nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒09‒25
twenty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona


  1. Do Households Where Women Own Land Fare Better for Food Security? Evidence for Tanzania By Burrone, Sara; Giannelli, Gianna Claudia
  2. Halving mineral nitrogen use in European agriculture: insights from multi-scale land-use models By Anna Lungarska; Thierry Brunelle; Raja Chakir; Pierre-Alain Jayet; Rémi Prudhomme; Stéphane de Cara; Jean-Christophe Bureau
  3. Risk Management in Traditional Agriculture: Intercropping in Italian Wine Production By Giovanni Federico; Pablo Martinelli Lasheras
  4. How reducing synthetic nitrogen in Europe affects ecosystem carbon and biodiversity: two perspectives of the same policy By N. Devaraju; Rémi Prudhomme; Anna Lungarska; Xuhui Wang; Zun Yin; Nathalie de Noblet-Decoudré; Raja R. Chakir; Pierre-Alain Jayet; Thierry Brunelle; Nicolas Viovy; Adriana De Palma; Ricardo Gonzalez; Philippe Ciais
  5. Farmer-friendly delivery of veterinary services: Experimental insights from the Kenyan dairy sector By Maina, Kevin W.; Parlasca, Martin C.; Rao, Elizaphan J.O.; Qaim, Matin
  6. Price-, Taste-, and Convenience-Competitive Plant-Based Meat Would Not Currently Replace Meat By Peacock, Jacob Robert
  7. Model farm services centers in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Evaluation and the way forward By Rana, Abdul Wajid; ul Haq, Zahoor; Iqbal, Javed; Shazad, Muhammad Faisal; Haider, Syed Zeeshan
  8. Assessing the economic, social and environmental impacts of food waste reduction targets - A model-based analysis By DE JONG Beyhan; BOYSEN-URBAN Kirsten; DE LAURENTIIS Valeria; PHILIPPIDIS George; BARTELINGS H.; MANCINI Lucia; BIGANZOLI Fabrizio; SANYE MENGUAL Esther; SALA Serenella; LASARTE LOPEZ Jesus; ROKICKI Bartlomiej; M'BAREK Robert
  9. Exploring the Drivers of Spain's Nutritional Transition: From Meat Shortages to Excess (1958-1990) By Pablo Delgado,
  10. Lexicographic Ordering and Loss Aversion among Low-Income Farmers By James Roumasset
  11. A Big Push of Panda from the Ground: Land Subsidy and Structural Transformation in China By Shawn Xiaoguang Chen; Yudan Cheng; Liutang Gong; Wenjia Tian
  12. Economic and environmental impacts of disease resistant crops developed with cisgenesis By SCHNEIDER Kevin; BARREIRO HURLE Jesus; KESSEL Geert; SCHOUTEN Henk; VOSSEN Jack; STRASSEMEYER Jörn; RODRIGUEZ CEREZO Emilio
  13. Empirical testing of consumers' perceptions of differences in package and product version of seemingly identical branded food products By SOLANO HERMOSILLA Gloria; BARREIRO HURLE Jesus; LANDZAAT Wouter; DI MARCANTONIO Federica; SUTER James; CIAIAN Pavel
  14. Assessing the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Feeder Cattle Prices in Northeast Texas By Smith, Kelley; Lopez, Jose A.; Williams, Bob; Bakhtavoryan, Rafael
  15. Testing Above the Limit: Drinking Water Contamination and Test Scores By Michelle M. Marcus
  16. Energising Environmental Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of Governance Quality in Mitigating the Environmental Impact of Energy Poverty By Stephen K. Dimnwobi; Kingsley I. Okere; Favour C. Onuoha; Benedict I. Uzoechina; Chukwunonso Ekesiobi; Ebele S. Nwokoye
  17. Drinking Water Contaminant Concentrations and Birth Outcomes By Elaine L. Hill; Richard DiSalvo
  18. Effects of Climate Vulnerability on Household Sanitation Access, Functionality and Practices in Rural Cambodia By Sattar, Rana Abdel; Rogla, Jennifer PhD; Toeur, Veasna; Kozole, Tyler; Nicoletti, Chris; Harper, James
  19. Does costlier waste treatment lead to less residual waste? Evidence from Swedish municipalities By Meens-Eriksson, Sef
  20. Missing the Forest for the Trees: Ekiti State’s Quest for Forestry Revenue and its Impact on Forest Management By Occhiali, Giovanni; Falade, Michael

  1. By: Burrone, Sara (University of Florence); Giannelli, Gianna Claudia (University of Florence)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the relationship between women's land ownership and household food security in Tanzania, using data from three waves of the Tanzanian National Panel Survey. The analysis focuses on the Household Dietary Diversity Scale (HDDS) as a measure of food security, and we categorize land ownership by gender and whether it is solely or jointly owned. Additionally, we examine the impact of the gendered division of crop cultivation on household food security, distinguishing between cash crops and food crops. We estimate several fixed-effects specifications and perform a heterogeneity analysis to disentangle the effects of women's land ownership across households with varying levels of dependence on home-produced food. The findings reveal that women's land ownership significantly influences household dietary diversity. Specifically, women's sole ownership of food crops and joint ownership of cash crops have positive effects on household food security, especially for households reliant on purchased food. These results underscore the importance of women's ownership of income-generating crops in enhancing food security. Overall, this research provides valuable insights for policymakers, emphasizing the significance of women's land ownership in driving household food security in Tanzania. By uncovering the positive impacts of women's land ownership, the study highlights the importance of gender equity in agricultural systems and the potential for women's empowerment to foster sustainable development and food security.
