nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒09‒11
thirty-one papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona


  1. "Unlocking the Potential of Technological Innovations for Sustainable Agriculture in Developing Countries: Enhancing Resource Efficiency and Environmental Sustainability" By Yeboah, Samuel
  2. 2020 Local Food Marketing Practices Survey By Dorn, Tony
  3. Interactions between ecosystem services and land use in France: A spatial statistical analysis By Issam-Ali Moindjié; Corentin Pinsard; Francesco Accatino; Raja Chakir
  4. Trend analysis of sustainability claims: The European fisheries and aquaculture markets case By Sterenn Lucas; Louis-Georges Soler; Cesar Revoredo-Giha
  5. The Effects of Climate Change in the Poorest Countries: Evidence from the Permanent Shrinking of Lake Chad By Remi Jedwab; Federico Haslop; Roman Zarate; Carlos Rodriguez-Castelan
  6. Effective Aggregate Support to Indian Agriculture By Mukherjee, Atri; D., Suganthi; Kumar, Rishabh; Bajaj, Priyanka
  7. To what extent do an innovation system and cleaner technological regime affect the decision-making process of climate change adaptation? Evidence from wine producers in three wine clusters in France By James Boyer; Jean-Marc Touzard
  8. Exploring Perceptions of Climate Change Impact on Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs): Using the Mindsponge Theory By Duong, Thi Minh Phuong
  9. Sustainable urbanization and vulnerability to climate change in Africa: Accounting for digitalization and institutional quality By Aurelien K. Yeyouomo; Simplice A. Asongu
  10. Developing food labels for improved health outcomes: Insights into simplified nutrition labelling policies By Céline Giner; Daniela Rodriguez; Armelle Elasri
  11. Air Pollution and Agricultural Productivity in a Developing Country By Merfeld, Joshua D.
  12. Drivers of PES effectiveness: Some evidence from a quantitative meta-analysis By Legrand D.F. Saint-Cyr; Lionel Védrine; Sophie Legras; Julie Le Gallo; Valentin Bellassen
  13. Coping with Climate Shocks: Food Security in a Spatial Framework By Diogo Baptista; John A Spray; Ms. Filiz D Unsal
  14. Exports of Fruits and Vegetables to the EU: policy recommendations By Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Lamonaca, Emilia
  15. Climate Change in Bangladesh: Exploring the Past and Potential Future Impacts By Fahmida Khatun; Syed Yusuf Saadat
  16. Buyer Power and Exclusion: A Progress Report By Claire Chambolle; Clémence Christin; Hugo Molina
  17. The Value of Clean Water: evidence from an environmental disaster By Rodrigo Barbone Gonzalez; José Renato Haas Ornelas; Thiago Christiano Silva
  18. "Greening the Future: Mobilizing Environmental Finance for Sustainable Development in Developing Countries" By Yeboah, Samuel; Boateng Prempeh, Kwadwo
  19. India in the landscape of Climate Finance: Prospects and Challenges By K M, Dr. SIBY; K J, Teena Rose
  20. Climate Defaults and Financial Adaptation By Toan Phan; Felipe Schwartzman
  21. About governance, production, and territorial dimensions of farm competitiveness – the case of Bulgaria By Bachev, Hrabrin
  22. Dynamic fishing with endogenous habitat damage By Alain Jean-Marie; Mabel Tidball
  23. FARMING IN RUSSIA: SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION By Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр)
  24. Limited substitutability, relative price changes and the uplifting of public natural capital values By Moritz A. Drupp; Zachary M. Turk; Ben Groom; Jonas Heckenhahn
  25. Improving the system of regulation of foreign trade in agro-food products in Russia under the shocks of the global economy By Svetlov, Nikolay (Светлов, Николай); Ternovsky, Denis (Терновский, Денис); Uzun, Vasily (Узун, Василий); Shagaida, Natalia (Шагайда, Наталья); Shishkina, Ekaterina (Шишкина, Екатерина)
  26. BRICS Sustainable Development Index By Sakharov, Andrei (Сахаров, Андрей)
  27. Climate change, natural disasters 2021 and the impact on insurance demand! A look at Germany from the perspective of Behavioral Economics. By Claudia, Pitterle
  28. Assessment of Policies and Practices for E-waste Management: A Study of Asia By Mohammad Armughan; Sameen Zafar
  29. "Navigating Sustainability: Unveiling Responsible Consumption and Production in Developing Economies for SDG 12 Achievement" By Yeboah, Samuel
  30. Seasonal patterns in newborns’ health: quantifying the roles of climate, communicable disease, economic and social factors By Doyle, Mary-Alice
  31. How a mobile app can become a catalyst for sustainable social business: The case of Too Good To Go By Tan Vo-Thanh; Mustafeed Zaman; Rajibul Hasan; Raouf Ahmad Rather; Rosa Lombardi; Giustina Secundo

  1. By: Yeboah, Samuel
    Abstract: This paper examines the potential of technological innovations in promoting sustainable agriculture in developing countries. With challenges like population growth, climate change, and limited resources, there is a critical need for efficient and environmentally sustainable farming practices. Technological innovations offer promising solutions to address these challenges and enhance resource efficiency while minimizing negative environmental impacts. The paper emphasizes the urgency of leveraging technology to overcome barriers faced by developing countries in agriculture. It discusses various technological innovations that can improve resource efficiency, including precision farming techniques, advanced irrigation systems, remote sensing, and data analytics. These innovations enable farmers to optimize resource utilization, reduce waste, and improve crop yields. Environmental sustainability in agriculture is also highlighted, with a focus on technological solutions to minimize soil degradation, water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. The paper explores eco-friendly practices such as organic farming, agroforestry, and biopesticides that can be implemented using technology to promote sustainability. Challenges to adopting technological innovations in developing countries are discussed, such as limited access to technology, lack of infrastructure, and financial constraints. The paper emphasizes the need for supportive policies, capacity building, and partnerships to facilitate technology transfer and widespread adoption. Overall, the paper advocates for harnessing the power of technological innovations to enhance resource efficiency and environmental sustainability in agriculture. It calls for tailored approaches, farmer empowerment, and knowledge sharing. Collaboration among governments, research institutions, private sectors, and civil society is essential to create an enabling environment for technology-driven sustainable agriculture. The findings underscore the potential of technological innovations to contribute to food security, poverty alleviation, and resilient livelihoods in developing countries. By embracing these innovations and addressing associated challenges, developing countries can unlock their agricultural potential and create a sustainable future.
