nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒09‒18
eighteen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Improving the market for livestock production households to alleviate food insecurity in the Philippines By Duong, Thi Minh Phuong; SARI, NI PUTU WULAN PURNAMA; Mazenda, Adrino; Le, Tam-Tri; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
  2. Statement based on the 4 TH international conference on global food security – December 2020: Challenges for a disruptive research Agenda By Patrick Caron; Martin van Ittersum; Tessa Avermaete; Gianluca Brunori; Jessica Fanzo; Ken Giller; Etienne Hainzelin; John Ingram; Lise Korsten; Yves Martin-Prével; Moses Osiru; Cheryl Palm; Marta Rivera Ferre; Mariana Rufino; Sergio Schneider; Alban Thomas; Daniel Walker
  3. The Effects of Climate Change in the Poorest Countries: Evidence from the Permanent Shrinking of Lake Chad By Jedwab, Remi; Haslop, Federico; Zarate, Roman; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos
  4. Alternative forest management strategies to adapt to climate change: An economic evaluation for Germany By Rosenkranz, Lydia; Arnim, Gundula$cvon; Englert, Hermann; Husmann, Kai; Regelmann, Cornelius; Roering, Hans-Walter; Rosenberger, Richard; Seintsch, Björn; Dieter, Matthias; Möhring, Bernhard
  5. Sustainable urbanization and vulnerability to climate change in Africa: Accounting for digitalization and institutional quality By Aurelien K. Yeyouomo; Simplice A. Asongu
  6. The Causal Effects of Enclosures on Production and Productivity By Lazuka, Volha; Bengtsson, Tommy; Svensson, Patrick
  7. Agricultural Commodity Price Dynamics: Evidence from BVAR Models By Olga Bondarenko
  8. Climate, weather, and child health in Burkina Faso By Dasgupta, Shouro; Robinson, Elizabeth
  9. Sustainable Waste: Biomimetic Solutions For Medical and Food Waste Management Systems in the United States By See, Priti
  10. Extreme temperatures: Gender differences in well-being By Ignacio Belloc; J. Ignacio Giménez-Nadal; José Alberto Molina
  11. RICE-MED, an integrated assessment model for the Mediterranean basin: assessing the climate-economy-agriculture nexus By Chiara Castelli; Marta Castellini; Camilla Gusperti; Veronica Lupi; Sergio Vergalli
  12. Economywide impacts of expansion of maritime trade efficiencies in Senegal - A recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium approach By Amarendra Sahoo; Victor Nechifor; Emanuele Ferrari; Valeria Ferreira; Damit Serge Didier Amany
  13. Climate Policy and Trade in Polluting Technologies By Ferguson, Shon; Heijmans, Roweno J.R.K.
  14. Impact of trade and structural change on the sub-Saharan African economies By Paul I. Ko; Ryo Makioka; Karim Nchare
  15. Climate Change Strategy and India's Federalism By Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Farah Zahir
  16. Temperature and Maltreatment of Young Children By Mary F. Evans; Ludovica Gazze; Jessamyn Schaller
  17. It's not a sprint, it's a marathon: Reviewing governmental R&D support for environmental innovation By Meißner, Leonie; Peterson, Sonja; Semrau, Finn Ole
  18. Papua New Guinea food price bulletin: July 2023 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

  1. By: Duong, Thi Minh Phuong; SARI, NI PUTU WULAN PURNAMA; Mazenda, Adrino; Le, Tam-Tri; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
    Abstract: Food security is one of the major concerns in the Philippines. Although livestock and poultry production accounts for a significant proportion of the country’s agricultural output, smallholder households are still vulnerable to food insecurity. The current study aims to examine how livestock production and selling difficulties affect smallholder households’ food-insecure conditions. For this objective, Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics was employed on a dataset of the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Data in Emergencies Monitoring (DIEM) system. We found that production and selling difficulties significantly adversely affect food insecurity in the Philippines. However, their effects vary according to the severity of food insecurity. In particular, production and selling difficulties affect the households’ likelihood of eating less healthy and nutritious food equally. However, the production difficulties have more negligible impacts on the possibility of skipping meals and even ambiguous impacts on the likelihood of not eating for a whole day compared to the effects of selling difficulties. Moreover, we also found that the market plays a crucial role in facilitating not only livestock trading but also livestock production (e.g., purchase of feed and medicines). Based on these findings, we suggest that the livestock market needs to be expanded and regulated to maintain the balancing prices between livestock products and products and services used for livestock production, and facilitate the product-exchanging mechanism.
