nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒10‒16
29 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Food insecurity in the world in sustainable agricultural development By Houda Bessachi; Fouad Announ
  2. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Kenya's food system: Economic interdependencies and policy opportunities By Nin-Pratt, Alejandro
  3. Designing Agri-Environmental Schemes to cope with uncertainty By Margaux Lapierre; Gwenolé Le Velly; Douadia Bougherara; Raphaële Préget; Alexandre Sauquet
  4. A Tale of Two Roads: Groundwater Depletion in the North China Plain By Ujjayant Chakravorty; Xiangzheng Deng; Yazhen Gong; Martino Pelli; Qian Zhang
  5. Towards resilient food systems: Implications of supply chain disruptions and policy responses By Koen Deconinck; Ben Henderson; Daniel Gregg; Daniel Hill
  6. Farm size and income distribution of Latin American agriculture: new perspectives on an old issue By Gáfaro, Margarita; Ibáñez, Ana María; Sánchez Ordóñez, Daniel; Ortiz, María Camila
  7. Integrated approaches for agricultural sustainability and productivity assessments By Ben Henderson; Jussi Lankoski
  8. Going the Extra Mile: Farm Subsidies and Spatial Convergence in Agricultural Input Adoption By Naresh Kumar; Rolly Kapoor; Shilpa Aggarwal; Dahyeon Jeong; David Sungho Park; Jonathan Robinson; Alan Spearot
  9. Replication and Sensitivity Analysis of "Market Access and Quality Up-grading: Evidence from Four Field Experiments": A Comment on Bold et al. (2022b) By McWay, Ryan; Nchare, Karim; Sun, Pu
  10. Innovation in forest tree genetics: A comparative economic analysis in the European context By Aline Fugeray-Scarbel; Xavier Irz; Stéphane Lemarié
  11. Assessing the macroeconomic impact of weather shocks in Colombia By Jose Vicente Romero; Sara Naranjo-Saldarriaga; Jonathan Alexander Munoz
  12. The effects of green brand image on brand loyalty: The case of mainstream fast food brands By Anna Watson; Rozenn Perrigot; Olufunmilola (lola) Dada
  13. New narratives for rural transformation in Latin America and the Caribbean: towards a renewed measurement and classification of rural areas By -
  14. Military Expenditure, Governance, and Environmental Degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Cheikh T. Ndour
  15. The contribution of fungi to the global economy By Allen Grace T. Niego; Christopher Lambert; Peter Mortimer; Naritsada Thongklang; Sylvie Rapior; Miriam Grosse; Hedda Schrey; Esteban Charria-Girón; Arttapon Walker; Kevin Hyde; Marc Stadler
  16. Less is more: information overload in the labelling of fish and aquaculture products By Bogliacino, Francesco; Charris, Rafael; Codagnone, Cristiano; Folkvord, Frans; Gaskell, George; Gómez, Camilo; Liva, Giovanni; Montealegre, Felipe
  17. Can urban growth reduce rural underemployment? By De Weerdt, Joachim; Van Cappellen, Hanne
  18. Unpacking the green box: Determinants of Environmental Policy Stringency in European countries By Donatella Gatti; Gaye del Lo; Francisco Serranito
  19. Long-term effects of historical inheritance customs on household formation and gender disparities By Süß, Karolin
  20. Time Preferences and Food Choice By Andy Brownback; Alex Imas; Michael A. Kuhn
  21. Inputs, outputs and living standards in rural China during the 1920s and 30s: a quantitative analysis By Wang, Yuton; Guo, Jingyuan; Deng, Kent
  22. The digital divide in rural Ethiopia: Determinants and implications of sex-disaggregated mobile phone ownership and use By Warner, James; Mekonnen, Yalew; Habte, Yetimwork
  23. Autonomie alimentaire et volatilité des prix : une comparaison internationale By Benoit Perron; Michel Poitevin; Arthur Adam; Xénia Sozonoff
  24. The $25-1000 range and inadequate argument on the restoration of the mangrove-seagrass ecosystems By Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
  25. Subsidies, information, and energy-efficient cookstove adoption: A randomized uncontrolled trial in rural Ethiopia By Malan, Mandy; Voors, Marten; Ankel-Peters, Jörg; Seje, Selan J.; Heuburger, Lotte; Seid, Dawud; Mitiku, Abiyot
  26. Resilience of the Algerian wheat sector By Bahia Bouchafaa
  27. Automated Enforcement of Irrigation Regulations and Social Pressure for Water Conservation By West, Jeremy; Fairlie, Robert W; Pratt, Bryan; Rose, Liam
  28. Global Economic Impacts of Physical Climate Risks By Caterina Lepore; Roshen Fernando
  29. Does Social Identity Constrain Rural Entrepreneurship? The Role of Financial Inclusion By Sandhya Garg; Samarth Gupta; Sushanta Mallick

  1. By: Houda Bessachi (Université Yahia Fares de Médéa); Fouad Announ (Université Yahia Fares de Médéa)
    Abstract: Findings show the necessity to establish effective strategies to face and eliminate climate effects through sustainable management of water resources and land restoration policy that tend to improve land productivity to achieve food security and minimize food gap This study aims to provide a preliminary step towards developing a multidimensional index for the sake of food security dimensions' evaluation. Hence, food security is regarded as a big and difficult challenge in the whole world, basically in Arab countries.
