nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒06‒26
forty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Factors Influencing Adoption of Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices Among Maize Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria By Oduntan, Oluwakemi; Obisesan, Adekemi Adebisola; Ayo-Bello, Taofeeq Ayodeji
  2. Climate change, income sources, crop mix, and input use decisions: Evidence from Nigeria By Amare, Mulubrhan; Balana, Bedru
  3. The impact of climate-smart technology adoption on farmers’ welfare in Northern Zambia By Maseko, Sulinkhundla
  4. Can cooperatives commercialize farming in Malawi? By Davis, Kristin; Kazembe, Cynthia; Benson, Todd; De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan
  5. Trajectory of covid-19 impacts on food security in Ethiopia: A panel data approach. By Debalke, Negash Mulatu
  6. Is women’s empowerment bearing fruit? Mapping women’s empowerment in agriculture index (WEAI) results using the gender and food systems framework By Myers, Emily; Heckert, Jessica; Faas, Simone; Malapit, Hazel J.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  7. Farmer Willingness to Adopt Mitigation Measures for Water Quality Improvements By McCormack, Michele
  8. Evaluation of the prospects of hedging Botswana's maize prices against the Johannesburg Stock Exchange Commodity Market Derivative By Ofentse, Goetswamang Phankie
  9. Farmers' perceptions and perspectives in regard to agricultural policy making in Switzerland By Spörri, Martina
  10. The Stable Farm Income Distribution in Ireland By Loughrey, Jason
  11. Africa under a Warming Climate: The Role of Trade Towards Building Resilient Adaptation in Agriculture By Henri Casella; Jaime de Melo
  13. Food Waste Management and Artificial Intelligence Adoption in Supply Chain Operations Reference Model By Sonal Pandey
  14. Development and application of a whole farm bio-economic model for Northern Ireland dairy systems By Ashfield, A.; Jack, C.J.; Wallace, M.
  15. Agricultural transformation and market integration in the ASEAN region: Responding to food security and inclusiveness concerns By Roy, Devesh; Kamar, Abul; Pradhan, Mamata; Saroj, Sunil; Ajmani, Manmeet
  16. IFPRI key facts series: Agricultural cooperatives By Banda, Chimwemwe; Duchoslav, Jan
  17. Insuring Peace: Index-Based Livestock Insurance, Droughts, and Conflict By Kai Gehring; Paul Schaudt
  18. The Importance of External Weather Effects in Projecting the Economic Impacts of Climate Change By Timothy Neal
  19. Primary agricultural cooperatives in Malawi: Structure, conduct, and performance By Davis, Kristin; Kazembe, Cynthia; Benson, Todd; De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan
  20. CLIMATE VULNERABILITY PROMOTE MORE GREEN INVESTMENT? By Sen Zhang; Chun-Ping Chang; Donny Fajar Anugrah; Yoga Affandi
  21. Is Mobile Money Changing Rural Africa? Evidence from a Field Experiment By Batista, Catia; Vicente, Pedro C.
  22. Network resilience and risk attitudes: Evidence from Vietnamese Vegetable Farming By Luong, Tuan
  23. Spring frost and drought risk for perennial crops under changing climate conditions By Schmid, Anna; Bravine, Esther
  24. The Future of the EU Bioenergy Sector: Economic, Environmental, Social, and Legislative Challenges By Fabio Santeramo; Monica Delsignore; Enrica Imbert
  26. Costs, benefits and effectiveness of remote audits for international food safety By Annelies Deuss; Stephanie Honey
  27. Revisiting the impact of per-unit duties on agricultural export prices By Fabio Santeramo; Dela-Dem Fiankor
  28. The determinants of participation in savings groups and the impact on input investment among smallholder farmers in Sironko district, Uganda By Emmanuel, Bukuwa Nambale
  29. A profitability and risk assessment of market strategies for potato producers in South Africa By Vosloo, Jodie
  30. Quality Adjustment at Scale: Hedonic vs. Exact Demand-Based Price Indices By Gabriel Ehrlich; John Haltiwanger; Ron Jarmin; David Johnson; Ed Olivares; Luke Pardue; Matthew D. Shapiro; Laura Yi Zhao
  31. Farmers' Motivations When Adopting Low-Emission Technology By Daulagala, Chathuranga; Breen, James; Buckley, Cathal; Krol, Dominika
  32. Global Livestock Trade and Infectious Diseases By Cosimo Beverelli; Rohit Ticku
  33. A District-Level Analysis of the Effect of Risk Exposure on the Demand for Index Insurance in Mongolia By Mogge, Lukas
