growth.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Rahal, Imen; Elloumi, Abdelkarim
    Abstract: Climate change has a dual impact on food security, with direct consequences related to temperature levels and water availability in agriculture, and indirect effects stemming from its influence on disease vectors and pests. This research delves into the economic ramifications of climate change on food security within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The study employs panel data encompassing all SSA nations to scrutinize the repercussions of temperature and precipitation on food security. Specifically, the analysis leverages the coefficient of variation to assess their influence on food security. The findings of this investigation reveal that variations in both temperature and precipitation have an adverse impact on food security. These climate-related variables affect food security by directly impinging on food production and indirectly affecting other indicators of food security. In light of these results, the study advocates for the implementation of ecosystem management and enhancements in production systems. Moreover, it underscores the significant detrimental effects of climate change on food security in the SSA region. To counter these impacts, the study proposes the development of effective land use policies, the conservation of natural resources, the adoption of optimal agronomic practices, and the maintenance of the population at an appropriate level within the region.
    Keywords: climate change, food security, Sub-Saharan Africa.
    JEL: C5
    Date: 2023–09
  3. By: Fernando M. Aragon, Juan Pablo Rud (Simon Fraser University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the heterogeneous impact of extreme heat on household farms in low-income countries. Our source of heterogeneity is farm size, as it has been shown to matter for productivity and agricultural practices. Using a large panel dataset from Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Malawi, we show that extreme heat reduces agricultural output and food security, independently of farm size. We do find, however, that some responses to temperature shocks are different, e.g., small farms increase land use. These findings suggest that all household farms are vulnerable to the negative impact of climate change, even the largest ones.
    Date: 2023–09
  4. By: Jeroen Scheper (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Isabelle Badenhausser (P3F - Unité de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire Prairies et Plantes Fourragères - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jochen Kantelhardt (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences); Stefan Kirchweger; Ignasi Bartomeus (EBD - Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas = Spanish National Research Council); Vincent Bretagnolle (CEBC - Centre d'Études Biologiques de Chizé - UMR 7372 - ULR - La Rochelle Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Yann Clough (Lund University); Nicolas Gross (UREP - Unité Mixte de Recherche sur l'Ecosystème Prairial - UMR - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Montserrat Vilà (EBD - Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas = Spanish National Research Council, Universidad de Sevilla / University of Sevilla); Carlos Zaragoza-Trello (EBD - Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas = Spanish National Research Council); David Kleijn (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen])
    Abstract: Agricultural expansion and intensification have boosted global food production but have come at the cost of environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. Biodiversity-friendly farming that boosts ecosystem services, such as pollination and natural pest control, is widely being advocated to maintain and improve agricultural productivity while safeguarding biodiversity. A vast body of evidence showing the agronomic benefits of enhanced ecosystem service delivery represent important incentives to adopt practices enhancing biodiversity. However, the costs of biodiversity-friendly management are rarely taken into account and may represent a major barrier impeding uptake by farmers. Whether and how biodiversity conservation, ecosystem service delivery, and farm profit can go hand in hand is unknown. Here, we quantify the ecological, agronomic, and net economic benefits of biodiversity-friendly farming in an intensive grassland–sunflower system in Southwest France. We found that reducing land-use intensity on agricultural grasslands drastically enhances flower availability and wild bee diversity, including rare species. Biodiversity-friendly management on grasslands furthermore resulted in an up to 17% higher revenue on neighboring sunflower fields through positive effects on pollination service delivery. However, the opportunity costs of reduced grassland forage yields consistently exceeded the economic benefits of enhanced sunflower pollination. Our results highlight that profitability is often a key constraint hampering adoption of biodiversity-based farming and uptake critically depends on society's willingness to pay for associated delivery of public goods such as biodiversity.
    Keywords: agroecology, ecosystem services, biodiversity-friendly farming, land-use intensity, wild bees
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Alpizar, Francisco; Holmgren, Milena; Carriquiry, Miguel; Borges, Magdalena
    Abstract: Riparian buffer zones (riparian buffers) are vegetated areas adjacent to surface watercourses and have been used around the globe as a Nature Based-Solution to reduce diffuse agricultural nutrient pollution and its negative effects in water quality (Cole et. al, 2020, Collins, et. al. 2009) . They also provide many important ecosystem services such as flood protection, carbon sequestration, water temperature regulation and habitat provision for plants and animals of land and water ecosystems (Riiss et. al., 2020). In the context of agricultural watersheds, an increase in the area of riparian buffer zones reduces the area for conventional agricultural production (e.g. livestock and crops) but it increases the provision of ecosystem functions that benefits the society as a whole. Such is the case of nutrient retention function of riparian buffers. As a result, the areas located near water courses present a trade-off between the private (farmers and landowners) and public (society) interest (Buckley et. al., 2012, Naidoo, et. al., 2006, Sparovek et. al., 2002). In this regard, buffer zones can be conceptualized as a public good that benefits society as a whole -by improving or preserving water quality- and, at the same time, imply opportunity costs of forgone agricultural production. The most common way of implementing riparian buffers is by mandatorily defining specific margins along water courses in which certain farming and herding practices are prohibited (Buckley et. al, 2012). Although this approach is relatively easy and straightforward to implement for governments, it has two main disadvantages. The first disadvantage is that from the societal point of view the measure can be unfair, since it punishes farmers near water courses whether or not they are responsible for the water pollution problem. The second disadvantage is that mandatory top-down approaches can also crowd out the intrinsic motivation of farmers for implementing them and generate negative impulses (e.g., aversion to responsibility and incompliance) towards water quality issues (Thomas, 2019; Barnes et. al., 2013). One possible solution to this problem is to create a Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme funded by green taxes on fertilizer with earmarking for riparian buffers. This scheme has three advantages. Firstly, by being voluntary, it may reduce the crowding out effects of mandatory measures on farmers attitudes towards environmental issues. Secondly, it helps to reduce fertilizer overapplications and the amount of nutrients exported form farms (UNEP, 2020; Failde, et. al., 2015). In addition, it creates a funding mechanism that burdens the cost of intervention on fertilizers’ consumers who are generally considered as one of the main responsible for nutrient pollution in the context of agricultural watersheds (Liu et. al., 2020). Hence, it might be seen as a fairer mechanism than the mandatory approach. Although riparian buffers and fertilizer taxes have been extensively analyzed in the scientific literature as separated measures, there is little or no research that compares both as alternatives or complements for reducing nutrient pollution. Moreover, Liu et. al. (2020) analyze the use of a tax on fertilizer for funding an agricultural best management practices program, but this has not been done for the case of riparian buffers. In light of this, this paper has two objectives. The first is to analyze the compared cost-effectiveness of riparian buffers and tax on fertilizer as alternative and/or complementary measures to reduce nutrient exports to watercourses. The second objective is to determine the maximum riparian buffer area that can be funded with a revenue-neutral tax on fertilizer for a case study basin. This study focuses on the case of Santa Lucia River Basin in Uruguay. This basin represents 8% of country area and provides drinking water for more than half of the country’s population (Barreto et. al., 2017). Since 2015, the environmental authorities implemented a mandatory riparian zone scheme that is under revision (MVOTMA, 2018, 2015). To achieve the research objectives we use a combination of coupled biophysical and economic models -also called Integrated Assessment Models (IAM)- with public information available from secondary data sources. For estimating riparian buffers cost-effectiveness, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, that simulates the impacts that changes in agricultural practices have on water quality indicators over long time periods (Neitsch et. al., 2011). This model is calibrated based on local information of water quality, soil characteristics, climate, land uses and agricultural practices in the watershed. Moreover, we estimate the opportunity cost of implementing riparian buffers based on land rent prices, combined with soil and land use and cover maps (MGAP, 2021). For the case of tax on fertilizers, we build the fertilizers demand curve based on temporal series of prices and consumption at national level. This allows to estimate changes in fertilizer use after tax as well as the tax revenue and tax burden. Furthermore, the effects of the tax on nutrient export reduction are simulated with SWAT by changing the inputs of fertilizer after tax at farm level. In the light of the above, we can compare vis-a-vis two very different interventions with the same target, and explore the complementarity when both are combined in a PES scheme. Riparian ecosystems have been historically transformed and degraded and are identified as highly vulnerable to climate change in the absence of adaptation (Capon et. al., 2013). In the context of the Ecosystem Restoration Decade declared by the UN, our research will bring valuable information for designing riparian buffer zones as a nature-based solution to improve water quality in agricultural watershed. Furthermore, it will contribute to the evaluation of the current and future riparian buffer zone interventions in Uruguay and the region.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023
  6. By: McLain, Rebecca
    Abstract: Research since the 1990s highlights the importance of tenure rights for sustainable natural resource management, and for alleviating poverty and enhancing nutrition and food security for the 3.14 billion rural inhabitants of less-developed countries who rely on forests and agriculture for their livelihoods. The specific rights or combination of rights held by an individual, household, or community affects whether they have access to land and resources, as well as how those can be used and for how long. Equally important is the degree to which landholders perceive their tenure to be secure. Landowners are more likely to engage in land and resource conservation if they perceive that the likelihood of losing their land or resource rights is low. Between 2013 and 2021, the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) supported researchers to explore the drivers of tenure insecurity and their consequences, as well as mechanisms that can enhance tenure security. Their work focused on rights held by individuals and households, as well as collectively held rights. Studies found that tenure insecurity has a variety of negative consequences for natural resource management, agricultural productivity, and poverty reduction, but the sources of tenure insecurity differ for men and women, and for individual, household, and collective lands. Statutory recognition of customary rights, multistakeholder processes (MSPs) such as for land use planning, and organized social alliances such as Indigenous peoples’ groups have emerged as important mechanisms for securing rights or enhancing access to collectively held lands. Long-term partnerships, ongoing engagement, and training for actors at multiple scales increase the likelihood of successful implementation of tenure reforms. Further research on tenure security can contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, especially by clarifying how customary tenure can provide security and how tenure affects decision-making in multistakeholder platforms.
    Keywords: AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; CENTRAL AFRICA; EAST AFRICA; NORTH AFRICA; SOUTHERN AFRICA; WEST AFRICA; land tenure; women; gender; land rights; tenure security; forests; natural resources management; food security; nutrition; agriculture; collective tenure; forest rights
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Gáfaro, Margarita; Ibáñez, Ana María; Sánchez-Ordoñez, Daniel; Ortiz, María Camila
    Abstract: Latin American and Caribbean countries have historically been known for their rates of land inequality, highest in the world. However, these countries also exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity in their patterns of land concentration and average farm sizes. These cross-country differences play a determining role in productivity of farms and the distribution of agricultural income. Constructing a new data-set matching agri- cultural census and household survey data, we provide suggestive evidence on the positive relationship between farm size and farm income and wages. We identify the prevalence of small farms and the resulting low agricultural incomes as an important mechanism contributing to high income inequality in agricultural regions. Low labor productivity in small farms appears as a key explanatory factor.