    Keywords: technological innovations, sustainable agriculture, developing countries, resource efficiency, environmental sustainability.
    JEL: O13 Q01 Q16 Q55
    Date: 2023–07–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:118216&r=agr
  2. By: Dorn, Tony
    Abstract: Key Findings: • 147, 307 operations sold $9.0 billion of food through direct marketing practices in 2020. • Direct-to-Consumers was the most popular form of direct marketing, with 77% utilizing direct-to-consumer marketing practices. However, direct-to-consumer sales only accounted for 33% of all direct marketing sales. • California accounted for the largest share of direct sales with $1.4 billion, 16% of the US total. • Operations with direct food sales of $500, 000 or more, accounted for 2% of all direct marketing operations, but received 55% of direct marketing income. • 78% of operations sold all their directly marketed food within 100 miles of the farm.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:unasrr:338297&r=agr
  3. By: Issam-Ali Moindjié (LPP - Laboratoire Paul Painlevé - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Corentin Pinsard (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Francesco Accatino (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Raja Chakir (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The provision of ecosystem services (ESs) is driven by land use and biophysical conditions and is thus intrinsically linked to space. Large-scale ES models, developed to inform policy makers on ES drivers, do not usually consider spatial autocorrelation that could be inherent to the distribution of these ESs or to the modeling process. The objective of this study is to estimate the drivers of ecosystem services in France using statistical models and show how taking into account spatial autocorrelation improves the predictive quality of these models. We study six regulating ESs (habitat quality index, water retention index, topsoil organic matter, carbon storage, soil erosion control, and nitrogen oxide deposition velocity) and three provisioning ESs (crop production, grazing livestock density, and timber removal). For each of these ESs, we estimated and compared five spatial statistical models to investigate the best specification (using statistical tests and goodness-of-fit metrics). Our results show that (1) taking into account spatial autocorrelation improves the predictive accuracy of all ES models (Δ R 2 ranging from 0.13 to 0.58); (2) land use and biophysical variables (weather and soil texture) are significant drivers of most ESs; (3) forest was the most balanced land use for provision of a diversity of ESs compared to other land uses (agriculture, pasture, urban, and others); (4) Urban area is the worst land use for provision of most ESs. Our findings imply that further studies need to consider spatial autocorrelation of ESs in land use change and optimization scenario simulations.
    Abstract: La fourniture de services écosystémiques (SE) est déterminée par l'utilisation des terres et les conditions biophysiques et est donc intrinsèquement liée à l'espace. Les modèles d'ES à grande échelle, développés pour informer les décideurs politiques sur les moteurs des ES, ne prennent généralement pas en compte l'autocorrélation spatiale qui pourrait être inhérente à la distribution de ces ES ou au processus de modélisation. L'objectif de cette étude est d'estimer les moteurs des services écosystémiques en France en utilisant des modèles statistiques et de montrer comment la prise en compte de l'autocorrélation spatiale améliore la qualité prédictive de ces modèles. Nous étudions six SE régulateurs (indice de qualité de l'habitat, indice de rétention d'eau, matière organique de la couche arable, stockage du carbone, contrôle de l'érosion du sol et vitesse de dépôt des oxydes d'azote) et trois SE fournisseurs (production végétale, densité du bétail de pâturage et prélèvement de bois). Pour chacun de ces SE, nous avons estimé et comparé cinq modèles statistiques spatiaux afin d'étudier la meilleure spécification (en utilisant des tests statistiques et des mesures d'adéquation). Nos résultats montrent que (1) la prise en compte de l'autocorrélation spatiale améliore la précision prédictive de tous les modèles d'ES (Δ R 2 allant de 0, 13 à 0, 58) ; (2) l'utilisation des terres et les variables biophysiques (météo et texture du sol) sont des facteurs significatifs de la plupart des ES ; (3) la forêt était l'utilisation des terres la plus équilibrée pour la fourniture d'une diversité d'ES par rapport aux autres utilisations des terres (agriculture, pâturage, urbain et autres) ; (4) la zone urbaine est la pire utilisation des terres pour la fourniture de la plupart des ES. Nos résultats impliquent que d'autres études doivent prendre en compte l'autocorrélation spatiale des SE dans les simulations de scénarios de changement d'affectation des sols et d'optimisation.