  34. The impact of the Ukraine conflict on world grains prices By Gilbert, Christopher L.
  35. South African market access challenges in the European Union: a case of regulatory compliance and non-tariff measures By Hlungwani, Khanimamba
  36. Getting ahead of the game: Experiential learning for groundwater governance in Ethiopia By ElDidi, Hagar; Zhang, Wei; Gelaw, Fekadu; De Petris, Caterina; Blackmore, Ivy; Teka, Natnael; Yimam, Seid; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Ringler, Claudia; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
  37. Municipal bond insurance and the U.S. drinking water crisis By Agrawal, Ashwini; Kim, Daniel
  39. All You Need to Know About Climate Change By Di Liberto, Yuri
  40. Managing Externalities in the WTO: The Agreement on Fisheries Subsidies By Bernard Hoekman; Petros Mavroidis; Sunayana Sasmal

  1. By: Oduntan, Oluwakemi; Obisesan, Adekemi Adebisola; Ayo-Bello, Taofeeq Ayodeji
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2023–03
  2. By: Amare, Mulubrhan; Balana, Bedru
    Abstract: This paper combines panel data from nationally representative household-level surveys in Nigeria with long-term satellite-based spatial data on temperature and precipitation using geo-referenced information related to households. It aims to quantify the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity, income shares, crop mix, and input use decisions. We measure climate change in harmful degree days, growing degree days, and changes in precipitation using long-term (30 year) changes in temperature and precipitation anomalies during the crop calendars. We find that, controlling for other factors, a 15 percent (one standard deviation) increase in change in harmful degree days leads to a decrease in agricultural productivity of 5.22 percent on average. Similarly, precipitation change has resulted in a significant and negative impact on agricultural productivity. Our results further show that the change in harmful degree days decreases the income share from crops and nonfarm self-employment, while it increases the income share from livestock and wage employment. Examining possible transmission channels for this effect, we find that farmers change their crop mix and input use to respond to climate changes, for instance reducing fertilizer use and seed purchases as a response to increases in extreme heat. Based on our findings, we suggest policy interventions that incentivize adoption of climate-resilient agriculture, such as small-scale irrigation and livelihood diversification. We also propose targeted pro-poor interventions, such as low-cost financing options for improving smallholders’ access to climate-proof agricultural inputs and technologies, and policy measures to reduce the inequality of access to livelihood capital such as land and other productive assets.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; household surveys; data; spatial data; temperature; precipitation; climate change; agricultural productivity; income; crops; inputs; nonfarm income; livestock; policies; irrigation; diversification; finance
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Maseko, Sulinkhundla
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers in Zambia face serious challenges caused by climate change and by variability that threaten their livelihoods. To increase their resilience to climate change, farmers need to adopt various climate-smart agricultural technologies. However, their decisions on the types of technology often lack information about the beneficial effects of particular technologies. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of CSA technologies on the welfare of farmers in Zambia. The data used was from a household survey by Total Land Care Zambia as part of the Smallholder Productivity Promotion Programme. The dataset consisted of 407 sampled maize farmers from Northern and Luapula provinces in Northern Zambia, who were selected using a stratified random technique. The study used the propensity score matching technique to account for selection bias in technology adoption in estimating the welfare effects of manure and residue retention. The use of t-test confirmed the existence of systematic differences (selection bias) in the adoption of manure and residue retention. Between these technologies, adopters and non-adopters were statistically different in having received agribusiness training, location (province), legume cultivation, access to agricultural inputs, and access to a water source, household having a male head (gender), climate change awareness, extension access, use of a treadle pump and being involved in seed production. Empirical results, showed that manure adoption resulted in positive and significant gap in household maize yield (32% to 39.2% increase) between adopters and non-adopters at 5% level of significance. The maize income gap between the adopters of manure and non-adopters was positive, ranging from 21.8% to 22.3%. Overall, the adopters of manure who were comparable with non-adopters had a higher maize yield and income. On the impact of residue retention, v the results showed that the adoption of residue retention led to a positive gap in the household maize yield (ranging from 19.5% to 25.3%). The crop income (maize) was not significantly affected by residue retention adoption, with effect ranging from negative 3.95% to positive 5.1%. Overall, residue adoption increased farmers’ maize yield while the effect on income was smaller. These technologies were found to have positive effect on farmers welfare. Increase in yield reduces household food insecurity. However, the adoption rate of these technologies was low at 13.60% and 32.8% for manure and residue retention respectively. These findings point to the need for agricultural institutions to continue prioritising and promoting the adoption of manure and residue retention. This can be achieved by developing strategies that promotes and encourages farmer to attend agribusiness trainings, as it encourages farmers to adopt CSA technologies, and also ensures that smallholder farmers progress from practising subsistence farming to participating in markets to earn a better income. Furthermore, improving farmers’ market participation should be given a greater focus by distributing market information to all farmers so that they could reach markets and sell their produce, thus raising income. Agricultural institutions should ensure that farmers receive adequate extension contact, as this helps in increasing farmers’ chances of adopting technologies that improve production.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–07
  4. By: Davis, Kristin; Kazembe, Cynthia; Benson, Todd; De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers constitute the largest group of economic actors in Malawi and there is increasing recognition that the small scale at which they operate does not offer for most a pathway out of poverty, let alone to prosperity. Increasingly the idea is gaining traction that by joining forces through primary agricultural cooperatives, smallholder farmers across Malawi can reap many of the benefits that larger farmers on commercial estates have been able to realize, such as negotiating better price for agricultural inputs through bulk purchases; negotiating better prices for agricultural outputs through aggregation and storage; adding value to raw agricultural products; accessing professional equipment, such as tractors or irrigation; hiring professional services, such as a farm or business manager; or pooling contiguous pieces of land for more efficient farming. In this brief we summarize the findings of a detailed report (Davis et al., 2022) on research conducted to assess the current status of cooperatives in the country and what project implementers and policymakers can do to enable cooperatives to contribute to increased commercialization and professionalization of smallholder farming in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; smallholders; poverty; farmers; agricultural cooperatives; inputs; prices; agricultural products; farm equipment; land; commercialization; development
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Debalke, Negash Mulatu
    Abstract: Covid-19 affects food security of households through different pathways. Studies from developing countries show that the pandemic had heterogeneous impacts on food security across various groups of households. This study aims to examine the trajectory of and differential impacts of the early days of the pandemic on food security in Ethiopia along households’ location, ownership of assets and varying livelihoods and income sources. Using the World Bank’s harmonized panel data on households drawn from the high frequency phone survey, the study undertakes fixed effects regressions. The results indicated that Covid-19 pandemic had a statistically significant impact, but a declining trend, on overall food insecurity in Ethiopia. Households in urban areas have faced a higher chance of being severely food insecure than those in rural, while those households that rely more on the agriculture have a lower odds of being food insecure. Ownership of livestock decreases probability of being severely food insecure. Besides, households whose income source was rental and wage employment were significantly exposed to food insecurity due to the pandemic. Moreover, the results identified significant heterogeneity of the impacts between households with and without receiving remittance and assistance. This suggests the important role of social protection in guarding households from food insecurity during the pandemic in the short term. Overall, the paper determined that living in rural/urban, ownership of land and livestock, rental income, remittance, assistance and wage employment are statistically significant indicators of heterogeneity in the pandemic’s impacts on food insecurity.