    Keywords: Land inequality;Productivity;Agricultural income
    JEL: O13 O15 O54 J43 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2023–08
  8. By: Cavalcanti, Francisco; Helfand, Steven M.; Moreira, Ajax
    Abstract: OVERVIEW. Climate change is a major challenge facing humanity, and understanding its myriad effects is important for learning how to lessen its negative consequences. Climate change is expected to alter the frequency and magnitude of natural disasters. This paper is drawn from a larger research project that studies how climate change has affected one type of natural disaster, drought, and how this has impacted agricultural production, productivity and poverty in Brazil. The research project studies: 1) whether climate change is altering the frequency, duration, and severity of droughts over more than a century, 2) how droughts have affected agricultural production in the past 50 years, 3) whether droughts affect total factor productivity (TFP) in agriculture, 4) how different dimensions of drought cause poverty, and 5) to what extent droughts affect poverty through the causal channel of TFP in agriculture. This current paper draws from the first two topics. 1. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF DROUGHT. The first part of the paper constructs a host of short- and long-run measures of drought that all incorporate potential evapotranspiration. Some prominent studies have analyzed the frequency, duration, and severity of drought using indicators that depend mainly on the rainfall regime or vegetation index. However, despite the increase in temperature in recent decades, changes in rainfall have not exhibited a clear trend, while evapotranspiration shows the same rising trend as temperature. Drought impacts are likely underestimated without considering all factors that are influenced by global warming. This section of the paper studies whether drought has increased in Brazil in several dimensions, checking the robustness to alternative measures. Our preferred measure is a Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) that is constructed to measure short-run droughts (between 3 and 12 months), and the frequency, duration, severity and extension of longer-run droughts (measured in 5- or 10-year windows). The data on temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration used to construct the drought indicators from 1901 to 2020 are drawn from the Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia (CRU-UEA). They provide monthly information at a 0.5 grid level, representing approximately 55 km2. Among the many interesting descriptive findings are: a) the severity of drought increased in level and variability in the second half of the 20th century, and the level more than doubled in the most recent decade; b) drought severity has increased much more in the North and Center-West Regions of the country; c) the duration, but not frequency, of drought has followed the same pattern as the severity; and d) a decomposition of the increase in drought severity reveals that it has largely been caused by rising evapotranspiration, not by changes in precipitation. 2. IMPACTS OF DROUGHT ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION. The second part of the paper estimates the effects of drought on Brazilian agricultural production between 1974 and 2020. This section aims to understand how different types of drought measures based on the SPEI—such as long-run drought severity or duration, annual drought, and quarterly drought—differentially impact agricultural production and productivity. Because drought is a rare event, we calculate the distribution of impacts across municipalities. The data used to measure agricultural production—calculated with a Fischer quantity index—are drawn from the survey Municipal Agricultural Production (PAM) from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The data cover the 69 principal crops in Brazil—33 annual and 36 perennial—by year and municipality from 1974 to 2020. The data used to construct the drought measures were described above. We explore a variety of models to control for time-invariant and time-varying local unobservables, as well as the lagged effects of drought. After testing, we settle on a model with municipal fixed effects and state level quadratic trends. Under the assumption that droughts are exogenous to agricultural producers at the municipal level, and that unobservables are adequately controlled for, we estimate the causal impacts of drought on municipal level agricultural production. We use the estimated coefficients to calculate the distribution of drought impacts across municipalities and years. We also explore heterogeneity in the distribution of impacts by crop type, biome and sub-period, as well as decompose the impact on production into productivity and area effects. Among the many interesting results, we highlight: a) droughts that take place in the first two quarters of the year have much stronger negative effects than droughts that happen later in the year; b) as expected, droughts impact annual crops much more than perennial crops; c) across biomes, and relevant to poverty, droughts that happen in the Caatinga (semi-arid Northeast) have much more severe effects in percentage terms than in the Mata Altantica (2nd) or Cerrado (3rd); d) a drought at about the 50th percentile of impacts in the Caatinga biome has about the same impact (-20%) on production as a drought in the 1st percentile of impacts in the Cerrado biome; e) in terms of the volume of output, droughts have the largest effect in the Cerrado; and f) the impact of droughts has been increasing over time. 3. SIMULATED IMPACTS OF DROUGHT FROM 2021 to 2100 . The third part of the paper, which is in progress, conducts simulation exercises. We rely on climatological models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 6 (CMIP6) for alternative scenarios of what might happen to precipitation and evapotranspiration, and thus our SPEI drought measures, to simulate the impacts of drought on agricultural production in Brazil throughout the 21st century. 4. CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS In progress.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Guimaraes, Pablo Miranda; Braga, Marcelo Jose
    Abstract: One of the main strategies to provide global food security is sustainable intensification, whereby technological improvements and specific management practices, increase agricultural yield without expanding agricultural area or causing significant negative environmental impacts. Brazil and its Cerrado biome have been prominent in these agricultural considerations, being the biome become known as “one of the world‘s great breadbaskets” (ECONOMIST, 2010). Agricultural production in the Cerrado has also posed relevant environmental issues and these have not gained as much attention as those in other Brazilian biomes, like the Amazon and Atlantic forest (NEPSTAD et al., 2014; SILVA; PERRIN; FULGINITI, 2019; SILVA et al., 2021). The Cerrado developments in modern agriculture have contributed to local development and have expanded food production but at the cost of a high conversion rate of native area (FILHO; COSTA, 2016; BOLFE; SANO; CAMPOS, 2020). Pasture accounts for 27% of 203.4 million hectares in the Brazilian Cerrado. In addition, the Cerrado has the highest potential for deforestation among Brazilian biomes, due to the absence of well-defined monitoring and surveillance programs (FILHO, 2018). Between 2006 and 2017, 11, 555, 342.43 ha was deforested in the Cerrado (PRODES/INPE, 2021). Sustainable intensification addresses this problem by recovering degraded pasture, allowing the continued increase in food and energy production without expanding into native areas, thus maintaining environmental equilibrium and reducing CO2 emission (FILHO; RIBERA; HORRIDGE, 2015). Therefore, the conversion of degraded pastures into productive agricultural areas is an important element in the intersection between agricultural expansion and environmental conservation. Nevertheless, it is also important to know, what additional income accrues when degraded pasture is converted into well-managed pasture? The improvement of pastures efficiency implies an increase in production (FELTRAN-BARBIERI; FERES , 2021), the slowdown of deforestation (AZEVEDO; RODRIGUES; SILVA, 2021) and reduction of the GHG emission (SILVA et al., 2015). Therefore, this research offers economic parameters for the adoption of public and private actions to mitigate environmental issues and support livestock production. The sizing of additional marginal gain from the pasture restoration can support the design of rural advisory services, indicating a direct incentive based on GPV gains. Considering the difference in pasture qualities over the elasticity of pasture productivity, this article measure income gains in livestock production from the conversion of degraded pasture into the good-planted pasture. To do this, we estimated an Output Distance Function associated with a technology-changing variable. The measure established is directly and objectively based on local productivity and livestock GPV. The analysis used data at the municipal level from the last two Brazilian agricultural censuses, which provide a pooled database on all municipalities from Cerrado. The production information is represented by a local agricultural GPV per activity: livestock, agriculture, and other activities. The input variables for Labor are measured by the number of farm workers, Capital is the number of tractors. The productive agricultural areas are divided into four: crops land, good planted pasture, degraded pasture, and Natural pasture. To control the productivity considering the soil characteristics, the frontier is parameterized by the mean soil Suitability Index from each municipality. Three exogenous determinants are included: Schooling represents the share of farm managers who have, at least, a bachelor’s degree; Social Capital, represents the amount of agricultural land area in production by a member of cooperatives. The Aridity Index (AI) is based on the method proposed by Davis, Giuseppe e Zezza (2014). The degraded pasture variable is obtained by self-report, so the information is not necessarily based on technical parameters. The average share of degraded pasture among of pastures increased from 6.66% in 2006 to 8.11% in 2017. Even with the dynamics from Census, these scenarios are very optimistic when compared with analyses based on technical classifications, obtained from satellite and remote sensing technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the agricultural technology used in reclaiming degraded pasture, we use this Output Distance Function. Applying the implicit function theorem as in Rada, Buccola e Fuglie (2011), Rada e Valdes (2012) and Rada (2013) we can analyze the transformation of the region degraded pasture area into good planted pastures with the same yields average from the region, obtaining a semi-elasticity for good planted pastures to livestock production, . The technology change variable results show that a 10% change in the pasture area shifts the production function -0.2866. Complementary, the sum along with the other input coefficients shows the aggregated technology has constants return to scale. The effect of pasture degradation indicates a negative impact on the productivity of the land, while the increment of good pasture has a positive impact. Considering the huge stock of good and natural pasture, the direct marginal contribution of good pasture can be short. Although the impact of increment of pastures without management can result in a significant consequence, direct overproduction and also environmental. All the exogenous variables to control the inefficiency of the ODF behave working to increase local efficiency. The semi-elasticity of livestock GPV from good converted pastures where the livestock is a traditional and consolidated activity shows a short impact on the restoration of pastureland. In regions where the activity is consolidated the marginal conversion of one hectare has a small impact on production when compared with others. The economic impact to convert degraded pasture into a good planted pasture means a marginal increase of local GPV caused by the recovery of one hectare of degraded pasture. In regions, such as MATOPIBA, where the return of recovery is lower, the incentives to do deforestation are bigger. Considering the marginal GPV, to convert one hectare of degraded pasture into good planted pasture, in 2017 34% of municipalities from Cerrado showed average gains per hectare higher than R$ 652.46, while 61.8% showed marginal GPV higher than R$ 300.62. Therefore, the estimation of marginal gains to recovery pasture can support the development of actions, such as adjustments in rural credit lines focused on restoration, as developed by the ABC Plan, especially in regions with high levels of deforestation and a large area of degraded pasture.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Ashok Mishra (Kemper and Ethel Marley Foundation Chair, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States); Kamel Louhichi (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Giampiero Genovese (JRC - European Commission - Joint Research Centre [Seville]); Sergio Gomez y Paloma (JRC - European Commission - Joint Research Centre [Seville])
    Abstract: This study investigates whether the historical inverse relationship (IR) between land (farm and plot) size and productivity holds for Ethiopia farms. The study uses plot level and household-level data from the three waves of the Ethiopia Socioeconomic Survey. The main finding, which confirms previous studies, is that the plot-size IR holds when productivity measurement is based on self-reported yields. However, the effects were reversed when we used crop-cut yields. Including labor inputs significantly reduces the magnitude of the coefficients on land size, but not the sign. Finally, the quantile regression reveals interesting findings. These are: (1) a strong positive effect of farm (and plot) size on productivity; (2) the magnitude of the effect decreases monotonically with quantile; (3) farm size displays a robust negative impact on gross revenue and the magnitude of the effect increases (in absolute terms) monotonically with quantiles; (4) the effect of farm (and plot) size on productivity decreases in magnitude when we control for labor input; (5) the IR between farm (and plot) size and total and family labor was negative and significant and the effect increases (in absolute terms) monotonically with quantiles.
    Abstract: Cette étude examine si la relation inverse (RI) historique entre la taille des terres (ferme et parcelle) et la productivité est confirmée pour les exploitations éthiopiennes. L'étude utilise des données au niveau des parcelles et des ménages des trois vagues de l'enquête socioéconomique en Éthiopie. La principale conclusion, qui confirme les études précédentes, est que la RI existe lorsque la mesure de la productivité est basée sur les rendements autodéclarés, alors qu'elle est directe quand les rendements sont mesurés avec la technique des coupes-témoins. L'inclusion de la main-d'œuvre réduit considérablement l'ampleur des coefficients, mais pas le signe.
    Keywords: Agricultural productivity, Land-size, Farm-size, Inverse relationship, Quantile regression, Ethiopia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Productivité agricole, Taille des terres, Taille de l'exploitation, Relation inverse, Régression quantile, Éthiopie, Afrique subsaharienne
    Date: 2023–01–30
  11. By: Borges, Magdalena; Hein, Lars
    Abstract: Traditional economic valuations do not explicitly consider nature’s value, making it invisible and preventing unbiased decision making. When failing to consider ecosystems in the assessment of an activity or project under evaluation, we implicitly assign them a value of zero and therefore we ignore whether and to what degree nature is affected. Negative consequences are generally seen after the fact, and the margin to prevent further deterioration or remediate the damages already caused is usually smaller than if it had been considered from the beginning. Moreover, gross domestic product (GDP), the main economic indicator to measure progress, grows when some ecosystem services (ES) are degraded and artificially replaced (WAVES, 2014). This is usually interpreted as a positive signal, even when it may be compromising future development and prosperity. Diverse methods have been developed so far in order to measure ecosystem services value (United Nations et al., 2021). Some of them involve a price that is directly observable (e.g. land rent) or it is obtained from markets for similar goods and services (e.g. if mushrooms from one forest are commercialized, but those from a similar forest are not, the prices observed in the former can be applied to the latter). In other cases, the price for the ES is embodied in a market transaction (e.g. resource rent, productivity change and hedonic pricing methods) or is based on revealed costs (e.g. averting behavior and travel cost methods) or expected costs (e.g. replacement cost or avoided damage costs methods). A summary of the most relevant literature on this topic can be found in the Ecosystem Services Valuation Database ( This research shows how some of those approaches can be applied in a sub basin of Santa Lucia river catchment as a case study, and provides a comparison of the results obtained through alternative valuation methodologies. This type of assessments are scarce in the Latin American context. The selected services are soybean, corn and wheat provisioning services, grazed biomass provisioning services for meat and milk production, drinking water supply and water purification (through the retention and breakdown of nutrients made by riparian forests). The methods used to estimate the value of these services are land rent, resource rent, replacement costs and avoided damage costs. The period of analysis is 2014 to 2019. The physical flows of ecosystem services, which is the base for later economic valuation, is obtained from a model developed in SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) in Borges et al. (unpublished). We focus on the Santa Lucía river basin, which provides drinking water for about 60% of Uruguay’s populations. For this analysis data is mainly obtained from the Agricultural Statistics Office of the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries (DIEA - MGAP), the national accounts published by the Central Bank (BCU) and the national drinking water supply company (OSE). Estimations suggest that the value of soybean and milk provisioning services are the highest. Additionally, the highest values are obtained by applying the replacement cost method, which may indicate that the methods based on directly observed market values (land rent) and on residual values (resource rent) have a tendency to underestimate ecosystem value and that, artificially substituting the service provided by nature may be very expensive. These results can be used in different ways. On the one hand, the value of the ecosystem services that are not included in the current GDP (for instance, water purification) can be added, in order to better reflect the influence of nature on the economy. On the other hand, the contributions of ecosystems in the supply of goods and services already accounted in the value-added calculations (typically provisioning services), can be distinguished from human contributions. Additionally, ecosystem services values can be used in social cost benefit analysis of multiples measures or projects and in the valuation of environmental assets (as they reflect the value of all the services they provide), among others. References: Borges, M., Hastings, F., Hein, L. and Carriquiry, M. (unpublished) Modelling hydrological ecosystem services and externalities using SWAT and an ecosystem accounting approach. Wageningen University and Resaerch United Nations et al. (2021). System of Environmental-Economic Accounting— Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA). White cover publication, pre-edited text subject to official editing. Available at: WAVES (2014) Natural capital accounting (NCA) and payments for ecosystem services - frequently asked questions. World Bank Group.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023