    Date: 2022–10–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03890135&r=agr
  4. By: Sterenn Lucas (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Louis-Georges Soler (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Cesar Revoredo-Giha (SRUC - Scotland's Rural College)
    Abstract: The future of European fisheries and aquaculture depends not only on their capacity to innovate (e.g., introduce new products) but also on their ability to realize sustainable production given the environmental concerns surrounding fisheries. Market tools can be used to signal sustainability to consumers by balancing sustainability and competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to explore the trends related to the introduction of fishery and aquaculture products (FAPs) with sustainability attributes among 32, 215 products commercialized in Europe between 2000 and 2019 using Mintel's Global New Products Database (GNPD). The data provide information on a variety of sustainability claims on product packages. Of all the FAPs, 35.21% included at least one sustainability claim. We used trend analysis to investigate the countries and species that lead the introduction of new products associated with sustainability to understand the drivers of sustainability in the European FAP markets. The results indicated that the share of FAPs launched in the market with sustainability claims was increasing across Europe, mainly driven by sustainability on raw material and sustainable packaging, while sustainable products with organic or animal welfare claims were not market drivers of sustainability. In addition to differences in the sustainability claims by country, we highlighted some heterogeneity in the market across species. Nevertheless, market incentives to promote sustainability, while matching consumer expectations, also seemed efficient in effectively promoting sustainable resources.
    Keywords: Sustainability claims, Ecolabel, Trend analysis of time series, Fishery and aquaculture market, New product
    Date: 2021–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03382627&r=agr
  5. By: Remi Jedwab (George Washington University); Federico Haslop (George Washington University); Roman Zarate (World Bank); Carlos Rodriguez-Castelan (World Bank)
    Abstract: Empirical studies of the economic effects of climate change (CC) largely rely on climate anomalies for causal identification purposes. Slow and permanent changes in climate-driven geographical conditions, i.e. CC as defined by the IPCC (2013), have been studied relatively less, especially in Africa which remains the most vulnerable continent to CC. We focus on Lake Chad, which used to be the 11th-largest lake in the world. This African lake the size of El Salvador, Israel, or Massachusetts slowly shrunk by 90% for exogenous reasons between 1963 and 1990. While water supply decreased, land supply increased, generating a priori ambiguous effects. These effects make the increasing global disappearance of lakes a critical trend to study. For Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria, and Niger - 25% of sub-Saharan Africa's population –, we construct a novel data set tracking population patterns at a fine spatial level from the 1940s to the 2010s. Difference-in-differences show much slower growth in the proximity of the lake, but only after the lake started shrinking. These effects persist two decades after the lake stopped shrinking, implying limited adaptation. Additionally, the negative water supply effects on fishing, farming, and herding outweighed the growth in land supply and other positive effects. A quantitative spatial model used to rationalize these results and estimate aggregate welfare losses taking into account adaptation shows overall losses of about 6%. The model also allows us to study the aggregate and spatial effects of policies related to migration, land use, trade, roads, and cities.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Aridification; Shrinkage of Lakes; Natural Disasters; Environment; Water Supply; Land Supply; Rural Decline; Agricultural Sectors; Adaptation; Land Use; Africa
    JEL: Q54 Q56 Q15 Q20 R11 R12 O13 O44
    Date: 2023–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gwi:wpaper:2023-06&r=agr
  6. By: Mukherjee, Atri; D., Suganthi; Kumar, Rishabh; Bajaj, Priyanka
    Abstract: To assess the aggregate level of public policy support to Indian agriculture, this paper puts together different support measures extended by central and state governments and classifies those under three categories, namely, subsidies, public investment and green box support. The aggregate support, combining all three components, remains sizeable at about 22.4 per cent of agriculture gross value added (agri-GVA) in 2020-21. There is a distinct shift in the composition, away from input subsidies and in favour of green box support, which includes direct transfer to supplement farmers' income. The effective aggregate support index constructed after assigning different weights to the three components as per their impact on agricultural growth highlights the need for greater public-sector investment to enhance the effectiveness of aggregate support for the farm sector.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Agricultural trade, Agricultural Policy, Subsidy, public investment, green box support, index
    JEL: C43 H2 Q1 Q14 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2023–08–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:118321&r=agr
  7. By: James Boyer (LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean-Marc Touzard (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes French winemakers' decision-making process to adapt to climate change, and how the institutional and relational context of an innovation system, including a clean technological regime, affect these decisions. Our study used a mixed method research based on original face-to-face interviews with 92 winemakers in three French regional wine clusters that have been affected by climate change: Bordeaux, Champagne and Languedoc. We perform a logistic model to tests how managers' personal backgrounds, wine-producing company characteristics, and innovation system components, including cleaner technological regime, might explain the adaptation decision-making process. Our results show that economic variables have little influence on climate change adaptation decision-making. On the contrary, variables expressing the relationship built by wine producing companies within the Innovation System, their involvement in organic wine production, and the manager's personal background affect the decision-making process to adapt to climate change. Furthermore, many of the adaptation strategies rely on adopting cleaner production approach. Our findings show that the decision-making process depends on networks and clean technological regimes embedded in an innovation system, with regional and sector dimensions.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Adaptation, Innovation system, Decision-making, Wine industry, Clean production
    Date: 2021–09–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03290224&r=agr
  8. By: Duong, Thi Minh Phuong
    Abstract: The mindsponge theory offers a practical approach to understanding how individuals think and perceive the impact of climate change on non-timber forest products (NTFPs)
    Date: 2023–07–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:7kzt2&r=agr
  9. By: Aurelien K. Yeyouomo (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study empirically examines the effect of sustainable urbanization on vulnerability to climate change over a sample of 52 African countries from 1996 to 2019. We use the two-stage system generalized method of moments (GMM) empirical strategy and mediation analysis to assess direct and indirect impacts, respectively. The results of the direct analysis reveal that sustainable urbanization reduces vulnerability to climate change. The results of the indirect analysis also show that sustainable urbanization significantly reduces vulnerability to climate change through the channels of digitalization and institutional quality. The results also highlight that considering the direct effect of sustainable urbanization alone underestimates the impact of reducing vulnerability to climate change. The results are robust to an alternative indicator of vulnerability to climate and other estimation techniques. These results have important policy implications and provide evidence for the improvement of sustainable urbanization in terms of access to basic services or reduction of vulnerability to climate change.