    Keywords: Covid-19; Pandemic; Impacts; Food insecurity; Heterogeneity; Trajectory
    JEL: O55
    Date: 2023–05–31
  6. By: Myers, Emily; Heckert, Jessica; Faas, Simone; Malapit, Hazel J.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: We conduct a synthetic review of the literature examining relationships between domains of women’s empowerment and food system outcomes. Many studies report significant positive associations between women’s empowerment and intrahousehold gender equality with child dietary and nutrition outcomes, household food security, and agricultural production, but which aspect of empowerment matters for a particular outcome varies across contexts. Others document significant but mixed associations between empowerment indicators and women’s dietary diversity scores. The findings suggest women’s empowerment contributes to improved diets and nutritional status, especially for children, but that household wealth, gender norms and country-specific institutions remain important. Most papers reviewed were based on observational studies and therefore estimated associations; future research using experimental and quasi-experimental methods would add significantly to the evidence base.
    Keywords: women; gender; food systems; diet; nutrition; food security; agricultural production; gender equality; child nutrition; housholds; dietary diversity; nutritional status; household income; gender norms; institutions; Women's empowerment
    Date: 2023
  7. By: McCormack, Michele
    Abstract: Diffuse pollution from agriculture continues to be a significant threat to waterbodies. This study investigates the role of diverse farming objectives on a farmers’ openness to adopt a suite of mitigative measures that could have a positive effect on water quality. Based on a farmer survey, factor analysis was used to reduce a long list of potential farming objectives to three: Long Term Economic objectives (LTE), Short Term Economic objectives (STE) and Environmental objectives (ENV). The results indicate that farming objectives are a highly significant predictor of openness to adopt mitigation measures that have the potential to improve water quality. Our findings suggest that farmers with LTE and ENV objectives are more open to adopting many of the same mitigation measures while farmers with STE objectives are less open.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2023–03
  8. By: Ofentse, Goetswamang Phankie
    Abstract: Maize is an important source of food consumed in Botswana and it helps the country to achieve food security status. Food security refers to everyone always having access to healthy, dependable, and adequate food to meet their dietary requirements and live a healthy life. Botswana imports maize primarily from South Africa and is a net importer. The study evaluated how maize prices in Botswana are linked with maize prices in South Africa. To explain hedging opportunities in minimising price risk in Botswana, cointegration and vector error correction models were used in this study. Secondary data on monthly white and yellow maize prices from 2008 to 2019 were used in this study. The empirical data show that maize prices in South Africa and Botswana have a long-run equilibrium relationship. In the short run, results indicate that the previous years’ maize prices in the Botswana market positively impact all Botswana maize prices at a 1% significance level on average ceteris paribus. South Africa’s maize market does not respond to any market changes in Botswana for white maize prices lagged for one and two periods. The Botswana maize market, on the other hand, reacts to price fluctuations in the South African market for both white and yellow maize. The adjustment speed in the Botswana maize market ranged from 17% to 29% while the adjustment speed in the South African market ranged from 13% to 17%. Overall, the empirical data show that the two markets have a positive long-run equilibrium relationship and a shortrun asymmetric relationship. The empirical findings prompted the Botswana maize value chain assessment to understand how it operates as well as the existence of relationships among the actors. The study ascertained that Botswana’s maize value chain faces an array of challenges that limit the country’s food sufficient. The assessment of the Botswana maize value chain was vital to promote policy formations that will promote the development of the Botswana maize sector. The study focused on the interaction between smallholder farmers and the intermediaries focusing on the challenges and opportunities therein. The Agency and Social Network theories were used to assess the economic behaviour of the two farmers and middlemen. The investigative methods used included a thorough assessment of the literature and key informant interview. The challenges identified from the investigation included poor coordination, lack of trust, information asymmetry, lack of cooperatives, and inadequate access to finance. The study thus recommended contract farming, prioritisation of training programmes for farmers and extension workers, third-party enforcement of regulations, and revival of cooperatives to III improve the quality of the relationship between the middlemen and the smallholder farmers, and thus improve the overall performance of the chain.
    Keywords: Marketing
    Date: 2022–07
  9. By: Spörri, Martina
    Abstract: Recent agricultural policy reforms in Switzerland claim to be the result of holistic approaches that take all actors of the food chain into account. However, the bulk of actors at the first (farmers) and last (consumers) stage of the food chain were mostly substituted by powerful organizations representing them. There is a growing discomfort among both farmers as well as in other parts of the civil society. A true holistic approach includes all actors among the food chain while accounting for their respective power relation. This analysis looks at the first stage of the food chain. We interviewed 75 grassland farmers about their perceptions and perspectives in regard to agricultural policy making in Switzerland. The statements cover a wide range of topics, that go beyond common narratives usually brought into political discussions by representative organisations. Our findings emphasize participatory approaches, spatial and structural differentiation of measures and the empowerment of networks.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2023–03
  10. By: Loughrey, Jason
    Keywords: Farm Management, Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2023–03
  11. By: Henri Casella; Jaime de Melo
    Abstract: The paper reports on evidence on how trade can help Africa adapt to Climate Change (CC) along three dimensions: (i) fast-onset events from short-lived extreme occurrences (floods, extreme temperatures); (ii) slow-onset events (rise in average temperatures and sea-level rise); (iii) trade facilitation policies.• Fast onset events. Trade reduces the amplitude of extreme events like a drought. But policy reactions to large shocks can increase the amplitude of the shock. During the South African drought of 2015-6, policies had spillovers in neighboring countries. Following the 2008-09 financial crisis, export restrictions by major crop exporters and reduction in tariffs by importers amplified the shock. Policy coordination is needed to control spillover effects.• Slow-onset events. Modelling efforts have concentrated on exploring the ‘margins’ of adjustment to CC: changes in production levels of existing crops; switches in crops; changes in land utilization; labor relocating to urban areas/migration; adjustments in the volume of trade at different scales (regional or international). All reviewed models show that enlarging the channels of adjustment mitigate the amplitude of the loss in welfare from expected CC over the 21st Century. Decomposing the welfare changes suggests two conclusions. First adjustments in crop selection and in bilateral trade partners contribute approximately equally to reducing the costs of adjustments. Second, the expected sharp increase in food prices resulting from warming is likely to hit SSA most strongly.• Trade facilitation. A functioning global trading system is a public good to become more valuable under CC. Free and unfettered access to global food (and other key) supplies must be ensured, especially for Africa. This requires a rapprochement between the trade and climate regimes. As an entry point, besides dealing with harmful subsidies (fossil fuels, fisheries), developed countries could conclude a plurilateral Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA) that would be a triple win for trade, for the environment, and for African agriculture that needs tariff-free access to climate-Adaptation related EGs (AEGs). The paper documents the magnitude of tariffs on Environmental Goods.The paper concludes that African countries could improve the functioning of the continental policy architecture by several measures. First by excluding AEGs from exclusion lists on the AfCFTA while simultaneously reducing their barriers to trade on AEGs and EPPs. Second, preserving the environment should be mainstreamed in the African trade architecture by including environmental provisions.