    Keywords: gender equity, food security, land ownership, Tanzania
    JEL: O12 Q15
    Date: 2023–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp16382&r=agr
  2. By: Anna Lungarska (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Thierry Brunelle (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Raja Chakir (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Pierre-Alain Jayet (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Rémi Prudhomme (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Stéphane de Cara (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jean-Christophe Bureau (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the effects of a public policy that reduces by 50% the use of mineral nitrogen in European agriculture. We use two techno-economic models to investigate the impacts on agricultural production, prices, and land use changes at the EU and global levels. Results show that halving synthetic fertilizer use leads to a decrease in agricultural production, a substantial increase in nitrogen use efficiency, and lower use of organic fertilizer. More importantly, we show that the results will critically depend on the potential for supply side adjustment, particularly, regarding the expansion of cropland area.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous explorons les effets d'une politique publique qui réduit de 50% l'utilisation de l'azote minéral dans l'agriculture européenne. Nous utilisons deux modèles technico-économiques pour étudier les impacts sur la production agricole, les prix et les changements d'utilisation des terres aux niveaux européen et mondial. Les résultats montrent que la réduction de moitié de l'utilisation des engrais synthétiques entraîne une diminution de la production agricole, une augmentation substantielle de l'efficacité de l'utilisation de l'azote et une utilisation moindre des engrais organiques. Plus important encore, nous montrons que les résultats dépendront de manière critique du potentiel d'ajustement de l'offre, notamment en ce qui concerne l'expansion des terres cultivées.
    Keywords: agriculture, land use, nitrogen pollution, trade, environment., Environment
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:ciredw:hal-03761774&r=agr
  3. By: Giovanni Federico (Division of Social Sciences, New York University Abu Dhabi and CEPR); Pablo Martinelli Lasheras (Department of Social Sciences, University Carlos III of Madrid and Figuerola Institute)
    Abstract: In this paper we provide an economic interpretation of intercropping as a risk management strategy based on spatial diversification of production. We study vine intercropping - i.e., scattering vines across fields rather than concentrating them in specialized vineyards - a traditional practice in Italian agriculture. We claim that, in absence of developed financial markets, spatial diversification provided a third layer of insurance to peasants operating in traditional agrarian economics, different from and in addition to crop diversification at the farm level and risk-sharing through tenancy contracts at the estate level. Spatial diversification increased production costs, in particular transportation costs. Hence, the price of this form of insurance (and the likelihood of its adoption) depended critically on the rural settlement pattern. We test our model with data for 1930s Italy, where intercropping still prevailed in many areas of the country. We show that its adoption was positively related to the pattern of scattered dwellings which dated back to the late Middle Ages and reduced transportation costs to individual plots. The mass exodus from the countryside during the economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s made intercropping no longer viable.