    Keywords: Sustainable urbanization, Vulnerability to climate change, Digitalization, Institutional quality, Africa
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exs:wpaper:23/045&r=agr
  10. By: Céline Giner; Daniela Rodriguez; Armelle Elasri
    Abstract: Simplified nutrition labelling policies provide supplementary nutritional information in an easy-to-understand label displayed on food products at the front-of-pack. Forty-four countries have introduced these types of labelling schemes with a view to promoting positive public health outcomes. Preliminary insights on the impact of these schemes show that they can influence reformulation efforts by the food industry as well as consumers’ purchasing decisions. The schemes differ, however, across several dimensions including implementation methods (voluntary or mandatory), the extent to which they provide consumers with nutrient information versus nutrition advice, the conveyed message, targeted products, design and appearance, and accompanying national policy mix. Their rapid proliferation across the world has led to a diversity of schemes which can have implications for private sector decisions and trade. Mechanisms to improve the availability of information and reduce administrative hurdles should be considered in order to improve the integration and use of such schemes, and to facilitate trade. Improving consistency across the nutrient criteria that underpin the different schemes could be considered when reviews are undertaken, especially at the regional level.
    Keywords: Food systems, Front-of-pack, Impact assessment, Policy processes
    JEL: I18 L66 M38 Q18
    Date: 2023–08–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:agraaa:203-en&r=agr
  11. By: Merfeld, Joshua D. (KDI School of Public Policy and Management)
    Abstract: I document negative externalities of air pollution in the Indian agricultural sector. Using variation in pollution induced by changes in wind across years, I show that higher levels of pollution lead to decreased agricultural productivity, with large changes in productivity being common. The negative effects of pollution are larger in areas growing more labor-intensive crops, indicating that the pollution works at least partly through direct effects on labor productivity. Finally, combining wind direction with the rollout of coal plants, results indicate that pollution from coal plants has a larger effect on agricultural productivity than other types of pollution. Given that the agricultural sector is a refuge for the poor in many developing countries, these results suggest that the negative externalities of pollution may hit the poorest particularly hard.
    Keywords: pollution, productivity, agriculture, labor, India
    JEL: H40 I15 J22 O13 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp16316&r=agr
  12. By: Legrand D.F. Saint-Cyr (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Lionel Védrine (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Sophie Legras (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Julie Le Gallo (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Valentin Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Payments for Environmental or Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes have become a popular tool to address environmental degradation and to promote sustainable management of ecosystem services. We use metaregression analysis on a sample of 110 individual studies to investigate the determinants of the environmental effectiveness, defined as the probability to increase environmental services (ES) provision, of about 149 PESschemes implemented worldwide. We find that increased effectiveness of PES schemes is strongly associated with periodical third-party monitoring, generic reference design and to a lesser extent results-based payments. We further study the determinants of PES additionality, defined as direct changes in ES provision induced by the PES scheme, compared to a baseline without PES, on a smaller sample of 41 studies from which we could obtain the necessary data. The results confirm the role of certain design variables, such as monitoring type, and raise a potential trade-off between enrolment and additionality in the assessment of PES effectiveness.