  12. By: Aguirre, Emilio; Garcıa Suarez, Federico; Sicilia, Gabriela
    Abstract: Since the Second World War, the primary source of U.S. agricultural output growth has come from lifting productivity (Wang et al., 2015). Long-term investments in agricultural R&D appear as the predominate driver of those productivity gains (Alston and Pardey, 2021). Public research plays a critical role in the U.S. agricultural innovation process. From 1970 to the early 2000s, public research spending in the U.S. was nearly equal to private research spending, each amounting in 2002 to just under $6 billion (Wang et al., 2015, p. 41). However, Wang et al show that since 2002 when world commodity prices started climbing, a stark divergence between the two developed; by 2010, real public U.S. research spending fell to ~$5 billion and private research spending spiked to ~$9 billion. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a new approach to funding U.S. innovation emerged: venture capital (VC) began to support newly-created firms to move promising inventions and business ideas from inception to commercialization (Kortum & Lerner, 2000; Arque-Castells, 2012). In agriculture, VC funding helps firms overcome high entry costs resulting from long-term research risk, spatial heterogeneity for applications, and economies of scale characteristic of many agricultural markets. In 2010, total VC investment in U.S. startups focused on farm production technologies was ~$400 million. By 2018, investment in VC-backed agricultural startups had grown to over $7 billion (Graff et al., 2020). In 2020, that investment was over $15 billion (AgFunder, 2021). Scholars hypothesize that VC investors became attracted to agriculture following the 2002 climb in commodity process, which increased farmers’ abilities to adopt new technologies and signaled to input suppliers that global demand may soon exceed supply (Fuglie, 2016). Others suggest a shift towards cleantech and biofuels in the 2000s introduced VC investors to agriculture amid an economy-wide surge in the financing of VC funds (Graff et al., 2020). It could be that the culmination of various general-purpose technologies (e.g., cloud computing, satellite imagery, vehicle automation, gene editing) opened technological opportunities in agriculture, as investors maximized economic benefits across multiple sectors of application (Olsson, 2005), including agriculture, given its historically high rates of return on research (Hurley et al, 2014). We explore the relationship between technological opportunity and the large exogenous shock in VC funding of agricultural startups. Specifically, we investigate the agricultural startup life-cycle. Within the cycle of firm birth, venture investment, and investor exit, what is the relationship between patents and firm financials? Do firms that patent have more successful financings and exits than those that patent little or not at all? In which industries/subsectors were technological opportunities pronounced? What are observed characteristics of the technological opportunity in agriculture? To investigate these issues, we began with a unique dataset of privately-held agricultural startups founded between 1977 and 2019. These unique startups were obtained from four commercial databases: Venture Source (now CB Insights), Crunchbase, Pitchbook, and CapitalIQ. Following a careful matching process, we identified 4, 681 firms from PitchBook (49.26% of the sample), 3, 399 from Capital IQ (35.77%), 1, 312 firms from Crunchbase (13.81%), and 111 from VentureSource (1.17%). From these 9, 503 firms, we narrowed to 7, 287 distinct startups founded in the United States on or after 1987. Of these agricultural startups, we matched 6, 084 to at least one establishment in the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database, an 83.5% match rate. The NETS database is the most comprehensive source of establishment-level economic information for U.S. firms. Next, we matched the same set of agricultural startups to assignees listed in the USPTO’s pre-grant publication (PG Pub) and granted patent databases. Of those 6, 084 agricultural startups matched to economic information in NETS, we find 10% (634 startups) have one or more published patent application or grant, and 36% (2, 214 startups) have reported financing deals. Of the 634 startups with patent filing activity, 72% (458) report financing deals. We find a strong increase in the number of agricultural startups, both with and without VC investments, over the 1989-2019 period. Startups with VC grew, in terms of employment and sales, faster than startups without VC. We find substantial increases in patenting by the agricultural startups over time. Importantly, there has been great diversification of technology fields in which the startups patent, as well as of industry classifications in which startups operate, evidence of startups pursuing technological opportunity in agriculture. Among industries, we find the greatest increase of patenting by startups primarily classified in the manufacturing and professional, scientific, and technical services. Startups classified in these industries patented in Ag & Food, but also in biotech, chemicals, physics, electricity, and climate-change related new technologies. Next steps include detailing the timeline of firm birth, investment, and exit, and exploring causal and correlative relationships between patenting and VC-funded startups. REFERENCES AgFunder, 2021. AgFunder AgrifoodTech Investment Report. Available from: Alston, J., and P. Pardey, 2021. The Economics of Agricultural Innovation. In Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Eds., C. Barrett and D. Just. Vol. 5, Chapter 75, Elsevier Publishing. Arque-Castells, 2012. How Venture Capitalists Spur Invention in Spain: Evidence From Patent Trajectories. Research Policy (41): 897-912. Fuglie, 2016. The Growing Role of the Private Sector in Agricultural Research and Development World-wide. Global Food Security (10): 29-38. Graff, et al., 2020. Venture Capital and the Transformation of Private R&D for Agriculture. NBER Working Paper. Heisey and Fuglie, 2018. Public Agricultural R&D in High Income Countries: Old and New Roles in a New Funding Environment. Global Food Security (17): 92-102. Hurley, T., X. Rao, and P. Pardey, 2014. Re-Examining the Reported Rates of Return to Food and Agricultural Research and Development. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 96 (5): 1492-1504. Kortum, S., and J. Lerner, 2000. Assessing the Contribution of Venture Capital to Innovation. The RAND Journal of Economics (31): 674-692. Olsson, O., 2005. Technological opportunity and growth. Journal of Economic Growth 10: 35-57. Wang, S.L., P. Heisey, D. Schimmelpfennig, and E. Ball, 2015. Agricultural Productivity Growth in the United States: Measurement, Trends, and Drivers. Economic Research Report 189, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. July.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023
  13. By: Romy Lynn Chaib (UMR ITAP - Technologies et Méthodes pour les Agricultures de demain - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Catherine Macombe (UMR ITAP - Technologies et Méthodes pour les Agricultures de demain - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Rallou Thomopoulos (UMR IATE - Ingénierie des Agro-polymères et Technologies Émergentes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: For a value-chain to be sustainable, the main challenge is sometimes its durability. When stakeholders are lost in the shifting maze of economic, social and environmental issues, participatory foresight methods help them consider the options and choose a strategy to follow. The aim is to create several scenarios of evolution of the value-chain and select desirable scenarios. Because of the global context in 2020 and 2021, implementing methodological and organizational adaptations in the classic "scenario method" from Michel Godet was necessary. These adaptations are exemplified by the case study of the prospective for the French pork value-chain in the next 5 years. Indeed, this value-chain touches particularly on certain contemporary concerns, with much discussion about its environmental footprint, its human resource challenge and its social acceptability, as is the case for most food value-chains in developed countries.
    Keywords: Agri-Food Chain, Prospective Analysis, Scenario Method, Collective Modelling, Adaptation to Pandemic
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Salazar, Lina; Agurto Adrianzen, Marcos; Alvarez, Luis
    Abstract: This analysis applies a regression discontinuity approach combined with remote sensing data to measure the productivity impacts linked to a fruit-fly eradication program, implemented in Peru. For this purpose, satellite imagery was used to estimate a vegetation index over a 10-year span for a sample of 305 producers -155 treated and 150 controls-. The results confirmed that program participation increased agricultural productivity in the short and long terms, in a range from 12% to 49%. However, quantile regression methods suggest that most productive farmers were able to obtain greater impacts.
    Keywords: Agricultural productivity;Impact Evaluation;Remote Sensing;Satellite Images;Peru
    JEL: Q12 Q16 O13
    Date: 2023–08
  15. By: Paliwal, Neha; Songsermsawas, Tisorn; Azzarri, Carlo; Bravo-Ureta, Boris
    Abstract: Value chain development projects focusing on agricultural commercialization have been shown to improve production, income, and assets (Reardon et al., 2009; Barrett et al., 2012). However, the extent to which these types of projects contribute to improved technical efficiency and technological change of small-scale producers participating in value chains is largely understudied. Our country study is Nigeria, where the limited evidence available suggests that productivity gaps in agriculture between men and women are wide, ranging from 17% in the South to 46% in the North (Oseni et al., 2015). Our study focuses on the first phase of the Value Chain Development Programme (VCDP), which was implemented between 2013 and 2019. VCDP worked with farmer organizations to increase productive capacity, productivity, and to foster market-linkages in two commodity-specific value chains: rice and cassava (IFAD, 2012). In our study, we analyse the impacts of VCDP on technical efficiency (TE), technological change (TC), and agricultural productivity of rice and cassava production in Nigeria. Further, we investigate whether the effects on the various performance indicators vary significantly between male and female farmers. Our dataset comes from a survey of 1, 784 (879 treated and 905 control) households conducted during February and March 2020 in five states -Anambra, Benue, Ebonyi, Niger, and Ogun- with distinct cultural and gender norms. We use a combination of propensity score matching with a stochastic production frontier model to correct for selection bias (SC-SPF) (Greene, 2010; Bravo-Ureta et al., 2012). First, we pre-process the dataset to ensure that treatment and control households are observationally and statistically comparable, with an adequate common support along their socio-demographic, economic and agricultural characteristics (Ho et al., 2007). Then, we explore the impact of VCDP on two key productivity components: TC -proxied by a shift in the production frontier-, and TE -which captures managerial performance-. These two productivity-related elements are the basis for testing performance differences between treatment and control households (Greene, 2010; Bravo-Ureta et al., 2012). We then analyse frontier output, TE, and technology gaps using a stochastic meta-frontier (SMF) framework, which provides the common benchmark required for valid comparisons (Huang et al., 2014; Amsler et al., 2017). Preliminary results indicate that treated and control households are statistically comparable based on a number of observable pre-intervention characteristics. Project impact estimates indicate that VCDP lead to higher rice productivity, while no significant impact is detected for cassava. Our study makes two key contributions to the literature. First, our focus is estimating the extent to which value chain projects could potentially alter underlying factors driving gender gaps in agricultural productivity by using a different methodological approach that would allow direct comparison of gender-specific TC and TE (Owusu and Bravo-Ureta, 2020). Second, our study complements the small -though increasing- number of studies that extend the SC-SPF methodology under the SMF framework to compare TE levels across treated and control groups using a common benchmark (Villano et al., 2015; Bravo-Ureta et al., 2020; Olagunju et al., 2021). In addition, findings from this study generate evidence potentially helpful for both future project design and agricultural policy in Nigeria. Since 2011, the Federal Government of Nigeria has prioritized investments in the development of the country’s agricultural sector with the aim of addressing low productivity, limited private sector investment, human capacity constraints, weak value chains, and untapped opportunities for value addition (Babu et al., 2014). We expect our findings to be directly relevant in the design of future gender-sensitive agricultural investments in value chains.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Kamel Louhichi (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Aymeric Ricome (JRC - European Commission - Joint Research Centre [Seville]); Sergio Gomez y Paloma (JRC - European Commission - Joint Research Centre [Seville])
    Abstract: This article analyses the economic impacts of agricultural produce cess in Tanzania and compares its effectiveness with alternative reform options relying on its removal or reduction. Produce cess is one of the common forms of agricultural taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis is performed using the farm-household model FSSIM-Dev, which is applied to a country representative sample of 3134 individual farm households taken from the 2012/2013 Tanzania National Panel Survey. Simulations show that the current produce cess is rather high and its removal or reduction would increase production intensity and boost farm income, ranging between +2% and +21% depending on options and regions. These positive impacts are driven by land productivity improvement rather than area reallocation. The largest impacts are experienced in northern and western highlands. Large farms and farms specialized in cash crops tend to gain more from the abolishment or reduction of produce cess. The increase in both production and income is, however, not sufficient to significantly reduce rural poverty and improve nutrition security. Finally, results show that a uniform cess rate of 1% for all crops seems to be the most appropriate policy option. It gives the best trade-off between government revenue loss and farmers' economic gain.
    Abstract: Cet article analyse les impacts économiques de la taxe sur les produits agricoles commercialisés en Tanzanie et compare son efficacité avec d'autres options de réforme reposant sur sa suppression ou sa réduction. Cette analyse est réalisée à l'aide du modèle de ménage agricole appliqué à un échantillon représentatif de 3134 ménages agricoles individuels tirés de l'enquête national par panel de Tanzanie de 2012/2013. Les simulations montrent que l'actuelle taxe est plutôt élevée et que sa suppression ou sa réduction augmenterait l'intensité de la production et stimulerait le revenu agricole, entre +2% et +21% selon les options et les régions. Les grandes exploitations et les exploitations spécialisées dans les cultures de rente ont tendance à profiter davantage de la suppression ou de la réduction de la taxe. L'augmentation de la production et des revenus n'est cependant pas suffisante pour réduire significativement la pauvreté rurale et améliorer la sécurité nutritionnelle. Enfin, les résultats montrent qu'un taux d'accise uniforme de 1% pour tous les produits semble être l'option politique la plus appropriée. Il offre le meilleur compromis entre le gain économique des agriculteurs et la perte de recettes fiscales.
