nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒08‒21
71 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago, Università degli Studi di Verona


  1. Niger’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Ulimwengu, John M.; Pauw, Karl
  2. Can the Middle East-North Africa region mitigate the rise of its food import dependency under climate change? By Chantal Le Mouël; Agneta Forslund; Pauline Marty; Stéphane Manceron; Elodie Marajo-Petitzon; Marc-Antoine Caillaud; Patrice Dumas; Bertrand Schmitt
  3. Sustainable food value chains in the European Union: Linking policies and multi-stakeholders’ initiatives By Moreira-Dantas, I.R.; Martínez-Zarzoso, I.; Torres-Munguía, J.A.; Jafarzadeh, S.; Pujol Martin, M.; Thakur, M.
  4. Estimating Biomass Carbon stocks in Agriculture Land for the Mediterranean using remote sensing data By Kariofillia, Petridou; Mimis, Angelos; Bithas, Kostas
  5. Impacts of climate change on global agri-food trade By Bozzola, Martina; Lamonaca, Emilia; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
  6. Estimating Biomass Carbon stocks in Agriculture Land for the Mediterranean using remote sensing data By Kariofillia, Petridou; Mimis, Angelos; Bithas, Kostas
  7. Impact assessment of Solar Irrigation Pumps (SIPs) in Bangladesh: a baseline technical report By Buisson, Marie-Charlotte; Mitra, Archisman; Osmani, Z.; Habib, A.; Mukherji, Aditi
  8. Identifying and assessing intensive and extensive technologies in European dairy farming By Laure Latruffe; Andreas Niedermayr; Yann Desjeux; K. Herve Dakpo; Kassoum Ayouba; Lena Schaller; Jochen Kantelhardt; Yan Jin; Kevin Kilcline; Mary Ryan; Cathal O’donoghue
  9. Structural identification of weather impacts on crop yields: Disentangling agronomic from adaptation effects By François Bareille; Raja Chakir
  10. Operationalising hybrid water law for historical justice By Mukuyu, Patience; van Koppen, Barbara; Jacobs-Mata, Inga
  11. Risk-Contingent Credit (RCC): Assessing smallholders' agricultural credit needs and the feasibility of implementing RCC in Ethiopia By Timu, Anne G.; Shee, Apurba; Yilma, Marta; Bellisa, Temesgen; Kebede, Temesgen; You, Liangzhi
  12. Measuring changes in the Senegal’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  13. Measuring changes in the Tanzania’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  14. Measuring changes in the Ethiopia’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  15. Measuring changes in the Nigeria’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  16. Measuring changes in the Madagascar’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  17. Measuring changes in the Mozambique’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  18. Measuring changes in the Zambia’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  19. Measuring changes in the Guatemala’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  20. Measuring changes in the Malawi’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  21. Democratic Republic of Congo’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Diao, Xinshen; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Ulimwengu, John M.; Ellis, Mia
  22. More and Better Choices for Farmers: Promoting Fair Competition and Innovation in Seeds and Other Agricultural Inputs By Agricultural Marketing Service
  23. Healthy diets, costs and food policies in the Sahel and West Africa By Yan Bai; Jill Bouscarat; Kristina Sokourenko; Philipp Heinrigs; Koffi Zougbédé
  24. Are Geographical Indications contributing to sustainability? The case of coffee industry and deforestation in Colombia By Nicola Caravaggio; Cristina Vaquero-Piñeiro
  25. Farms and Their Holders Implementing Agri-Environment-Climate Measures By Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Ziętara, Wojciech
  26. The Political Economy of Agricultural Innovation: A Review By Miao, Ruiqing; Ulucak, Recep
  27. Measuring changes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)’s agri-food system By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  28. Unlocking the Potential of the European Union Quality Schemes for Polish Regional and Traditional Food Products By Malak-Rawlikowska, Agata; Majewski, Edward; Kamińska, Izabella
  29. A Methodology to Investigate Challenges for Digital Twin Technology in Smart Agriculture By Büyüközkan, Gülçin; Uztürk, Deniz
  30. Biological Control: lessons learned for agroecological transition in Uruguay By Alda Rodríguez; Eduardo Chia; Virginia Rossi
  31. Rural Transformation in the Philippines: A Development Agenda By Karen Q. Custodio; Mercedita A. Sombilla
  32. A Methodology to Investigate Challenges for Digital Twin Technology in Smart Agriculture By Büyüközkan, Gülçin; Uztürk, Deniz
  33. Fisheries and aquaculture products consumption in France: when the Covid-19 crisis did not lead to more sustainable purchases By Kilian Heutte; Fabienne Daures; Sterenn Lucas; Sophie Girard; Frédérique Alban; Pascal Le Floc'H
  34. Recent advances in availability and synthesis of the economic costs of biological invasions By Danish A. Ahmed; Phillip J. Haubrock; Ross N. Cuthbert; Alok Bang; Ismael Soto; Paride Balzani; Ali S. Tarkan; Rafael L Macêdo; Laís Carneiro; Thomas W. Bodey; Francisco J. Oficialdegui; Pierre Courtois; Melina Kourantidou; Elena Angulo; Gustavo Heringer; David Renault; Anna J. Turbelin; Emma J. Hudgins; Chunlong Liu; Showkat Ahmad Gojery; Ugo Arbieu; Christophe Diagne; Boris Leroy; Elizabeta Briski; Corey J. A Bradshaw; Franck Courchamp
  35. MATS Report: "Weaponization of Grain Trade increased" By Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
  36. Updating the association between socioeconomic status and obesity in low‐income and lower‐middle‐income sub‐Saharan African countries: A literature review By Bertille Daran; Pierre Levasseur; Matthieu Clément
  37. Modeling regional supply responses using farm-level economic data and a biophysical model: A case study on Brazilian land-use change By Balieiro, Samuel
  38. Explaining the Source of Racial Disparities in Market Facilitation Program (MFP) Payments By Hendricks, Nathan P.; Murphy, Ashling M.; Morgan, Stephen; Padilla, Samantha; Key, Nigel
  39. A Technology Mapping Approach to the Value Proposition for Agri-food Firms and Supply Chains of Digital Transformation By Baker, Derek
  40. Governance analysis for urban wholesale to household’s food waste prevention and reduction in Sri Lanka By Aheeyar, Mohamed; Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Bucatariu, C.; Reitemeier, Maren; Bandara, Ayomi; Thiel, Felix; Drechsel, Pay
  41. Expanding water reuse in the Middle East and North Africa: policy report By Mateo-Sagasta, Javier; Nassif, Marie Helene; Tawfik, Mohamed; Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Mapedza, Everisto; Lahham, Nisreen; Al-Hamdi, M.
  42. Transforming rural economies through tertiary education: Evidence from India By Amparo Castelló-Climent; Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay; Ravinder
  43. Tanzania’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Benfica, Rui; Diao, Xinshen; Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Ellis, Mia
  44. Preferences for climate change policies: the role of co-benefits By Jens Abildtrup; Jette Bredahl Jacobsen; Suzanne Elizabeth Vedel; Udo Mantau; Robert Mavsar; Davide Pettenella; Irina Prokofieva; Florian Schubert; Anne Stenger; Elsa Varela; Enrico Vidale; Bo Jellesmark Thorsen
  45. Forest Protection and Human Health: The Case of Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon By Luiza M Karpavicius; Ariaster Chimeli
  46. The economic value of coral reefs: climate change impacts and spatial targeting of restoration measures By Carlo Fezzi; Mauro Derek J. Ford; Kirsten L.L. Oleson
  47. Smart Agriculture Technology Evaluation: A Linguistic-based MCDM Methodology By Uztürk, Deniz; Büyüközkan, Gülçin
  48. A Tale of Two Roads: Groundwater Depletion in the North China Plain By Ujjayant Chakravorty; Xiangzheng Deng; Yazhen Gong; Martino Pelli; Qian Zhang
  49. Are the benefits of electrification realized only in the long run? Evidence from rural India By Suryadeepto Nag; David I. Stern
  50. The Predictive Impact of Climate Risk on Total Factor Productivity Growth: 1880-2020 By Desiree M. Kunene; Renee van Eyden; Petre Caraiani; Rangan Gupta
  51. Myanmar’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Diao, Xinshen; Masias, Ian; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James; Boughton, Duncan; Ellis, Mia
  52. Determining farm value: A survey of French practices By Geoffroy Enjolras; Yann Desjeux; Philippe Jeanneaux; Laure Latruffe
  53. Is the Emphasis on Cofinancing Good for Environmental Multilateral Funds? By Matthew Kotchen; Andrew Vogt
  54. Temperature, climate change, and household financial behaviour: Evidence from Viet Nam By Sefa Awaworyi Churchill; Trong-Anh Trinh; Michael Danquah
  55. Anticipatory cash transfers for climate resilience: Findings from a randomized experiment in northeast Nigeria By Balana, Bedru; Adeyanju, Dolapo; Clingain, Clare; Andam, Kwaw S.; de Brauw, Alan; Yohanna, Ishaku; Olarewaju, Olukunbi; Schneider, Molly
  56. Evaluating the use of electrical conductivity for defining variable-rate management of nitrogen and seed for corn production By Edge, Brittani; Bullock, David; Mieno, Taro
  57. Ethiopia’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Diao, Xinshen; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James; Ellis, Mia
  58. Green technology policies versus carbon pricing: An intergenerational perspective By Rausch, Sebastian; Yonezawa, Hidemichi
  59. Operationalizing cultural adaptation to climate change: contemporary examples from United States agriculture By Waring, Timothy; Niles, Meredith; Kling, Matthew; Hebert-Dufresne, Laurent; Sabzian, Hossein; Miller, Stephanie; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; McGill, Brian
  60. Transformation of Kenya’s agrifood system structure and drivers By Diao, Xinshen; Pauw, Karl; Smart, Jenny; Thurlow, James; Ellis, Mia
  61. Senegal’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia
  62. A framework for gender equality and social inclusion in agribusiness transformation in East and Southern Africa By Nortje, Karen; Joshi, Deepa; Enokenwa Baa, Ojongetakah; Mapedza, Everisto; Davis, K.