    Keywords: intercropping, diversification, risk management, traditional agriculture, viticulture, Italy
    JEL: L23 N63 N64 O13 Q12 R14
    Date: 2023–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hes:wpaper:0233&r=agr
  4. By: N. Devaraju (LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Rémi Prudhomme (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Anna Lungarska (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Xuhui Wang (College of Urban and Environmental Sciences [Beijing] - Peking University [Beijing]); Zun Yin (LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nathalie de Noblet-Decoudré (LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Raja R. Chakir (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Pierre-Alain Jayet (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Thierry Brunelle (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Nicolas Viovy (LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Adriana De Palma (Department of Life Sciences - NHM - The Natural History Museum [London]); Ricardo Gonzalez (Department of Life Sciences - NHM - The Natural History Museum [London], Department of Life Sciences - Imperial College London); Philippe Ciais (LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate the impacts of a public policy scenario that aims to halve nitrogen (N) fertilizer application across European Union (EU) agriculture on both carbon (C) sequestration and biodiversity changes. We quantify the impacts on ecosystem C and biodiversity by integrating economic models (supply-side model AROPAj and partial equilibrium model NLU) with an agricultural land surface model (ORCHIDEE-CROP) and a biodiversity model (PREDICTS). The two economic models simulate contrasting ways of implementing a 50% nitrogen reduction policy: a massive land abandonment with a large reduction in agricultural production (AROPAj); an extensification of crop production with a smaller reduction in agricultural production (NLU). Here, we show that the two economic scenarios lead to different outcomes in terms of C sequestration potential and biodiversity. Land abandonment associated with increased fertilizer price in the supply-side model facilitates higher C sequestration in soils (+1, 014 MtC) and similar species richness levels (+1.9%) at the EU scale. On the other hand, more extensive crop production is associated with lower C sequestration potential in soils (-97 MtC) and similar species richness levels (-0.4%) because of a lower area of grazing land. Our results therefore highlight the complexity of the environmental consequences of a nitrogen reduction policy, which will depend fundamentally on how it is implemented.
    Abstract: Dans cette étude, nous examinons les impacts d'un scénario de politique publique visant à réduire de moitié l'application d'engrais azotés (N) dans l'agriculture de l'Union européenne (UE) sur la séquestration du carbone (C) et les changements de biodiversité. Nous quantifions les impacts sur le C et la biodiversité des écosystèmes en intégrant des modèles économiques (modèle de l'offre AROPAj et modèle d'équilibre partiel NLU) avec un modèle de surface des terres agricoles (ORCHIDEE-CROP) et un modèle de biodiversité (PREDICTS). Les deux modèles économiques simulent des manières contrastées de mettre en œuvre une politique de réduction de 50% de l'azote : un abandon massif des terres avec une forte réduction de la production agricole (AROPAj) ; une extensification de la production végétale avec une plus faible réduction de la production agricole (NLU). Nous montrons ici que les deux scénarios économiques conduisent à des résultats différents en termes de potentiel de séquestration du carbone et de biodiversité. L'abandon des terres associé à une augmentation du prix des engrais dans le modèle de l'offre facilite une plus grande séquestration de C dans les sols (+1, 014 MtC) et des niveaux de richesse des espèces similaires (+1, 9%) à l'échelle de l'UE. En revanche, une production végétale plus extensive est associée à un potentiel de séquestration de carbone plus faible dans les sols (-97 MtC) et à des niveaux de richesse des espèces similaires (-0, 4 %) en raison d'une surface de pâturage plus faible. Nos résultats soulignent donc la complexité des conséquences environnementales d'une politique de réduction de l'azote, qui dépendra fondamentalement de la manière dont elle sera mise en œuvre.