    Keywords: Climate change, adaptation, Africa, Environmental goods
    JEL: Q50 Q56 F18 F64
    Date: 2022–07
  12. By: Manoj Suryavanshi
    Abstract: Globally all major economies have advanced food processing ecosystems with high levels of processing (70-80 per cent against 10 per cent in India) and correspondingly higher value added per worker in agriculture. India, despite being the leader in production of several agricultural commodities, lags behind several countries in terms of value added per worker in agriculture. India’s food sector attracted $ 4.18 Bn in foreign direct investment between April 2014-March 2020. Currently, India is processing less than 10% of its agricultural output, thus, presenting immense opportunities for increasing these processing levels and leading to investments in this sector. With agriculture and its allied sectors being the largest source of livelihoods in India, 70% of its rural households still depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood. Thus, this sector provides a huge employment generation potential as well. With the government’s focus and a favorable policy ecosystem, the food processing sector has been growing at an Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR) of around 8.41 % between 2014-18. The sector constitutes 8.83% and 10.66% of gross value added in manufacturing and agriculture sector respectively. The Indian food industry’s output is expected to reach $ 535 Bn by 2025-26. Rising household incomes, urbanization and the growth of organized retail are currently some of the major drivers of this market. According to the latest Annual Survey of Industries (2016-17), food processing accounted for 15.95% of the total number of factories, Employment to 11.36 % of the workforce, 14.09% of the output and 16.78% of the operational factories. The Indian market is fast evolving and has seen some major changes in terms of changing consumption patterns due to urbanization, changes in the gender composition of the workforce, and growing consumption rates. The growing consumption of food is expected to reach $ 1.2 Trn by 2025-26, owing to these factors. Key words: food, processing, Industry, opportunities, development
    Date: 2023–03
  13. By: Sonal Pandey (North America International Education, USA)
    Abstract: Unused food is discarded, lost, or uneaten; these are the three types of food waste. Despite their similarities, all three have critical differences within their definitions. Food waste or loss causes are numerous and occur at the production, processing, retailing, and consumption stages. Current estimates put global food loss and waste between one-third and one-half of all food produced. Loss and wastage occur at all food supply or value chain stages. In low-income countries, most loss occurs during production, while in developed countries, much food – about 100 kilograms (220 lbs.) per person per year – is wasted at the consumption stage. Everyday households around the world throw away tons of food while many people on the same planet are dying from hunger. Our reality is full of contradictory facts that we can ignore or not. For someone, this will be a good reason to get concerned and take care of their food waste, while others will need more reasons for that. A good reason would be the collection of data by local community to show the reality of the percentage of food waste in households. The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that more than 130 billion pounds (about 58966960000 kg) of food is wasted in this country alone every year – an average of more than 200 pounds of food per person. It is a staggering number, and combined with the approximately 17 percent of food going to waste in the rest of the world, it has real consequences for people everywhere (embrace The cost of food for the preparation of meals is the second largest expense in households, right after personnel costs. This study aims to explore ways to reduce food wastes and losses and establish a better management of food disposal in households. Data was colected through a survey of local households in New Jersey. An in-depth survey was conducted with the help of Survey Monkey and 1000 local households were contacted in November 2022, with a brief introduction to the research topic. 891 respondents replied and showed interest in sharing their views on the topic and ready to share the data of their household food waste. To maintain confidentiality, I have anonymized the respondents as a number. The purpose of the descriptive data analysis was to show how important food waste management is and what the several reasons are for household food waste. With single-family settings, I also try to analyze the amount of food waste per family. The results of my analysis show the amount of food wasted in this area every month. Based on the analysis, there are suggestions about how we can minimize food waste. To give lots of suggestions, I implemented the SCOR (Supply Chain Operations Reference) model facilitated by Artificial Intelligence.
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Data analysis, Food waste, Survey, SCOR model
    Date: 2023–04
  14. By: Ashfield, A.; Jack, C.J.; Wallace, M.
    Abstract: Dairy farm businesses continue to face many challenges and in future years will have to make decisions that are critical in terms of the farming systems they choose to operate alongside giving consideration to adapting systems in order to maintain profitable and sustainable businesses going forward. In this context, there is a need to develop a model to explore a range of systems from both an industry and policy perspective. Farmers will require advice and guidance in relation to which systems or adaptations to systems will be best under a range of factors. This study developed a whole farm dairy model for Northern Ireland. This paper provides an overview of the model developed and an application looking at three different dairy systems and the effect of price changes on them.