    Date: 2023–08–04
  2. By: Patrick Caron (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Martin van Ittersum (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Tessa Avermaete (KU Leuven - Catholic University of Leuven - Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); Gianluca Brunori (University of Pisa - Università di Pisa); Jessica Fanzo (John’s Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics); Ken Giller (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Etienne Hainzelin (Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); John Ingram (University of Oxford); Lise Korsten (University of Pretoria [South Africa]); Yves Martin-Prével (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Moses Osiru (ICIPE - International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology - ICIPE); Cheryl Palm (UF - University of Florida [Gainesville]); Marta Rivera Ferre (INGENIO - CSIC-UPV); Mariana Rufino (Lancaster University); Sergio Schneider (UFRGS - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul [Porto Alegre]); Alban Thomas (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Daniel Walker (ACIAR - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research)
    Abstract: The 4th Global Food Security conference highlighted four major developments: the shift from food security to food systems; a focus on diets and consumption patterns; the importance of unknown futures and inherent uncertainties and risks; and the central role of multi-level connections between local- and global-oriented research. These shifts highlight the importance for research to contribute to dialogue and collective intelligence through evidence-based brokerage, and to move beyond polarization of debates. These shifts also call for the involvement of scientists in multi-stakeholder arrangements to strengthen innovation and learning at different levels, and for their participation in foresight studies to help navigate plausible futures. Delegates discussed five scientific challenges to be addressed through both research investments and by improving science-policy interfaces.
    Keywords: Food systems, Scientific challenges, Science-policy interface, Transformation, Innovation
    Date: 2021–09
  3. By: Jedwab, Remi (New York University); Haslop, Federico (George Washington University); Zarate, Roman (World Bank); Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos (World Bank)
    Abstract: Empirical studies of the economic effects of climate change (CC) largely rely on climate anomalies for causal identification purposes. Slow and permanent changes in climate-driven geographical conditions, i.e. CC as defined by the IPCC (2013), have been studied relatively less, especially in Africa which remains the most vulnerable continent to CC. We focus on Lake Chad, which used to be the 11th-largest lake in the world. This African lake the size of El Salvador, Israel, or Massachusetts slowly shrunk by 90% for exogenous reasons between 1963 and 1990. While water supply decreased, land supply increased, generating a priori ambiguous effects. These effects make the increasing global disappearance of lakes a critical trend to study. For Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria, and Niger – 25% of sub-Saharan Africa's population –, we construct a novel data set tracking population patterns at a fine spatial level from the 1940s to the 2010s. Difference-in-differences show much slower growth in the proximity of the lake, but only after the lake started shrinking. These effects persist two decades after the lake stopped shrinking, implying limited adaptation. Additionally, the negative water supply effects on fishing, farming, and herding outweighed the growth in land supply and other positive effects. A quantitative spatial model used to rationalize these results and estimate aggregate welfare losses taking into account adaptation shows overall losses of about 6%. The model also allows us to study the aggregate and spatial effects of policies related to migration, land use, trade, roads, and cities.