  63. Advancing geospatial information management for disaster risk management in the Caribbean By Dubrie, Artie; Emanuel, Elizabeth; Opadeyi, Jacob; Grant, Valrie
  64. Eco-retribution as a new tool to boost Circular Business Models experimentation and upscaling By Rémi Beulque; Helen Micheaux; Joel Ntsonde
  65. Uganda’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James
  66. What Does it Take to Control Global Temperatures? A toolbox for estimating the impact of economic policies on climate By Guillaume Chevillon; Takamitsu Kurita
  67. For What It's Worth: Measuring Land Value in the Era of Big Data and Machine Learning By Scott Wentland; Gary Cornwall; Jeremy G. Moulton
  68. Madagascar’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia
  69. Decomposing Climate Risks in Stock Markets By Yuanchen Yang; Chengyu Huang; Yuchen Zhang
  70. Zambia’s agrifood system structure and drivers of transformation By Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James
  71. Pass-through of subsidies to prices under limited competition: Evidence from Canada’s Nutrition North program By Nicholas Li; Tracey Galloway

  1. By: Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Ulimwengu, John M.; Pauw, Karl
    Abstract: Niger is a landlocked country in West Africa, and most of the population relies on subsistence farming. The country faces considerable food security challenges due to a combination of recurring droughts, desertification, population growth, and political instability. The World Food Program estimates that around 1.5 million people in Niger—roughly 6 percent of the population—are food insecure (WFP 2020). Agriculture plays a pivotal role in Niger’s economy, employing more than 80 percent of workers and contributing around 40 percent of GDP. The agricultural system is largely rainfed and productive activities are concentrated in the southern part of the country, particularly in the regions along the Niger River. Only 15 percent of the country’s land is arable, and rainfall is seasonal and highly variable. Millet, sorghum, cowpeas, and groundnuts are the major food crops, while pastoralism is a key component of the agricultural system, particularly in the arid regions in the north of the country. Despite the dominance of agriculture, Niger is a net food importer as agricultural production falls short of domestic food needs (FAO 2018). The government implemented the 3N Initiative (Nigeriens Nourishing Nigeriens) to address the root causes of food insecurity. This initiative aims to promote sustainable agricultural practices, enhance the resilience of farmers to climate change, and improve access to food (IFAD 2020). While rural households produce a significant amount of their own food, the importance of market purchases as a determinant of food security cannot be overstated. Market purchases are the primary food access strategy for Nigeriens for 8–9 months of the year. This highlights the importance not only of primary agricultural production, but also the broader agrifood system (AFS) in ensuring year-round access and availability of nutritious foods. Hence, in this brief we look beyond primary agriculture to understand the performance of Niger’s broader AFS and how it is contributing to growth and transformation in the country.
    Keywords: NIGER, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, millet, sorghum, ruminants, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:13&r=agr
  2. By: Chantal Le Mouël (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Agneta Forslund (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Pauline Marty (UTT - Université de Technologie de Troyes); Stéphane Manceron (Direction de l'Expertise scientifique collective, de la Prospective et des Etudes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Elodie Marajo-Petitzon (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Marc-Antoine Caillaud (Direction de l'Expertise scientifique collective, de la Prospective et des Etudes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Patrice Dumas (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Bertrand Schmitt (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The dependence on imports of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region for its food needs has increased steadily since the early 1960s, from 10% to about 40%. This import dependence could continue to rise in coming decades due to the projected MENA population growth and the expected negative impacts of climate change on the region's natural resources and agricultural performances. To what extent the food import dependency of the MENA region will continue to increase up to 2050 and how the region could mitigate its rising reliance on food imports is both a key question for the region itself and a crucial geopolitical issue for the world as a whole. In this paper, we use a biomass balance model to assess the level of the food import dependency of the MENA region in 2050 resulting from six scenarios. We show that under current trends and severe impacts of climate change the food import dependency of the MENA would continue to rise and reach 50% in 2050. Maghreb would be particularly affected becoming dependent on imports for almost 70% of its food needs. Adopting a Mediterranean diet, reaching faster productivity growth in agriculture or reducing waste and loss along the food chain would contribute to decelerate the rise of the MENA's food import dependency. However, only the combination of these three options could significantly offset the increased import dependency in the most affected sub-regions: Maghreb, the Middle and the Near East. In all scenarios, Turkey strengthens its position as a net exporter of agricultural products.
    Keywords: Food system, Agricultural production, Food diet, MENA, Scenarios, Biomass balance model
    Date: 2023–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04142046&r=agr
  3. By: Moreira-Dantas, I.R.; Martínez-Zarzoso, I.; Torres-Munguía, J.A.; Jafarzadeh, S.; Pujol Martin, M.; Thakur, M.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–09–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaepa:337129&r=agr
  4. By: Kariofillia, Petridou; Mimis, Angelos; Bithas, Kostas
    Abstract: Climate change has a crucial impact on European agriculture in plenty of ways. The role of land use systems, such as agriculture, as a climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy is important as these systems can collect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and store carbon (C). Although biomass carbon storage in agriculture has been highly neglected. The methodological difficulties in estimating the C stock of biomass and soil storage of Carbon are reinforced by the lack of reliable estimates of the agriculture area. This research analyses the relationship between changes in tree cover in agricultural areas of the Mediterranean area (more specifically in the regions of Spain, Italy and Greece) and the storage of biomass carbon (associated with the related mitigation of CO2 emissions). Remote sensing images have become a valuable source of data for this analysis. Α set of remote sensing data with MODIS satellite images was used and was combined with Tier 1 carbon storage estimates to estimate carbon dioxide storage for the Mediterranean climate zones. The measurements for biomass carbon were made at the overall level for the Mediterranean but also separately for the national and regional levels of Italy, Greece and Spain. The findings of the research showed that the distribution of tree cover in agricultural areas widely followed the climatic zones. Most part of the agricultural land in Europe is estimated at levels around 10 t C / ha.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–09–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaepa:337122&r=agr
  5. By: Bozzola, Martina; Lamonaca, Emilia; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
    Abstract: Climate change and trade are closely related. Climate may alter the comparative advantages across countries, which may in turn trigger changes in trade patterns. Trade itself may constitute an adaptation strategy, moving excesses of agri-food supply to regions with shortages, and this in turn may explain changes in land-use. We investigate these linkages, showing that the changes in climate affect counties’ trade value and contribute to reshaping trade patterns. First, we quantify the long-term impacts of climate on the value of agri-food exports, implicitly considering the ability of countries to adapt, and show that higher marginal temperatures and rainfall levels tend to be beneficial for countries’ exports. Following a gravity model approach, we then link the evolving trade patterns to climate change adaptation strategies. We find that the larger the difference in temperatures and rainfall levels between trading partners, the higher the value of bilateral exports. Furthermore, while developed and developing exporters are both sensitive to climate change and to cross-countries heterogeneity in climate, we found their responses to changes in climate to be quite diverse.
    Keywords: Climate normal; Climate heterogeneity; Export; Economic development.
    JEL: F18 O13 O44 Q17 Q54
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:117939&r=agr
  6. By: Kariofillia, Petridou; Mimis, Angelos; Bithas, Kostas
    Abstract: Climate change has a crucial impact on European agriculture in plenty of ways. The role of land use systems, such as agriculture, as a climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy is important as these systems can collect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and store carbon (C). Although biomass carbon storage in agriculture has been highly neglected. The methodological difficulties in estimating the C stock of biomass and soil storage of Carbon are reinforced by the lack of reliable estimates of the agriculture area. This research analyses the relationship between changes in tree cover in agricultural areas of the Mediterranean area (more specifically in the regions of Spain, Italy and Greece) and the storage of biomass carbon (associated with the related mitigation of CO2 emissions). Remote sensing images have become a valuable source of data for this analysis. Α set of remote sensing data with MODIS satellite images was used and was combined with Tier 1 carbon storage estimates to estimate carbon dioxide storage for the Mediterranean climate zones. The measurements for biomass carbon were made at the overall level for the Mediterranean but also separately for the national and regional levels of Italy, Greece and Spain. The findings of the research showed that the distribution of tree cover in agricultural areas widely followed the climatic zones. Most part of the agricultural land in Europe is estimated at levels around 10 t C / ha.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–09–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaewp:337122&r=agr
  7. By: Buisson, Marie-Charlotte (International Water Management Institute); Mitra, Archisman (International Water Management Institute); Osmani, Z.; Habib, A.; Mukherji, Aditi (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Solar powered irrigation systems; Pumps; Impact assessment; Solar energy; Energy generation; Gender equity; Social inclusion; Cropping patterns; Irrigation practices; Water extraction; Tube wells; Climate-smart agriculture; Business models; Tariffs; Costs; Tenant farmers; Training; Seasonal cropping; Cultivated land; Plot size; Food security; Public-private partnerships
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051815&r=agr
  8. By: Laure Latruffe (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Andreas Niedermayr (Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Economics, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria); Yann Desjeux (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); K. Herve Dakpo (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, ETH Zürich - Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology [Zürich]); Kassoum Ayouba (VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement, CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Lena Schaller (Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Economics, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria); Jochen Kantelhardt (Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Economics, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria); Yan Jin (Center for Agro-food Economics and Development (CREDA-UPC-IRTA), Technical University of Catalonia, Castelldefels, Spain); Kevin Kilcline (Mellows Campus, Teagasc Rural Economy and Development Centre, Athenry, Co. Galway, Ireland); Mary Ryan (Mellows Campus, Teagasc Rural Economy and Development Centre, Athenry, Co. Galway, Ireland); Cathal O’donoghue (NUI Galway - National University of Ireland [Galway])
    Abstract: In order to tackle climate change and biodiversity loss, the European Union (EU) promotes extensive farming. However, identifying such farms across countries and assessing their performance for policy purposes remains challenging. This paper combines a latent class stochastic frontier model (LCSFM) with a novel nested metafrontier approach. The resulting model enables the identification of intensive and extensive farms across countries, estimation of farm efficiency and identification of different technology gaps. Based on Farm Accountancy Data Network data of French, Irish and Austrian dairy farms, we find poorer environmental but better economic performance of intensive farms, compared to extensive farms. The largest productivity differences stem from technology gaps and not from inefficiency. The approach enables a more nuanced analysis of sources of inefficiency to assist policy design for future green payments in the EU.
    Keywords: efficiency, dairy farms, latent class stochastic frontier, nested metafrontiers, European Union
    Date: 2023–07–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04159101&r=agr
  9. By: François Bareille (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Raja Chakir (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: A large literature has assessed the impacts of climate change on agricultural production by estimating reducedform models of crop yields conditionally on weather and individual fixed effects. The estimates obtained are usually interpreted as the weather impacts on yields once farmers have adapted. Yet, few attempts have documented that farmers do adapt to weather, and none have verified that these adjustments actually impact crop yields. Our objective here is to unpack how weather affects agricultural production by developing a structural model that explicitly accounts for both the plants' biophysical and farmers' behavioral responses to weather. Considering adaptation during the growing season through fertilizer and pesticide applications, our approach allows us to distinguish the "direct" weather effects (i.e., the agronomic impacts of weather changes on plant growth per se) from the "indirect" weather effects via farmers' input choices (i.e., the adaptation impacts). We estimate the underlying structural model using farm-level data from the Meuse French department, which provides details of fertilizer and pesticide uses by crop. We show that the reduced-form and structural estimates indicate similar weather impacts on crop yields, for a large range of sensitivity analyses. Our structural estimates indicate that the adaptation effects are sizable and that farmers' adjustments reduce projected damage from climate change. In our illustrative case, farmers' adaptation offsets between one-quarter to two-thirds of the negative agronomic impacts of future warming on crop yields. Our analyses exhibit that commonly used reduced form models of crop yields inherently capture these within season behavioral responses to weather.