    Keywords: Agricultural land surface model
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:ciredw:hal-03763653&r=agr
  5. By: Maina, Kevin W.; Parlasca, Martin C.; Rao, Elizaphan J.O.; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Poor health conditions of livestock cause sizeable losses for many farmers in the Global South. Veterinary services, including vaccinations, could help but often fail to reach farmers under typical smallholder conditions. Here, we examine how the provision of a vaccine against East Cost Fever (ECF) – a tick-borne disease affecting cattle in Africa – can be designed to reduce typical adoption barriers. Using data from a choice experiment with dairy farmers in Kenya, we evaluate farmers’ preferences and willingness to pay for various institutional innovations in vaccine delivery, such as a stronger role of dairy cooperatives, new payment modalities with a check-off system, vaccination at farmers’ homestead, and bundling vaccinations with discounts for livestock insurance. Our data reveal that farmers’ awareness of the ECF vaccine is limited and adoption rates are low, largely due to institutional constraints. Results from mixed logit and latent class models suggest that suitable institutional innovations – tailored to farmers’ heterogeneous conditions – could significantly increase adoption. This general finding likely also holds for other veterinary technologies and services in the Global South.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ubzefd:338419&r=agr
  6. By: Peacock, Jacob Robert (The Humane League Labs)
    Abstract: Plant-based meats, like the Beyond Sausage or Impossible Burger, and cultivated meats have become a source of optimism for reducing animal-based meat usage. Public health, environmental, and animal welfare advocates aim to mitigate the myriad harms of meat usage. The price, taste, and convenience (PTC) hypothesis posits that if plant-based meat is competitive with animal-based meat on these three criteria, the large majority of current consumers would replace animal-based meat with plant-based meat. The PTC hypothesis rests on the premise that PTC primarily drive food choice. The PTC hypothesis and premise are both likely false. A majority of current consumers would continue eating primarily animal-based meat even if plant-based meats were PTC-competitive. PTC do not mainly determine food choices of current consumers; social and psychological factors also play important roles. Although not examined here, there may exist other viable approaches to drive the replacement of animal-based meats with plant-based meats. There is insufficient empirical evidence to more precisely estimate or optimize the current (or future) impacts of plant-based meat. To rectify this, consider funding: research measuring the effects of plant-based meat sales on displacement of animal-based meat; research comparing the effects of plant-based meats with other interventions to reduce animal-based meat usage; and informed (non-blinded) taste tests to benchmark current plant-based meats and enable measurements of taste improvement over time.
    Date: 2023–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:bs2tp&r=agr
  7. By: Rana, Abdul Wajid; ul Haq, Zahoor; Iqbal, Javed; Shazad, Muhammad Faisal; Haider, Syed Zeeshan
    Abstract: The sub-national Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan enacted Farm Services Centers Act, 2014, to establish Model Farm Services Centers (MFSCs) and Farm Services Centers as “one stop-shop†based on public-private partnership principle to strengthen extension system. The aim of these Centers is to empower small farmers at a platform to enhance their knowledge and skills and availability of quality agricultural inputs as stipulated in Section 4(g) of the Act, 2014, that each FSC shall “purchase certified seed, fertilizers, animal husbandry services, quality veterinary heath care services and medicines, farm machinery, expertise and technology for provision to the members who are registered with the Centre on affordable rates in comparison to open market rates†. The objective is to improve rural livelihoods, and development of the rural economy.
    Keywords: PAKISTAN; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; agricultural sector; farms; partnerships; extension; agricultural inputs; markets; livelihoods; rural economics; farm servies centers
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:pacewp:july2023&r=agr
  8. By: DE JONG Beyhan (European Commission - JRC); BOYSEN-URBAN Kirsten; DE LAURENTIIS Valeria (European Commission - JRC); PHILIPPIDIS George; BARTELINGS H. (European Commission - JRC); MANCINI Lucia (European Commission - JRC); BIGANZOLI Fabrizio; SANYE MENGUAL Esther (European Commission - JRC); SALA Serenella (European Commission - JRC); LASARTE LOPEZ Jesus; ROKICKI Bartlomiej (European Commission - JRC); M'BAREK Robert (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Halving food waste by 2030 is an ambitious target of the Sustainable Development Goals, echoed by the Farm to Fork Strategy within the European Green Deal. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of the economy-wide implications for different food waste reduction targets. The study utilizes the further adapted computable general equilibrium model MAGNET and employs a range of sustainability indicators to analyse the economic, social, and environmental impacts associated with the reduction of food waste. A bottom-up analysis based on life cycle assessment is conducted as an additional approach to assess the environmental implications of achieving the food waste reduction targets. The results show that despite income reductions in the food chain as a consequence of the declining demand, positive effects in other economic areas offset these losses. Additionally, food waste reduction is expected to yield substantial environmental benefits, as well as increase food affordability and financial savings for households.