    Keywords: Tanzania
    Date: 2022–02–22
  17. By: Guimaraes, Pablo Miranda; Braga, Marcelo Jose
    Abstract: Occupying the central part of Brazil, Cerrado has about 204 million/ha distributed in 1390 municipalities, with 8.2% preserved areas, 24.4% of Brazilian GDP, and 36.5% of the Gross Production Value of Brazilian agriculture. The "Brazilian savanna", and its outstanding capacity for agricultural production and has been considered extremely relevant for the country in the last decades, taking Brazil a relevant player in the commodity market. The development and agricultural consolidation of the Cerrado can be characterized by three moments, occurring in different periods: the first, wide availability of land, migration, and public policies; advances in mechanization and technological contributions; and, research, improvements of handling techniques and genetic advances that allowed the expansion of productivity. Since legal permission, in 2005, the wide use of GM seeds, average yearly yields of the main GM crops in Brazil (maize and soybean) have increased by 4.93% and 2.63%, respectively. After the introduction of GM maize, many more farmers were able to plant two high-yield crops per year (CELERES, 2018) GM crops have become particularly important, but have not been studied extensively in Brazil. The economical literature is mainly based on Bt cotton crops analysis with groups of farms classified by GM adoption (QAIM; ZILBERMAN, 2003; CROST et al., 2007). Jointly with the advances of biotechnology over Cerrado, a new area is getting distinction, the MATOPIBA region. The region formed by 337 municipalities from four Brazilian states has been expanding its participation in Brazilian agriculture, especially grains. Modern agriculture and biotechnology in heterogeneous regions, such as Cerrado, have influenced the spatial and economic dynamics. These new agricultural processes, such as GM crops, have increased local income (MENDOLA, 2007; KASSIE, SHIFERAW, MURICHO, 2011) environmental benefits (BURACHIK, 2010; KOUSER), have positively affected other sectors, such as industry and services (BUSTOS; CAPRETTINI; PONTICELLI, 2016). Therefore, using a stochastic frontier, the present study explores and measures the effects on agricultural productivity of GM technology in Cerrado, Brazil's main agricultural biome. Different from the literature, we inserted GM technology in the frontier as a shifter. This study also examines elements that affect the technical efficiency of agricultural production in the biome. We also measure the productivity evolution between the MATOPIBA region and other regions of the Cerrado. All increments of production happened in the midst of the evolution of other factors that direct impact production and productivity in Cerrado, but one, in particular, contributed to the evolution of production, the adoption of genetically modified (GM) seed. For inputs and output levels, we used data from the Brazilian Agricultural Census of 2006 and 2017 for each of the 1390 municipalities from Cerrado to do a unique frontier for the whole area of the biome. The output is a real gross production value (price index IGP-DI used to adjust 2006 information). The inputs used are the number of employees (Labor), agricultural area (Land) and Capital measured as the number of tractors. The percentage of harvest land that used GMO seeds and a dummy for states were also used in the frontier. The inefficiency term was controlled by the percentage of establishment per size (Size); Schooling (EDU); Social Capital (CS) and Aridity Index (AI). The stochastic frontier defined in a polled data structure was estimated for all municipalities of Cerrado with data available. The sum of the input’s elasticities shows a constant return to scale. Helfand, Magalhães e Rada (2015) and Morais (2019) found similar results in analysis with Brazilian whole country information The model shows that a labor increase of 10% will expand production, on average, by 0.88%. A 10% expansion of capital produces almost eight times the expansion (7.74%), showing the relevance and impact of mechanization on Cerrado’s agricultural production. The expansion of capital and its relevance in the agricultural production process is demonstrated by Gasques et al. (2012). The Technical Change between 2006 and 2017 shows annual average productivity gains of 1.014%. Thus, the most efficient producers in 2017 were able to produce almost 17% more than in 2006 without increased inputs. In the local landscape, which is broad and flat, large-scale crops, such as cotton, maize, and soybean are particular crops well suited to modern agricultural technology. In the Cerrado, 74.49% of the total planted area in 2017 was devoted to these three crops (IBGE, 2017). The GMO coefficient is represented by a semi-elasticity. A one percentage point increase in the planting of GMO seeds increases the output by 0.364%. This positive result conforms to a priori expectations and correlates with several studies of the impact of GM technology on crops (QAIM; ZILBERMAN, 2003; ANDERSON; JACKSON; NIELSEN, 2005; BURACHIK, 2010; BAKHSH, 2017) When Technical Efficiency (TE), on average, is analyzed for all of the Cerrado, its value shows a small increase from 2006 to 2017, TE2006 = 0.7964 and TE2017 = 0.7967. Those coefficients show high technical efficiency in the Cerrado and a stable annual growth rate. Our results show positive rates while Rada (2013). Among all technical inefficiency controls estimated, only small farms are not supported by the data. Farms with more than 100 ha show greater inefficiency than those with 20 and 100 ha. The other variables, Schooling and Social Capital contribute positively to efficiency when compared with farms in other categories (lower level of education of the manager, for example). The Aridity Index significantly demonstrates that higher humidity increases technical efficiency. The relevant proposal of this study is to analyze the relevance of productivity of the MATOPIBA region when compared with the other regions of Cerrado. The MATOPIBA region had a gain of productivity 17.6% bigger than the rest of Cerrado. So, the main idea of the paper about the greater productive dynamics in the new frontier, as well as the contribution of the new technology, could be observed in the present work.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2023
  18. By: Panda, Architesh (United Nations University.); Yamano, Takashi (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Asia is home to 60% of the world's population, 52% of global agricultural production, and 43% of agriculture-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While a large portion of the Asian population depends on agriculture for their livelihood and food security, the agriculture sector is one of the main sources of GHG emissions in the region. In some Asian economies, it accounts for more than 40% of total emissions. This report identifies the major sources of GHG emissions from the agriculture sector and reviews a variety of tools and technologies to change emission pathways. It also discusses the institutional, political, and economic challenges for achieving progress toward a cost-effective, inclusive, and resilient transition to net-zero agriculture.
    Keywords: climate change; net-zero agriculture; Asia and the Pacific; non-carbon dioxide equivalent; non-CO2e
    JEL: Q01 Q10 Q54
    Date: 2023–09–29
  19. By: Boza, Sophia; Núñez-Mejía, Aracely; Mora, Marcos; Lopez, Dorotea
    Abstract: International competitiveness is "a measure of a country's advantage or disadvantage in selling its products in international markets" (OECD, 2014). The main objective of this research is to analyze the determinant factors of the international competitiveness of Spain (the world's leading exporter) and Chile (an emerging exporter) in the international market of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The theoretical framework for the international competitiveness analysis is based on the well-known "Porter's diamond model, " which includes: 1. "factor conditions, " 2. "demand conditions, " 3. "related and supporting industries, " and 4. "strategy, structure, and rivalry, " as well as aspects related to "government" and "opportunity." The methodology used to determine the level of international competitiveness in the EVOO industry in the countries under study is mixed. The results of the International Market Share (IMS), Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Trade Competitiveness (TC) indicators confirm Spain's leadership and Chile's emerging competitiveness in the EVOO market. However, both countries have stagnated in recent years. Possibly, Spain has reached a mature international competitiveness level, but Chile has not been able to boost EVOO production and exports. Subsequently, qualitative methods were applied to analyze the determinants of the levels of international competitiveness found in the previous step. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key actors involved in the production and internationalization of EVOO, mainly producers, cooperatives, exporters' associations, public officials, scholars, and experts. The results of the analysis of Porter's diamond model outline some similarities and considerable differences that could have an impact on the international competitiveness of EVOO in Spain and Chile: 1. Regarding the "factor conditions, " both countries have natural advantages that strongly favor olive production, the primary input for EVOO production. However, unlike Chile, Spain has achieved high availability and quality of production factors with acquired advantages, specifically, labor (in the field and technical level) and technology (machinery). This would seem to contribute not only to international competitiveness but also to resilience to the impact of climate change, for example, technological alternatives to the water crisis. 2. The national and international "demand conditions" for EVOO are very different in the analyzed countries. Spain has a millenary olive-growing tradition, which has managed to embed olive oil in the local gastronomic culture. The development of the local market has boosted the production and internationalization of Spanish olive oil. In contrast, Chile has not strengthened and expanded the local market, which is in line with the stagnation of olive oil exports. 3. The "related and supporting industries" seem to have developed alongside the EVOO industry in Spain. The fertilizer industry was the only concern raised by olive producers caused due to the Russia-Ukraine war. Although olive oil producers in Chile also expressed concerns about the world's supply of fertilizers, the packaging industry represents their biggest concern. In Chile, there are only two significant suppliers of glass containers, which prioritize other exporting sectors, such as wine. This concentration of a few packaging suppliers was a recurring concern among Chilean producers. 4. Regarding "firm strategy, structure, and rivalry, " it can be seen that the Spanish olive sector is mainly concentrated in cooperatives and mergers of cooperatives, being the medium and large companies a minority. This market structure seems to have positively impacted the sector's international competitiveness, given the ability to generate economies of scale, for example, around the oil press (almazara, in Spanish). In contrast, most olive oil producers in Chile are medium and large companies, while a minority are small producers. The fragmented and dispersed structure of olive oil producers in Chile seems to favor only individual and specific results without generating volume or sufficient international exposure, negatively influencing the international market share. The factors related to "government" include one of the major differentiators between the Spanish and Chilean EVOO industry. Spain provides conditional and unconditional subsidies for olive production, those established by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union, which are the most valued support by Spanish olive producers. On the other hand, Chile does not have specific subsidies to support the olive sector, which only benefits from horizontal public policies such as grant funds for the agricultural sector. Finally, the growing world demand for healthy foods and the rise in international prices of edible oils are part of the "opportunity" factor perceived by producers from Spain and Chile. Only the first is an opportunity that can be sustained over time and potentially exploited by both countries. The results of this study can be an essential input for the design of intervention policies in light of the current needs of the EVOO sector in Spain and Chile. In both cases, it is urgently required to promote efforts aimed at improving resilience to face the water crisis, as well as promote communication campaigns that expand knowledge and appraisal of the EVOO qualities in the national and international market.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2023
  20. By: Bopp, Carlos; Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Engler, Alejandra; Araya-Alman, Miguel
    Abstract: In wine grape production, growers decide between alternative management strategies of the vineyard that have direct consequences on competitiveness. Since on-farm competitiveness allows growers to remain in the industry, it has become a highly relevant issue for the viticultural sector and a better understanding is required of the factors affecting vineyards’ economic performance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact on the economic performance of four management strategies. The vineyards management strategies analyzed in this study were: a) training system (tendone vs. vertical structures), b) wine grape destination (reserve vs. varietal wines), c) irrigation method (pressurized vs. gravity irrigation), and d) mechanization in harvesting (mechanized vs. hand-picked). These vineyards’ strategies are of different scope and nature, some of them represent structural (fixed) decisions while others are more related to flexible (alternative) decisions. This study uses the case of Chile, a country that has experienced rapid development of its export-oriented wine industry in recent decades; between 1990 and 2015, vineyard plantations doubled, wine production increased fivefold, and wine export volume grew from 22 to 1, 445 million liters. The data used in the study come from face-to-face interviews administered to 336 Chilean wine grape growers, which was complemented with climatic variables retrieved from Geographic Information Systems. The study area covers the O’Higgins and Maule regions in Central-South Chile (33° 50’ and 36° 33’ S, WGS84 datum), located in central Chile in the heart of the fruit and vineyard production (Figure 1). Combined, both regions comprise 73% of the national planted area of vineyards, distributed among three important valleys, from north to south: Rapel, Curicó, and Maule. The area under study has a temperate Mediterranean climate, characterized by a six-month dry season (Sept- Mar) and a rainy winter, with precipitation between 600 and 700 mm annually. The primary data used in this study was generated at the vineyard level, administering a georeferenced survey on-site to 436 wine grape growers between October 2014 and March 2015. This survey was restricted to vineyards from irrigated lands, growing at least one hectare. The sampling procedure consisted of a stratified random sample across 16 municipalities, where the number of surveys administered was determined depending on the relative number of vineyards in each municipality. The questionnaire administered to wine grape growers collected detailed economic and agronomic information for the main variety grown in the vineyard, such as planted area, yield, grape price, and (per hectare) intensity of use of inputs and labor. Growers were asked about the number of applications, doses, and unitary prices in the case of agrochemicals (i.e., fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and acaricides) and the number of working days or agricultural machines/equipment in the case of labor (i.e., harvest, pruning/mooring, tipping of shoots, de-sprouting, canopy defoliation, physical weed control, and other labor), which were valued at fixed market prices. Regarding growers’ performance, the yield obtained by each grower was multiplied by the average grape price of the variety in the sample. A log-log regression model of total value product (TVP) for the main variety grown in the vineyard was estimated, using production factors, vineyards’ attributes, management strategies, and climate-related conditions as explanatory variables. An interesting contribution of this study is the identification of TVP functions for land, fertilizers, fungicides, other agrochemicals, labor, and the age of vines. Our results show that the training system has the most impact on TVP, where tendone-trained vineyards demonstrated 50% higher TVP than those vertically trained. Reserve quality production also has a positive effect on TVP, increasing it by 22% compared to vineyards producing varietal quality grapes. In contrast, the use of pressurized irrigation systems and mechanization in harvesting do not present a significant effect on TVP. The findings of this paper represent an advance in the understanding of the economic performance factors associated with wine grape growing and could serve to guide on-farm decisions and sectoral policies in pursuing the competitive development of wine grape growers.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023
  21. By: Camille Eslan (FFE - Fédération Française d'Equitation, UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Céline Vial (IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur], UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Sandrine Costa (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Keywords: horse, self-organization
    Date: 2023–08–26
  22. By: Dragomir, Vili; Rodino, Steliana
    Abstract: The present volume is the collection of the conference papers presented on the 13th International Symposium Agricultural economy and rural development. Realities and perspectives for Romania, organized by The Research Institute for Agrarian Economy and Rural Development during 17 November 2022, in Bucharest, Romania. The main aim of this symposium was both to present the newest research results and findings in field of agricultural and rural development research and, also to encourage the direct implementation of these results in practice by creating a strong cooperation between academicians and researchers with the field experts and investors.