    Keywords: climate change, aridification, shrinkage of lakes, natural disasters, environment, water supply, land supply, rural decline, agricultural sectors, adaptation, land use, Africa
    JEL: Q54 Q56 Q15 Q20 R11 R12 O13 O44
    Date: 2023–08
  4. By: Rosenkranz, Lydia; Arnim, Gundula$cvon; Englert, Hermann; Husmann, Kai; Regelmann, Cornelius; Roering, Hans-Walter; Rosenberger, Richard; Seintsch, Björn; Dieter, Matthias; Möhring, Bernhard
    Abstract: Since the year 2018, the yield and management situation in German forest enterprises is characterized by extreme weather events (storms, draught) and, consequently, bark beetle calamities, leading to a significant above-average occurrence of damaged timber. In addition to processing the damaged timber, forest managers are challenged to develop and implement silvicultural adaptation strategies to climate change in order to ensure future wood production and long-term viability of these enterprises. In our study, we aimed to estimate the long-term economic impacts of an active climate change adaptation strategy compared to a passive, successional adaptation strategy on the forestry sector under consideration of climate change induced survival probabilities, using - and enhancing - the Forest Economic Simulation Model (FESIM). Based on our study's assumptions about tree species changes, we find that active forest conversion demands greater initial financial investment. However, in the long run, it proves to be economically more sustainable despite persistent risks. This is due to the potential for higher growing stock, felling volume, and ultimately improved yields in the future. The findings from our analysis offer valuable insights and decision-making guidance for both forest enterprises and forest policy, regarding the two adaptation strategies.
    Keywords: forests, management strategies, climate change adaptation, economic impact, Wälder, Bewirtschaftungsstrategien, Anpassung an den Klimawandel, wirtschaftlicheAuswirkungen
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Aurelien K. Yeyouomo (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study empirically examines the effect of sustainable urbanization on vulnerability to climate change over a sample of 52 African countries from 1996 to 2019. We use the two-stage system generalized method of moments (GMM) empirical strategy and mediation analysis to assess direct and indirect impacts, respectively. The results of the direct analysis reveal that sustainable urbanization reduces vulnerability to climate change. The results of the indirect analysis also show that sustainable urbanization significantly reduces vulnerability to climate change through the channels of digitalization and institutional quality. The results also highlight that considering the direct effect of sustainable urbanization alone underestimates the impact of reducing vulnerability to climate change. The results are robust to an alternative indicator of vulnerability to climate and other estimation techniques. These results have important policy implications and provide evidence for the improvement of sustainable urbanization in terms of access to basic services or reduction of vulnerability to climate change.
    Keywords: Sustainable urbanization, Vulnerability to climate change, Digitalization, Institutional quality, Africa
    Date: 2023–01
  6. By: Lazuka, Volha (Lund University); Bengtsson, Tommy (Lund University); Svensson, Patrick (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
    Abstract: Enclosures enforced private property rights at the onset of industrialization, yet numerous estimations of the enclosures' effects on production and productivity rely on non- experimental designs. We estimate the causal effects of enclosure reforms applying state- of-the-art difference-in-differences and event-study methods to a large panel of farms observed between 1781 and 1865 in Sweden. Our results demonstrate that enclosures led to a 3.4 percent annual growth in land productivity in the first decade and overall production increase reached 82 percent after 30 years. Such results are much larger than previous estimates, suggesting that land enclosures were a prerequisite for modern economic growth.
    Keywords: difference-in-differences, agriculture, production, property rights, enclosures, event-study
    JEL: Q15 Q24 N53
    Date: 2023–08
  7. By: Olga Bondarenko (National Bank of Ukraine)
    Abstract: Agricultural commodity markets have experienced bouts of significant volatility in recent years, drawing the attention of policymakers all over the world. This paper studies the dynamics of wheat and corn prices since 1999 through the lens of standard BVAR models in the spirit of Kilian (2009) and Kilian and Murphy (2014). I use monthly revisions of the WASDE supply projections to overcome the problem of limited availability of high-frequency data and develop an indicator of aggregate demand for grains, following Baumeister et al. (2020). The estimated elasticities are generally consistent with theory and earlier studies and produce reasonable historical decompositions. Models are helpful in forecasting exercises, including conditional forecasts and alternative scenarios while they perform no better than the random walk in short-term unconditional forecasting.