    Abstract: Une littérature abondante a évalué les impacts du changement climatique sur la production agricole en estimant des modèles de forme réduite des rendements des cultures en fonction des conditions météorologiques et des effets fixes individuels. Les estimations obtenues sont généralement interprétées comme l'impact des conditions météorologiques sur les rendements une fois que les agriculteurs se sont adaptés. Pourtant, peu de tentatives ont documenté le fait que les agriculteurs s'adaptent aux conditions météorologiques, et aucune n'a vérifié que ces ajustements ont réellement un impact sur les rendements des cultures. Notre objectif ici est de comprendre comment les conditions météorologiques affectent la production agricole en développant un modèle structurel qui prend explicitement en compte à la fois les réponses biophysiques des plantes et les réponses comportementales des agriculteurs aux conditions météorologiques. En considérant l'adaptation pendant la saison de croissance à travers les applications d'engrais et de pesticides, notre approche nous permet de distinguer les effets météorologiques "directs" (c'est-à-dire les impacts agronomiques des changements météorologiques sur la croissance des plantes en soi) des effets météorologiques "indirects" à travers les choix d'intrants des agriculteurs (c'est-à-dire les impacts de l'adaptation). Nous estimons le modèle structurel sous-jacent en utilisant des données au niveau des exploitations agricoles du département français de la Meuse, qui fournissent des détails sur les utilisations d'engrais et de pesticides par culture. Nous montrons que la forme réduite et les estimations structurelles indiquent des impacts météorologiques similaires sur les rendements des cultures, pour un large éventail d'analyses de sensibilité. Nos estimations structurelles indiquent que les effets d'adaptation sont importants et que les ajustements des agriculteurs réduisent les dommages prévus du changement climatique. Dans notre exemple, l'adaptation des agriculteurs compense entre un quart et deux tiers des effets agronomiques négatifs du réchauffement futur sur le rendement des cultures. Nos analyses montrent que les modèles de forme réduite couramment utilisés pour les rendements agricoles rendent compte de manière inhérente de ces réactions comportementales aux conditions météorologiques au cours de la saison.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Growing-Season Adjustments, Panel Econometrics, Structural Econometrics, Within-Season Adaptation.
    Date: 2023–07–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04160898&r=agr
  10. By: Mukuyu, Patience (International Water Management Institute); van Koppen, Barbara (International Water Management Institute); Jacobs-Mata, Inga (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Water law; Water resources; Water allocation; Regulations; Legislation; Water policies; Strategies; Water tenure; Customary tenure; Legal pluralism; Water rights; Water sharing; Water use; Water management; Catchment areas; Infrastructure; Agrarian reform; Constitution; Licences; Smallholders; Farmers; Small-scale irrigation; Rural areas; Communities
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051685&r=agr
  11. By: Timu, Anne G.; Shee, Apurba; Yilma, Marta; Bellisa, Temesgen; Kebede, Temesgen; You, Liangzhi
    Abstract: Agricultural credit is an important instrument for improving farm productivity, the welfare of farm households, and their resilience to weather-related shocks. However, small-scale farmers’ access to credit is limited by demand- and supply-side constraints. Risk-contingent credit, which bundles credit with insurance against climate risks, is one promising solution. This study, conducted in three woredas in Ethiopia, implemented a game designed to increased farmers’ understanding of the product and finds that farmers recognize the potential of RCC.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agricultural credit; welfare; households; resilience; shocks; credit; investment; agricultural technology; food security; income; employment; markets; smallholders; low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:polbrf:july2023&r=agr
  12. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: SENEGAL, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136677&r=agr
  13. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: TANZANIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136679&r=agr
  14. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136656&r=agr
  15. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: NIGERIA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136668&r=agr
  16. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: MADAGASCAR, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136667&r=agr
  17. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: MOZAMBIQUE, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136670&r=agr
  18. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: ZAMBIA, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136676&r=agr
  19. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: GUATEMALA, LATIN AMERICA, CENTRAL AMERICA, NORTH AMERICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136654&r=agr
  20. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136666&r=agr
  21. By: Diao, Xinshen; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Ulimwengu, John M.; Ellis, Mia
    Abstract: Agriculture in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is dominated by subsistence farming. Households grow food mainly for their own consumption and sell only when they have a surplus. The main crops are cassava, maize, yams, plantains, and rice (FAO 2019). Commercial farming of cash crops such as coffee, palm oil, rubber, and sugar is done on a smaller scale. With constant political instability, infrastructure deficiencies, and lack of investment in DRC, the expansion and productivity of commercial farming have been constrained (World Bank 2020). Livestock and fisheries are also important agrifood subsectors and face constraints similar to the crop subsectors. Despite these challenges, DRC possesses robust agricultural potential due to its vast arable land resources, abundant water resources, and its diverse climatic conditions, which are suitable for a wide variety of crops. There is also potential for further development of the fisheries sector due to the country’s extensive river system and large lakes. In this brief, we look beyond primary agriculture to understand the recent performance of DRC’s broader agrifood system (AFS) and how it is contributing to growth and transformation in the country.
    Keywords: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, CENTRAL AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, cassava, maize, wheat, rice, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:3&r=agr
  22. By: Agricultural Marketing Service
    Abstract: Report Conclusion: Farmers know that the key to resilience in agriculture is diversity. Farmers plant multiple varieties so that when one exhibits a weakness—to insects, or pests, or environmental conditions—other varieties can contribute to continued productivity. Consolidation in agriculture has resulted in less diversity at all levels of the value chain: today, fewer companies produce a larger share of inputs than ever before, including seeds and related technologies. While this consolidation might lead to greater theoretical efficiency in the food system, it can also lead to higher levels of vulnerability to disturbances. Seed systems combine aspects of both biological and human systems, and so can draw from research on resilience in both types of systems. Resilient systems typically have a degree of redundancy, diversity, decentralization and flexibility, meaning components are not so specialized that if one component fails the entire system goes down. In addition, the complexity and scope of the issues facing agriculture and food systems require a critical mass of people and infrastructure to adequately respond. The intersection of intellectual property and antitrust is complex, made even more so by the overlapping mechanisms that control how seed varieties and traits are developed, sold, and distributed. Helping all actors—including plant breeders, farmers, and seed companies—understand and engage with these systems provides a clear benefit to all who depend on the crops they grow. Many of the recommendations in this report will draw on the new Farmer Seed Liaison, an initiative that can help bridge the gaps and enhance transparency in a complicated environment. In doing so, it will help to foster more choices and increased innovation across crops and regions. In a time of increasing disruption, the American food system must find ways to increase its resilience. Promoting transparency, fair competition, and innovation among many actors in the seed system is the first step to accomplishing this goal.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Marketing, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uamstr:337565&r=agr
  23. By: Yan Bai; Jill Bouscarat; Kristina Sokourenko; Philipp Heinrigs; Koffi Zougbédé
    Abstract: The Sahel and West Africa region is facing a serious food and nutrition security crisis with high rates of acute malnutrition, combined with high rates of malnourishment and over-nourishment – the “triple burden of malnutrition”. Poor-quality diets are the root of all forms of malnutrition, as well as common non-communicable diseases, and are responsible for an estimated one in five adult deaths globally. The high cost of food is a key barrier to accessing a healthy diet. Even before the recent global inflation in food prices, West Africa’s food prices were 30%-40% higher than other regions in the world of comparable income levels. The paper analyses the costs of healthy diets in 17 countries in the Sahel and West Africa and which food groups drive up costs. The observed high cross-country variability in costs and cost composition points to a need for more targeted and nutrition-sensitive food system policies as well as the need to invest in better food price data and monitoring capacities.
    Keywords: Cost of diet, Food prices, Food systems, Healthy diets, West Africa
    JEL: O55 Q11 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2023–07–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:swacaa:39-en&r=agr
  24. By: Nicola Caravaggio (Università di Roma Tre); Cristina Vaquero-Piñeiro
    Abstract: Colombia accounts for more than 300 years of history in coffee production, for a leading position in the global market and for the majority of national land dedicated to this production. In the early 2000s, Café de Colombia was certified as Geographical Indication (GI) to differentiate it, preserve local traditional expertise and support sustainable farm practices. Nonetheless, would it have happened in the absence of GI certification in terms of environmental sustainability, and of forest cover change? This paper estimates the effects of GI on deforestation by adopting the Synthetic Control Method on a country-level panel dataset over the 1992-2020 period. Results show that the GI quality schemes has brought changes in deforestation rates with a reduction in the short term but followed by a new uprising in the long term. The paper can help guide the implementation of development strategies addressing sustainability from different perspectives and the design of more resilient agricultural policies.
    Keywords: Deforestation, coffee, Geographical Indications, Colombia, Synthetic Control Method
    JEL: Q15 Q18 Q23 N56 C33
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rtr:wpaper:0278&r=agr
  25. By: Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Ziętara, Wojciech
    Abstract: The article contains characteristics of farms implementing agri-environment-climate measures in diverse natural conditions defined by the valorization index of agricultural production area. Considering the farm size, three types of the conditions were distinguished: difficult, average, and favorable. Attention was focused on the production potential of farms, their human capital, and economic situation. The subject of the research was a group of 1, 175 individual farms covered by the Polish FADN, which implemented agri-environment-climate measures under the 2014–2020 common agricultural policy between 2018 and 2020. It was not a representative sample for the entire population of farms implementing the above-mentioned measures. Farms operating in difficult habitat conditions had a lower production potential (agricultural area, economic size, capital, and capital–labor ratio). The share of farmers with agricultural education was also lower in the group. As a result, income from such farms was lower, the fixed assets replacement rate was lower and the farm was incapable of competing on the domestic market. The ability was demonstrated only by farms functioning in favorable habitat conditions. The share of payments in the income of the analyzed farms was also higher, on average, by 21.7 p.p., as compared to the average share of payments in the income of other farms with a similar agricultural area. The study shows that there is a very large share of subsidies in the income of the groups of farms implemetnting agri-environment-climate measures and a clear positive connection between longer working hours (at least 2120 hours per year) of the farm manager with the economic situation of the farm.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2023–06–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:337448&r=agr
  26. By: Miao, Ruiqing; Ulucak, Recep
    Abstract: This paper starts with a brief review of some leading theories in technical change and political economy. It then discusses public agricultural R&D expenditure in the United States and tries to explain why it has been decreasing in the past few decades from a political economy point of view. Economic literature on experimental stations is then reviewed, with a focus on spatial spillover of experimental station research. By using climate change as a case study, the paper highlights a dilemma between climate change adaptation and cross-region productivity equity, which calls for future research from the perspective of political economy as the global challenges facing agriculture switching from productivity to sustainability. Our bibliometric analysis shows the need for future research on the role of land grant universities and experiment stations, digital agriculture, and climate-smart agriculture as they are emerging topics within the agricultural innovation and political economy nexus.
    Keywords: Political Economy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea22:337401&r=agr
  27. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Transformation of the agri-food system (AFS) is a leading pathway to achieve the USG Global Food Security Strategy Objective 1 of “Inclusive agriculture-led growth†. The AFS encompasses the primary agricultural sector, as well as all upstream and downstream agriculture-related activities. An expansion of the AFS’s off-farm components is central to the process of agricultural transformation and is strongly associated with economic development. The Percent change in value-added in the agri-food system (AgGDP+) and Employment in the agri-food system (AgEMP+) indicators are useful to track this process.