    Keywords: Food security sustainable agricultural development JEL Classification Codes: I10 O10 Q01, Food security, sustainable agricultural development JEL Classification Codes: I10, O10, Q01
    Date: 2023–06–04
  2. By: Nin-Pratt, Alejandro
    Abstract: Low- and middle-income countries worldwide share the common challenge of achieving sustainable economic development while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This challenge is complex due to the interconnectedness of economic activities, where policies targeting one industry can have ripple effects on others. Therefore, it is crucial to understand integrated GHG emissions and their relationships across industries within an economy to inform effective policy formulation. Kenya, as a middle-income country experiencing rapid economic growth, faces an urgent need to address this challenge. This study analyzes the economic relationships between agricultural production, the food industry, and other sectors of the economy in Kenya to identify key drivers of national GHG emissions from the food system. To accomplish this, an environmentally extended input-output (EEIO) table is employed to calculate both direct and indirect emissions for 38 activities of Kenya’s economy, as well as emissions embodied in final goods. Direct emissions refer to those generated during the production process of an activity, while indirect emissions are produced by other activities that provide inputs to the activity of interest. The findings reveal that agriculture is the largest contributor to GHG emissions in Kenya, with the majority of emissions stemming from direct sources such as enteric fermentation and manure management in livestock production. Additionally, the study finds that total emission intensity in the manufacturing sector is considerably higher than in most agricultural activities, except for livestock production, primarily due to the significant level of indirect emissions associated with manufacturing processes. Within the agricultural sector, cereals and livestock production exhibit high levels of direct emissions, while export crops like coffee and tea, as well as vegetable cultivation, show relatively higher indirect emissions. Addressing GHG emissions from the livestock sector emerges as a crucial step in significantly reducing agricultural emissions in Kenya. The dairy sub-sector presents an opportunity for intensification and technological advancements, as climate-smart technologies have already demonstrated their potential to enhance productivity while reducing emissions. Conversely, mitigating GHG emissions in beef production, which is primarily concentrated in ecologically fragile areas, will require institutional innovations focusing on rangeland management, disease control, and scaling up livestock marketing efforts. While the intensification of dairy production can contribute to agricultural growth and development in Kenya, its impact on mitigating GHG emissions is expected to be limited at the national scale.
    Keywords: KENYA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; economic development; food systems; greenhouse gas; emissions; input output analysis; sustainable development; policies; agricultural production; livestock production
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Margaux Lapierre (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Gwenolé Le Velly (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Douadia Bougherara (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Raphaële Préget (CEE - Centre d'études européennes et de politique comparée (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Alexandre Sauquet (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Agri-environmental schemes (AES) are part of the main tools used by decision makers to trigger a transition in agricultural practices but one of the factors that discourages farmers from enrolling is the uncertainty of the costs and benefits associated with the adoption of the new practices. In this study, we distinguish between the "internal uncertainty" that is related to the characteristics of the farmer and his/her parcels and "external uncertainty", which is related to the occurrence of external events. We propose three innovations to better account for uncertainty in AES design: the possibility to suspend the conditions of the contract for one year, an opt-out option after three years and the opportunity for farmers to share their experience in peer-groups. We test their attractiveness through a choice experiment and analyze our results using a mixed logit model. We find that proposing AES that allow suspending the conditions of the contract for one year enhances participation.