    Keywords: commodity prices, corn, wheat, BVAR models, demand elasticity, supply elasticity, historical decomposition, USDA supply forecasts, WASDE
    JEL: C32 C51 Q11
    Date: 2023–08
  8. By: Dasgupta, Shouro; Robinson, Elizabeth
    Abstract: It is now clear that anthropogenic climate change is having a negative impact on human health. In this paper, we provide the first comprehensive assessment of the impact of climatic stressors on child health in Burkina Faso. We undertake a rigorous empirical analysis of the impact of climate and weather shocks on mortality, stunting (height-for-age Z-score) and wasting (weight-for-age Z-score), using Demographic and Health Surveys, combined with high-resolution meteorological data, controlling for household and individual covariates. We find robust evidence that both lifetime and short-term exposure to high temperatures and droughts have a negative impact on child health, as do increased temperature anomalies during crop seasons, suggesting a link between climate and health through domestic food production. Income and household wealth, access to electricity, sanitation and a health facility for childbirth negate some adverse impacts of climate change. Combining our econometric estimates with updated CMIP6 scenarios, we compute policy-relevant projections of future child health. Our results show that future warming is projected to significantly increase child mortality, and share of underweight and stunted children, in all but the Paris Agreement scenario. Given the links between health, a key element of human capital, and economic growth, our findings and projections provide yet more evidence of the importance of a rapid reduction in global emissions combined with adaptation funding, if lower-income countries are to achieve poverty reduction and increasing prosperity.
    Keywords: Burkina Faso; child health; climate change; extreme weather events; socio-economic modifiers; stunting; wasting; Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment; London School of Economics and Political Science; (European Cooperation in Science and Technology; Grant/Award Number: CA19390; Wiley deal
    JEL: I10 O55 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2023–08–08
  9. By: See, Priti
    Abstract: This paper explores the potential of biomimetics to revolutionize medical and food waste management systems in the United States. By forging circular economies in these fields, biomimetics can provide robust financial benefits. Furthermore, biomimetics can mitigate waste accumulation and related health hazards from such systems. In light of this paper’s findings, ongoing and long-term financial investments in biomimetic technology are recommended to create sustainable medical and food waste systems on a nationwide scale.
    Date: 2023–08–07
  10. By: Ignacio Belloc (University of Zaragoza); J. Ignacio Giménez-Nadal (University of Zaragoza); José Alberto Molina (Departamento de Análisis Económico, Universidad de Zaragoza)
    Abstract: Climate change and global warming have significant implications for people worldwide, necessitating an understanding of how extreme weather conditions affect individuals. This study investigates the relationship between individual affective well-being and extreme temperatures, using data from the American Time Use Survey's Well-Being Module for multiple years. The analysis focuses on daily variations in weather conditions at the county level in the United States. Findings reveal gender-specific outcomes, with males being more susceptible to extreme temperatures. On days with maximum temperatures exceeding 80oF, males experience higher levels of fatigue and stress, as well as reduced happiness and meaningfulness, compared to days with temperatures around 70oF. The study suggests that the negative impact on males' sleep quality may contribute to these gender disparities. Additionally, warmer states have witnessed a decline in the male population over the past four decades. These results offer valuable insights into the gender-specific, affective well-being consequences of climate change, emphasizing the need for gender-sensitive approaches in designing comprehensive strategies for climate mitigation and adaptation.
    Keywords: gender, weather conditions, extreme temperatures, well-being, time use, United States
    JEL: I31 J16 Q54
    Date: 2023–08–27
  11. By: Chiara Castelli (Wiener Institut fur Internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche); Marta Castellini (Department of Economics and Management, University of Padua and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Camilla Gusperti (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Veronica Lupi (Department of Environmental Economics, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit); Sergio Vergalli (Department of Environmental Economics, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit)
    Abstract: In this work we update the regionalization and the calibration of the Regional dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE) in its 1999 version developed by Nordhaus and Boyer (2000), with a focus on the Mediterranean countries. Our aim is to assess the impact of climate change damages on their main macroeconomic variables in a context where all economies are fossil fuel based. In addition, we extend the model by introducing the uncertainty associated with a possible future catastrophic event, triggered by the temperature increase and variation over time, following the approach of Castelnuovo et al. (2003). We then develop an empirical exercise to asses the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector at country level. In this framework, we implement the traditional IAMs scenarios, namely the Business As Usual, the Social Optimum and the Temperature Limit, where population dynamics is calibrated according to the IIASA SSP2 projections. Among our findings, we show that, in the absence of renewable energy sources and break-through technologies, meeting the limit of a temperature increase of less than 2°C requires a carbon tax of more than 700 USD/tC by 2050, doubling by the end of this century. When uncertainty is introduced, the higher the probability of a possible catastrophic event and the greater the associated utility loss, the more society is willing to pay for a rising cost of carbon. The upward trend of the carbon tax relative to the no-uncertainty model is reduced by the end of the century in the temperature-limit scenario, due to the benefits associated with this policy and the inclusion in the model of societal awareness of the potential risks of climate change. In both versions of the model, the agricultural sector in the Southern Mediterranean countries is severely affected, and stringent policies can partially mitigate these impacts and reduce damages by 2100.