    Keywords: International Development, Industrial Organization
    Date: 2023–03
  15. By: Roy, Devesh; Kamar, Abul; Pradhan, Mamata; Saroj, Sunil; Ajmani, Manmeet
    Abstract: In this paper, we address the question of the agricultural market integration of Cambodia, Lao, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Philippines (CLMVP) countries within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and its other top trading partners. Using “Trade Potential†and “Competition Indices†indicators in this paper we assess the nature and extent of the agricultural market integration. We identify the exports of CLMVP countries with high export potential and comparatively low competition in export markets. Higher trade potential with lower competition (value or volume) indicates an opportunity of higher returns for agricultural producers. CLMVP countries are characterized by low diversity in agricultural exports. Nearly half of the total agricultural exports from all of them except Laos is contributed by only one commodity. It is found that market integration is an effective way of linking CLMVP smallholders to ASEAN agricultural markets. In addition to that this paper also discusses on tariff and non-tariff policy of CLMVP countries and found that the average tariffs on agri-food imports in CLMVP is 11.8% while it is 9.5% in non-CLMVP among the ASEAN countries. In non-tariff policy, among the CLMVP countries, Philippines shares the maximum number of SPS measures implemented on agricultural goods while Cambodia and Lao PDR did not report any SPS measures implemented by them between 2006 to 2020. Finally, to demonstrate the upward movement in the value chain, possibly due to quality upgradation, we present the dynamics of the unit values of CLMVP’s agricultural exports.
    Keywords: CAMBODIA; LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC; INDOCHINA; MYANMAR; BURMA; VIET NAM; PHILIPPINES; SOUTH EAST ASIA; ASIA; trade; trade associations; agriculture; markets; exports; competition; returns; commodities; tariffs; policies; imports; value chains; agricultural markets; market integration; trade potential; unit value; competition indices
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Banda, Chimwemwe; Duchoslav, Jan
    Abstract: Highlights • There is an operational agricultural cooperative in every tenth community in Malawi, but they are not well utilized to access markets or services. • Almost no farmers (0.6 percent in 2019/20) receive extension advice through cooperatives. • Although an increasing share of farmers engage in input and output markets, few do so through cooperatives. • Few farmers buy inputs on credit in general, and almost none receive credit from cooperatives. • Farmers who buy inputs from cooperatives do not pay less than farmers who buy inputs elsewhere. • Farmers who sell their produce to cooperatives also do not obtain better prices than farmers who sell to other buyers.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agricultural cooperatives; markets; farmers; extension services; inputs; credit; agricultural products; prices
    Date: 2023
  17. By: Kai Gehring; Paul Schaudt
    Abstract: We provide novel evidence of how an innovative market-based solution using remote-sensing technology can mitigate conflict. Droughts are a major driver of conflict in Africa, particularly between nomadic pastoralists and sedentary farmers, and climate change is predicted to intensify this problem. The Index-Based Livestock Insurance (IBLI) scheme piloted in Kenya provides automated, preemptive payouts to pastoralists affected by droughts. Combining plausibly exogenous variation in rainfall and the staggered roll-out of IBLI in Kenya over the 2001-2020 period, we find that IBLI strongly reduces drought-induced conflict. One key mechanism is that insured pastoralists travel less far away from their ancestral homelands, reducing conflicts over scarce resources in contested areas. This suggests that market-based solutions are a promising pathway to mitigate conflict beyond difficult institutional reforms and raises the question of how governments can support the adoption of such schemes for underprivileged groups through subsidies or other campaigns.
    Keywords: conflict, conflict resolution, climate change, droughts, pastoralism, insurance, ICT, resources
    JEL: D74 G22 G52 O13 Q34 Q54
    Date: 2023
  18. By: Timothy Neal (UNSW School of Economics)
    Abstract: The future impact of climate change on the world economy is a topic of great importance and uncertainty. Previous models predict only mild aggregate damages and that some countries will be unaffected or may even benefit. This article demonstrates that these results rely on the restrictive assumption that economies are unaffected by weather shocks in other countries, which leads to overly optimistic predictions of impacts from global weather shocks. Relaxing this assumption in existing models leads them to predict catastrophic economic impacts from significant climate change, where all countries are badly affected to different degrees. This article also outlines the difficulty in forming plausible predictions given that projections of future climate change produces weather draws that lie wholly outside historical experience. The results have fundamental implications for damage functions inside Integrated Assessment Models, and also explains the strong contrast between economics and the physical sciences when discussing severe climate change.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics, Economic Growth, World Economy, Trade, Forecasting
    JEL: C23 C51 C53 O44 Q54
    Date: 2023–06
  19. By: Davis, Kristin; Kazembe, Cynthia; Benson, Todd; De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan
    Abstract: Primary agricultural cooperatives in Malawi, in contrast to other farmer-level organizations, have legal status and can own assets, borrow money for their operations, and sign contracts, making it easier for them to do business for the profit of their members. Conceptually, such cooperatives enable their member-farmers to achieve economies of scale for their commercial activities. By joining together in a cooperative, members can obtain commercial inputs at lower prices closer to wholesale prices than if they purchased the inputs as individuals. In selling their output, by aggregating their crops and other products into larger lots that the cooperative then negotiates to sell on their behalf, buyers can achieve greater efficiency in buying from them and can be expected to offer a premium over the prices that they would offer farmers selling those products individually. Cooperatives can also serve farmers in providing an important channel for obtaining information and advice to increase their productivity and the profitability of their farming. Moreover, by joining together to achieve common objectives in primary agricultural cooperatives, member-farmers can exercise greater influence on local and national policy issues of concern to them, while also building social cohesion, solidarity, and trust within their communities.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agricultural cooperatives; finance; inputs; prices; information; productivity; farmers; development
    Date: 2023
  20. By: Sen Zhang; Chun-Ping Chang (Shih Chien University); Donny Fajar Anugrah (Bank Indonesia); Yoga Affandi (Bank Indonesia)
    Abstract: We find that climate vulnerability reduces green investment in both climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation technologies. This finding holds up under a series of robustness tests and after taking into consideration the time lag effect, cross-sectional dependence, and endogenous problems. We further present that it is socioeconomic-related climate vulnerability that hinders green investment, whereas physical vulnerability does the opposite. Analyses of moderating channels show that the negative impact of climate vulnerability on green investment is more pronounced in countries with lower levels of adaptation readiness, economic development, and technical innovation.