    Keywords: agrarian economy, rural development, agriculture, circular economy, bio economy
    JEL: Q0 Q01 Q13 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2022–11–17
  23. By: Marette, Stephan; Disdier, Anne-Celia; Beghin, John
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2023–09–27
  24. By: Oliver Frings (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jens Abildtrup (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Claire Montagné-Huck (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Salomé Gorel (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Anne Stenger (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Based on a survey of the French population, this study investigates consumer preferences for forest ecosystem services (FES) provision towards efficiency and equity in the context of additionality, and differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for FES between a tax-based and a donation-based payments for ecosystem services (PES) scheme. We show that consumers prefer equity to strict additionality adherence, with this preference being significantly stronger among females. However, consumer preferences are heterogeneous, and respondents with a closer connection to forests express the opposite preference. Regarding WTP, we find no systematic difference between the two payment vehicles, though WTP does vary depending on how respondents perceive potential free-riding. When considering that non-contributors also benefit from a particular PES scheme, a small group perceived this as unfair and reacted by reducing their contribution. A second, significantly larger group interpreted this as an opportunity to contribute to the common good and showed a higher WTP, indicating a markedly altruistic attitude towards FES provision in French society. We conclude by discussing the role of altruism in PES, the dilemma posed by the partial economic and legal incompatibilities of additionality and equity, and the environmental impact of environmental credits when credit buyers do not account for additionality.
    Keywords: Ecosystem services valuation Additionality Equity Warm glow Free-riding Payment vehicle
    Date: 2023–11
  25. By: García, Felipe; Ackermann, Maria Noel; Cortelezzi, Ángela; Barboza, Natalia; Costa, Nocolas; Román, Natalia; Muñoz, Gonzalo; De Salvo, Carmine
    Abstract: Agricultural policies in Uruguay: specific support quantification in 2017-2020 and its link to greenhouse gas emissions. Felipe García (OPYPA), Maria Noel Ackermann (OPYPA), Ángela Cortelezzi (OPYPA), Natalia Barboza (OPYPA), Nicolás Costa (OPYPA), Natalia Román (OPYPA), Gonzalo Muñoz (BID), Carmine Paolo De Salvo (BID) The Agricultural Policy Office (OPYPA) of the Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries (MGAP) of Uruguay, with support from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) under the AGRIMONITOR program, has applied the Producer Support Estimates (PSE) methodology, developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), to generate indicators and information to monitor the evolution and composition of agricultural policy support. In line with the methodology, the questions answered are: What is the level of policy support provided to the agricultural sector and how has it evolved between 2017 and 2020? What is its composition and how does it compare to other countries? On this occasion, direct support was quantified by specific products. Additionally, it was included a chapter referring to general policies in the economy in which the agricultural sector is also beneficiary. These supports are not included in the quantification by the PSE methodology, since they are not specifically designed for the agricultural sector, and they should not be considered (OECD, 2016). However, it allows broadening the scope in order to have a comprehensive picture of the support received by the sector. Likewise, and continuing the study conducted in 2017, the coherence between the objectives of these policies and the national objectives related to climate change was studied. Therefore, the following question was incorporated into the study: what is the relationship between the products that contribute most to GHG emissions and their levels of support? Total Support Estimate (TSE) in Uruguayan agricultural sector averaged US$430 million per year between 2017 and 2020, equivalent to 0.76% of the economy's GDP. General support predominates (41% average 2017-2020), with special emphasis on those associated to innovation and knowledge transfer. Next in relevance are those related to inspection services (of great importance in a food exporting country), infrastructure spending and, with a marginal participation, public support for marketing. The remaining percentage refers to support granted to producers either through budgetary transfers (i.e. direct support for extension services, inputs, fixed assets, income subsidies) or through prices supports, with a share of 25% and 34%, respectively, in the TSE. In the international comparison, Uruguay is situated in the group of countries with low levels of support in relation to the value added of the sector and the income received by producers. Thus, it is in line with countries such as Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Chile. According to the contribution of each product to total emissions, it is possible to infer the consistency between the transfers to each one and country’s goals related to climate change. It is concluded that agricultural policies that generate differences between producer prices and the international reference are focused to activities with less impact on climate change. Exports items, which are the ones with the highest amount of GHG emissions, do not have border policies that distort prices and, although they have direct support, these are low in relation to the income generated and are in some cases are related to adaptation or mitigation of climate change effects. This information is a useful input for various public policy applications in OPYPA, in other areas of the MGAP and in public institutions in general. It is considered a relevant tool for the diagnosis, design and management of agricultural policies, as well as for generating a comprehensive picture of the level and evolution of agricultural support as a whole and disaggregated by product. Finally, it is a tool of great potential for government dialogue and negotiations with other countries (especially on trade issues) and with producers. This compilation could be an interesting input for future studies, comparing, for example, with the tax contributions made by the agricultural sector, or to discuss about the efficiency of spending that support the sector. It could also be an input for further regional or international comparison and generate specific analyses on the composition of public spending on research, education and inspection and control. In turn, it could be complemented with a more comprehensive approach of the environmental dimension, beyond the GHG emissions, and visualizes the impact on other resources such as the use of water, soil and energy.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023
  26. By: Edith Kouakou (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marielle Brunette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Philippe Delacote (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Richard Koenig (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The contribution of agriculture to global warming requires the implementation of tools aimed at mitigating its GHG emissions. The adoption of agro-ecological practices, i.e. practices that rely as much as possible on the functionalities offered by ecosystems while reducing pressures on the environment, appears to be an important element in this direction. However, the transition from intensive systems to more virtuous systems can present risks. Economic research considers agricultural insurance as a means of covering these risks. In the continuity of this work, this study focuses on the analysis of yield risks related to nitrogen fertilization. It uses yield and mineral nitrogen data from 3, 296 plots growing common wheat, corn and sunflower over the period 2011-2013 in three French departments. The simulation of the operation of crop insurance shows that lowering the threshold for triggering MRC insurance to 20% of the loss rate multiplies by 2.5 the number of plots to be compensated. A comparison between the plots eligible for the 20% and 30% thresholds concludes with a significant difference in yield averages and a non-significant difference in fertilization averages. Finally, the logistic regression performed shows that increasing the amount of nitrogen applied reduces the probability of being eligible for insurance.
    Abstract: La contribution de l'agriculture au réchauffement climatique nécessite la mise en oeuvre d'outils visant à atténuer ses émissions de GES. L'adoption de pratiques agroécologiques, c'est-à-dire qui s'appuient au maximum sur les fonctionnalités offertes par les écosystèmes tout en réduisant les pressions sur l'environnement, apparait un élément important dans ce sens. Cependant, le passage de systèmes intensifs vers des systèmes plus vertueux peut présenter des risques. La recherche économique envisage l'assurance agricole comme moyen de couverture de ces risques. Dans la continuité de ces travaux, cette étude porte sur l'analyse des risques de rendements liés à la fertilisation par l'azote. Elle utilise des données de rendements et d'azote minéral de 3296 parcelles en culture de blé tendre, de maïs et de tournesol, sur la période 2011-2013 dans trois départements français. La simulation du fonctionnement d'une assurance récolte permet d'observer que la baisse du seuil de déclenchement de l'assurance MRC à 20% du taux de pertes multiplie par 2.5 le nombre de parcelles à indemniser. Une comparaison entre les parcelles éligibles aux seuils de 20% et de 30% conclut en une différence significative des moyennes de rendement et à une différence non significative des moyennes de fertilisation. Enfin, la régression logistique réalisée montre que l'augmentation de la quantité d'azote appliquée réduit la probabilité d'être éligible à l'assurance.
    Keywords: Risque Assurance, Récolte Fertilisation
    Date: 2022–03–01
  27. By: Rotem Zelingher (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); David Makowski (MIA Paris-Saclay - Mathématiques et Informatique Appliquées - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This study analyses the quality of six regression algorithms in forecasting the monthly price of maize in its primary international trading market, using publicly available data of agricultural production at a regional scale. The forecasting process is done between one and twelve months ahead, using six different forecasting techniques. Three (CART, RF, and GBM) are tree-based machine learning techniques that capture the relative influence of maize-producing regions on global maize price variations. Additionally, we consider two types of linear models—standard multiple linear regression and vector autoregressive (VAR) model. Finally, TBATS serves as an advanced time-series model that holds the advantages of several commonly used time-series algorithms. The predictive capabilities of these six methods are compared by cross-validation. We find RF and GBM have superior forecasting abilities relative to the linear models. At the same time, TBATS is more accurate for short time forecasts when the time horizon is shorter than three months. On top of that, all models are trained to assess the marginal contribution of each producing region to the most extreme price shocks that occurred through the past 60 years of data in both positive and negative directions, using Shapley decompositions. Our results reveal a strong influence of North-American yield variation on the global price, except for the last months preceding the new-crop season.
    Keywords: Price forecasting, Regional production
    Date: 2022–04–28
  28. By: Amer Ait Sidhoum (TUM - Technische Universität München = Technical University of Munich); H Dakpo (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, D-MTEC - Department of Management, Technology, and Economics [ETH Zürich] - ETH Zürich - Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology [Zürich]); Laure Latruffe (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article studies trade-offs of farms in terms of economic sustainability (proxied here by technical efficiency), environmental sustainability (proxied here by farmers' commitment towards the environment) and social sustainability (proxied here by farmers' contribution to on farm well-being and communities' well-being). We use the latent class stochastic frontier model and create classes based on three separating variables, representing farms' environmental sustainability and social sustainability. The application to a sample of Spanish crop farms shows that more environmentally sustainable farms are likely to have lower levels of technical efficiency. However, improvements in social concerns, both towards own farm and the larger community, may lead to improved technical efficiency levels. In general, our study provides evidence of trade-offs for farms between economic sustainability and environmental sustainability, but also between environmental sustainability and social sustainability.
    Abstract: Cet article étudie les compromis des exploitations agricoles en termes de durabilité économique (représentée ici par l'efficacité technique), de durabilité environnementale (représentée ici par l'engagement des agriculteurs envers l'environnement) et de durabilité sociale (représentée ici par la contribution des agriculteurs au bien-être de l'exploitation et des communautés). Nous utilisons le modèle de frontière stochastique à classes latentes et créons des classes basées sur trois variables séparatrices, représentant la durabilité environnementale et la durabilité sociale des exploitations. L'application à un échantillon d'exploitations agricoles espagnoles montre que les exploitations plus durables sur le plan environnemental sont susceptibles d'avoir des niveaux d'efficacité technique plus faibles. Toutefois, l'amélioration des préoccupations sociales, tant à l'égard de l'exploitation elle-même que de la communauté dans son ensemble, peut conduire à une amélioration des niveaux d'efficacité technique. En général, notre étude fournit des preuves de compromis pour les exploitations agricoles entre la durabilité économique et la durabilité environnementale, mais aussi entre la durabilité environnementale et la durabilité sociale.
    Date: 2022–01–10
  29. By: Van Capellen, Hanne; De Weerdt, Joachim
    Abstract: Rural labor markets in Africa are frequently characterized by underemployment, with farmers unable to fully deploy throughout the year one of their most important assets—their labor. Using a nine-year panel data set on 1, 407 working-age adults from rural Malawi, we document changes in rural underemployment over this period and how they are associated with urbanization. Nearby urban growth results in increased hours worked in casual labor (ganyu) and in non-agricultural sectors, at the expense of work on the household farm. Improved urban access is also associated with a small increase in wage labor and, at the intensive margin, with hours supplied in household enterprises. We draw lessons from these results for policies, investments, and interventions to leverage urban growth for rural development.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; rural population; underemployment; farmers; labour; urbanization; income; households; rural development
    Date: 2023
  30. By: Mattias Delpont (IHAP - Interactions hôtes-agents pathogènes [Toulouse] - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Luis G. Salazar (IHAP - Interactions hôtes-agents pathogènes [Toulouse] - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jeroen Dewulf (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - Faculteit Diergeneeskunde [UGhent, Belgium] - UGENT - Universiteit Gent = Ghent University); Artur Zbikowski (SGGW - Warsaw University of Life Sciences); Piotr Szeleszczuk (SGGW - Warsaw University of Life Sciences); Anne-Christine Dufay-Lefort (ITAVI); Nathalie Rousset (ITAVI); Annick Spaans (Southern Agriculture and Horticulture Organization); Arthi Amalraj (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - Faculteit Diergeneeskunde [UGhent, Belgium] - UGENT - Universiteit Gent = Ghent University); Giuditta Tilli (Unipd - Università degli Studi di Padova = University of Padua); Alessandra Piccirillo (Unipd - Università degli Studi di Padova = University of Padua); Aitor Devesa (CECAV - Centro de Calidad Avícola y Alimentación Animal de la Comunidad Valenciana); Sandra Sevilla-Navarro (CECAV - Centro de Calidad Avícola y Alimentación Animal de la Comunidad Valenciana); Hilde van Meirhaege (Vetworks BV); László Kovács (UNIVET - University of Veterinary Medicine [Budapest, Hungary]); Ákos Bernard Jóźwiak (UNIVET - University of Veterinary Medicine [Budapest, Hungary]); Jean-Luc Guerin (IHAP - Interactions hôtes-agents pathogènes [Toulouse] - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Mathilde C. Paul (IHAP - Interactions hôtes-agents pathogènes [Toulouse] - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Compliance with required on-farm biosecurity practices reduces the risk of contamination and spread of zoonotic and economically important diseases. With repeating avian influenza epidemics in the poultry industry, the need to monitor and improve the overall level of biosecurity is increasing. In practice, biosecurity compliance is assessed by various actors (e.g., academic, private and public institutions), and the results of such assessments may be recorded and gathered in databases which are seldom shared or thoroughly analyzed. This study aimed to provide an inventory of databases related to the assessment of biosecurity in poultry farms in seven major poultry-producing European countries to highlight challenges and opportunities associated with biosecurity data collection, sharing, and use. The institutions in charge of these databases were contacted and interviewed using a structured questionnaire to gather information on the main characteristics of the databases and the context of their implementation. A total of 20 databases were identified, covering the gamut of poultry species and production types. Most databases were linked to veterinary health authorities or academia, and to a lesser extent interbranch organizations. Depending on the institutions in charge, the databases serve various purposes, from providing advice to enforcing regulations. The quality of the biosecurity data collected is believed to be quite reliable, as biosecurity is mostly assessed by trained farm advisors or official veterinarians and during a farm visit. Some of the databases are difficult to analyze and/or do not offer information concerning which biosecurity measures are most or least respected. Moreover, some key biosecurity practices are sometimes absent from certain databases. Although the databases serve a variety of purposes and cover different production types, each with specific biosecurity features, their analysis should help to improve the surveillance of biosecurity in the poultry sector and provide evidence on the benefits of biosecurity.