    Keywords: Payment for Environmental Services PES, effectiveness, additionality
    Date: 2023–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04113250&r=agr
  13. By: Diogo Baptista; John A Spray; Ms. Filiz D Unsal
    Abstract: We develop a quantitative spatial general equilibrium model with heterogeneous house-holds and multiple locations to study households’ vulnerability to food insecurity from cli-mate shocks. In the model, households endogenously respond to negative climate shocks by drawing-down assets, importing food and temporarily migrating to earn additional income to ensure sufficient calories. Because these coping strategies are most effective when trade and migration costs are low, remote households are more vulnerable to climate shocks. Food insecure households are also more vulnerable, as their proximity to a subsistence requirement causes them to hold a smaller capital buffer and more aggressively dissave in response to shocks, at the expense of future consumption. We calibrate the model to 51 districts in Nepal and estimate the impact of historical climate shocks on food consumption and welfare. We estimate that, on an annual basis, floods, landslides, droughts and storms combined generated GDP losses of 2.3 percent, welfare losses of 3.3 percent for the average household and increased the rate of undernourishment by 2.8 percent. Undernourished households experience roughly 50 percent larger welfare losses and those in remote locations suffer welfare losses that are roughly two times larger than in less remote locations (5.9 vs 2.9 percent). In counterfactual simulations, we show the role of better access to migration and trade in building resilience to climate shocks.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Food Security; Trade, Migration; Climate change; Climate shocks
    Date: 2023–08–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2023/166&r=agr
  14. By: Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Lamonaca, Emilia
    Abstract: Growth in trade of fruit and vegetables (F&V) in the Mediterranean region, especially in Morocco, slowed down during the COVID-19 crisis. While reductions in trade of F&V are likely to be associated with shocks caused by the pandemic, the long-lasting effects of a well-established system of policy interventions in the sector should not be neglected. In other words, the effects of the COVID pandemic have only altered the volumes of F&V trade from Mediterranean countries. However, the continued occurrence of excess (low priced) imports of F&V from the Mediterranean region reinforces policy recommendations that point at the need to reform trade policy. The EU import regime should be simplified, by relaxing the controls on prices of imported F&V, and by negotiating off-season import quotas. The former would shrink running costs while the latter would lower competition among EU producers and Mediterranean traders.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Entry price; Import regime; Trade
    JEL: F13 O24 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:118000&r=agr
  15. By: Fahmida Khatun; Syed Yusuf Saadat
    Abstract: Bangladesh is at the frontline of the battle against climate change, which directly threatens the economic development prospects of the country. This paper utilises expectation maximisation algorithms and autoregressive integrated moving average models to predict the state of climate change indicators for Bangladesh in the near future. The findings from the forecasts show that in the business-as-usual scenario, annual average temperatures will increase by 0.95 per cent year-on-year, greenhouse gas emissions will increase 5.17 per cent year-on-year, and a total of 30, 366, 230 households will be affected by climate change in Bangladesh in 2030.
    Keywords: Climate change, Bangladesh, Greenhouse gas emission,
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pdb:opaper:145&r=agr
  16. By: Claire Chambolle (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Clémence Christin (UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Hugo Molina (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This article presents recent advances in the analysis of buyer-seller networks, with a particular focus on the role of buyer power on exclusion. We first examine simple vertical structures and highlight that either upstream or downstream firms may have incentives to engage in exclusionary practices to either counteract or leverage buyer power. We then review current work attempting to revisit this issue in "interlocking relationships". Based on an ongoing research project, we show that the same exclusion mechanism arises when retail substitution is soft.
    Keywords: Vertical relationships, Buyer power, Distribution network, Exclusion
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03902118&r=agr
  17. By: Rodrigo Barbone Gonzalez; José Renato Haas Ornelas; Thiago Christiano Silva
    Abstract: Clean water has a largely unknown economic value, particularly to small communities whose agricultural activities grow on river shores. In November 2015, the rupture of a mining tailings dam in the municipality of Mariana led to a record disposal of toxic residuals in southeast Brazil. A mud avalanche ran out for 600 km (373 miles) until it reached the Atlantic Ocean, leaving behind extreme ecological and economic damage in the Doce River basin. This is the largest environmental disaster in Brazil to date. We quantify the negative externalities using rich, identified, and comprehensive data from firm-to-firm electronic payments and individual-level consumer credit usage. We find that agricultural producers in affected municipalities received cumulatively 41% to 60% fewer inflows (income) from customer firms outside the affected zone three years after the disaster. Effects are driven by municipalities where the river shore is larger relative to the farming area. In these municipalities, individuals also faced an 8% fall in their credit card and consumer finance expenditures. This result is stronger for non-formal and high-risk workers. Thus, water contamination led to (first) production and (later) consumption decline with real effects on municipality-level agriculture and services’ output, causing a 7% decline in local GDP.
    Date: 2023–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bcb:wpaper:583&r=agr
  18. By: Yeboah, Samuel; Boateng Prempeh, Kwadwo
    Abstract: This systematic review explores the role of environmental finance in advancing sustainable development in developing countries through the implementation of green growth strategies. Environmental finance involves the allocation of financial resources to support projects aimed at mitigating environmental challenges and promoting a transition towards a greener economy. The review examines various sources of environmental finance, including public, private, and international funding mechanisms, and assesses their effectiveness in funding initiatives that address climate change, conservation, and sustainable economic growth. The study also highlights challenges and opportunities associated with mobilizing environmental finance in developing nations, emphasizing the need for innovative financing mechanisms, capacity building, and international collaboration. By analysing empirical evidence and case studies, this review contributes to a comprehensive understanding of how environmental finance can play a pivotal role in shaping the sustainable development trajectory of developing countries.