    Keywords: Agri-environmental Measures, Uncertainty, Flexibility, Choice Experiment, Pesticides
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Ujjayant Chakravorty; Xiangzheng Deng; Yazhen Gong; Martino Pelli; Qian Zhang
    Abstract: There is a large literature on the role infrastructure plays in economic development, but few papers document the causal effect of infrastructure on the sustainability of natural resources. We examine the effect of the arrival of two new national highways on ground water levels in a small agricultural county in the North China Plain - a region that produces most of the nation’s food grains. We first develop a conceptual framework to show that farmers located closer to the highways devote more acreage to crops that are water intensive. We then use a unique GIS-referenced dataset of all the 12, 160 tube wells in this county to show that highway construction accelerates the drilling of new wells in farms closer to the highway. In addition, there is greater depletion of the groundwater in wells near the two highways relative to wells located farther away. Our estimated depletion rates near the two roads are at least 5 times higher relative to mean depletion rates in the North China Plain. We show suggestive evidence that depletion is caused by a switch from subsistence to commercial cropping, and intensification of farming practices adjacent to the highway. These results suggest that the environmental cost of new infrastructure building may be significant and needs to be incorporated in benefit-cost analysis.
    Keywords: infrastructure, roads, North China Plain, water resources, sustainability
    JEL: O13 O18 Q25
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Koen Deconinck; Ben Henderson; Daniel Gregg; Daniel Hill
    Abstract: This paper explores food supply chain resilience and its connection to resilience of food systems more broadly. In terms of availability and affordability, food supply chains have been resilient to a wide range of shocks. Trade plays an important risk pooling role in allowing countries to draw on international markets in the face of domestic shocks. Some domestic policies have helped absorb supply chain shocks, for example support to low-income households or the removal of supply chain bottlenecks. Other measures like export restrictions exacerbate instability. The concept of food systems resilience goes further than availability and affordability of food. It includes broader objectives (like livelihoods and environmental sustainability), and must also anticipate a broader range of shocks, as well as the pressures generated by food systems themselves on the environment. Policy makers should therefore take a more complete systems-wide view of resilience.
    Keywords: blind spots, climate change, food security, Food supply chains, trade
    JEL: F14 Q17 Q13
    Date: 2023–09–22
  6. By: Gáfaro, Margarita; Ibáñez, Ana María; Sánchez Ordóñez, Daniel; Ortiz, María Camila
    Abstract: Latin American and Caribbean countries have historically been known for their rates of land inequality, highest in the world. However, these countries also exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity in their patterns of land concentration and average farm sizes. These cross-country differences play a determining role in productivity of farms and the distribution of agricultural income. Constructing a new data-set matching agricultural census and household survey data, we provide suggestive evidence on the positive relationship between farm size and farm income and wages. We identify the prevalence of small farms and the resulting low agricultural incomes as an important mechanism contributing to high income inequality in agricultural regions. Low labor productivity in small farms appears as a key explanatory factor.
    JEL: N0 R14 J01
    Date: 2023–09–01
  7. By: Ben Henderson; Jussi Lankoski
    Abstract: Increasing agricultural productivity growth sustainably can help to address the triple challenge of providing sufficient affordable and nutritious food for a growing global population, while supporting sector livelihoods and improving environmental outcomes. However, challenges remain in measuring environmentally sustainable productivity growth. This study uses alternative approaches to address these challenges and provides answers to the following questions: i) has Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth coincided with improved environmental outcomes?; and ii) has the agricultural productivity and environmental performance of countries improved over time? While there is compelling evidence that TFP growth has helped countries to expand agricultural output and reduce greenhouse gas emissions per unit of output, these emissions increased in absolute terms for about half of the OECD countries assessed and nitrogen surpluses increased for about one-third. While these environmental impacts would have been larger if output had expanded in the absence of productivity growth, there is room to steer innovation in the sector in a more environmentally sustainable direction.
    Keywords: agri-environmental indicators, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient balances, Total factor productivity
    JEL: D24 Q01 Q10 Q56
    Date: 2023–09–22
  8. By: Naresh Kumar; Rolly Kapoor; Shilpa Aggarwal; Dahyeon Jeong; David Sungho Park; Jonathan Robinson; Alan Spearot
    Abstract: Many countries subsidize agricultural inputs but require farmers to travel to retailers to access inputs, just as for normal purchases. What effect do travel costs have on subsidy take-up and input usage, particularly for remote farmers? We analyze Malawi's Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP), and show that travel-cost-adjusted prices are substantially higher in remote areas. However, subsidy redemption is nearly universal. We make use of a policy change in 2017-19 which took centralized control of beneficiary selection and find that FISP eliminates the sizeable remoteness gradient that exists for non-beneficiaries. Our results demonstrate that subsidy programs may narrow spatial inequities.