    Keywords: prevention, surveillance, audits, avian influenza, broilers, egg layers, turkeys
    Date: 2023–08–15
  31. By: Falk, Thomas; Walter, Kibet
    Abstract: The workshop was organized by the CGIAR Research Initiative on Low-Emission Food Systems (MITIGATE+), which is implemented by a large consortium of partners. The Initiative aims to reduce annual global food systems emissions by working closely with key actors in target countries to co-create knowledge that enables them to make evidence-based decisions and address challenges in food systems discourse, policy development, and implementation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Initiative’s partners support the establishment of a multistakeholder platform and a “living lab for people†(LL4P) that will support bottom-up innovation cases to help transform food systems in Nandi county, Kenya, while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The workshop was part of a series of stakeholder workshops that aims to help clarify development opportunities, the role of different actors in Nandi county, and their interests. The intention was to bring actors together, invite them to think about a joint vision for food systems in the county, and share perspectives on entry points for initiating system change.
    Keywords: KENYA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; climate change mitigation; emissions from agriculture; food systems; greenhouse gas emissions; policy innovation
    Date: 2023
  32. By: ANDRIAANDY, Josué R.; Randriamifidy, Fitiavana M.; Andrianavony, Jovianah K.
    Abstract: Employing a VAR model, this work delves into Madagascar’s economic dynamics, particularly its GDP growth, agricultural production, and land use, with a pronounced emphasis on the profound influence of temperature fluctuations. The results illuminate the intricate interplay between economic activities and climatic variations, emphasizing the susceptibility of the economy to temperature changes. This underscores the urgency of formulating adaptive strategies that mitigate the adverse effects of temperature fluctuations, enabling not only economic growth but also environmental sustainability a synergy crucial for Madagascar’s prosperous future.
    Keywords: VAR model, Madagascar, GDP growth, agricultural production, land use, temperature fluctuations, economic dynamics, climate change, environmental sustainability
    JEL: A1 E6 O1
    Date: 2023
  33. By: Xintong Han (Laval University, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Marketing, 2325 Rue de la Terrasse, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada); Jan Victor Dee (Concordia University, Department of Economics, 1455 Boulevard de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, H3G 1M8, Canada); Shaojia Wang (Concordia University, Department of Economics, 1455 Boulevard de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, H3G 1M8, Canada)
    Abstract: This paper empirically evaluates the impact of a Government-Initiated Non-Profit E-commerce Platform (GNEP) on specialty agricultural sales, focusing specifically on Pu’er tea in China. Using a difference-in-differences methodology and a comprehensive panel dataset that covers over 90% of local tea farmers, we uncover a marked substitution effect. The implementation of GNEP leads to an average decline of 11.22% in offline household sales, while online sales see an uptick of 16.88%. Further analysis confirms a universal channel shift from offline to online sales, irrespective of both production levels and tea quality. Contrary to expectations, the overall tea sales volume remains largely stable post-launch. Additionally, premium-quality teas experience a 2.42% price boost online, while regular teas show a 0.40% decrease compared to offline prices. Mechanism analysis further indicates that the increase in online sales is driven primarily by the intensive margin instead of the extensive margin. Although the platform does not significantly expand the number of farmers engaging in online sales, it offers a cost-effective avenue for diversifying product offerings and achieving higher prices for premium-quality products. Our study illuminates the transformative role of e-commerce platforms in rural economic development and provides essential insights for policymakers and practitioners.
    Keywords: government-initiated non-profit e-commerce platform (GNEP); difference-in-differences (DiD); tea sales; online channels
    JEL: L81 M31 Q13
    Date: 2023–09
  34. By: Bogliacino, Francesco (Universidad Nacional de Colombia); Posso, Christian M; Villaveces, Juanita
    Abstract: We estimate the causal effect of the Law mandating land restitution to victims of forced displacement in Colombia. We use the timing of the restitution as the source of identification in an event study approach. Farmers typically rely on small to medium-sized loans with limited or no collateral to finance their investments, thus we employ microcredit as our main outcome variable. We analyze administrative data from the program, along with data from the census of credit transactions. Our findings reveal a substantial increase in access to credit, both in terms of the likelihood of signing a loan (extensive margin) and the loan amounts (intensive margin). These effects are most pronounced two years after land restitution, coinciding with the moment individuals gain full property rights. By delving into the specific details of these credit transactions, we ascertain that the credits obtained are primarily directed towards agricultural investments. This suggests that the increased access to credit is likely being used to finance material investments in the restored land parcels.
    Date: 2023–09–21
  35. By: Amalie Bjørnåvold (Department of Engineering Management - Faculty of Business and Economics - UA - University of Antwerp); Maia David (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Vincent Mermet-Bijon (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Olivier Beaumais (LERN - Laboratoire Environnement Ressources de Normandie - LITTORAL - LITTORAL - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer); Romain Crastes Dit Sourd (Leeds University Business School - University of Leeds); Steven van Passel (Department of Engineering Management - Faculty of Business and Economics - UA - University of Antwerp); Vincent Martinet (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In 2023, the European Union will vote on the reauthorization of glyphosate use, renewed in 2017 despite concern on impacts on the environment and public health. A ban is supported by several Member States but rejected by most farmers. What are citizens' preferences to phase out glyphosate? To assess whether taxation could be an alternative to a ban, we conducted a discrete choice experiment in five European countries. Our results reveal that the general public is strongly willing to pay for a reduction in glyphosate use. However, while 75.5% of respondents stated to support a ban in the pre-experimental survey, experimental results reveal that in 73.35% of cases, earmarked taxation schemes are preferred when they lead to a strong reduction in glyphosate use for an increase in food price lower than that induced by a ban. When glyphosate reduction is balanced against its costs, a tax may be preferred.
    Abstract: En 2023, l'Union européenne votera sur la réautorisation de l'utilisation du glyphosate, renouvelée en 2017 en dépit des préoccupations sur les impacts sur l'environnement et la santé publique. Une interdiction est soutenue par plusieurs États membres, mais rejetée par la plupart des agriculteurs. Quelles sont les préférences des citoyens pour l'élimination progressive du glyphosate? Pour évaluer si la fiscalité pourrait être une alternative à une interdiction, nous avons mené une expérience de choix discret dans cinq pays européens. Nos résultats révèlent que le grand public est tout à fait disposé à payer pour une réduction de l'utilisation du glyphosate. Cependant, alors que 75, 5% des répondants ont déclaré soutenir une interdiction dans le sondage pré-expérimental, les résultats expérimentaux révèlent que dans 73, 35% des cas, les régimes fiscaux spécifiques sont préférables lorsqu'ils conduisent à une forte réduction de l'utilisation du glyphosate pour une augmentation du prix des denrées alimentaires inférieure à celle induite par une interdiction. Lorsque la réduction du glyphosate est équilibrée avec ses coûts, une taxe peut être préférée
    Keywords: Discrete Choice Experiment, Glyphosate
    Date: 2023
  36. By: Cosbey, Aaron; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
    Abstract: There is a growing wave of concern for the embodied carbon in traded goods. One manifestation of that concern is large economies such as the USA and the European Union enacting climate-related trade measures, including border carbon adjustment. This paper reviews more than ten climate-related trade measures that are currently enacted or under discussion globally and five initiatives from large companies to source low-carbon inputs. It then assesses Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Perus vulnerability to trade restrictions, based on estimated greenhouse gas intensity of their exported goods (using an input-output analysis) relative to other global producers, and an exposure analysis that assesses the likelihood that current importers of these products might implement climate-related trade measures. Finally, it reviews existing scenarios of global oil, natural gas and coal demand, and asks what they mean for fossil fuel exports from these countries. Agricultural goods stand out as vulnerable, as they are the main driver of deforestation and associated emissions. The most serious threat is the vulnerability of fossil fuel exports, primarily crude oil and gas, which dominate the four countries current exports. The paper exposes recommendations in terms of diversifying the economy away from fossil fuels and preparing exporters to comply with emerging climate-related trade restrictions.
    Keywords: Trade Policy; Climate Policy; Input-Output Analysis
    JEL: F18 Q56 Q54 O13
    Date: 2023–08
  37. By: Alice Falchi (ESSCA - Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Commerciales d'Angers); Gilles Grolleau (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Naoufel Mzoughi (ECODEVELOPPEMENT - Unité de recherche d'Écodéveloppement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In contrast with the increasing green demands from various stakeholders, corporations might prefer green blushing, that is, deliberately avoiding communicating their efforts for sustainable development. Surprisingly, these companies make substantial green achievements, but decide not to communicate their greenness. Using a broad literature review on green blushing and a conceptual reasoning backed up by anecdotal evidence, we expose the likely consequences of under-communicating green achievements and develop several rationales that explain this apparent puzzle. We also propose that silent or timid corporations can make the best of two worlds, by taking advantage from communicating their greenness while avoiding its main pitfalls. We suggest practical ways to do it.
    Keywords: green blushing, green communication, greenhushing, stakeholders, sustainable innovations
    Date: 2022
  38. By: William Ginn (LabCorp); Marc Pourroy (CRIEF - Centre de recherche sur l'intégration économique et financière - Université de Poitiers, Université de Poitiers)
    Abstract: Food price volatility is a major threat for welfare, economic prosperity and political stability. The monetary authority is generally viewed in the literature as the only institution responsible for price stability, however this approach overlooks the importance of food price stabilization policies using fiscal instruments. We develop and estimate a Bayesian DSGE model that incorporates monetary and fiscal policy tailored to India, replicating food demand and food supply subsidies. We find that following a world food price shock, CPI and therefore interest rate volatility would be 21% higher in the absence of food subsidies. Putting this effect aside would lead to overestimating the effectiveness of inflation targeting by the central bank. Accordingly, we find that the subsidy policy has large heterogeneous distributional welfare effects: while farmers benefit from all subsidies, the inclusion of urban households into the demand subsidy program is required to offset supply subsidy welfare cost.
    Keywords: DSGE Model, Price stabilisation, Food prices, Commodities, Monetary Policy, India
    Date: 2022–08
  39. By: Iris van Dam (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stefanie Vandevijvere (Sciensano [Bruxelles] - RIIP - Réseau International des Instituts Pasteur)
    Abstract: Background This study benchmarked and quantitatively assessed the transparency, specificity and comprehensiveness of nutrition-related commitments and related practices of the major companies within the French food industry. Methods To evaluate the nutrition-related commitments and practices across policy domains such as product reformulation, labelling, marketing, and accessibility, the ‘Business Impact Assessment on Obesity and population-level nutrition' (BIA-Obesity) was applied. A total of 33 French food companies were selected using Euromonitor 2018 market share data, including major packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage manufacturers ( N = 20), quick-service restaurants ( N = 7), and supermarkets ( N = 6). During 2019-2020 the publicly available commitments were collected for each company, scored according to the BIA-Obesity, and company representatives were provided with the opportunity to complete and verify the collected data. The following performance metrics were included to assess company practices: the median Nutri-Score of product portfolios, the proportion of products with Nutri-Score A or B, the percentage of products (not-)permitted to be marketed to children according to the World Health Organisation Europe nutrient profile model and the proportion of ultra-processed food products as determined by the NOVA-classification. In addition supermarket flyers were collected over a 6-months period to assess the healthiness of product promotions. Correlations between commitments and performance metrics were assessed applying the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results Among the selected food companies, 13 companies verified and completed the publicly available data (response rate = 39%). Overall BIA-Obesity scores for company commitments varied between 2 and 74% with a median score of 28%. Scores for packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage manufacturers were higher than those for supermarkets and quick-service restaurants. The median proportion of foods with Nutri-Score A or B within product portfolios was 38% (range = 1-95%), while the median proportion of non-permitted products was 84% (range = 7-100%) and the median proportion of ultra-processed food products 63% (range = 5-100%). Stronger company commitments did not translate into better performance metrics. Conclusions There is room for significant improvement of both company commitments and performance. Current food industry action does not meet recommended best practices. The French government is urged to regulate food industry practices to create healthier food environments.