    Keywords: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, CENTRAL AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, measurement, agrifood systems, food systems, agriculture, gross national product, off-farm employment, nonfarm income, economic sectors,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:agdppb:136652&r=agr
  28. By: Malak-Rawlikowska, Agata; Majewski, Edward; Kamińska, Izabella
    Abstract: The main aim of the study was to identify current problems encountered by the Polish producers of products registered under the PDO, PGI, and TSG labels and develop a set of recommendations that may support the development of the market of FQS products in Poland. The study findings showed that many factors are disrupting the functioning of the Polish market of FQS products and are related to product specificities, market relevance, supply chain governance, legitimacy, and law enforcement. The majority of products is characterized by a low value added, which makes it difficult to distinguish them on the market and therefore protect against counterfeit. There are also products with greater value added, but the lack of farmers’ collective action reduces the potential effect that could result from the economy of scale. Furthermore, a limited number of certified producers and small cultivation areas constraint the use of effective marketing strategies, hindering producers’ ability to gain more visibility for their produce. Consequently, Polish FQS producers cannot create more profitable market niches, often selling their certified products at regular market prices without the expected price premium. Moreover, FQS labels are also not recognized well by consumers, which indicates a serious problem of information asymmetry in the value chain. In order to improve the FQS sales in Poland, a joint commitment of the public administration agencies and producers is necessary in terms of providing support to producers in the process of developing applications, introducing the system for monitoring FQS distribution and reporting counterfeits, creating an umbrella association of certified producers acting on behalf of all the participants of the system. Moreover, producers are encouraged to increase the scale of production, introduce common packaging and joint promotional activities, as well as joint sales and distribution in order to avoid producer–producer competition and to strengthen producers bargaining position in the food supply chain.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2023–06–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:337449&r=agr
  29. By: Büyüközkan, Gülçin; Uztürk, Deniz
    Abstract: The agriculture sector is fundamental for social, economic, and environmental development. It needs novel approaches and technology-integrated processes to preserve its critical importance and survive for the future. Agricultural digitalization is an essential component of agricultural industrialization, focusing on agricultural research, infrastructural improvements, and data services. The combination of the Internet of Things/Everything (IoT/IoE) with RFID, sensors, and high-tech meters makes up smart agriculture (SA). Controlling and monitoring have become more easily applicable thanks to these technological improvements. SA replaces conventional farming methods with effective, rapid, and sustainable ones. It has the power to control water, pesticides, security, the environment, machines, and vehicles. Digital Twin (DT) technology is the mutual use of digital technologies such as remote sensing, IoT, and simulation. With its integrated structure, DT can help farmers to create a virtual twin of their physical entities in the virtual space. Accordingly, generating strategies and planning the production can be controlled by running simulations with the field's collected data. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate challenges to DT adoption in SA. For that purpose, a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) approach is suggested. DEMATEL technique is provided to prioritize and evaluate causal relationships for DT adoption challenges. The DEMATEL technique is integrated with the 2-Tuple Linguistic (2-TL) model to improve its ability to deal with linguistic variables and create a decision-making process closer to human cognitive processes. A real case study is provided to test the applicability of the suggested methodology, and further discussions are presented.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–09–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaepa:337119&r=agr
  30. By: Alda Rodríguez; Eduardo Chia (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Virginia Rossi (Universidad de la República del Uruguay)
    Abstract: Agroecology proposes to mobilize the scientific and practical, traditional and local knowledge of producers to develop jointly new production systems. This article presents the results of research on biological control carried out since 2003 in the north of Uruguay. Experiences were conducted by different organizations of family farmers and by BIO-Uruguay (Batoví Instituto Orgánico), a social organization founded by family farmers and rural inhabitants. The results of the analyzed experiences are technical, methodological and social, focusing mainly on the biological fight against pests and diseases of agricultural and livestock production. The different stages of the co-innovation process are presented to obtain biological solutions from the recognition and use of native pathogenic fungi to control pests of economic importance. The objectives of this study were to restore biological balances, to contribute to the agroecological transitions of the productive systems, and to enforce the collective learning, necessary among the actors, for co-innovation. These learnings contribute to the development of the individual and institutional capacities needed to "build agroecology" in Uruguay.
    Keywords: bioinputs, action-research, native organisms, participation
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04143517&r=agr
  31. By: Karen Q. Custodio; Mercedita A. Sombilla
    Abstract: Poverty incidence is typically characterized as predominantly agriculture- and rural-based in most developing countries (IFAD 2018). In the Philippines, the proportion of the poor in rural areas, including farmers and fisherfolk, reached 25.7 percent, whereas urban poverty incidence was 11.6 percent only (PSA 2023a). As of 2021, around 2.7 million farmers and fisherfolk, or 30 percent of their population, live below the national poverty threshold (PSA 2023a). Since poverty is primarily concentrated in rural areas, ramping up agricultural and rural development has been a continued focus as a key poverty reduction strategy not only in the Philippines but in developing Asia as a whole. Evidence shows that strengthening rural economies by promoting economic activities rooted in rural areas and enhancing agricultural productivity can significantly reduce poverty and promote inclusive growth (Wickramasinghe 2018). Rural development has been recognized as one of the most powerful and reliable strategies for reducing poverty and effecting inclusive growth in developing countries (IFAD 2016). It primarily involves the intertwined subprocesses of structural transformation and rural transformation, where the latter is embedded within the structural transformation process (Timmer and Akkus 2008).Â
    Keywords: Philippines, rural transformation, agricultural and rural development
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sag:seappr:2023:565&r=agr
  32. By: Büyüközkan, Gülçin; Uztürk, Deniz
    Abstract: The agriculture sector is fundamental for social, economic, and environmental development. It needs novel approaches and technology-integrated processes to preserve its critical importance and survive for the future. Agricultural digitalization is an essential component of agricultural industrialization, focusing on agricultural research, infrastructural improvements, and data services. The combination of the Internet of Things/Everything (IoT/IoE) with RFID, sensors, and high-tech meters makes up smart agriculture (SA). Controlling and monitoring have become more easily applicable thanks to these technological improvements. SA replaces conventional farming methods with effective, rapid, and sustainable ones. It has the power to control water, pesticides, security, the environment, machines, and vehicles. Digital Twin (DT) technology is the mutual use of digital technologies such as remote sensing, IoT, and simulation. With its integrated structure, DT can help farmers to create a virtual twin of their physical entities in the virtual space. Accordingly, generating strategies and planning the production can be controlled by running simulations with the field's collected data. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate challenges to DT adoption in SA. For that purpose, a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) approach is suggested. DEMATEL technique is provided to prioritize and evaluate causal relationships for DT adoption challenges. The DEMATEL technique is integrated with the 2-Tuple Linguistic (2-TL) model to improve its ability to deal with linguistic variables and create a decision-making process closer to human cognitive processes. A real case study is provided to test the applicability of the suggested methodology, and further discussions are presented.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–09–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaewp:337119&r=agr
  33. By: Kilian Heutte (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Fabienne Daures (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sterenn Lucas (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Sophie Girard (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Frédérique Alban (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Floc'H (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In terms of food consumption, sustainability dimensions are often conflicting with purchasing power and practical purchases. France lands, farms, imports, and consumes large quantities of fisheries and aquaculture products (FAPs). The pandemic affected both domestic and foreign FAP supply through restrictions on trade and fishing conditions. Numerous sale points offering FAPs were closed during the pandemic. This general context has likely questioned the role of consumers on environmental, economic, and social matters. The aim of the paper is to assess whether the Covid-19 crisis has been an opportunity for French consumers to align their consumption at-home with the environmental issues by favouring domestic producers, short channels, or eco-friendly products. Quantitative data on at-home ordinary household purchases in metropolitan France from 2017 to 2021 was used along with t-test methods. It seems that fresh FAPs consumption did not truly adapt to the domestic fish production in defiance of import restrictions and available surpluses. While fresh shellfish at-home consumption did not change significantly in 2020, salmon and cod are still widely favoured by French consumers at-home, although their French production is virtually non-existent. On the contrary, domestically produced fish species remains poorly consumed at-home. The abundant supply of fresh salmon initially intended for other markets has permitted to consolidate the dominant position of this species on the French at-home consumption market. Initiated by supermarkets and hypermarkets and followed up by consumers, the trend of purchasing pre-packaged fresh fish has been substantially amplified by the pandemic and seems to persist over time.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Seafood, Fishery and aquaculture products (FAPs), Sustainable consumption
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04155664&r=agr
  34. By: Danish A. Ahmed (GUST - Gulf University for Science and Technology); Phillip J. Haubrock (GUST - Gulf University for Science and Technology, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum [Frankfurt] - Senckenberg – Leibniz Institution for Biodiversity and Earth System Research - Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung - Leibniz Association, CENAKVA - South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses [University of South Bohemia] - Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters [University of South Bohemia] - University of South Bohemia); Ross N. Cuthbert (Institute for Global Food Security [Belfast] - QUB - Queen's University [Belfast]); Alok Bang (Azim Premji University, Society for Ecology Evolution and Development); Ismael Soto (CENAKVA - South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses [University of South Bohemia] - Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters [University of South Bohemia] - University of South Bohemia); Paride Balzani (CENAKVA - South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses [University of South Bohemia] - Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters [University of South Bohemia] - University of South Bohemia); Ali S. Tarkan (Mugla Sitki Kocman University, BU - Bournemouth University [Poole]); Rafael L Macêdo (UNIRIO - Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Freie Universität Berlin); Laís Carneiro (UFPR - Universidade Federal do Parana [Curitiba] - UFPR - Universidade Federal do Paraná); Thomas W. Bodey (University of Aberdeen); Francisco J. Oficialdegui (CENAKVA - South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses [University of South Bohemia] - Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters [University of South Bohemia] - University of South Bohemia); Pierre Courtois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Melina Kourantidou (SDU - University of Southern Denmark, AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Elena Angulo (EBD - Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas [Madrid]); Gustavo Heringer (UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras = Federal University of Lavras); David Renault (ECOBIO - Ecosystèmes, biodiversité, évolution [Rennes] - UR - Université de Rennes - INEE - Institut Ecologie et Environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - OSUR - Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Rennes - UR - Université de Rennes - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Anna J. Turbelin (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, NRCan - Natural Resources Canada, Great Lakes Forestry Centre - Sault Sainte Marie, Ontario); Emma J. Hudgins (Carleton University - Department of Biology, Carleton University - Carleton University); Chunlong Liu (OUC - Ocean University of China, Institute of Hydrobiology [Wuhan] - CAS - Chinese Academy of Sciences [Beijing]); Showkat Ahmad Gojery (University of Kashmir,); Ugo Arbieu (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, SBiK-F - Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre - Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main - Senckenberg – Leibniz Institution for Biodiversity and Earth System Research - Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung - Leibniz Association, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute); Christophe Diagne (UMR CBGP - Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD [France-Sud] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Boris Leroy (BOREA - Biologie des Organismes et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - MNHN - Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UA - Université des Antilles); Elizabeta Briski (GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research [Kiel]); Corey J. A Bradshaw (Flinders University [Adelaide, Australia], School of Natural Sciences and ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia); Franck Courchamp (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Biological invasions are a global challenge that has received insufficient attention. Recently available cost syntheses have provided policy and decision makers with reliable and up-to-date information on the economic impacts of invasive alien species, aiming to motivate effective management. The resultant InvaCost database is now publicly and freely accessible and enables rapid extraction of monetary cost information globally. This has facilitated knowledge sharing, developed a more integrated and multidisciplinary network of researchers, and forged multidisciplinary collaborations among diverse organisations and stakeholders. Over 50 scientific publications so far have used the database and provided detailed assessments of invasion costs across geographic, taxonomic, and spatio-temporal scales. These studies have been instrumental in guiding policy and legislative decisions, while attracting public and media attention. We provide an overview of the improved availability, reliability, and defragmentation of monetary costs, how this has enhanced invasion science as a discipline, and outline directions for future development
    Keywords: environmental management, guiding policy, InvaCost, invasive species, economic impacts
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04148456&r=agr
  35. By: Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
    Abstract: The latest report on "Repairing Broken Food Trade Routes Ukraine – Africa” covers: Kakhovska HPP and the war Western border and EU grains production Grain Initiative This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme “Making Agricultural Trade Sustainable” (MATS) programme (https://sustainable-agri-trade.eu/). The role of MATS/WTI in this programme is to identify and explore “broken” Ukrainian - African food trade routes due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Starting with a food trade flow chart pre- and post-24 February 2022, it will assess, first, whether Ukrainian (or African) traders can again supply these products (Output 1). Failing that, whether the new EU-financed “Crisis Management” (or another) programme can possibly make up for lost Ukrainian agrifood exports (Output 2). It will also identify alternative exporters (if any) which might already have filled in agrifood demand in Africa (Output 3). Importantly, the Project also looks at the potential effect of these developments on competing farm production in Africa (Output 4). For further information and/or offer to assist in project implementation, please write to Christian Häberli (Christian.Haeberli@wti.org) or to Bogdan Kostetsky (bogdan.kostetsky@gmail.com).