    JEL: O12 O13 Q12 Q16
    Date: 2023–09
  9. By: McWay, Ryan; Nchare, Karim; Sun, Pu
    Abstract: Bold et al. (2022b) investigate the effect of providing access to a larger, centralized market where quality is rewarded with a premium on farm productivity and framing incomes from smallholder maize farmers in western Uganda, using a series of randomized experiments and a difference-in-differences approach. We successfully reproduce the results of this study using the publicly provided replication packet. Then test the robustness of these results by re-defining treatment and outcome variables, testing for model misspecification and the leverage of outliers, and testing for non-random selection in the Fisher-permutation process. Our results show that the findings in Bold et al. (2022b) are robust to a variety of decisions in the research process. This evokes confidence in the internal validity of the findings.
    Keywords: Reproducibility, Replication, Farm Productivity, Economic Development
    JEL: L14 L15 O13 Q12 Z00
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Aline Fugeray-Scarbel (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Xavier Irz (Helsingin yliopisto = Helsingfors universitet = University of Helsinki); Stéphane Lemarié (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: In the context of global environmental change, European forests are expected to fulfil a broad range of functions, including the supply of raw materials to the bioeconomy, biodiversity preservation, and the provision of ecological services. Given fast progress in applied genetics, the selection and diffusion of genetically improved forest reproductive material (FRM) has a role to play towards the achievement of some of those goals. We therefore investigate European forest tree breeding conceived as an innovative activity on the basis of four case studies (eucalyptus in Portugal, maritime pine in France, and Norway spruce in Sweden and Finland), using a conceptual framework combining the innovation system approach and the economics of innovation. The genetic progress achieved for each of those species has been steady since the beginning of tree breeding activities. Despite that, we identify both systemic issues and market failures that hinder FRM genetic innovation and make the prospects of a forest tree breeding revolution unlikely. While the innovation systems in the studied countries are structurally sound, we identify several functional deficiencies. We also identify incentive problems limiting both supply and demand of genetically improved FRM. On the demand side, forest owners value improved FRM only moderately because of long lags between plantation and harvest, imperfect knowledge of the potential gains from adoption of genetically improved FRM, and risk aversion. On the supply side, returns to investments in genetic improvement are heavily constrained by the slowness of the breeding process, capacity constraints related to FRM production, limited demand-pull and regulatory uncertainty. Those incentive problems are partially overcome in situations where the industry is vertically integrated, from FRM production to wood processing, as observed in the case of eucalyptus in Portugal or Norway spruce in Sweden. In the other cases, public support for breeding programmes is paramount.
    Keywords: Forest tree breeding, Case studies, France, Portugal, Sweden, Finland, Market failure, Systemic failure, Genetic selection
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Jose Vicente Romero (Banco de la Republica); Sara Naranjo-Saldarriaga (Banco de la Republica); Jonathan Alexander Munoz (Banco de la Republica)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the impact of adverse weather shocks on Colombian economic activity, with a particular emphasis on the effects on agricultural output, food and headline inflation. Existing literature and empirical evidence suggest that adverse weather shocks, such as those related to the El Nino event in 2015-2016, lead to decreases in agricultural output and increases in inflation without significantly affecting total GDP growth. To further assess this result, we evaluate the impact of ENSO fluctuations using a BVAR-X model. Based on these findings, we propose a small open economy New Keynesian model that introduces a novel channel through which relative prices (agricultural vs. non-agricultural) are affected by weather shocks, allowing us to incorporate this empirical evidence into a structural model for Colombia.
    Keywords: Weather shocks; El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO); Small Open Economy New Keynesian Models
    JEL: Q54 E52 E31
    Date: 2023–09–14
  12. By: Anna Watson (Edinburgh Napier University); Rozenn Perrigot (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Olufunmilola (lola) Dada (LUMS - Lancaster University Management School - Lancaster University)
    Abstract: While a number of studies have explored consumer attitudes and behaviors towards green brands, the importance of green brand image for mainstream brands is less well understood. This study seeks to explore if the green image of mainstream fast food brands influences consumer loyalty and how their attitudes towards and knowledge of environmental issues may affect perceptions of the environmental performance of fast food brands. Using data gathered from a convenience sample of 2001 Gen Y and Gen Z consumers in France, our study establishes a critical linkage between consumers' environmental values and brand loyalty by including green brand image as a mediator. Further, by exploring mainstream brands, rather than brands that are positioned primarily on green attributes, we find that the mediating effect of green brand image may be dependent on the brand positioning.