    Keywords: Environmental finance, green growth strategies, sustainable development, developing countries, funding mechanisms, climate finance, renewable energy, sustainable agriculture, international cooperation, financial innovation
    JEL: O16 O44 Q56
    Date: 2023–06–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:118281&r=agr
  19. By: K M, Dr. SIBY; K J, Teena Rose
    Abstract: Climate change is not a cliché anymore but a burning reality with far reaching consequences for the very survival of humankind and the nature. India on the one hand is the third largest carbon emitter and on the other hand is susceptible to the high risks of climate change, ranging from heat waves to cyclones and urban and rural displacements. Though India is a major recipient of international climate finance, it is proven to be more than insufficient to meet the climate change adaptations as per Paris Agreement. The present study analyses the challenges and prospects of India with respect to the Green Climate Fund and the imperative for developing its own paradigm of climate finance.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Finance, Green Climate Fund
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2023–08–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:118264&r=agr
  20. By: Toan Phan; Felipe Schwartzman
    Abstract: We analyze the relationship between climate-related disasters and sovereign debt crises using a model with capital accumulation, sovereign default, and disaster risk. We find that disaster risk and default risk together lead to slow post-disaster recovery and heightened borrowing costs. Calibrating the model to Mexico, we find that the increase in cyclone risk due to climate change leads to a welfare loss equivalent to a permanent 1% consumption drop. However, financial adaptation via catastrophe bonds and disaster insurance can reduce these losses by about 25%. Our study highlights the importance of financial frictions in analyzing climate change impacts.
    Keywords: climate change; disasters; sovereign default; emerging markets; growth
    JEL: Q54 F41 F44 H63 H87
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fip:fedrwp:95916&r=agr
  21. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: The issues related to proper assessments of the competitiveness of farming enterprises in general and of different type and locations has been among the most topical for academicians, agro-business managers, interest groups, administrators, politicians, international organizations, and the public at large. Farm competitiveness has been usually assessed through traditional indicators of technical and accountancy efficiency, the productivity of factors of production, the profitability of activity, the farms’ market position, shares, etc. A systematic approach for defining competitiveness and formulating its pillars, principles, criteria, and indicators has been rarely implemented, and the critical governance aspects have been largely ignored. This paper incorporates a holistic multi-pillar framework and assesses the levels of and correlations between the competitiveness of Bulgarian farms of different juridical types, economic sizes, product specialization, and ecological and geographical locations. For assessing the level of competitiveness of farms, a system of 4 pillars (Economic efficiency, Financial endowment, Adaptability, and Sustainability), 4 criteria for each Pillar, and 17 particular and 5 integral indicators are used. The study has found out that the level of competitiveness of agricultural holdings in the country is at a good level, but there is significant differentiation in the level and factors of competitiveness of holdings with different juridical types, sizes, product specialization, ecological and geographical location. The low adaptive potential and economic efficiency to the greatest extent contribute to lowering the competitiveness of Bulgarian agricultural producers. A large share of farming enterprises has a low level of competitiveness, and if measures are not taken in due time to improve governance and public support, a large part of Bulgarian farms will cease to exist in the near future. The suggested approach for assessing the competitiveness of farms should be improved and applied more widely and periodically. The precision and representativeness of the information used should also be increased by increasing the number of farms surveyed, which requires close cooperation with other interested parties, and improving the system for collecting agro-statistical information in the country and the EU.
    Keywords: competitiveness, production, financial, and governance pillars, farms
    JEL: Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q18
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:118035&r=agr
  22. By: Alain Jean-Marie (NEO - Network Engineering and Operations - CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique); Mabel Tidball (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The nature of fishing activities is such that marine habitats can be deteriorated when employing destructive fishing gear. This makes even more complex the determination of sustainable fishing policies and has led some authors to propose dynamic models which take into account this habitat degradation. In this work, we analyze in detail one of these models, an extension of the single-species Gordon-Schaefer model to two state interrelated variables: stock of fish and habitat. The model assumes that stock and carrying capacity are positively linked, and that the fishing activity has a direct and negative impact on the carrying capacity. We extend and characterize Clark's most rapid approach optimal solution to this case.
    Keywords: Bio-economic models, Gordon–Schaefer model, Marine habitats, Fishery management, Singular control
    Date: 2023–07–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04136790&r=agr
  23. By: Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The study aims at systematization of the trends in the differentiation and integration of social-economic practices typical for Russian farmers. The authors identify prospects and limitations of such processes including based on the results of the empirical studies conducted in key agricultural regions of the Russian Federation. The research data collected during the field case studies allow identifying the main social-economic strata of farms, describing the types of their economic practices, and analyzing alternative directions of their social and regional differentiation and integration.
    Date: 2021–11–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rnp:wpaper:w20220132&r=agr
  24. By: Moritz A. Drupp; Zachary M. Turk; Ben Groom; Jonas Heckenhahn
    Abstract: As the global economy continues to grow, ecosystem services tend to stagnate or degrow. Economic theory has shown how such shifts in relative scarcities can be reflected in the appraisal of public projects and environmental-economic accounting, but empirical evidence has been lacking to put the theory into practice. To estimate the relative price change in ecosystem services that can be used to make such adjustments, we perform a global meta-analysis of environmental valuation studies to derive income elasticities of willingness to pay (WTP) for ecosystem services as a proxy for the degree of limited substitutability. Based on 749 income-WTP pairs, we estimate an income elasticity of WTP of around 0.78 (95-CI: 0.6 to 1.0). Combining these results with a global data set on shifts in the relative scarcity of ecosystem services, we estimate relative price change of ecosystem services of around 2.2 percent per year. In an application to natural capital valuation of non-timber forest ecosystem services by the World Bank, we show that their natural capital value should be uplifted by more than 50 percent (95-CI: 32 to 78 percent), materially elevating the role of public natural capital. We discuss implications for relative price adjustments in policy appraisal and for improving estimates of comprehensive national accounts.