    Date: 2023–08–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wti:papers:1403&r=agr
  36. By: Bertille Daran (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Pierre Levasseur (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Matthieu Clément (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Globally, the literature tends to emphasize negative associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and bodyweight in countries improving their economic development. However, little is known about the social distribution of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where economic growth has been highly heterogeneous the last decades. This paper reviews an exhaustive set of recent empirical studies examining its association in low-income and lower-middle-income countries in SSA. Although there is evidence of a positive association between SES and obesity in low-income countries, we found mixed associations in lower-middle-income countries, potentially providing evidence of a social reversal of the obesity burden.
    Keywords: nutrition transition obesity socioeconomic status sub-Saharan Africa, nutrition transition, obesity, socioeconomic status, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2023–07–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04157386&r=agr
  37. By: Balieiro, Samuel
    Abstract: Estimating farmers' supply responses to changes in framework conditions is important to in-form decision-makers on the expected impacts on production volume as well as the resulting land-use shifts. Existing agricultural supply response models generally require either larger databases with farm-level data for microregional analysis or are implemented with a coarse resolution (e.g., country level) due to the lack of data. While such approaches are suitable for regions with abundancy of data or for global-scale analysis, there is a need for an alternative for micro-level analysis in countries with low data availability. In addition, it is important to include the spatial component in the regional supply response analysis, allowing not only the quantification of the overall change in output but also the likely spatial land-use change. Against this background, this dissertation aims to answer the research question whether a combination of a biophysical model with farm-level economic data can be used to estimate farm-level profitability of individual crops and respective cropping systems and thereby simulate farmers' supply responses in countries with limited data availability. To answer this ques-tion, a new modeling approach called Profitability Assessment Model (PAM) is developed, tested and validated. This new modeling approach follows the principles of minimum data, focusing on delivering timely and quantitative analyses with satisfactory accuracy to inform decision-makers. That is an important feature since the overall goal of the concept is to limit the data required by the model to a minimum, allowing quick implementation while accepting moderate accuracy. [...]
    Keywords: Brazil, Land-use change, Biophysical model, Production costs, Supply analysis, Soybeans, Maize, Sugarcane, Climate change, Profitability, Brasilien, Landnutzungsänderung, Biophysikalisches Modell, Produktionskosten, Angebotsanalyse, Sojabohnen, Mais, Zuckerrohr, Klimawandel, Wirtschaftlichkeit
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:jhtire:106&r=agr
  38. By: Hendricks, Nathan P.; Murphy, Ashling M.; Morgan, Stephen; Padilla, Samantha; Key, Nigel
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the distribution of Market Facilitation Program payments and explain the sources of disparity of those payments by farm operator race. In this paper, we use farm-level data from the Census of Agriculture to estimate the payments each farm was eligible to receive from the 2018 and 2019 Market Facilitation Program. We find that farms with a White operator were eligible to receive significantly larger payments than farms with a non-White operator. Most of the disparity forfarms with a Black operator is due to differences in average farm size, since there are few large farms with a Black operator. The disparities for farms with an operator of other races were roughly half due to farm size and half due to the location of these farms and the types of commodities they tend to produce.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Public Economics
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea22:337402&r=agr
  39. By: Baker, Derek
    Abstract: Despite the promise of substantial gains from digital transformation, its incidence remains low in the agri-food sector and the broader food system. Understanding of the transformation process is somewhat well developed, but not as it occurs on farms and in agri-food supply chains. Contemporary pressures on the agri-food sectors advocated for improvements in multiple facets of performance. Digital technologies are increasingly looked to as a means of performance improvement. Practical interpretation of the value proposition offered by digital technology to the agri-food sector has not been implemented as a generalisable decision tool. Sustainability, resilience, and natural cycles for material and energy are of increasing performance relevance but have not been analytically linked to agri-food’s digital transformation. Quantification of benefits and costs has not been widely attempted. The current paper presents an empirical study employing technology mapping to quantify costs and benefits of technological change in the agri-food system. It identifies Research and Development impetus for change by mapping research output to high value technologies for a selection of industries. Particular emphasis is given to production tasks amenable to digital adoption, and to the transformations generating subsequent value within and beyond the adopter’s enterprise. Decision tools are developed to guide investment by private, public and industry stakeholders, in response to forms and magnitudes of benefit and cost. This paper outlines the methodology used, preliminary results, and prototype decision tools. Conflicts arising between performance metrics are identified and solutions proposed. The implications for stakeholders of a more visible and quantifiable value proposition for digital transformation are discussed in the contexts of received opinion about the effects of digital agriculture and the current and strategic needs of firms, industry and society.
    Keywords: Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–09–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaewp:337120&r=agr
  40. By: Aheeyar, Mohamed (International Water Management Institute); Jayathilake, Nilanthi (International Water Management Institute); Bucatariu, C.; Reitemeier, Maren (International Water Management Institute); Bandara, Ayomi (International Water Management Institute); Thiel, Felix (International Water Management Institute); Drechsel, Pay (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Food wastes; Waste reduction; Urban areas; Wholesale markets; Household wastes; Governance; Frameworks; Waste management; Policies; Regulations; Guidelines; Legislation; Institutions; Nutrition; Climate change
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h052030&r=agr
  41. By: Mateo-Sagasta, Javier (International Water Management Institute); Nassif, Marie Helene (International Water Management Institute); Tawfik, Mohamed (International Water Management Institute); Gebrezgabher, Solomie (International Water Management Institute); Mapedza, Everisto (International Water Management Institute); Lahham, Nisreen (International Water Management Institute); Al-Hamdi, M.
    Keywords: Water reuse; Water resources; Water availability; Water scarcity; Wastewater treatment; Municipal wastewater; Resource recovery; Water policies; Water governance; Planning; Guidelines; Irrigation water; Agricultural water use; Water quality standards; Health hazards; Sustainability; Financing; Cost recovery; Business models; Stakeholders; Gender-transformative approaches; Women; Social aspects
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051838&r=agr
  42. By: Amparo Castelló-Climent; Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay; Ravinder
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role of tertiary education on rural development. Using census data on villages in India for 2011, we find that skilled workers have had an important impact on rural prosperity. A 1 percentage point rise in the share of the village population with tertiary education raises per capita consumption by around 7.2 per cent. Our results are robust to alternative measures of income and are not confounded by better institutions. Among the mechanisms at work, we find that households with tertiary-educated members register higher agricultural gross income per unit of land.
    Keywords: Rural, Transformation, Education, Rural areas
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp-2023-89&r=agr
  43. By: Benfica, Rui; Diao, Xinshen; Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Ellis, Mia
    Abstract: Tanzania experienced strong annual economic growth of 6.2 percent between 2009 and 2019 (NBS 2020). Despite the country’s relatively less restrictive domestic COVID-19 measures, the adverse effects of the global commodity market disruptions during the pandemic led to a slowdown in GDP growth to 4.8 percent in 2020 and 4.9 percent in 2021 (NBS 2021). Growth is expected to reach 5.3 percent in 2023 and 6.1 percent in 2024 (World Bank 2023), suggesting that Tanzania is returning to its pre-pandemic growth trajectory. While the economy has been going through a process of structural transformation with rapid growth, agriculture continues to play an important role in both output and employment, accounting for about 30 percent of total GDP and 70 percent of employment in 2019. The agriculture sector performed well over the pre-pandemic decade, with agricultural growth accelerating from 3.8 percent per year in the 2009–2014 period to 5 percent in the 2014–2019 period (NBS 2020). The agriculture sector has also been playing an important role in weathering the global commodity market shocks in 2022 and 2023, thanks to some export crops that benefit from the negative terms of trade shock (Diao and Thurlow 2023). In this brief, we unpack the historical and projected economic growth trajectory further to better understand the role of agriculture as well as the broader agrifood system (AFS) in the performance and transformation of the economy of Tanzania.
    Keywords: TANZANIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, maize, rice, oilseeds, livestock, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:19&r=agr
  44. By: Jens Abildtrup (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jette Bredahl Jacobsen (IFRO - Institute of Food and Resource Economics [Copenhagen] - Faculty of Science [Copenhagen] - UCPH - University of Copenhagen = Københavns Universitet); Suzanne Elizabeth Vedel (Tech & Environm Adm, Dept Analyt, Copenhagen); Udo Mantau (INFRO Informationssysteme Rohstoffe, Celle,); Robert Mavsar (EFI - European Forest Institute); Davide Pettenella (TeSAF - Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry - Unipd - Università degli Studi di Padova = University of Padua); Irina Prokofieva (EFI - European Forest Institute); Florian Schubert (INTEND Geoinformat GmbH, Kassel); Anne Stenger (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Elsa Varela (Forest Sci & Technol Ctr Catalonia, Lleida); Enrico Vidale (TeSAF - Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry - Unipd - Università degli Studi di Padova = University of Padua); Bo Jellesmark Thorsen (IFRO - Institute of Food and Resource Economics [Copenhagen] - Faculty of Science [Copenhagen] - UCPH - University of Copenhagen = Københavns Universitet)
    Abstract: Policies mitigating climate change provide a global public good but are also likely to imply local co-benefits where implemented. This may affect citizens' preferences for what policy to implement as well as where to implement it. This aspect remains understudied despite its relevance for international climate negotiations, national policies, and the development of voluntary carbon credit markets. The results of a discrete choice experiment show that citizens in five countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain) have quite similar mean willingness to pay for carbon emission reductions and agree on the ranking of policies targeting different sectors. Specifically, policies targeting renewable energy use, are preferred over policies targeting industrial energy efficiency or carbon sequestration and biomass production in forests. Applying follow-up questions shows that concerns over co-benefits, notably air pollution, is linked to preferences for implementation in the home country. In the absence of co-benefits, citizens are indifferent or prefer policies implemented in other countries.