    Keywords: brand loyalty, environmental concern, fast food, green brand image, sustainable consumption
    Date: 2023
  13. By: -
    Abstract: Rural areas have experienced major economic, social, demographic and cultural transformations in recent decades. Rurality is no longer synonymous with agriculture, and heightened interactions between rural and urban areas have had a significant impact on the identities of their populations and the characteristics that define those territories. In Latin America and the Caribbean, however, these transformations have remained relatively invisible to statistics and public policy because of the prevalence of dichotomous and static approaches to the measurement and characterization of rural areas. This study presents new methods for defining and categorizing rurality and analyses their public policy implications. A redefinition that recognizes the diversity and wealth of rural areas offers opportunities for the design of innovative rural development public policies that could accelerate the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals.
    Date: 2023–08–30
  14. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Johannesburg, South Africa); Cheikh T. Ndour (University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal)
    Abstract: This article examines how good governance counteracts the effects of military expenditure on carbon emissions in forty African countries. The Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) is used to analyze time series data from 2010-2020. Military expenditure per capita is used to measure military expenditure per penetration, while CO2 emissions per capita are used as an indicator of environmental degradation. The following findings are established. First, from the non-interactive regressions, we find suggestive evidence that arms expenditure increases CO2 emissions. All indicators of good governance contribute to the increase of CO2 emissions. Second, with interactive regressions, we find that improved governance has a negative effect on CO2 emissions per capita. Third, the results are robust to a sensitivity check, considering the synergy effects of governance. This paper provides policy recommendations on low-carbon economies, military expenditure and governance that could help to ensure environmental sustainability by reducing CO2 emissions. In addition, the study findings can provide guidance to other developing countries seeking to implement effective approaches to environmental sustainability while strengthening climate change mitigation and adaptation measures.
    Keywords: climate change; Emission reduction; Environmental degradation; Sustainability; Econometric analysis
    Date: 2023–01
  15. By: Allen Grace T. Niego (MFU - Mae Fah Luang University [Thaïlande]); Christopher Lambert (Technische Universität Braunschweig = Technical University of Braunschweig [Braunschweig]); Peter Mortimer (KIB - Kunming Institute of Botany [CAS] - CAS - Chinese Academy of Sciences [Beijing]); Naritsada Thongklang (MFU - Mae Fah Luang University [Thaïlande]); Sylvie Rapior (CEFE - Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - EPHE - École Pratique des Hautes Études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IRD [France-Sud] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Miriam Grosse (Technische Universität Braunschweig = Technical University of Braunschweig [Braunschweig]); Hedda Schrey (Technische Universität Braunschweig = Technical University of Braunschweig [Braunschweig]); Esteban Charria-Girón (Technische Universität Braunschweig = Technical University of Braunschweig [Braunschweig]); Arttapon Walker (MFU - Mae Fah Luang University [Thaïlande]); Kevin Hyde (MFU - Mae Fah Luang University [Thaïlande]); Marc Stadler (Technische Universität Braunschweig = Technical University of Braunschweig [Braunschweig])
    Abstract: Fungi provide ecological and environmental services to humans, as well as health and nutritional benefits, and are vital to numerous industries. Fermented food and beverage products from fungi are circulating in the market, generating billions of USD. However, the highest potential monetary value of fungi is their role in blue carbon trading because of their ability to sequester large amounts of carbon in the soil. There are no conclusive estimates available on the global monetary value of fungi, primarily because there are limited data for extrapolation. This study outlines the contribution of fungi to the global economy and provides a first attempt at quantifying the global monetary value of fungi. Our estimate of USD 54.57 trillion provides a starting point that can be analysed and improved, highlighting the significance of fungi and providing an appreciation of their value. This paper identifies the different economically valuable products and services provided by fungi. By giving a monetary value to all important fungal products, services, and industrial applications underscores their significance in biodiversity and conservation. Furthermore, if the value of fungi is well established, they will be considered in future policies for effective ecosystem management.
    Keywords: Fungi-based food, Medicinal mushrooms, Market value, Environmental biotechnology
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Bogliacino, Francesco; Charris, Rafael; Codagnone, Cristiano; Folkvord, Frans; Gaskell, George; Gómez, Camilo; Liva, Giovanni; Montealegre, Felipe
    Abstract: Food labels have been used extensively for informing consumers to make more rational and safer decisions. However, this carries the risk of confusing consumers with multiple claims which may distract from key information such as the country of origin of the product. To inform the European legislation, we have tested labels on fish and aquaculture products in three separate experiments, across several European Member States. The main results showed that mandatory information is better recalled than voluntary information. In addition, consumers perceive, and process differently labels for farmed and caught fish, relying more on quality claims for the former. Nonetheless, in both cases, while they value visual information, they are likely to be confused by voluntary claims including flags. Finally, when additional claims are added step by step, they lead to a decrease in accuracy of recall and comprehension. In sum, less is better, because too much information on food labels lead to cognitive overload and consumer confusion.