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipt:iptwpa:jrc133971&r=agr
  9. By: Pablo Delgado, (University of Zaragoza)
    Abstract: The modern nutritional transition is characterized by a significant increase in protein consumption derived from animal-based foods, particularly meat. Despite its importance, the underlying drivers of this process have not been extensively explored, especially from a quantitative perspective. Some authors attribute it to demand-side factors such as growth in income, population, and urbanization rates, while others focus on supply-side factors such as the decline in livestock product prices due to the intensification of the livestock industry. This study seeks to fill this gap by examining quantitatively the role of demand, supply, and consumer preferences in driving the increase in meat consumption in Spain, a Mediterranean country that completed its modern nutritional transition in the latter half of the 20th century.
    Keywords: nutritional transition, meat, Spain, consumption
    JEL: N34 N54 O13 E21
    Date: 2023–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hes:wpaper:0234&r=agr
  10. By: James Roumasset (University of Hawaii Manoa)
    Abstract: As Richard Day explained, expected utility theory suffers from procedural irrationality. This and other problems are illustrated here in the context of decision-making among low-income farmers. Farmers in developing countries are commonly thought to underinvest in modern techniques because their low incomes make them especially risk averse. In addition to the procedural leap of faith, highly restrictive assumptions are needed to apply expected utility theory to the problem. Nor does expected utility theory, as usually prescribed, fit the narrative of loss aversion. The reader is introduced to a procedurally rational substitute called lexicographic safety first. The model is illustrated for the case of rice fertilization in the Philippines, and policy implications are drawn. To illustrate the potential appeal of lexicographic ordering for other applications involving thresholds, a lexicographic model of rational addiction is also provided.
    Keywords: technology adoption, agricultural development, risk, subsistence, satisficing
    JEL: D21 D81 O33 Q16
    Date: 2023–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hai:wpaper:202306&r=agr
  11. By: Shawn Xiaoguang Chen (Business School, The University of Western Australia); Yudan Cheng (School of Statistics and Mathematics, Central University of Finance and Economics); Liutang Gong (Guanghua School of Management, Peking University and School of International Economics and Management, Beijing Technology and Business University); Wenjia Tian (School of Statistics and Mathematics, Central University of Finance and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of land policies in China’s structural transformation, focusing on industrial land subsidies and their impacts on the industrial sector’s share of GDP. Drawing on the "big push" theory, we argue that these subsidies address the fixed costs of industrialization and trigger structural transformation. Additionally, we show that land subsidies may not necessarily boost industrialization due to their potential to misallocate resources and lower aggregate productivity. Using a calibrated model, our counterfactual analysis shows that China’s land subsidies contribute to a 40% difference in industrial GDP share between China and the rest of the world.
    Keywords: Structural transformation, Industrialization, Industrial land subsidy, Big push
    JEL: O14 L52 R52 H2
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uwa:wpaper:23-09&r=agr
  12. By: SCHNEIDER Kevin (European Commission - JRC); BARREIRO HURLE Jesus (European Commission - JRC); KESSEL Geert; SCHOUTEN Henk; VOSSEN Jack; STRASSEMEYER Jörn; RODRIGUEZ CEREZO Emilio (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: In the recent Study on the status of new genomic techniques under Union law and in light of the Court of Justice ruling in Case C-528/16 regarding the Status of New Genomic Techniques (NGTs) under Union Law, the European Commission defines NGTs as techniques which are able to alter the genetic material of an organism, developed after the publication of the EU Directive 2001/18/EC (European Commission, 2021). Last year, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission published two reports on the technological stateof-the-art and on current and future market applications of NGTs (Broothaerts et al., 2021; C. Parisi & Rodriguez-Cerezo, 2021). Here, we present two case studies on crops with improved biotic resistances which were developed with a NGT. Namely, cisgenic potatoes with resistance to Phytophthora infestans and cisgenic apples with resistance to Venturia inaequalis. We will discuss the potential advantages of cisgenesis in tackling challenges breeders currently face in the development of varieties with improved biotic resistances, and assess potential impacts that these varieties could have for the European agri-food system.