    JEL: Q54 H23 R13
    Date: 2023–09
  12. By: Amarendra Sahoo (European Commission - JRC); Victor Nechifor (European Commission - JRC); Emanuele Ferrari (European Commission - JRC); Valeria Ferreira; Damit Serge Didier Amany (West African Development Bank (BOAD))
    Abstract: Senegal's strategic location along the Trans-Saharan trade route play a crucial role in the country's trade industry. About half of the country’s demand for food crops is imported. However, the port capacity is increasingly facing pressures due to its infrastructural constraints leading to hidden iceberg type of costs. Infrastructural investment can potentially raise the port capacity, hence increasing the efficiencies of trade transactions by doing away with the existing iceberg costs. The study applies a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model to evaluate potential outcomes of increased efficiencies in maritime trade on Senegal’s economic performances and wellbeing of Senegal. The findings indicate that increasing the efficiencies of maritime trade would result in lower costs for imported food products and inputs to the domestic activities, enhancing country’s competitiveness in the export markets that would boost domestic output, particularly of cash crops, industrial food and chemical products. Increased availability of food supply with higher purchasing power of the households would support the country’s food security. Improved maritime efficiencies would improve country’s economic growth and overall welfare with urban households benefiting the most. There would be significant reduction in poverty incidence at the national level, with larger impacts on rural areas. However, impacts on extreme poor are substantially lower than poverty incidence.
    Keywords: Recursive Dynamic CGE Model, Senegal, Maritime Trade, Efficiencies, Iceberg Costs, Economic Performance, Poverty
    Date: 2023–08
  13. By: Ferguson, Shon (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)); Heijmans, Roweno J.R.K. (Department of Business and Management Science, NHH Norwegian School of Economics)
    Abstract: This study estimates the impact of carbon pricing on international trade in equipment used in the combustion of fossil fuels during the period 1995–2021. Using detailed data on bilateral trade combined with data on domestic carbon prices, we find that carbon pricing policies are associated with greater exports of this equipment. We provide a simple model of international trade in polluting technologies that can explain this outcome. Our results provide new evidence for this unexplored form of leakage due to more stringent climate policies.
    Keywords: Emissions pricing; Cap and trade; Carbon leakage; International trade in technologies
    JEL: F14 F18 Q37 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2023–08–14
  14. By: Paul I. Ko; Ryo Makioka; Karim Nchare
    Abstract: Sub-Saharan African economies have experienced accelerated economic growth in the past two decades. In this paper we study the impact of trade-induced structural change on employment and value-added shares in sub-Saharan African economies. We find that sub-Saharan African economies have increasingly become net importers of manufacturing goods. Similar to other countries, an increase in manufacturing imports negatively impacts manufacturing employment shares. In contrast, an increase in exports positively impacts agricultural employment shares.