    Abstract: Contexte Cette étude a permis de comparer et d'évaluer quantitativement la transparence, la spécificité et l'exhaustivité des engagements liés à la nutrition et des pratiques connexes des grandes entreprises de l'industrie alimentaire française. Méthodes Pour évaluer les engagements et les pratiques liés à la nutrition dans les domaines politiques tels que la reformulation des produits, l'étiquetage, le marketing et l'accessibilité, l'évaluation de l'impact sur les entreprises sur l'obésité et la nutrition au niveau de la population (BIA-obésité) a été appliquée. Au total, 33 entreprises alimentaires françaises ont été sélectionnées à l'aide des données sur les parts de marché d'Euromonitor 2018, y compris les principaux fabricants d'aliments emballés et de boissons non alcoolisées ( N = 20), les restaurants à service rapide ( N = 7) et les supermarchés ( N = 6). Au cours de l'exercice 2019-2020, les engagements accessibles au public ont été recueillis pour chaque entreprise, cotés selon la LFI-Obésité, et les représentants de l'entreprise ont eu l'occasion de remplir et de vérifier les données recueillies. Les mesures de rendement suivantes ont été incluses pour évaluer les pratiques de l'entreprise : la cote Nutri médiane des portefeuilles de produits, la proportion de produits ayant une cote Nutri A ou B, le pourcentage de produits (non-)autorisé à être commercialisé aux enfants selon le modèle de profil nutritionnel de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé en Europe et la proportion de produits alimentaires ultra-transformés déterminée par la classification NOVA. En outre, les circulaires des supermarchés ont été recueillies sur une période de 6 mois pour évaluer la salubrité des promotions de produits. Les corrélations entre les engagements et les mesures de rendement ont été évaluées en appliquant le coefficient de corrélation de rang de Spearman. Résultats Parmi les entreprises alimentaires sélectionnées, 13 ont vérifié et complété les données accessibles au public (taux de réponse = 39 %). Les scores BIA-Obésité globaux pour les engagements des entreprises variaient entre 2 et 74%, avec un score médian de 28%. Les scores des fabricants d'aliments emballés et de boissons non alcoolisées étaient plus élevés que ceux des supermarchés et des restaurants à service rapide. La proportion médiane d'aliments avec Nutri-Score A ou B dans les portefeuilles de produits était de 38 % (fourchette = 1 à 95 %), tandis que la proportion médiane de produits non autorisés était de 84 % (fourchette = 7 à 100 %) et la proportion médiane de produits alimentaires ultra-transformés, de 63 % (fourchette = 5 à 100 %). Le renforcement des engagements de l'entreprise ne s'est pas traduit par de meilleures mesures de rendement. Conclusions Il est possible d'améliorer sensiblement les engagements et les performances de l'entreprise. Les mesures actuelles de l'industrie alimentaire ne respectent pas les pratiques exemplaires recommandées. Le gouvernement français est invité à réglementer les pratiques de l'industrie alimentaire pour créer des environnements alimentaires plus sains.
    Keywords: Business impact assessment, Nutrient profile, Accountability
    Date: 2022–12
  40. By: Anne Stenger (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jens Abildtrup (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Géraldine Bocquého (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Kene Boun My (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Tuyen Tong Tiet (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Date: 2023–06–01
  41. By: Sandoval, Luis; Menendez, Francisco; Ajche, Juan Garcia; Mamani, Brenda; Hernández, Adriana
    Abstract: Malnutrition is a health condition that either excise or deficient nutrient consumption can characterize. In the Latin American region, while there is still a high prevalence of undernutrition, the region also suffers from obesity, with an estimate that one in four adults is obese. One of the main drivers of the increasing prevalence of obesity is the poor quality of the diet, which commonly includes food items with excess calories, sodium, sugars, and saturated fats. (United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF] et al., 2021). Nutritional labeling is how nutritional information on food packaging is presented to consumers. However, traditional or codex Alimentarius-approved labels are not always easy to understand, thus, limiting the capacity of consumers to make educated decisions about their food consumption. In this context, interpretative schemes such as supplementary nutritional information labels are an easier-to-understand alternative (PAHO and WHO, 2022). These supplementary nutritional information labels aim to prevent the excessive consumption of calories, sodium, and fat, among other nutrients (Ikonen et al., 2020). The traffic light and the warning disc are the most popular supplementary nutritional labels. The traffic light and the warning disc have been implemented in many countries, such as Ecuador and Mexico in Latin America. Most of the research that supports the adoption of either label focuses on the understanding of the labels by consumers. Little research focuses on actual visual attention to the labels and their potential impact on purchase intention. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate visual attention and purchase intention when the traffic light and warning disc supplementary nutrition labels are present in processed and ultra-processed food products. Additionally, the influence of gender, prior knowledge, and use of front labeling, among other variables, type of diet, and physical activity on purchase intentions in Zamorano University students were evaluated. Methodology. The participants for this study were recruited from Zamorano University, located at km 33 on the Pan-American highway from Tegucigalpa to Danlí, Honduras. 90 undergraduate students completed a survey and were exposed to 10 food processed and ultra-processed product labels. Participation was voluntary, anonymous and no compensation was given to participants. The survey and labels were uploaded to the iMotions software, which allowed measuring visual attention to the labels using eye-tracking technology (Figure 1). Table 1 shows the labels used on this research, which were selected by convenience, considering sales volume in the university´s mini-market and the potential for various supplementary labels. Traffic light labelling and warning disc labels were placed on the packaging of each product, without altering the original design. For the analysis, a Completely Randomized Design (DCA) was used. Where 3 treatments were evaluated, which were: a control (T1) that were the packaging of the products without labeling. The second treatment was packaging with traffic light labeling (T2) and the last treatment was product packaging with warning labeling (T3). Each students was assigned to only one treatment. The null hypothesis of the DCA was that the purchase intention of each food product was the same for all three treatments. Multiple-lineal regression where the dependent variable was purchase Intention (expressed in a scale from 1 and 10) allowed to evaluate the impact of gender, knowledge of Front labeling, use of Front labeling, healthy consumption habits, and physical activity on purchase intention, in addition to being exposed to the supplementary nutritional labels. Students were first exposed to the labels, asked their purchase intention after each label, and then asked the questionnaire. Key Findings. Of the 90 participants, 63% were men between the ages of 20 and 21. The countries with the greatest participation were Honduras, El Salvador, Ecuador, and Guatemala, which had first-year, second-year, third-year, and fourth-year students from all the university´s academic departments. The results indicated that the participants perform physical activity at least 5 times a week in the "learn by doing" activities. However, in their daily lives, students are characterized by having a moderate level of physical activity. Also, interest in a healthy lifestyle and healthy eating (18%) is not a goal that students have set. In fact, most students had received nutritional training at the university, without this influencing their of processed and ultra-processed food products. For this reason, having nutritional knowledge does not mean that it is always applied when making decisions about the foods to be consumed. Most of the students made a very vague use of any nutritional information, regarding it be the codex alimentarious labels or the traffic and warning disc lables (28% if they use it) since they mention that sometimes (56%) pay attention to it. Also, students were more interested in supplementary traffic light frontal labeling (61%) than warning frontal labeling. According to the eye-tracking measures, the first object students observed in the labels was expiration or use by date, while all nutritional labelling receiving more revisits in average. The high level of revisits to nutritional information suggest multiple attempts to understand the object in the labes. In conclusion, students did pay attention to the supplementary nutritional labels of traffic lights and warning discs, however, it did not influence their purchase intention of the food products. Between the two, students indicated a preference for the traffic light over the warning disc. No other variables, such as physical activity and nutritional knowledge, had an influence on the purchase intention of the food items used in this research. This research suggests that college students consume processed and ultra-processed food products because they like them, regardless of their nutritional knowledge, lifestyle, and understanding of the supplementary nutritional labels, and yet.
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023
  42. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: The farm is an abstract category in Economic theory for describing agents managing farming activity, while the real governing structures are farms of different juridical types. Farm’s competitiveness is inadequately assessed through technical and accountancy efficiency, factors’ productivity, profitability, market shares, etc. because critical governance aspects are ignored. Article suggests a holistic framework for assessing farm’ competitiveness taking into account economic, financial and governance efficiency, and evaluates absolute and comparative competitiveness of governing structures of Bulgarian farming. The assessment system includes four pillars, four criteria, 17 particular and 5 integral indicators. The first in-kind evaluation, based on survey data, found that the competitiveness of Bulgarian farms is good. The competitiveness of cooperatives is highest, followed by corporations and associations, sole traders, and physical persons. Critical for competitive positions of farms are: low productivity, income, financial security, and adaptability to natural environment, where public support and farms’ management strategies should be directed. Large shares of the country’s farms have low competitiveness, and if measures are not taken to improve management, restructuring, state support, etc., many farms will cease to exist in the near future. In some cases, other characteristics of governing structures like size, specialization, market orientation, and ecological location, are critical for determining competitiveness level.
    Keywords: competitiveness, governance, production, financial, and governance pillars, agricultural farms
    JEL: Q11 Q12 Q13 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2023
  43. By: Arnaud Abad (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Michell Arias (UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia); Paola Ravelojaona (ICN Business School, CEREFIGE - Centre Européen de Recherche en Economie Financière et Gestion des Entreprises - UL - Université de Lorraine)
    Abstract: In this paper, environmental productivity change is analysed through the production theoretic approach to index numbers. Specifically, pollution-adjusted Malmquist and Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indices are considered. These productivity indices are defined as combination of multiplicative distance functions. Non convex pollution-generating technology is assumed to estimate the pollution-adjusted Malmquist and Hicks-Moorsteen productivity measures. Moreover, the main sources of the environmental productivity change are displayed. An empirical illustration is provided by considering a sample of 20 Ecuadorian oil companies over the period 2014-2018. The results are estimated through a non parametric analytic framework.
    Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Ecuadorian Oil industry, Environmental Efficiency, Productivity Indices, Non Convexity, Pollution-generating Technology
    Date: 2023–07–31
  44. By: Lacelli, Gabriel; Domínguez, Jorge; Eramo, Romina
    Abstract: Risk studies in agricultural companies recognize five main sources: institutional, personal, financial, productive and markets. The present work will be limited to studying the effects on the annual income of livestock systems from the last two sources. In a simplified approach, risk is considered to be obtaining an economic result that is insufficient to cover a critical amount for the normal performance and evolution of the system and the sustainability of the producing family. The questions that are intended to be answered are, given changing price and yield scenarios, what are the probabilities that the system does not guarantee a sufficient operating result to cover these values? How often does it “fall” below them? What is the intensity of the loss on each occasion? To answer these questions, two breeding systems located in “Cuña Boscosa” (Santa Fe province, Argentina) and in “Cuenca del Salado” (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) were analyzed. They were described in their structural components (number of production factors used and their valuation) and technological (management, health, food, marketing, etc.). Physical and economic results were estimated for a given current situation, in a deterministic analysis. For the stochastic analysis, the variables with the greatest power in the definition of results were identified, to which a probability distribution was assigned to represent their real variations. They were weaning (in percentage, triangular distribution, with parameters 46;53;64 for Santa Fe and 61;65;72 for Buenos Aires), calf weight (kg/head, triangular distribution, with parameters 170;180; 190 for Santa Fe and 160;170;180 for Buenos Aires) and its price (US$/kg, truncated normal distribution, with parameters 2.57; 0.30;2.30;2.70 for Santa Fe and 2.78;0.20;2.23;2.72 for Buenos Aires). The sales weights of cows and bulls are treated as fixed. The sales weights of other categories are correlated with the triangular distribution of the variable "Calf Weight". The prices of all categories are correlated with the variable "calf price". 100 iterations were carried out and 100 Operational Results were obtained. For these simulations, the Monte Carlo method was applied, through the use of the Excel plugin, Simulation 5.0, developed by José Ricardo Varela. A critical financial level was defined. It establishes a minimum annual amount that satisfies family consumption. In this work, the value was rounded to US$ 10, 000. The other four critical levels are of an economic nature (economic critical levels) and are being added for exploratory purposes. First, the probability that the system will not cover the depreciation of its capital assets (decapitalization); then remuneration for family work was added (decapitalization + family work). Subsequently, an amount was added to compensate the capital invested in improvements and exploitation (decapitalization + family work + interest). Finally, an amount was added to cover a positive rent to the land (decapitalization + family work + interest + land rent). The (real) rate used for these last two critical levels was 3%. Two indicators were calculated for each critical level. First, the frequency with which the operating result is less than the critical level; This indicator was called the Risk Frequency Index (RFI) and was categorized as "low", "medium" and "high". The second dimension of risk is the magnitude of the loss, which represents how much is lost each time it is lost. This indicator was called Risk Intensity Index (RII); measures the average drop in income with respect to the critical level considered. Two qualitative categories are established: “low” and “high”. With both indicators, a double-entry matrix was built that allowed establishing the system's risk typology. The results indicated that there are practically no differences from the location of the fields. The critical financial level (family consumption) did not figure as a risk possibility. Meanwhile, level 1 (decapitalization), manifested "low" risk for the establishment of Santa Fe and "no risk" for that of Buenos Aires; Both level 2 (decapitalization + family work) and level 3 (decapitalization + family work + interest on capital) showed medium risk and, finally, level 4 (decapitalization + family work + interest on capital + land income) showed risk "high". The resulting conclusion is that the two systems are low risk, at least given the variations of the analyzed sources, prices and production. None presents negative results, which would imply situations of bankruptcy or debt generation, whether commercial, banking or fiscal, since the risk is measured from the operating result. The critical financial level, although it is the most subjective of all (it does not depend on the system itself, but on the family composition, the stage in which it is, tastes and preferences, among other factors), does not reported risk situations. The same situation occurred for the critical level “decapitalization”. When the remuneration of family work and the payment of interest are required, in addition to the decapitalization, the risk is medium, while there are high risk situations to cover the critical level that accumulates the payment of all factors. In the comparison with other studies carried out in previous cycles for livestock systems of the Argentinean northeast (NEA), these systems show a better performance, promoting the hypothesis -and the question- of what would happen in the event of lower livestock price scenarios than those of the analyzed cycle (2021/22).