    Keywords: climate vulnerability, green investment, green technologies, physical vulnerability
    JEL: Q54 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Batista, Catia (Nova School of Business and Economics); Vicente, Pedro C. (Nova School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: Rural areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are typically underserved by financial services. Mobile money brings a substantial reduction in the transaction costs of remittances. We follow the introduction of mobile money for the first time in rural villages of Mozambique using a randomized field experiment. We find that mobile money increased migration out of these villages, where we observe lower agricultural activity and investment. At the same time, remittances received and welfare of rural households increased, particularly when facing geo-referenced village-level floods and household-level idiosyncratic shocks. Our work suggests that mobile money can accelerate urbanization and structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: mobile money, migration, remittances, investment, agriculture, structural change, technology adoption, insurance, Mozambique, Africa
    JEL: O12 O15 O16 O33 G20 R23
    Date: 2023–04
  22. By: Luong, Tuan
    Abstract: We explore the relationship between risk aversion, loss aversion, and procrastination and the resilience of trading networks in small scale rural farming in Vietnam. Rural farmers are highly dependent on intermediary traders to bring products to market. We survey farming households in three villages to obtain data on the trading network. We find that each village has a very distinctive trading network but none of them are resilient, with the typical farmer relying on one or two traders with whom they have traded for many years. In one village, with the most resilient network, we find evidence that risk aversion and loss aversion is associated with a household engaging with, respectively, more and less traders. In a separate village, the one with the fewest number of traders, we find a positive relationship between procrastination and the number of trading links.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2023–03
  23. By: Schmid, Anna; Bravine, Esther
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–03
  24. By: Fabio Santeramo; Monica Delsignore; Enrica Imbert
    Abstract: The bioenergy sector is becoming of increasing interest: the European Union is not an exception. Indeed, it is in need of solutions to face one of the worst energy crises of the last century. The sector’s growth faces numerous challenges. The main use of energy crops, as feedstock, generates stiff competition on the use of land for food and energy purposes. The production of bioenergy has relevant environmental implications in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The social aspects related to the bioenergy sector are also potential obstacles to its development. These pressing issues for policymakers call for a better understanding on how national and international laws should regulate the growth of the bioenergy sector. Flying over the economic, environmental, social, and legislative aspects faced by the bioenergy sector, we conclude on threads, opportunities, and priorities that should be considered for its development and propose directions for future studies.
    Keywords: Bioenergy, European Union, impact, land use, law, sustainability
    JEL: K32 Q18 Q42
    Date: 2023–03
  25. By: Admkew Haile
    Abstract: The reviewed literature articles are studies related to sub-Saharan African agribusiness, finance and value chain financing published since 2016–2022 to provide insights and information on barriers and prospects of agribusiness financing in sub–Saharan Africa. The review is concerned on identifying and understanding the barriers faced by the agribusiness firm, who seek financing for agribusiness activities, who would provide it, and who would invest in agribusiness. It also identifies prospects for addressing critical barriers that can help close the financing gap in agribusiness. Agriculture and agribusiness are identified as a potential and turning points for African economic transformations and developments. Agribusiness in Africa is suffering from financial access and service despite its economic contributions to the regions. Despite, the significant need for working and investment capital, many value chain actors faced difficulties getting access to financing from formal sources, and the few who do find it mostly inadequate. Difficulties accessing finance and financial services are prevalent, with lending to agribusiness and affordable access to other financial services lagging far behind other sectors of the economy. The reliance on collateral and number of documents required discriminates against many small and medium agribusiness firms, who may have viable businesses but do not have the assets. The restrictions on access to finance for agribusiness, banks and some other financing institutions are starting to grow their agribusiness investment and their number of branches to rural areas where such needs are high is considered as a positive prospect for agribusiness finance accessibilities. The growing of urban food markets driven mainly by income growth and rapid urbanization are creating need for high-value agribusiness products, new supply chains, and supporting services in the agribusiness industry. The new jobs and income prospects created by this growth can significantly contribute to Africa’s economic transformation and development. However, to take advantage of these growth opportunities, Sub-Saharan Africa needs to close the agribusiness financing gap. Key words: Agribusiness, Finance Access, Barriers, Financing, Prospects, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2023–03
  26. By: Annelies Deuss; Stephanie Honey
    Abstract: Remote audits enabled international food trade to continue despite the severe COVID-19 pandemic disruptions, but what is their role in the future? Based on case studies and an OECD survey, this report examines the cost, benefits and effectiveness of remote audits. The analysis reveals that key benefits include lower travel expenses, reduced emissions footprints, more flexible use of time, and opportunities to train and involve more staff. There were nevertheless major drawbacks, including limitations to gather audit evidence, a heavy additional burden of preparation time, internet connectivity issues, and the lack of interpersonal engagement. In general, most stakeholders consider remote audits to be less effective than on-site audits, particularly for those of regulatory systems or for the physical auditing of establishments. This report highlights the need to harmonise the terminology in this area of work, and to develop practical guidelines on how and when to conduct remote audits.
    Keywords: Advantages, Certification, Digitalisation, Disadvantages, Information and Communications Technologies, Inspection
    JEL: L15 M42 Q17 Q18 M48
    Date: 2023–06–14
  27. By: Fabio Santeramo; Dela-Dem Fiankor
    Abstract: We replicate the findings of Emlinger and Guimbardr (ERAE, 2020) on the heterogeneous effects of per-unit tariffs on trade patterns for developed and developing countries. Analysing import and export data from 2001 to 2013, they confirm the Alchian-Allen conjecture that per-unit trade costs induce higher export unit values. However, the effects are more pronounced for developed country exporters.. Understanding the effects of per-unit trade costs vis-a-vis ad-valorem tariffs is important to level the playing field of trade negotiations that involve pricing and non-pricing policies. We extend the original study with data for 191 exporting (190 importing) countries, and 670 HS6 digit products, covering the period 2001-2019 period.The general findings of the original study hold, with remarkable differences. First, using a data set that is constructed in a replicable way and introducing highly relevant bilateral fixed effects reduce effect sizes and the level of statistical significance. Second, the Alchian-Allen effect is not clearly separated by the economic development dimension of the exporter, but rather dependent on the price levels of the traded goods. These results have important policy implications as they call for deeper investigation on countries’ industrial structures of exports to better shape the international debate on trade negotiations.