    Date: 2023–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2308.04400&r=agr
  25. By: Svetlov, Nikolay (Светлов, Николай) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Ternovsky, Denis (Терновский, Денис) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Uzun, Vasily (Узун, Василий) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Shagaida, Natalia (Шагайда, Наталья) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Shishkina, Ekaterina (Шишкина, Екатерина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The study proves the effectiveness of the tools used to regulate the export of wheat, sunflower seeds and sunflower oil that restrict the transfer of global prices to the domestic market, but it also evaluates the negative effects of their use and formulates proposals for their improvement. In justifying the use of floating duty mechanisms on grain exports and grain dampener, the authors also assess their positive effect on the level of consumer prices for foodstuffs made with grain. To prevent the negative effects of export restrictions, the use of a regularly updated base export price value is recommended when calculating the floating export duty on grain. The influence of tariff disparity on the restrictions on the export of sunflower seeds is substantiated, and it is shown that the use of export restrictions at a higher level of competition in the domestic market does not reduce the effect of the agricultural producers’ income growth associated with an increase in the global sunflower oil prices, with a neutral effect on the position of the processing industry. It is shown that the introduction of a floating export duty on sunflower oil in September 2021 is equivalent in its effect on the consumer market to the effect of voluntary retail price capping agreements in 2020-2021.
    Date: 2021–11–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rnp:wpaper:w20220144&r=agr
  26. By: Sakharov, Andrei (Сахаров, Андрей) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of the study stems from the fact that the global economic crisis of 2020, caused by the spread of coronavirus infection, had a negative impact on the prospects of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2015 and the relevant Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For the Russian Federation, measures to overcome the consequences of the crisis need to strike a balance between short-term economic objectives and long-term social and environmental goals outlined both in the SDGs and in the Decree "On the National Development Goals of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030". The R&D is aimed at studying the experience of the BRICS countries in ensuring sustainable economic recovery and growth in the post-crisis period. Based on the data obtained, the BRICS Index of SDG Implementation will be developed, which will provide data on the progress and contribution of the BRICS countries to the implementation of the SDGs. Further annual updates of the Index will provide an objective assessment of the progress and contribution of the BRICS countries to the achievement of the SDGs. This study was conducted within the framework of the study "Building the BRICS SDG Index based on the analysis of national sustainable development policies. The object of the study is the sustainable development policies of the BRICS countries. The purpose of the study was to develop and test a mechanism for the assessment and comparative analysis of the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals in the BRICS countries. In preparing the paper, we used the methods of content analysis, comparative analysis of key international indices, statistical analysis and expert assessment. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the BRICS countries' (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) progress on 64 indicators of sustainable development for 2015 and 2020. The research resulted in the creation of the BRICS Sustainable Development Index, reflecting the progress in implementation and the level of priority of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Agenda 2030) in the five countries. Conclusions. The following results were recorded based on the results of the Index formation: China made the most significant progress in all key SDG areas in 2015-2020, scoring highest on SDG 6, Clean Water and Sanitation, SDG 10, Reducing Inequality, and SDG 14, Preserving Marine Ecosystems. India, in second place, has progressed faster than other countries on SDG 1, Eradicate Poverty; SDG 4, Quality Education; and SDG 13, Combating Climate Change. Russia, ranked third, led in SDG 8, "Decent Work and Economic Growth, " and SDG 9, "Industrialization, Innovation and Infrastructure. Brazil scored the highest in SDG 2 Ending Hunger and SDG 5 Gender Equality. Finally, South Africa made the most progress on SDG 15, "Preserve Terrestrial Ecosystems. Prospects for the study, directions for further work. In continuing the work in the future, it seems advisable to consider the possibility of taking the average values of sustainability indicators for three-year time periods as baseline data for the formation of the Index. The continuation of the study in the coming years will also ensure the accumulation of data over a longer period of time, which will allow for a multi-year analysis of the progress of the BRICS countries in their transition to more sustainable growth patterns.
    Keywords: sustainable development, Agenda 2030, Sustainable Development Goals, BRICS, BRICS Sustainable Development Index
    JEL: Q56
    Date: 2022–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rnp:wpaper:w20220108&r=agr
  27. By: Claudia, Pitterle
    Abstract: Natural disasters worldwide are becoming more extreme and more frequent. In Germany, the low-pressure area "Bernd" in the summer of 2021 caused costs of 40 billion dollars. An insurance against natural hazards protects against these risks and reimburses the costs incurred. From the perspective of the availability heuristic, insurance inquiries increase due to media presence after such severe catastrophes and then drop again. Despite increasing and severe natural catastrophes worldwide as well as in Germany, the insurance density of natural catastrophe insurances is only about 46%. The increasing danger is no longer perceived as the media presence decreases. And thus, the presentness of the danger should be made clearer.