    Keywords: Carbon emissions, Cobenefits, Willingness to pay, Choice experiment, Crosscountry study, Policy acceptability
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04132398&r=agr
  45. By: Luiza M Karpavicius; Ariaster Chimeli
    Abstract: Ecosystem degradation and contact with wildlife is often linked to infectious diseases such as COVID-19 and malaria, a major cause of death and incapacitation worldwide. This paper investigates a quasi-experiment involving two forest protection policies for the Brazilian Amazon region and their consequences to malaria incidence. The first inadvertently increased forest degradation in part of the Amazon, whereas the second curbed deforestation in the entire region. Using actual malaria case data distributed across space and over 17 years, we estimate the causal link between deforestation and malaria. The results imply that effective forest protection reduced malaria incidence by over 50%.
    Keywords: Malaria; Deforestation; Forest Protection Policies; Brazil
    JEL: D04 I18 Q23 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2023–07–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:spa:wpaper:2023wpecon08&r=agr
  46. By: Carlo Fezzi; Mauro Derek J. Ford; Kirsten L.L. Oleson
    Abstract: We develop a travel-cost random utility model to estimate the value of recreational ecosystem services provided by more than 170 outdoor sites located on the island of Maui (Hawaii, USA). Particular emphasis is placed on the role of coastal ecosystems by combining recent fine-scale data on coral cover and fish biomass with information on almost 3000 recreation trips taken by Maui’s residents. Our approach is grounded in economic theory and provides estimates that are directly applicable to inform a wide array of spatial planning questions for coastal management. We apply our model to calculate the economic losses caused by the 2014-2015 coral bleaching event, which are in the order of $25M per year. We also identify the areas where coral reef restoration would maximize welfare gains. Impacts can vary up to a factor of 1000 across locations, demonstrating the need to carefully consider such heterogeneity in spatial prioritization. Our simulations also show how access fees can raise funds for financing conservation measures aimed at bolstering coral reefs resilience to climate change.
    Keywords: coral reefs, ecosystem services, climate change, recreation, coastal management
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:trn:utwprg:2022/5&r=agr
  47. By: Uztürk, Deniz; Büyüközkan, Gülçin
    Abstract: Agricultural operations have been highly affected by all the industrial revolutions. From ancient times to today, agrarian systems have evolved parallel to technological developments. For a decade, we have been facing a new industrial revolution, Industry 4.0. It is for sure that the existing agrarian systems will be affected by this digital transformation. Since agricultural systems are critical production networks for civilizations, their change should be addressed carefully. For that purpose, this paper focuses on the technology evaluation for Smart Agriculture (SA). The SA area is chosen thanks to its importance for sustainable development and production systems. Thus, the expectations from SA are derived from the SA advantages stated in the academic and industrial literature. Afterward, the technologies are assessed according to their ability to meet these expectations. To obtain the most powerful technology, the expectations are first weighted via the 2-Tuple Linguistic (2-TL) DEMATEL technique, then 2-TL-MARCOS is used to calculate the technology prioritization. To overcome the ambiguity about a newly emerged subject as SA, using linguistic variables via the 2-TL approach is one of the essential contributions of this paper. Moreover, this paper suggests a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach to create a comprehensive understanding of digital technologies and their use and benefits in agricultural systems. A real case study is presented with a sensitivity analysis to test the proposed methodology's applicability and replicability.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–09–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaepa:337128&r=agr
  48. By: Ujjayant Chakravorty; Xiangzheng Deng; Yazhen Gong; Martino Pelli; Qian Zhang
    Abstract: There is a large literature on the role infrastructure plays in economic development, but few papers document the effect of infrastructure on the sustainability of natural resources. We examine the effect of the arrival of two new national highways on ground water levels in a small agricultural county in the North China Plain - a region that produces most of the nation’s food grains. We first develop a conceptual framework to show that farmers located closer to the highways devote more acreage to crops that are water intensive. We then use a unique GIS-referenced dataset of all the 12, 160 tube wells in this county to show that highway construction accelerates the drilling of new wells in farms closer to the highway. In addition, there is greater depletion of the groundwater in wells closer to the two highways relative to wells located farther away. Our estimated depletion rates near the two roads are at least 5 times higher relative to mean depletion rates in the North China Plain. We show suggestive evidence that depletion is caused by a switch from subsistence to commercial cropping, and intensification of farming practices closer to the highway. These results suggest that the resource cost of new infrastructure building may be significant and needs to be incorporated in benefit-cost analysis. Il existe une abondante littérature sur le rôle que jouent les infrastructures dans le développement économique, mais peu d'articles documentent l'effet des infrastructures sur la durabilité des ressources naturelles. Nous examinons l'effet de l'arrivée de deux nouvelles routes nationales sur le niveau des eaux souterraines dans un petit comté agricole de la plaine de Chine du Nord, une région qui produit la plupart des céréales alimentaires du pays. Nous développons d'abord un cadre conceptuel pour montrer que les agriculteurs situés plus près des autoroutes consacrent plus de surface aux cultures à forte intensité d'eau. Nous utilisons ensuite un ensemble unique de données référencées par le SIG sur les 12 160 puits tubulaires de ce comté pour montrer que la construction de l'autoroute accélère le forage de nouveaux puits dans les exploitations agricoles situées à proximité de l'autoroute. En outre, l'épuisement des eaux souterraines est plus important dans les puits situés à proximité des deux autoroutes que dans les puits situés plus loin. Les taux d'épuisement estimés à proximité des deux routes sont au moins cinq fois plus élevés que les taux d'épuisement moyens dans la plaine de Chine du Nord. Nous montrons que l'épuisement est dû au passage d'une culture de subsistance à une culture commerciale et à l'intensification des pratiques agricoles à proximité de l'autoroute. Ces résultats suggèrent que le coût en ressources de la construction de nouvelles infrastructures peut être significatif et doit être intégré dans l'analyse coûts-avantages.
    Keywords: Infrastructure, Roads, North China Plain, Water Resources, sustainability, Infrastructure, Routes, Plaine de Chine du Nord, Ressources en eau, Durabilité
    JEL: O13 O18 Q25
    Date: 2023–05–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cir:cirwor:2023s-17&r=agr
  49. By: Suryadeepto Nag; David I. Stern
    Abstract: Experimental studies find smaller benefits of electrification than observational studies. Is this because the latter typically observe benefits after a longer period of time? Using three waves of data from the Human Development Profile of India and the Indian Household Development Survey of Indian rural households, we quantify the impacts of short-term (0-7 years) and long-term (7-17 years) electricity access on household well-being. We use a propensity-score-weighted-difference-in-differences design that controls for spillover effects and find that electricity access increases consumption and education in the long term, and reduces the time spent by women on fuel collection, although we do not find significant effects on agricultural income, agricultural land holding, and kerosene consumption. Per capita consumption grows by 18 percentage points more over seven years in the long-term connected group than in the control group. Short-term effects are smaller and not statistically significant for any outcome variable.
    Keywords: Electricity access, impact assessment, South Asia
    JEL: O13 Q40
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2023-08&r=agr
  50. By: Desiree M. Kunene (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa); Renee van Eyden (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa); Petre Caraiani (Institute for Economic Forecasting, Romanian Academy, Romania; Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa)
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate the predictive impact of climate risk (as measured by average temperature changes and temperature realised volatility) on total factor productivity (TFP) growth in 23 economies over the period 1880 to 2020 while controlling for real GDP per capita growth. Standard full-sample Granger causality tests offer little evidence of a causal impact of climate change on productivity outcomes. This may be attributed to nonlinearity and structural breaks in the relationship between climate risk and TFP growth, as evidenced by the BDS (1996) test results for nonlinearity and the Bai-Perron (1998, 2003) multiple breakpoint test results. Furthermore, Rossi-Wang (2019) time-varying VAR-based Granger causality tests, which are robust in the presence of instabilities and structural changes, indicate that for a large number of countries, we observe a significant causal impact of climate change on TFP growth in the post-World War II period, with increased significance in the causal impact for the majority of countries in the post-1980 period.
    Keywords: Total factor productivity growth, climate change, temperature realised volatility, average temperature change, time-varying Granger causality
    JEL: Q54 E23 C32
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pre:wpaper:202321&r=agr
  51. By: Diao, Xinshen; Masias, Ian; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James; Boughton, Duncan; Ellis, Mia
    Abstract: Myanmar initiated economic and political reforms in 2011, ushering in a period of rapid economic transformation. The country experienced strong annual average economic growth of close to 7 percent between 2011 and 2019. The rural economy and the agriculture sector were also transforming, characterized by accelerated rural out-migration from the sector, which was facilitated by favorable policy changes, increased trade, and improved road infrastructure (Filipski et. al. 2021). Rural wages rose (Belton et. al. 2021), and labor shortages, along with increased access to financing, led to a massive expansion of mechanization services (Win et al. 2018) and other rural nonfarm enterprises. However, the economic transformation was disrupted by the global COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and the political crisis caused by the military coup d’état in 2021. During this recent period, Myanmar’s agrifood system was impacted by numerous shocks, including disruptions to the banking and local transportation systems, changes to international trade policies, rapidly depreciating currency, foreign exchange controls, increasing global commodity prices, and massive declines in income and access to credit, among others. In this brief, we focus on Myanmar’s agrifood system between 2011 and 2019 and evaluate the potential contributions of different value chains to driving agricultural transformation and welfare gains in the future.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, cereals, livestock, hunger, conflict, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:11&r=agr
  52. By: Geoffroy Enjolras (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Yann Desjeux (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Philippe Jeanneaux (VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement); Laure Latruffe (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Farm valuation is an important step in the transfer process. The authors surveyed 67 land experts and accountants in France on this process. Their study shows the predominance of the patrimonial method associated with methods that take into account the financial flows of the farm. The survey highlights several major issues in the valuation process, in particular the conciliation of perspectives between sellers and buyers, the consideration of intangible factors and the interest in developing valuation standards and scales.
    Abstract: L'évaluation d'une exploitation agricole est une étape importante lors d'un processus de transmission. Les auteurs ont interrogé 67 experts fonciers et experts comptables en France sur ce processus. L'étude atteste de la prédominance de la méthode patrimoniale associée à des méthodes prenant en compte les flux financiers de l'exploitation. L'enquête souligne plusieurs enjeux forts de l'évaluation, notamment la conciliation des perspectives entre vendeurs et acheteurs, la prise en compte des facteurs intangibles et l'intérêt de développer des normes et des barèmes d'évaluation.