    Keywords: gravity, replication, trade, per-unit, ad-valorem
    JEL: F13 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2023–03
  28. By: Emmanuel, Bukuwa Nambale
    Abstract: To promote savings groups (SGs), which are important in promoting financial inclusion among smallholders, it is imperative to understand the factors that affect participation in these SGs and the associated impact in the context of Uganda. This study determined the factors influencing participation in SGs. The study put particular emphasis on the use of SGs as a form of fully-fledged financial services provision to access agro-inputs. The study, therefore, additionally, determined the impact of these SGs on the expenditure on agro-inputs. The study used data collected through a cross-sectional survey from 249 participants. These participants were drawn from Sironko district, Uganda, East Africa. The study employed a Probit model to investigate the determinants of participation and intensity of participation. To estimate the impact of SGs on expenditure on agro-inputs, average treatment effects on the treated (ATT) were calculated after discounting the selection bias between the SGs’ members and nonmembers. Averagely, SGs incurred 40% of all expenditure on Agro-inputs by SGs’ members. SGs’ members were significantly higher than non-members as regards total expenditure on agroinputs, per capita expenditure on agro-inputs, and proportion of income spent on agro-inputs. ATT was insignificant and tends to be negative. The main factors that significantly and positively influenced participation included the sex of the head of the household, having a child in secondary school, the number of years in education, the number of dependents, income (in a quadratic form), activity in non-SGs group settings., trusting members in the SGs, and satisfaction with loan amounts accessible from the SGs. The main factors that significantly but negatively influenced participation include agriculture as a v main income source and requirement for support to participate in the SG. Within SGs, being female; number of dependents; receiving a government subsidy; share-out of savings between January and March; and frequency of getting SGs loans the previous year increased the frequency of getting loans. The frequency decreased for participants who were active in RoSCAs and had agriculture as their main source of income. Savings were encouraged by years in education; income and activity in non-SGs group settings. Savings lowered when the participant was female; rented farming land; active in RoSCAs; required support to participate in SGs; share-out of savings between January to March; and the number of loan sources. Important factors that can be addressed at policy level include support for the SGs in the form of training members in SGs’ models, adding to the loans pools; and encouraging activity in any community group setting.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2022–12
  29. By: Vosloo, Jodie
    Abstract: The South African potato producers have four primary forms of market channels to market and sell their fresh produce: export markets, direct markets, national fresh produce markets (NFPM), and online markets. Potatoes contribute the largest share of the vegetable gross production value, approximately 37% (DALRRD, 2020), with the majority sold through the NFPM. The NFPM has seen a decrease in market participation on the entire market channel in recent years and has been underperforming for five consecutive years (Lekgau, 2016, Meyer, 2020). Producers who are still choosing NFPM as a marketing channel see lower demand due to less buyers participating in the market channel. In the long run, lower demand will lead to lower prices received by producers, which affects their profitability. According to Meyer (2020), a solution to counter the effects seen on the NFPM is for producers to diversify their marketing channels. South Africa has an online fresh produce trading platform. Online markets provide an alternative to NFPM and are therefore a diversification option. One benefit of market diversification is increased profitability (Dohlman, 2020). There is a need to provide producers with quantifiable research of the profitability effects of online markets and NFPM market diversification. The second benefit of market diversification is decreased risk. The way producers perceive risk depends on their iv risk preference. The preference affects their choice of market channel as each channel and combination of channels have different risks associated with it (Pennings and Wansink, 2004). To provide producers with a complete and comparable assessment of online and NFPM market channels, not only the market channels need to be evaluated, but the marketing strategies of different combinations of market channels also need to be analysed (Kim et al., 2014). The purpose of this study is to provide fresh potato producers with a framework to compare marketing strategies comprising of different market channel combinations for online market and NFPM markets. The Study, therefore, determines which marketing strategies are the most profitable based on different combinations of market channels and evaluate if different risk preferences affect producers marketing strategy choice. Simulation models are commonly used to access production, market, and price risk in traditional agriculture (Curtis et al., 2014, Hardaker et al., 2004, Jordaan et al., 2007, Richardson et al., 2007b). Therefore, this study uses a simulation model analysis that combines market channel price, yield, and market channel risk to construct a probability distribution function that shows the profitability for eleven marketing strategies. The risk preference analysis is completed using stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) approach created by Hardaker et al. (2004) to analyse risk preferences of different marketing strategies. Ranking simulation and risk analysis enable a framework to compare marketing strategies comprising of different market channel combinations for online market and NFPM market. This study's main objective to provide a framework for producers to compare marketing strategies is also accomplished by ranking the results from the simulation and risk analysis methods. The first proposition proposed that fresh potato producers' profitability is higher for the online market channel due to lower marketing cost. The results from the simulation model have shown that the highest possible net return for all eleven marketing strategies is the M1 market strategy, sending all of the producers’ production to the online markets. The M1 marketing strategy can provide a potato producer with net returns of up to R105 381 per ha. The second proposition states that a fresh potato producer, who is risk-averse, will prefer to send most of their produce to the NFPM. The third proposition proposes that risk-neutral potato producers will prefer to send most of their potatoes to online markets. This study's risk preference analysis result disproves the second and third proposed propositions. The results found that a risk-averse producer prefers to send 40% of their potatoes to NFPM and not the majority, and a risk-neutral producer will prefer to send all their potatoes to NFPM. The study will therefore make academic, managerial and policy contributions. The new information on online markets will add to the knowledge base of the current fresh produce industry within South Africa. The framework will assist producers in their farm management practices by providing a quantitative assessment of their marketing strategies based on personal risk preference and profitability. This study provides policymakers with a quantified risk assessment of alternative marketing strategies.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty, Production Economics
    Date: 2021–08
  30. By: Gabriel Ehrlich; John Haltiwanger; Ron Jarmin; David Johnson; Ed Olivares; Luke Pardue; Matthew D. Shapiro; Laura Yi Zhao
    Abstract: This paper explores alternative methods for adjusting price indices for quality change at scale. These methods can be applied to large-scale item-level transactions data that in cludes information on prices, quantities, and item attributes. The hedonic methods can take into account the changing valuations of both observable and unobservable charac teristics in the presence of product turnover. The paper also considers demand-based approaches that take into account changing product quality from product turnover and changing appeal of continuing products. The paper provides evidence of substantial quality-adjustment in prices for a wide range of goods, including both high-tech consumer products and food products.