    Keywords: natural hazards, insurance demand, heuristics, subjective risk perception, Behavioral Economics
    JEL: D14 D18 D81 D82 Q54
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:118252&r=agr
  28. By: Mohammad Armughan (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics); Sameen Zafar (Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore)
    Abstract: Worldwide electronic waste (e-waste) is a prime contributor to environmental degradation and leads to adverse impacts on human health. Asia is the prime victim of ewaste. Asian countries have e-waste policies regarding illegal trade, dumping, recycling techniques, and extended producer responsibility (EPR) to ensure the safe and responsible disposal of e-waste by reducing its impact on the environment. However, countries are struggling to cope with e-waste. The study aims to assess e-waste policies in Asian countries and find best practices for e-waste management. The study also highlights the extent of e-waste generated in Asian countries and how much new electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) are put on the market. Based on analysis and issues related to e-waste policies in Asian countries, the study proposes a general framework for e-waste management. Lastly, a brief context of Pakistan is discussed. Precisely, the study encourages the feasibility and efficacy of e-waste management policies and practices in Asia.
    Keywords: Asia, E-waste, E-waste Management, EEE, Legislation, Policies, Policy Issues,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pid:wpaper:2023:7&r=agr
  29. By: Yeboah, Samuel
    Abstract: This systematic review delves into the realm of sustainable consumption and production practices within developing economies, aligning with the objectives of SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production). Encompassing diverse geographical regions spanning Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Pacific Islands, this review synthesizes a range of studies to offer a comprehensive perspective on the challenges and opportunities these nations encounter on their path toward sustainability. The review encompasses an array of research methodologies, including qualitative case studies, surveys, data-driven analyses, life cycle assessments, and policy evaluations. These methodologies collectively shed light on various facets of responsible consumption and production patterns. The themes explored in the reviewed studies include consumer behaviour and awareness, circular economy and waste management, sustainable supply chains, and the role of eco-labelling and certification programs. Key findings from the studies underline the pivotal role of circular economy practices, sustainable supply chains, eco-labelling, and consumer awareness in driving responsible consumption and production. The adoption of circular economy principles is essential for minimizing waste generation and optimizing resource use. Sustainable supply chains, coupled with responsible sourcing, alleviate environmental and social impacts. Eco-labelling schemes influence consumer choices, while education empowers informed decisions. Amidst challenges such as limited waste management infrastructure and access to sustainable products, opportunities arise from embracing innovation, public-private partnerships, stakeholder engagement, and leveraging traditional practices. Addressing these challenges and seizing opportunities is vital for developing economies to successfully transition toward sustainable development, aligned with SDG 12. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the importance of integrating sustainable consumption and production practices in developing economies. The presented insights provide a roadmap for policymakers, businesses, and communities to collaboratively navigate challenges and harness opportunities, thereby laying the groundwork for a resilient and sustainable future.
    Keywords: sustainable consumption, responsible production, developing economies, SDG 12, circular economy, waste management, sustainable supply chains, eco-labelling, innovation, public-private partnerships,
    JEL: D12 D60 L25 M14 O13 O33 Q01 Q20 Q53 Q55 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2023–06–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:118214&r=agr
  30. By: Doyle, Mary-Alice
    Abstract: Poor health at birth can have long-term consequences for children’s development. This paper analyses an important factor associated with health at birth: the time of year that the baby is born, and hence seasonal risks they were exposed to in utero. There are multiple potential explanations for seasonality in newborns’ health. Most previous research has examined these in isolation. We therefore do not know which explanations are most important – and hence which policy interventions would most effectively reduce the resulting early-life inequalities. In this paper, I use administrative data to estimate and compare the magnitudes of several seasonal risks, seeking to identify the most important drivers of seasonality in the Northern Territory of Australia, a large territory spanning tropical and arid climates and where newborn health varies dramatically with the seasons. I find that the most important explanations are heat exposure and disease prevalence. Seasonality in food prices and road accessibility have smaller effects on some outcomes. Seasonal fertility patterns, rainfall and humidity do not have statistically significant effects. I conclude that interventions that protect pregnant women from seasonal disease and heat exposure would likely improve newborn health in the Northern Territory, with potential long-term benefits for child development. It is likely that similar impacts would apply in other locations with tropical and arid climates, and that, without action, climate change will accentuate these risks.
    Keywords: birth outcomes; season; heat exposure; influenza; STI; Elsevier deal
    JEL: J13 I12 Q54
    Date: 2023–12–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:119971&r=agr
  31. By: Tan Vo-Thanh (Excelia Group | La Rochelle Business School, CeRIIM - Excelia Group | La Rochelle Business School, CEREGE - CEntre de REcherche en GEstion - EA 1722 - IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - ULR - La Rochelle Université); Mustafeed Zaman; Rajibul Hasan; Raouf Ahmad Rather; Rosa Lombardi; Giustina Secundo
    Date: 2021–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03403868&r=agr

This nep-agr issue is ©2023 by Angelo Zago. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at http://nep.repec.org. For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <director@nep.repec.org>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.