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipt:iptwpa:jrc131721&r=agr
  13. By: SOLANO HERMOSILLA Gloria; BARREIRO HURLE Jesus (European Commission - JRC); LANDZAAT Wouter; DI MARCANTONIO Federica; SUTER James; CIAIAN Pavel (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Differences in composition of seemingly identically branded food products (DC-SIP), also known as dual food quality, occur when a good is marketed as identical (i.e. under the same brand and with the same or similar package, but its composition differs substantially across Member States. In this context, what makes consumers perceive goods as identical based on their presentation and, in particular, front-of-pack design remains an open question. The purpose of the study is to understand how the variation of the front-of-pack of a seemingly identical branded food product affects consumers’ ability to perceive packages as different, whether this translates in believing that products are different, and their ability to take informed transactional decisions. The study uses primary data collected through an online survey to provide insights on two fronts. First, it informs policymakers whether, and under what circumstances, the front-of-pack presentation allows consumers to identify products’ versions; and second, whether these differences translate into consumers believing that the products are different. Overall, the results indicate the influence of front-of-pack design elements on the perception of package and product differences and on consumer choices; however these differ across FOP design elements and products highlighting the need for a case-by-case assessment. This suggests that some packaging elements, though seen, do not convey differences in the product.
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipt:iptwpa:jrc130388&r=agr
  14. By: Smith, Kelley; Lopez, Jose A.; Williams, Bob; Bakhtavoryan, Rafael
    Abstract: This study estimates how COVID has affected feeder cattle prices in Northeast Texas for the period 2019-2021. The study examines preconditioned cattle, which seem to be a less-risky and better-suiting market to some feedlots. The study evaluates two models, a separate means ANOVA model and a multiple regression model, and uses sales auction data for the months of September from the North East Texas Beef Improvement Organization at the Sulphur Springs Livestock Auction in Sulphur Springs, Texas. A total of 447 lots encompassing 14, 941 heads were analyzed to determine the effects of COVID-19 on feeder cattle prices. The study found price differences in preconditioned feeder cattle among various COVID stages. The September 2021 and the September 2020 auction prices were higher and statistically different from the September 2019 auction by $10.28/cwt and $7.09/cwt respectively, regardless of weight, average, and sex. In addition, several interaction variables as well as variables such as average weight, heifers, and year were statistically significant. This study assists feeder cattle producers, beef organizations, ranchers, and feedlots in the area in assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saea22:338472&r=agr
  15. By: Michelle M. Marcus
    Abstract: This paper provides the first estimates of the contemporaneous effect of drinking water quality violations on students’ academic achievement. Using student-level test score data with residential addresses, geographic information on water systems, and drinking water violations from North Carolina, I estimate the within-student impacts of poor water quality on student test scores. Exposure to a bacteria violation during the school year decreases math scores by about 0.037 standard deviations when the public is uninformed. Results suggest that poor water quality may impact retention or comprehension of material throughout the school year.
    JEL: I18 I24 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2023–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:31564&r=agr
  16. By: Stephen K. Dimnwobi (Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria); Kingsley I. Okere (Gregory University, Uturu, Nigeria); Favour C. Onuoha (Evangel University Akaeze, Nigeria); Benedict I. Uzoechina (Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria); Chukwunonso Ekesiobi (Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Nigeria); Ebele S. Nwokoye (Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The Sub-Saharan Africa region is disproportionately affected by energy poverty and is considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Therefore, addressing the pressing challenges of energy poverty and promoting environmental sustainability in this region is of paramount importance. Consequently, this study appraises the relationship between energy poverty and ecological preservation in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2005 to 2020, using government effectiveness and regulatory quality as moderating variables. A combination of energy poverty indicators and an index of energy poverty computed via the principal component analysis method were applied to identify the link between energy poverty and ecological sustainability. The instrumental variable generalized method of moment technique was applied to address the likelihood of endogeneity issues, and the Driscoll-Kraay approach was employed to check the consistency of the instrumental variable generalized method of moment method. Key findings indicate that energy poverty expands the ecological footprint in Sub-Saharan Africa, leading to ecological deterioration, while the interaction with government effectiveness and regulatory quality further deteriorates the environment. Subsequently, the study provides several recommendations to mitigate the influence of energy poverty on the environment.
    Keywords: Energy Poverty, Environmental Sustainability, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exs:wpaper:23/050&r=agr
  17. By: Elaine L. Hill; Richard DiSalvo
    Abstract: Previous research in the US has found negative health effects of contamination when it triggers regulatory violations. An important question is whether levels of contamination that do not trigger a health-based violation impact health. We study the impact of drinking water contamination in community water systems on birth outcomes using drinking water sampling results data in Pennsylvania. We create an overall water quality index and an index specific to reproductive health. We focus on the effects of water contamination for births not exposed to regulatory violations. Our most rigorous specification employs mother fixed effects and finds changing from the 10th to the 90th percentile of water contamination (among births not exposed to regulatory violations) increases low birth weight by 12% and preterm birth by 17%.