    Keywords: Economic and financial valuation, Farms, Evaluation économique et financière, Exploitations agricoles, France
    Date: 2023–05–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04152201&r=agr
  53. By: Matthew Kotchen; Andrew Vogt
    Abstract: International environment and development agencies increasingly emphasize external cofinancing when selecting projects to fund. This paper considers whether the emphasis on cofinancing helps promote institutional objectives, or creates perverse and inefficient incentives. We present a model of project selection that can apply to any funding agency, but focus on environmental multilateral funds and climate change. We show that introducing cofinancing objectives to a fund that seeks to maximize its immediate environmental impact is redundant as best, and more likely counterproductive. We test implications of our model using project-level data from two of the leading environmental multilateral funds, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF). While tradeoffs exist between emission reductions and cofinancing, we find that they are not strong enough to imply that current cofinancing preferences are diminishing the environmental benefits that funds can claim. However, we also find that the emphasis on cofinancing in project selection is likely to be globally inefficient, as projects with greater cofinancing ratios tend to yield smaller emission reductions per gross dollar spent. This finding should sound a note of caution given the overall scarcity of financial resources available to achieve global climate goals.
    JEL: O13 Q01 Q58
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:31458&r=agr
  54. By: Sefa Awaworyi Churchill; Trong-Anh Trinh; Michael Danquah
    Abstract: We examine the impact of temperature shocks and climate change on household financial behaviour in Viet Nam. To do so, we first estimate the effect of temperature on household borrowing and savings using Vietnamese longitudinal data that matches satellite reanalysis temperature data with household information over the period 2008 to 2016. We find that an additional day with an average temperature of greater than 30°C, relative to the number of days in the 18-22°C range, is associated with a 6.3 per cent decrease in household savings and a 1.4 per cent increase in household borrowing.
    Keywords: Temperature, Weather shock, Climate change, Saving, Viet Nam
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp-2023-95&r=agr
  55. By: Balana, Bedru; Adeyanju, Dolapo; Clingain, Clare; Andam, Kwaw S.; de Brauw, Alan; Yohanna, Ishaku; Olarewaju, Olukunbi; Schneider, Molly
    Abstract: This paper presents the findings from an experimental study designed to assess the impacts of one-time large lump sum cash transfers on welfare and coping strategies of smallholders in climate-risk and conflict-affected communities in northeast Nigeria. This pilot intervention was supported by Google.org and implemented by the International Rescue Committee (IRC). The central hypothesis of the intervention is that when climate vulnerable communities have timely access to information and the financial and social resources to act upon that information, they will avoid negative coping strategies and build more diversified and climate resilient livelihoods. The project transferred a lump sum of cash to a treatment group of randomly sampled households when triggered by the climate data risk thresholds. An equal number of comparable households in a control group received the same amount of cash post flooding shock. The main purpose of the study was to assess the impacts of anticipatory cash against the traditional humanitarian post-shocks supporting mechanism. We collected baseline and endline data from a sample of 1450 experimental households (725 ‘treatment’ and 725 ‘control’) and analyzed the data using econometric models. Several outcome indicators including food security, climate adaptive and resilience actions, and wellbeing measures were used to assess the intervention. The results indicate that anticipatory cash has significant impacts on reducing negative coping strategies, increasing the number of pre-emptive climate adaptive actions, and increasing investment in productive assets that could enhance future resilience. On other hand, anticipatory cash transfers do not seem to have significant impacts on short-term food and non-food consumption expenditures compared to post-shock cash transfers. Our findings indicate that one-time large sum anticipatory transfer could lead households to build their climate resilience capacity, and hence a promising intervention to reduce the vulnerability of households to future climate shocks. Based on the findings we have two key recommendations: (1) Given the generally positive findings on household’s welfare and climate resilience capacity, we suggest humanitarian agencies and governments to consider anticipatory interventions (such as pre-shock cash transfers) as a mechanism for both meeting basic needs and improving climate resilience of households provided that quality data and analytics exist to predict a high probability of climate shocks. (2) As climate shocks continue to worsen and humanitarian funding needs remain unmet for both emergencies and early recovery, anticipatory approach may be critical to meeting the short- and long-term needs of climate and conflict-affected households.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; cash transfers; welfare; smallholders; climate change; conflict; resilience; information; finance; social safety nets; food security; investment; vulnerability; flooding; climate resilience; anticipatory cash; coping strategies
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:nsspwp:69&r=agr
  56. By: Edge, Brittani; Bullock, David; Mieno, Taro
    Abstract: This paper uses data from thirty-three on-farm experiments to explore the use of electrical conductivity (EC) for defining seeding and nitrogen rates for corn production. We estimate the yield response to nitrogen and seeding rates, including an interaction term with EC for each of the trial years. We then determine the optimal uniform and variables rates and compare the profits. If EC can be used on different fields and years, then the correlation between EC and the optimal rates should be consistent across fields and years. We find that the optimal variables rates do not produce profits above $5 an acre for the majority of the fields. Additionally, in different years on the same field, the high EC areas may require more or less of the inputs. The inconsistency of the relationship between EC and the optimal rates does not enable EC to be accurately used for variable rate applications across different growing years. While EC will continue to be important in detecting salt affected soils and can be calibrated for detection of specific soil elements, the use of EC for variable-rate input management is not recommended.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–09–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaepa:337124&r=agr
  57. By: Diao, Xinshen; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James; Ellis, Mia
    Abstract: Ethiopia stands out as one of the fastest growing African countries between 2009 and 2019, with an average annual GDP growth rate close to 10 percent (ESS 2020). The global COVID-19 pandemic coupled with an armed civil conflict that started in November 2020 and continued for two years caused a significant slowdown in economic growth during the 2020–2022 period. Ethiopia’s GDP growth is now projected to recover to 5.3 percent in 2023 and 6.1 percent in 2024 (World Bank 2023), remaining well below the growth rates achieved in the pre-pandemic era. Agriculture remains an important sector in Ethiopia, accounting for one-third of GDP and two-thirds of jobs. The agriculture sector, like the broader economy, performed well prior to the pandemic and civil conflict, averaging 5.5 percent growth from 2009 to 2019 (ESS 2020), and played an important role in weathering the global commodity market shocks during 2022–2023 (Diao and Thurlow 2023). In this brief, we look beyond primary agriculture to understand how Ethiopia’s broader agrifood system (AFS) is contributing to growth and transformation in the country.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, wheat, barley, horticulture, cattle, maize, GDP,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:4&r=agr
  58. By: Rausch, Sebastian; Yonezawa, Hidemichi
    Abstract: Technology policy is the most widespread form of climate policy and is often preferred over seemingly efficient carbon pricing. We propose a new explanation for this observation: gains that predominantly accrue to households with large capital assets and that influence majority decisions in favor of technology policy. We study climate policy choices in an overlapping generations model with heterogeneous energy technologies and distortionary income taxation. Compared to carbon pricing, green technology policy leads to a pronounced capital subsidy effect that benefits most of the current generations but burdens future generations. Based on majority voting which disregards future generations, green technology policies are favored over a carbon tax. Smart 'polluter-pays' financing of green technology policies enables obtaining the support of current generations while realizing efficiency gains for future generations.
    JEL: Q54 Q48 Q58 D58 H23
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:zewdip:23017&r=agr
  59. By: Waring, Timothy; Niles, Meredith; Kling, Matthew; Hebert-Dufresne, Laurent; Sabzian, Hossein; Miller, Stephanie; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; McGill, Brian
    Abstract: It has been proposed that climate adaptation research can benefit from an evolutionary approach. But related empirical research is lacking. We advance the evolutionary study of climate adaptation with two case studies from contemporary United States agriculture. First, we define ‘cultural adaptation to climate change’ as a mechanistic process of population-level cultural change. We argue this definition enables rigorous comparisons, yields testable hypotheses from mathematical theory, and distinguishes adaptive change, non-adaptive change, and desirable policy outcomes. Next, we develop an operational approach to identify ‘cultural adaptation to climate change’ based on established empirical criteria. We apply this approach to USDA data on crop choices and the use of cover crops between 2008 and 2021. We find evidence that crop choices are adapting to local trends in two separate climate variables in some regions of the US. But evidence suggests that cover cropping may be adapting more to economic incentives than climatic conditions. Further research is needed to characterize the process of cultural adaptation, particularly the routes and mechanisms of cultural transmission. Furthermore, climate adaptation policy could benefit from research on factors that differentiate regions exhibiting adaptive trends in crop choice from those that do not.
    Date: 2023–06–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:pq7r5&r=agr
  60. By: Diao, Xinshen; Pauw, Karl; Smart, Jenny; Thurlow, James; Ellis, Mia
    Abstract: Kenya experienced significant economic development in the 2009 to 2019 period. Gross domestic product (GDP)—an indicator of the economy’s size—expanded by an annual average of 5 percent (KNBS 2022). This exceeded population growth and helped raise household incomes, leading to a decline in poverty rates; more importantly, for the first time in at least three decades, the country experienced a decline in the absolute number of poor people (World Bank 2022). While the global COVID-19 pandemic caused negative economic growth in 2020, the economy recovered quickly in 2021. Kenya was also largely spared the adverse effects of the global commodity market disruptions arising from the Russia-Ukraine war that started in 2022 and from the global recession in 2023 (Arndt et al. 2023; Diao and Thurlow 2023). Kenya’s GDP growth is projected to reach 5.0 percent in 2023 and 5.3 percent in 2024 (World Bank 2023), suggesting that the economy is resuming its pre-pandemic growth trajectory. Agriculture remains an important sector, accounting for about one-quarter of GDP and nearly half of Kenya’s employment. It has thus played an important role in economic development. The sector has grown alongside the rest of the economy despite many challenges including climate variability (Ochieng et al. 2020), weak rural infrastructure (Benin and Odjo 2018), declines in farm size (Jayne et al. 2016), and limited access to farm inputs combined with poor agronomic management (Worku et al. 2020). In this brief, we look beyond primary agriculture to understand how Kenya’s broader agrifood system (AFS) is contributing to growth and transformation in the country.
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, grain legumes, cattle, fruits, coffee beans, tea, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:6&r=agr
  61. By: Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia
    Abstract: Senegal experienced annual economic growth of 4.8 percent during the 2009 to 2019 period (World Bank 2023a). With an annual population growth rate of 2.7 percent over the same period, the living standards of Senegalese improved modestly. In 2020, the global COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant slowdown in economic growth, but growth rebounded in 2021. While the country was adversely affected by the global commodity market disruptions related to the Russia-Ukraine war that started in 2022 (Arndt et al. 2023; Diao and Thurlow 2023), its growth is projected to reach 8.0 percent in 2023 and 10.5 percent in 2024 (World Bank 2023b). This suggests a much-improved short-term outlook and a future growth trajectory well above its pre-pandemic growth trajectory. Agriculture is a relatively small sector in Senegal, accounting for less than one-fifth of GDP. However, the broader agrifood system (AFS), which includes processing, trade and transport of agrifood products, and food services, makes up about one-third of GDP. In this brief, we examine the performance of Senegal’s broader AFS and its contribution to growth and transformation.