    Keywords: Trade, Structural change, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Jorge Martinez-Vazquez (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University); Farah Zahir (The World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper calls for a stronger and closer intergovernmental coordinated approach to fighting climate change in India. We argue that the current commonly proposed approach to fighting climate change in India based on sectoral policies (energy generation, transport sectors, etc.) is incomplete because it fails to specify what level of government will be in-charge on regulating and implementing those policies and how they will be financed. This will require understanding how the institutions of fiscal decentralization are framed and operate in India. The paper takes stock of current institutions and practices involving the four pillars of fiscal decentralization. Getting the functional assignment of responsibilities right will offer an answer to the question of who will be charged with regulating and monitoring compliance with the different sectoral policies for decarbonization and adaptation. Getting the other three pillars right will allow us to answer the question of financing. India seems to have the right framework of concurrent assignments of responsibilities, with the union government establishing minimum standards to prevent a race to the bottom among the states. The main problem appears to be that currently standards and regulations are not enforced. States currently work with insufficient revenues, raising questions about the necessary fiscal space to finance their climate change policies. There is also a need to reengineer India’s current transfer policies to incentivize the states in fighting climate change. Adapting the last pillar of decentralization, borrowing, will be critical to help finance the large investments, especially in the case of adaptation programs.
    Date: 2023–08
  16. By: Mary F. Evans; Ludovica Gazze; Jessamyn Schaller
    Abstract: We estimate the impacts of temperature on alleged and substantiated child maltreatment among young children using administrative data from state child protective service agencies. Leveraging short-term weather variation, we find increases in maltreatment of young children during hot periods. We rule out that our results are solely due to changes in reporting. Additional analysis identifies neglect as the temperature-sensitive maltreatment type, and we do not find evidence that adaptation via air conditioning mitigates this relationship. Given that climate change will increase exposure to extreme temperatures, our findings speak to additional costs of climate change among the most vulnerable.
    JEL: I31 J12 J13 Q54
    Date: 2023–08
  17. By: Meißner, Leonie; Peterson, Sonja; Semrau, Finn Ole
    Abstract: In a race against excessive global warming, the world must accelerate the development and adoption of environmental innovations (EIs). EIs are crucial in decarbonizing the economy and meeting the netzero targets. In this literature review, we delve into the role of governments in promoting EIs across stages of maturity and the likeliness of such support to reduce emissions and mitigation costs. Various theoretical justifications, such as knowledge externalities, dynamic increasing returns, path dependency and incomplete information, highlight the necessity to promote EI through governmental Research and Development (R&D) support. While emission pricing remains the most cost-efficient climate policy, it fails as a stand-alone instrument to sufficiently encourage EI. Accordingly, the optimal approach is a policy mix complementing emission pricing with governmental R&D support. The theoretical finding is backed by empirical studies on the development and deployment of renewable energies, which also show that investment in R&D can effectively reduce emissions and mitigation costs. By combining theoretical and empirical research, the review concludes by examining two pivotal policy actions aimed at accelerating the take-off of EIs: The US Inflation Reduction Act and the European Green New Deal Industrial Plan. We evaluate their specific aspects and limitations to effectively and efficiently contribute to decarbonization.
    Date: 2023
  18. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Download time series food price data, and build graphs and tables for over 20 different food crops at our food price database webpage: Price trends in Q2, 2023Staple Crops: Between Q1 and Q2, the price of sweet potato declined 19 percent (except in Lae, up 30 percent), taro decreased 5 percent (except Lae and Banz, up 11 percent), cassava fell 8 percent (except Goroka, up 17 percent), and cooking banana cooking decreased 14 percent (except Lae and Banz, up 16 and 5 percent, respectively). Vitamin-dense foods: On average, vegetable (aibika, choko-tips, English cabbage, carrot, and capsicum) prices increased 15 percent between Q1 and Q2, except in Goroka, Kokopo, and Mt Hagen, where the price of aibika, English cabbage, and carrot decreased by 8 percent. Fresh Fruits: Lemon and orange prices decreased 15 percent and 8 percent between Q1 and Q2, while ripe banana, watermelon, and pawpaw slightly increased by 4 percent. Compared to other markets, the price of oranges and lemons are expensive in Port Moresby at 11.5 PGK/kg and 7.6 PGK/kg, respectively. Banz, Mt Hagen, and Goroka experienced average price increases in ripe banana, pawpaw, and watermelon of 21, 14 and 21 percent, respectively.
    Keywords: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, OCEANIA, prices, food prices, markets, sweet potatoes, taro, leaf vegetables, inflation, bananas
    Date: 2023

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