    JEL: I1 Q53
    Date: 2023–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:31567&r=agr
  18. By: Sattar, Rana Abdel; Rogla, Jennifer PhD; Toeur, Veasna; Kozole, Tyler; Nicoletti, Chris; Harper, James
    Abstract: With climate events increasing in frequency and severity, effects on human life, particularly those most vulnerable, are projected to increase in coming decades. Defined as climate vulnerability, risks from climate events can take many forms, including flood damage to basic infrastructure, like household toilets. In this study of households in rural Cambodia, we investigate how climate vulnerability correlates with toilet dysfunction and abandonment using two household surveys, a latrine sales database, two flood-extent maps, and a composite climate vulnerability index. Using multiple linear regression and measures of association, we show that together and individually, increasing climate vulnerability and poverty increased toilet abandonment. Toilet dysfunction occurred more frequently in flood-prone regions during the rainy season and increased with more household members. How living in flood-prone regions affected households’ perceptions, practices, and experiences with sanitation was also characterized in detail. The results highlight the need for more scientifically rigorous evidence to improve climate-resilient toilet designs that provide access to a functional toilet year-round. Beyond technology, household behavior towards and maintenance of sanitation infrastructure is a critical concern, as unsafe practices were found to be more common among climate vulnerable households. Resources from the private, non-profit and government sectors must be re-routed to improve access to affordable sanitation in climate vulnerable regions. The sector should also strive to improve access to safely managed sanitation in rural communities, particularly ones who are most affected by climate change, in order to prevent pollution of natural resources and further protect public health.
    Date: 2023–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:vxtka&r=agr
  19. By: Meens-Eriksson, Sef (Department of Economics, Umeå University)
    Abstract: In this paper, I study municipal price sensitivity of demand for disposal of residual waste (unsorted waste from households) and mechanisms underlying the relationship. First, I estimate the effect on households’ generation of residual waste with respect to municipal waste collection policies. Second, I estimate to what extent municipalities change waste policy in response to higher costs for disposal of municipal residual waste. The empirical analysis is based on data regarding Swedish municipalities’ waste management systems and disposal costs in the period 2010–2019. Results suggests that the price elasticity of demand is in the range 0.20–0.24. The effect is almost entirely driven by municipalities’ implementation of weight-based collection tariffs for residual waste in response to costlier disposal. Besides weight-based tariffs, separate collection of food waste and joint collection of residual waste and recyclables are also found to have substantial negative effects on residual waste quantities. Nevertheless, such waste policies are not more likely to be implemented in response to higher disposal costs for the municipality.
    Keywords: Demand for waste; waste economics; waste management; environmental taxes
    JEL: D10 Q01 Q50 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2023–09–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:umnees:1015&r=agr
  20. By: Occhiali, Giovanni; Falade, Michael
    Abstract: Forests are important socio-economic assets in many low-income countries. However, they are often over-exploited as governments do not sufficiently valorise them, including by taxing them inefficiently. This is the case across Nigeria, where forest management and taxation has been effectively decentralised from the federal government to individual states. In this paper we assess the current forestry tax regime in Ekiti State, one of the eight Nigerian states where forests represent more than 50 per cent of land area, and where forest revenue has been historically relevant. Based on 16 interviews with government state officials, forest officers and actors from the industry, as well as data from the Forestry Commission, our analysis suggests that the ongoing depletion of forest resources in the state seems to be partially connected to an excessive focus on their capacity to generate revenue. The conceptualisation of the Ekiti State Forestry Commission as a revenue-raising agency rather than a management one, a continuous drive to extract revenue from the sector through outdated tax rates, and a view of the industry potential disconnected from the existing stock, all perversely led to a lower contribution from forestry to the state budget. While there is potential to reform both the structure of forestry taxes and their method of administration, evidence from our interviews suggests that priority should be given to enforcing a ban on forest exploitation for a period that is long enough to allow for its regrowth, at least in government reserves. This will require substantial sensitisation and engagement with actors in the sector, as well as increasing the monitoring capacity of the Forestry Commission. The Forestry Commission does not currently have enough staff to guarantee the enforcement of existing legislation, let alone a ban on all forest activities.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Finance, Governance,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idq:ictduk:18072&r=agr

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