    Keywords: SENEGAL, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, cotton, cattle, rice, fish, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:16&r=agr
  62. By: Nortje, Karen (International Water Management Institute); Joshi, Deepa (International Water Management Institute); Enokenwa Baa, Ojongetakah (International Water Management Institute); Mapedza, Everisto (International Water Management Institute); Davis, K.
    Keywords: Gender equality; Social inclusion; Agribusiness; Agricultural transformation; Frameworks; Women; Youth; Empowerment; Climate resilience; Innovation; Socioeconomic aspects; Stakeholders; Institutions; Political aspects
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h052018&r=agr
  63. By: Dubrie, Artie; Emanuel, Elizabeth; Opadeyi, Jacob; Grant, Valrie
    Abstract: The Caribbean is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, extreme weather events and other natural hazards. The subregion is also exposed to anthropogenic hazards, including petroleum and other industrial chemical spills, fires, and soil, air and water pollution. These hazards can result in loss of life and other health impacts, damage to infrastructure, social and economic disruptions and ecological degradation. To significantly reduce the negative effects of these hazards, it is important that key stakeholders, including national disaster management agencies, development partners, and the private sector, particularly insurance companies be integrally engaged in the shaping of comprehensive disaster risk management (DRM) strategies and plans. The success of DRM will depend on the effective management of relevant information and data. Geospatial Information Management (GIM) has enabled more timely, data-driven, informed DRM decision-making. This research provides an introduction to the status and use of GIM in support of DRM in the Caribbean region. The data and information obtained from on-line surveys and desk studies indicated that the Caribbean countries are at varying stages of progress towards the integration of GIM in DRM. Policy setting, legislation, education, capacity building, technological investment and institutional strengthening driving geospatial data management are priority areas identified for further advancing this progress. The study offers recommendations towards further strengthening the use of GIM in DRM both nationally and at the level of the Caribbean region.
    Keywords: DESASTRES NATURALES, PREVENCION DE DESASTRES, PREPARACION PARA CASOS DE DESASTRES, GESTION DE LOS RIESGOS, GESTION DE LA INFORMACION GEOESPACIAL, DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE, NATURAL DISASTERS, DISASTER PREVENTION, DISASTER PREPAREDNESS, RISK MANAGEMENT, GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
    Date: 2023–06–29
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecr:col033:48958&r=agr
  64. By: Rémi Beulque (ISC-PIF - Institut des Systèmes Complexes - Paris Ile-de-France - ENS Cachan - École normale supérieure - Cachan - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - X - École polytechnique - Institut Curie [Paris] - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Helen Micheaux (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Joel Ntsonde (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - Mines Paris - PSL (École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris) - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - I3 - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this article, we describe how, in addition to their traditional eco-design tool, namely ecomodulation, Producer Responsibility Organizations (PRO) can now rely on a new tool, called eco-retribution, in order to create supportive business ecosystems that boost experimentation and scaling of circular business models in an efficient way.
    Keywords: Circular Business Models, Supportive business ecosystem, Extended Producer Responsibility, Eco-modulation, eco-retribution
    Date: 2022–06–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04142329&r=agr
  65. By: Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: Uganda experienced annual economic growth of 5.8 percent between 2009 and 2019 (UBOS 2020). While restrictive COVID-19 policy measures in 2020 and 2021 caused a slowdown in the economy, the country has largely been spared the adverse effects of the global commodity market disruptions arising from the Russia-Ukraine war that started in 2022 and from the 2023 global recession (Arndt et al. 2023; Diao and Thurlow 2023). Uganda’s GDP growth is projected to reach 5.5 percent in 2023 and 6.1 percent in 2024 (World Bank 2023), suggesting that the economy is resuming its pre-pandemic growth trajectory. Agriculture remains an important sector, accounting for one-quarter of GDP and two-thirds of Uganda’s jobs. The agriculture sector also performed well in the 2009 to 2019 period, growing at 5.0 percent annually (UBOS 2020). Thanks to a positive terms of trade shock and an established trade surplus in agrifood products, this sector played an important role in weathering the 2022 and 2023 global commodity market shocks (Diao and Thurlow 2023). In this brief, we examine Uganda’s economic growth and transformation trajectory, both historically and going forward. Rather than focusing on the role of primary agriculture, we examine how the country’s broader agrifood system (AFS) is contributing to that transformation process.
    Keywords: UGANDA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, oilseeds, cattle, fruits, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:20&r=agr
  66. By: Guillaume Chevillon (ESSEC Business School, France); Takamitsu Kurita (Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan)
    Abstract: This paper tests the feasibility and estimates the cost of climate control through economic policies. It provides a toolbox for a statistical historical assessment of a Stochastic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy, and its use in (possibly counterfactual) policy analysis. Recognizing that stabilization requires supressing a trend, we use an integrated-cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model estimated using a newly compiled dataset ranging between years A.D. 1000-2008, extending previous results on Control Theory in nonstationary systems. We test statistically whether, and quantify to what extent, carbon abatement policies can effectively stabilize or reduce global temperatures. Our formal test of policy feasibility shows that carbon abatement can have a significant long run impact and policies can render temperatures stationary around a chosen long run mean. In a counterfactual empirical illustration of the possibilities of our modeling strategy, we show that the cost of carbon abatement for a retrospective policy aiming to keep global temperatures close to their 1900 historical level is about 75% of the observed 2008 level of world GDP, a cost equivalent to reverting to levels of output historically observed in the mid 1960s. This constitutes a measure of the putative opportunity cost of the lack of investment in carbon abatement technologies.
    Date: 2023–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2307.05818&r=agr
  67. By: Scott Wentland; Gary Cornwall; Jeremy G. Moulton
    Abstract: This paper develops a new method for valuing land, a key asset on a nation’s balance sheet. The method first employs an unsupervised machine learning method, kmeans clustering, to discretize unobserved heterogeneity, which we then combine with a supervised learning algorithm, gradient boosted trees (GBT), to obtain property-level price predictions and estimates of the land component. Our initial results from a large national dataset show this approach routinely outperforms hedonic regression methods (as used by the U.K.’s Office for National Statistics, for example) in out-of-sample price predictions. To exploit the best of both methods, we further explore a composite approach using model stacking, finding it outperforms all methods in out-of-sample tests and a benchmark test against nearby vacant land sales. In an application, we value residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural land for the entire contiguous U.S. from 2006-2015. The results offer new insights into valuation and demonstrate how a unified method can build national and subnational estimates of land value from detailed, parcel-level data. We discuss further applications to economic policy and the property valuation literature more generally.
    JEL: E01
    Date: 2023–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bea:wpaper:0209&r=agr
  68. By: Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Thurlow, James; Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia
    Abstract: Madagascar’s economy showed little progress during the decade from 2009 to 2019, growing at an average rate of just 2.9 percent per year, which is only marginally higher than the population growth rate of 2.7 percent (World Bank 2023). The global COVID-19 pandemic pushed the economy into negative growth in 2020, while drought, flooding, and storm damages in 2021 and 2022 had further adverse impacts on the economy. Current projections suggest the economy will achieve growth of 4.2 percent in 2023 and 4.6 percent in 2024, which are well above pre-pandemic growth rates (World Bank 2023). Agriculture is a relatively important sector in Madagascar, accounting for nearly 30 percent of GDP and more than 60 percent of employment. The poor performance of the agriculture sector in the 2009 to 2019 period—the sector grew at only 0.5 percent per year—was an important reason for weak growth overall (INSTAT 2020). In this brief, we unpack the historical and projected economic growth trajectory further to better understand the role of agriculture as well as the broader agrifood system (AFS) in the performance and transformation of the economy of Madagascar.
    Keywords: MADAGASCAR, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, rice, livestock, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:7&r=agr
  69. By: Yuanchen Yang; Chengyu Huang; Yuchen Zhang
    Abstract: Climate change poses an unprecedented challenge to the world economy and the global financial system. This paper sets out to understand and quantify the impact of climate mitigation, with a focus on climate-related news, which represents an important information source that investors use to revise their subjective assessments of climate risks. Using full-text data from Financial Times from January 2005 to March 2022, we develop machine learning-based indicators to measure risks from climate mitigation, and the direction of the risk is identified through manual labels. The documented risk premium indicates that climate mitigation news has been partially priced in the Canadian stock market. More specifically, stock prices react positively to market-wide climate-favorable news but they do not react negatively to climate-unfavorable news. The results are robust to different model specifications and across equity markets.
    Keywords: Climate Mitigation; Machine Learning; Asset Pricing
    Date: 2023–06–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2023/141&r=agr
  70. By: Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: Zambia experienced modest economic growth of 4.8 percent per year between 2010 and 2019 (ZamStats 2020). Most growth occurred in the earlier part of the decade. After world commodity prices fell in 2014, the GDP growth rate slowed to an annual rate of 3.1 percent (for 2014–2019), which is below the country’s population growth rate. The global COVID-19 pandemic further damaged the economy and GDP declined by 2.8 percent in 2020. The global commodity market disruptions related to the Russia Ukraine war that started in 2022 and the global recession in 2023 are expected to further harm Zambia’s economy (Arndt et al. 2023; Diao and Thurlow 2023). Zambia’s projected GDP growth rate is 3.9 percent for 2023 and 4.1 percent for 2024 (World Bank 2023). Its economy relies heavily on exports of copper and other minerals. While mining is a large sector in total GDP, it creates few jobs in the country. Agriculture remains important in employment, accounting for near 40 percent of jobs. In this brief, we unpack the historical and projected economic growth trajectory further to better understand the role of agriculture as well as the broader agrifood system (AFS) in the performance and transformation of the economy of Zambia.
    Keywords: ZAMBIA, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agrifood systems, value chains, markets, agriculture, labour productivity, off-farm employment, poverty, diet quality, jobs, development, gross national product, maize, cattle, sugarcane, cereals, gross domestic product (GDP),
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:afsdcs:21&r=agr
  71. By: Nicholas Li (Department of Economics, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Canada); Tracey Galloway (Department of Anthropoly, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada)
    Abstract: We study the pass-through of Canada’s Nutrition North food subsidy in remote, mainly Indigenous communities with limited competition. Reforms to the program in 2016 and 2019 provide exogenous changes in retailer marginal costs and we show that on average, retail prices were lowered by 67 cents for every additional dollar of subsidy, well below the full pass-through expected under perfect competition. We can precisely characterize the competitive environment for each community, which is typically a retail monopoly or duopoly, and find that the low average pass-through is mostly driven by monopoly communities. Our findings show that resources intended for marginalized communities can be partly captured by local firms with market power.
    Keywords: pass-through; Subsidies; retail; Competition; monopoly; prices; Canada; Nutrition; North;
    JEL: H20 H22 L11 L12 L13 L81 F14
    Date: 2023–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rye:wpaper:wp085&r=agr

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