    Keywords: fish; iInformation overload; label; recall task; trustworthiness
    JEL: C91 D12 Q56
    Date: 2023–04–01
  17. By: De Weerdt, Joachim; Van Cappellen, Hanne
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; urbanization; rural development; labour; poverty; income; rural population; economic aspects; value chains; agrifood systems
    Date: 2023
  18. By: Donatella Gatti (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, Université Sorbonne Paris Nord); Gaye del Lo; Francisco Serranito (EconomiX - EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper identifies the determinants of OECD Environmental Policy Stringency (EPS) index using a panel of 21 European countries for the period 2009-2019. If there is a large literature on the macroeconomic, political, and social determinants of EPS, the people's attitudes or preferences toward environmental policies is still burgeoning. Thus, the main goal of this paper is to estimate the effects of people's awareness regarding environmental issues on the EPS indicator. Due to the endogeneity of preferences, we have applied an instrumental variable framework to estimate our empirical model. Our most important result is to show that individual environmental preferences have a positive and significant effect on the level of EPS indicator : on average, a rise in individual preferences of 10% in a country will increase its EPS indicator by 2.30%. Our results have important policy implications.
    Keywords: Environmental policy stringency, Environmental attitudes/concerns, Inequality, Environmental Kuznets curve, EU
    Date: 2023–09–18
  19. By: Süß, Karolin
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of inheritance customs for agricultural land on household formation and gender disparities. Under partible inheritance, agricultural land is split equally among all siblings. Under impartible inheritance, only one descendant inherits the entire land. Using a spatial regression discontinuity design, I find that partible inheritance has a persistent negative effect on household size but not fertility. It has a positive impact on today's female political representation and a negative effect on the gender gap in employment. Fathers also have a lower probability of making use of parental leave benefits but receive them for a longer time.
    Keywords: Inheritance, agriculture, gender disparities
    JEL: J16 N53 R23
    Date: 2023
  20. By: Andy Brownback; Alex Imas; Michael A. Kuhn
    Abstract: Healthy food choices are a canonical example used to illustrate the importance of time preferences in behavioral economics. However, the literature lacks a direct demonstration that they are well-predicted by incentivized time preference measures. We offer direct evidence by combining a novel, two-question, incentivized time preference measurement with data from a field experiment that includes grocery purchases and consumption. Our present-focus measure is highly predictive of food choice, capturing a number of behaviors consistent with self-control problems, which provides direct evidence for the common assumption that important aspects of nutrition are driven by time preferences.
    JEL: D03 H20 I12 I39
    Date: 2023–09
  21. By: Wang, Yuton; Guo, Jingyuan; Deng, Kent
    Abstract: Since Kenneth Pomeranz’s Great Divergence that was published in 2000, the scholarly debate has been focused on when the divergence was likely to begin. But a lack of real data for the Pomeranz framework has been noticeable. For our purpose, real data are imperative. The primary-source data this study uses are from the first large-scale modern survey of the rural economy in China in the 1920s and 30s to establish correlations between inputs, outputs and living standards in China’s rural sector. This study views China’s traditional growth trajectory continuing from the Qing to troubled times of the 1920s and 1930s despite considerable negative externalities from a regime change. The present view is that given that the rural economy managed to hang on during the Republican Period despite many disadvantages Qing China would have performed at least at the 1920s-30s’ level. Our findings indicate that rural population did indeed eat quite well during the politically troubled time, supporting Pomeranz’s pathbreaking comparison of utility functions between China’s Yangzi Delta and Western Europe. Secondly, food consumption proved incentives for improvement in labour productivity. Thirdly, China’s peasants were rational operators to maximise their returns. Fourthly, China’s highyield farming depended on land and labour inputs along a production probability frontier, which explains the root cause of the Great Divergence. Finally, there was a ‘little divergence’ inside China which was dictated by rice production, which justifies the Yangzi Delta as the best scenario.