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2023
  45. By: Nguyen Huy, Tung (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2023
  46. By: Michaela Dolk; Mr. Dimitrios Laliotis; Sujan Lamichhane
    Abstract: This paper explores the financial stability implications of acute physical climate change risks using a novel approach that focuses on a severe season associated with a sequence of tropical cyclone and flood events. Our approach was recently applied to study physical risks in the Mexican financial sector, but the framework is applicable to other countries as well. We show that even if the scale of individual climate events may not be material at an aggregate national scale, considering a sequence of events could lead to potentially significant macro-financial impacts in the short term. This could occur even if none of the individual events affect the particular region(s) with highest concentrations of banking sector exposures. Our results indicate potential for even greater effects in the future given the increasing severity and frequency of extreme events from climate change. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of considering sequences of extreme physical risk events driven by climate change, rather than just individual extreme events, to better understand financial stability implications and design effective policies.
    Keywords: Climate change; physical risk; disasters; extreme seasons; financial stability; stress testing; climate change risk; risk event; IMF working paper No. 23/176; damage estimate; climate change condition; Natural disasters; Stocks; Financial sector; Global
    Date: 2023–08–25
  47. By: Lence, Sergio H.; Plastina, Alejandro
    Abstract: A very large number of productivity analyses have focused on Total Factor Productivity (TFP), the volume of aggregate output produced per unit of aggregate input, as the measure of choice. For example, industry-level TFP data series have been widely used to investigate many important economic issues, including whether productivity gains have been concentrated in a few industries and whether such gains were linked to the use of information technology (Stiroh 2002), whether automation is labor-displacing (Autor and Salomons 2018), whether the recent rise in the capital share can be attributed to increasing automation (Aghion, Jones, and Jones 2019), how GDP growth has been impacted by sectoral trends in TFP and labor growth (Foerster et al. 2022), the contributions of individual industries to U.S. aggregate TFP growth (Jorgenson, Ho, and Samuels 2019), and the reasons for the productivity gap between Europe and the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s (van Ark, O’Mahony and Timmer 2008). Recently, growing concerns about environmental degradation and climate change have spurred interest in “environmentally-adjusted” TFP indicators, which take into account the production of undesirable by-products and externalities, as well as how intensely natural resources are used (OECD 2020b). For the agricultural sector in particular, studies based on TFP have analyzed public investments (Fuglie, Wang, and Ball 2012; Fuglie 2018; Ortiz-Bobea et al. 2021), international trade (Garcia-Verdu et al. 2019; Yuan et al. 2021), and the design of policies aimed at decoupling productivity growth from environmental pressure (OECD 2020a), among other issues. In the United States, agricultural TFP measures have been extensively used to evaluate returns to public investments (Fuglie and Heisey 2007; Alston et al. 2011; Jin and Huffman 2016), identify the drivers of productivity growth (Capalbo 1988; Schimmelpfennig and Thirtle 1999; Huffman and Evenson 2006; Alston et al. 2010; Andersen, Alston and Pardey 2012; O’Donnell 2012, 2014; Plastina and Lence 2018), evaluate convergence in productivity across states (McCunn and Huffman 2000; Ball, Hallahan, and Nehring 2004; Poudel, Paudel, and Zilberman 2011), assess spillovers between agriculture and other sectors of the economy (Lence and Plastina 2020), and gauge the impact of weather and climate on aggregate productivity (Njuki, Bravo-Ureta, and O’Donnell 2018; Sabasi and Shumway 2018; Chambers and Pieralli 2020; Ortiz-Bobea, Knippenberg, and Chambers 2018; Plastina, Lence, and Ortiz-Bobea 2021; Ortiz-Bobea et al. 2021). Given the vast literature that has applied TFP to analyze issues concerning productivity, it is not surprising that significant efforts have been devoted to the development of proper measures of the individual components of TFP (OECD 2001; Fuglie, Wang, and Ball 2012; Fuglie 2015; Shumway et al. 2017; USDA-ERS 2021), as well as to the evaluation of the relative merits of alternative aggregation methods (Szulc 1964; Eltetö and Köves 1964; Jorgenson and Griliches 1967; Caves, Christensen, and Diewert 1982a, 1982b; Bjurek 1996; Balk and Althin 1996; O’Donnell 2012, 2016; Färe and Zelenyuk 2021). Contrastingly, there has been a dearth of studies exploring the quality of real-world TFP data series. Interestingly, studies analyzing productivity usually rely on a single source of TFP data, even in cases where more TFP sources are available. Typically, no robustness analyses are conducted to assess the extent to which inferences hold using alternative TFP data sources. Implicitly, such studies assume that the underlying TFP data being used is of sufficiently high quality to yield valid inferences. However, Alston (2018) and Andersen, Alston, and Pardey (2011) --among the few studies analyzing more than a single TFP source-- provide evidence that calls this assumption into question. The lack of studies concerning the quality of real-world TFP series provides the main motivation of the present investigation. We contribute to the literature by examining the industry-level TFP series for the United States obtained from three alternative sources, namely, (1) Jorgenson, Ho, and Samuels (JHS), (2) the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), and (3) the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). These three sources are of special interest because they are highly regarded and their series have been used extensively by researchers to analyze productivity (e.g., Stiroh 2002, Autor and Salomons 2018, Aghion, Jones, and Jones 2019, Foerster et al. 2022, Jorgenson, Ho, and Samuels 2019, van Ark, O’Mahony and Timmer 2008). Besides providing an empirical assessment of the relative quality of the aforementioned series, our study contributes to the literature by proposing a general method to examine the quality of alternative time series reportedly measuring the TFP of a particular entity or sector. The main goal of our study is to spur interest in the exploration of the quality of real-world TFP data series, with the aim of finding ways to enhance them and uncovering series whose quality may be deemed questionable. Our preliminary results show that, out of the 61 industry series for which TFP data from different sources are being compared, between 34 (for JHS vs. BEA) and 46 (for BEA vs. BLS) industries have inconsistent series across sources. In other words, only 31% to 64% of the industries have TFP data consistent between source pairs. These results strongly suggest that empirical analyses based on a single data source may not be sufficiently robust to draw strong inferences and implications. The results also demonstrate the need to devote greater attention to improving the reliability of TFP data.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2023
  48. By: Olivier Allais (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Géraldine Enderli (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Sociétés - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Université Gustave Eiffel); Franco Sassi (Centre for Health Economics and Policy Innovation - Imperial College London); Louis-Georges Soler (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Background Many countries have sought to incentivise soft drinks manufacturers to reduce sugar in their products as part of efforts to address a growing prevalence of obesity. Are their policies effective? Methods Using a difference-in-differences design, we compared trends in the sugar content of 10 695 new sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) launched between 2010 and 2019 in six European markets, including the UK and France (taxes designed to incentivise reformulation), the Netherlands (policy based on voluntary agreements to reduce sugar), Germany, Italy and Spain (no national policies). Results The announcement in 2016 and adoption in 2018 of the UK tax led to yearly reductions in average sugar content of 17% (95% CI: 15–19%) to 31% (13–48%) between 2016 and 2019, compared to 2015, while the 2018 French tax produced a 6% (95% CI: 5–7%) sugar reduction only in 2018, compared to 2017, shortly after it was redesigned to provide a stronger incentive for reformulation. Voluntary agreements implemented in the Netherlands in 2014 led to an 8% (95% CI: 4–13%) sugar reduction only in 2015, compared to 2013. Conclusion The analysis supports the conclusions that sugar reductions in new SSBs have been greater in countries that have adopted specific policies to encourage them; a sugar-based tax design encourages more sugar reductions than a volume-based tax design; the tax rate and the amount of the tax reduction from switching to the next lower tier in a sugar-based tax design may be critical to incentivize reformulation.
    Abstract: Contexte De nombreux pays ont cherché à inciter les fabricants de boissons non alcoolisées à réduire la teneur en sucre de leurs produits dans le cadre des efforts déployés pour lutter contre la prévalence croissante de l'obésité. Ces politiques sont-elles efficaces ? Méthodes En utilisant un modèle de différence dans les différences, nous avons comparé les tendances de la teneur en sucre de 10 695 nouvelles boissons sucrées (SSB) lancées entre 2010 et 2019 sur six marchés européens, notamment le Royaume-Uni et la France (taxes conçues pour inciter à la reformulation), les Pays-Bas (politique basée sur des accords volontaires pour réduire le sucre), l'Allemagne, l'Italie et l'Espagne (pas de politiques nationales). Résultats L'annonce en 2016 et l'adoption en 2018 de la taxe britannique ont entraîné des réductions annuelles de la teneur moyenne en sucre de 17 % (IC 95 % : 15-19 %) à 31 % (13-48 %) entre 2016 et 2019, par rapport à 2015, tandis que la taxe française de 2018 a entraîné une réduction de 6 % (IC 95 % : 5-7 %) de la teneur en sucre seulement en 2018, par rapport à 2017, peu de temps après avoir été remaniée pour inciter davantage à la reformulation. Les accords volontaires mis en œuvre aux Pays-Bas en 2014 ont entraîné une réduction du sucre de 8 % (IC 95 % : 4-13 %) uniquement en 2015, par rapport à 2013. Conclusion L'analyse soutient les conclusions selon lesquelles les réductions de sucre dans les nouveaux BSR ont été plus importantes dans les pays qui ont adopté des politiques spécifiques pour les encourager ; une conception de la taxe basée sur le sucre encourage davantage de réductions de sucre qu'une conception de la taxe basée sur le volume ; le taux de taxe et le montant de la réduction de la taxe lors du passage au niveau inférieur suivant dans une conception de la taxe basée sur le sucre peuvent être critiques pour inciter à la reformulation.
    Date: 2023–09–11
  49. By: Cécile Guibert (LISST - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Solidarités, Sociétés, Territoires - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT - Université de Toulouse - ENSFEA - École Nationale Supérieure de Formation de l'Enseignement Agricole de Toulouse-Auzeville - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INP - PURPAN - Ecole d'Ingénieurs de Purpan - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse); Julien Frayssignes (LISST - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Solidarités, Sociétés, Territoires - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT - Université de Toulouse - ENSFEA - École Nationale Supérieure de Formation de l'Enseignement Agricole de Toulouse-Auzeville - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INP - PURPAN - Ecole d'Ingénieurs de Purpan - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse); Michaël Pouzenc (LISST - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Solidarités, Sociétés, Territoires - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT - Université de Toulouse - ENSFEA - École Nationale Supérieure de Formation de l'Enseignement Agricole de Toulouse-Auzeville - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In a context marked by the affirmation of the framework of agroecological transtion, agrochains strategy is a source of concern, as they are the major part of French agribusiness environment. The understanding of the link between the territorial anchorage of stakeholders and their contribution to transition dynamics in the territories seems to be essential. First, this paper examines agrochain's positioning in a context of transition, then offers a perspective on two pulses chains – emblematic crops agroecological transition – in Occitanie region, the FILEG project and the PGI red label haricot tarbais. This view leads to confront their modes of organisation and to debate in a third part about their respective positioning. Thus, it seems that actors of long agrochains implement strategies at various scales to reach development objectives, but also to benefit from local advantages and large cooperations.
    Abstract: Dans un contexte d'affirmation du cadre de la transition agroécologique, la stratégie des filières longues pose question, puisqu'elles forment l'essentiel du paysage agroalimentaire français. La compréhension de l'articulation entre les formes d'ancrage territorial des acteurs et leur participation aux dynamiques de transition dans les territoires semble essentielle. Cet article interroge le positionnement des filières longues dans un contexte de transition dans un premier temps, puis propose une mise en perspective de deux filières légumineuses – productions emblématiques de la transition agroécologique – en région Occitanie, le projet FILEG et la filière IGP label rouge haricot tarbais. Cette mise en regard conduit à confronter leur mode d'organisation et à discuter dans une troisième partie leur positionnement respectif. Ainsi, il apparaît que les acteurs des filières longues déploient des stratégies à diverses échelles pour répondre à des objectifs de développement, mais aussi pour tirer bénéfice à la fois d'avantages locaux et de coopérations larges.
    Keywords: long chain, agrofood system, transition, pulses, territorial anchorage, Filière longue, Système agroalimentaire, Transition, Légumineuse à graines, Ancrage territorial
    Date: 2022

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