    Keywords: Great Divergence; little divergence; primary-source data; inputs and outputs; living standards
    JEL: N35 N55 C51
    Date: 2023–09–01
  22. By: Warner, James; Mekonnen, Yalew; Habte, Yetimwork
    Abstract: Mobile phones are rapidly being adopted in less developed countries, with widely acknowledged commensurate socio-economic benefits, including United Nations SDGs advocating for increased ownership of mobile phones to promote women’s empowerment. While overall mobile phone ownership is rising quickly in Ethiopia, it is lagging for rural women, particularly married rural women. Overall, we find that married men are approximately five times more likely to own a phone than their wives even though married women with phones are more active in agricultural decision making. This lack of female mobile phone ownership should be considered within the broader context of several recent Ethiopian digital initiatives, including mobile banking and mobile payments. These initiatives are likely to provide greater benefits to those individuals that own a mobile phone. By applying gender analysis to phone ownership, we believe that we can anticipate some potentially unexpected negative consequences for women created by these mobile phone initiatives. This paper outlines current rural sex-disaggregated phone ownership trends, determinants of phone ownership, and related impacts on intrahousehold decision making. We believe that by identifying these gender differences in mobile phone ownership, policymakers can better target their digital economy initiatives.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; mobile phones; developing countries; socioeconomic development; women's empowerment; rural areas; women; gender; marriage; agriculture; technological innovation; Sustainable Development Goals; intrahousehold decision making; rural households
    Date: 2023
  23. By: Benoit Perron; Michel Poitevin; Arthur Adam; Xénia Sozonoff
    Abstract: The global pandemic forced both political leaders and the population to look inward and question the efficiency and solidity of the foundations of our food supply system. In this extraordinary context, one of the issues that quickly came to the fore was food autonomy. Can food autonomy play a role as a self-insurance mechanism against global shocks to food demand or supply? The basic intuition is that these shocks affect international prices, and that it is possible to avoid or partially insulate oneself from these shocks by producing locally. Using a rigorous, evidence-based approach, this study provides a statistical/econometric analysis of food autonomy as a self-insurance mechanism, and a comparison of the role of food autonomy in three regions/countries: Quebec, Canada and France. The authors used two different econometric approaches: reduced-form regressions and an estimation method borrowed from market finance. Regardless of the estimation strategy used, the results are inconclusive. While food autonomy sometimes seems to play a self-insurance role, particularly in Quebec, this role is far from universal or widespread on an international scale. Also, although the results generally show that the degree of food autonomy is associated with a lower correlation between local and global inflation, they are not significant. The results of the estimations therefore do not allow us to conclude that food autonomy has a strong potential as a self-insurance mechanism. Probably a strategy of diversifying supply chains (including local production) would be desirable, but it's important to retain foreign sources of supply. La pandémie mondiale a forcé les dirigeants politiques ainsi que la population à faire une introspection et à se questionner sur l’efficacité et la solidité des fondations de notre système d’approvisionnement alimentaire. Dans ce contexte hors du commun, l’un des enjeux qui a rapidement été soulevé est celui de l’autonomie alimentaire. Est-ce que l’autonomie alimentaire peut jouer un rôle en tant que mécanisme d’auto-assurance contre des chocs mondiaux sur la demande ou l’offre de produits alimentaires à l’échelle internationale ? L’intuition de base est que ces chocs affectent les prix internationaux et qu’il est possible de se soustraire ou de s’isoler partiellement de ces chocs en produisant localement. Cette étude propose donc à travers une approche rigoureuse et basée sur des données probantes, une amorce d’analyses statistiques/économétriques de l’autonomie alimentaire en tant que mécanisme d’autoassurance, et une comparaison du rôle de cette autonomie alimentaire pour trois régions/pays : le Québec, le Canada et la France. Les auteurs ont utilisé deux approches économétriques différentes : des régressions utilisant une forme réduite et une méthode d’estimation empruntée à la finance de marchés. Les résultats obtenus, peu importe la stratégie d’estimation utilisée, ne sont pas concluants. Si l’autonomie alimentaire semble parfois jouer un rôle d’autoassurance, notamment au Québec, ce rôle est loin d’être universel ou répandu à l’échelle internationale. Aussi, bien que les résultats montrent généralement que le degré d’autonomie alimentaire est associé à une corrélation plus faible entre l’inflation locale et l’inflation mondiale, ils ne sont pas significatifs. Les résultats des estimations ne permettent donc pas de conclure au fort potentiel de l’autonomie alimentaire en tant que mécanisme d’autoassurance. Probablement qu’une stratégie de diversification des chaînes d’approvisionnement (incluant la production locale) serait désirable, mais qu’il est important de conserver les sources étrangères d’approvisionnement.
    Keywords: Food autonomy, biofood sector, government strategy, food inflation, autonomy ratio and price variance, Autonomie alimentaire, Secteur bioalimentaire, stratégie gouvernementale, Inflation alimentaire, ratio dâautonomie et variance des prix
    Date: 2023–09–28
  24. By: Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
    Abstract: In May 2023, Fakhraee et al. published a research article titled “Ocean alkalinity enhancement through restoration of blue carbon ecosystems” in Nature Sustainability. In this essay, we discuss an assessment of the costs of restoring and maintaining the mangrove-seagrass ecosystems indicated in the article.
    Date: 2023–09–04
  25. By: Malan, Mandy; Voors, Marten; Ankel-Peters, Jörg; Seje, Selan J.; Heuburger, Lotte; Seid, Dawud; Mitiku, Abiyot
    Abstract: Energy-efficient biomass cookstoves (EEBC) are an important technology for the three billion people relying on firewood and charcoal for cooking in the Global South. This paper assesses the price-responsiveness of demand for EEBC and the role of information about health and economic benefits. The pilot program under evaluation randomized different subsidy schemes (40%, 70%, and 100% subsidy) and information treatments across 292 Ethiopian villages. Unlike previous willingness-to-pay studies we examine a take-it-orleave-it approach in an uncontrolled and hence natural setting. We observe that EEBC demand is highly price-sensitive: There is virtually no EEBC uptake in the no-subsidy group, irrespective of which information households received. Yet, uptake increases considerably for households who received a high subsidy (70% or a 100%). Adding information on economic benefits nearly doubles uptake when coupled with such high subsidies. Our results confirm the emerging picture in the literature suggesting that subsidization for EEBC is required to foster widespread adoption.
    Keywords: Household technology adoption, biomass consumption, randomized controlled trial, humanitarian assistance, environmental degradation
    JEL: C93 O12 O13 Q41 Q48
    Date: 2023
  26. By: Bahia Bouchafaa (National Polytechnic School Algiers)
    Abstract: Algeria has experienced these last three years, two shocks that are COVID-19 Russian-Ukrainian conflict , and this affected wheat availability and accessibility ; which revealed the vulnerability of the wheat sector in Algeria to shocks. This article aims to clarify the situation of Algerian wheat sector through measurement of its resilience to shocks in order to find solutions in case of fragility. Our study shown that Algerian wheat sector is vulnerable to shocks. Solution is to try to improve production.
    Keywords: Resilience Shock Supply Value chain Wheat sector. JEL Classification Codes: H40 Q18 R00. Bahia BOUCHFAA, Resilience, Shock, Supply, Value chain, Wheat sector. JEL Classification Codes: H40, Q18, R00. Bahia BOUCHFAA
    Date: 2023–06–04
  27. By: West, Jeremy; Fairlie, Robert W; Pratt, Bryan; Rose, Liam
    Keywords: resource conservation, program evaluation, smart meter technology, Other Environmental Sciences, Applied Economics, Applied economics
    Date: 2021–11–01
  28. By: Caterina Lepore; Roshen Fernando
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the global economic consequences of physical climate risks under two Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP 1-2.6 and SSP 2-4.5) using firm-level evidence. Firstly, we estimate the historical sectoral productivity changes from chronic climate risks (gradual changes in temperature and precipitation) and extreme climate conditions (representative of heatwaves, coldwaves, droughts, and floods). Secondly, we produce forward-looking sectoral productivity changes for a global multisectoral sample of firms. For floods, these estimates account for the persistent productivity changes from the damage to firms’ physical capital. Thirdly, we assess the macroeconomic impact of these shocks within the global, multisectoral, intertemporal general equilibrium model: G-Cubed. The results indicate that, in the absence of additional adaptation relative to that already achieved by 2020, all the economies would experience substantial losses under the two climate scenarios and the losses would increase with global warming. The results can be useful for policymakers and practitioners interested in conducting climate risk analysis.
    Date: 2023–09–08
  29. By: Sandhya Garg; Samarth Gupta; Sushanta Mallick (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether better financial access can mitigate the impact of social identity on entrepreneurship. Using a novel dataset of Indian villages and distance to bank branches, we find that proximity to a bank branch improves non-agricultural entrepreneurship of underprivileged caste groups in India, with a significant entry occurring in sectors which were dominated by the privileged caste groups. We find that this effect is mediated by the uptake of institutional credit by under-privileged groups. Our results show that the financial inclusion can break rigid social norms around caste and occupation in India.
    Date: 2023

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