    Date: 2023–06
  31. By: Daulagala, Chathuranga; Breen, James; Buckley, Cathal; Krol, Dominika
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023–03
  32. By: Cosimo Beverelli; Rohit Ticku
    Abstract: Large-scale movement of animals through trade can spread diseases to places where they arenot endemic. In this paper, we identify the causal effect of global livestock trade on the spread ofinfectious animal diseases through an exogenous increase in the demand for imported livestock. Theinstrumental variable approach exploits an increase in halal livestock imports in Muslim countriesduring Eid-al-Adha to determine the effect of livestock imports on related infections. Using a datasetthat covers 123 countries and five livestock categories in the months between 2004 and 2019, wefind an imports-to-infections elasticity of about 0.75. The relationship is stronger for countries that arelikely to import infected livestock from their partners. There is also evidence that infections spreadthrough interaction between imported livestock, some of which might be infected, and domesticlivestock. These results highlight transmission-through-trade from the origin to the destination.
    Keywords: International trade, Livestock diseases, Religious festivals, Eid-al-Adha
    Date: 2023–02
  33. By: Mogge, Lukas
    Abstract: This paper provides novel evidence on how risk exposure shapes the demand for index-based weather insurance. The focus is on Mongolia, where index insurance is offered as a commercially marketed product to pastoralists threatened by extreme weather events that cause high livestock mortality. Using a two-way fixed effect model and country-wide district-level data spanning a period of five years, this paper shows that the demand for index insurance increases in areas exposed to adverse weather conditions occurring in the months preceding the end of the insurance sales period. The effect is neither driven by the receipt of insurance payouts nor by observing peers receiving payouts. I argue that these results can be best explained by insurance purchasers adapting their risk perception in response to recent weather risks. The findings of this paper point to a problem for policymakers as a period of mild weather conditions could cause households to lose interest in purchasing insurance, thus leading to underinvestment in insurance coverage.
    Keywords: Extreme weather events, index insurance, livestock, risk, Mongolia
    JEL: O12 O13 O14
    Date: 2023
  34. By: Gilbert, Christopher L.
    Abstract: The war in Ukraine, which started in February 2022, has disrupted the important Black Sea grain trade. At the same time, and partly as a consequence of the war and of Western sanctions, both energy and fertilizer prices have soared. Many commentators have attributed rises in food prices on world marketsto the Ukraine conflict. The paper reports an analysis of the impact of the war on wheat and corn prices in the world market. The estimates are obtained from an empirical implementation of the competitive storage model. The model links the prices of hard wheat and corn to grain availability, grain stocks and crude oil and fertilizer prices taking into account the Black Sea Grains Initiative (BSGI). Three counterfactuals are analyzed – “no war”, “no BSGI” and “no sanctions”.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2023–03
  35. By: Hlungwani, Khanimamba
    Abstract: The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1995. Since then, trade liberalisation has been on the agenda, resulting in diverse trade agreements and a subsequent decline in import tariffs. With the decrease in import tariffs, trade is expected to increase. However, despite this trend as well as a great increase in global trade since the 1990s, certain developing countries still struggle to participate in global trade. South Africa and the European Union (EU) trade agreements have existed since 2000. This is through the Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA)—later replaced by the Southern African Development Community-European Union Economic Partnership Agreement (SADC-EU EPA) in 2016. The expected result of such agreements is an improvement in trade relations and flows between the partners. Thus, it can be expected that South Africa would export more orientated products to the EU. South Africa became a net beef exporter in 2014. Trade flows for beef between South Africa and the EU, however, reveal the opposite of what was expected. Beef exports from South Africa to the EU have declined since the early 2000s. Trade patterns demonstrate that South Africa increasingly traded with countries with which it had no formal trade agreements, such as in the Middle East and East Asia. South African beef exports to the EU rapidly declined despite trade liberalisation between the two trading partners and South Africa becoming a net beef exporter. Thus, this research investigates South Africa’s market access challenges in the EU. vi Since the decrease in beef import tariffs did not result in the expected increase in trade between South Africa and the EU, this study focused on investigating whether the observed trends relate to non-tariff measures applied. It further investigated whether the lack of market access concerns non-compliance with EU Non-tariff measures (NTMs) regulations and requirements. The gravity model of international trade assessed the effects of EU NTMs and South Africa’s compliance with these regulations on its beef exports to the EU. This model involved data between 1995 and 2018. Beef exports from South Africa destined for the EU were the dependent variable. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in South Africa and the EU, NTMs applied by the EU, beef production in South Africa, tariffs, and a compliance variable functioned as explanatory variables. A compliance index variable was developed to evaluate South Africa’s compliance with EU NTM regulations and requirements. This index was developed from South Africa’s policies complying with EU NTMs in a specific year, and NTMs enforced by the EU. The policies and NTMs focused on animal products, particularly red meat products, between 1995 and 2018. This study established that NTMs applied on beef imports by the EU have harmed South Africa’s beef exports to the EU. Furthermore, although trade agreements between South Africa and the EU have reduced tariffs applied in the beef industry, tariffs continue to negatively affect South Africa’s beef exports to the EU. In evaluating South Africa’s compliance with EU NTM regulations, a divergence was established between EU NTM regulations and requirements on animal products and South Africa’s policies on the same products. During the period when South Africa’s beef exports to the EU declined, NTMs applied by the EU increased quicker than South Africa’s response to them. The divergence between EU NTM regulations and requirements and South Africa’s policy response and thus compliance was prevalent between 2010 and 2018. Thus, the study recommends an evaluation of South Africa’s policies, affecting beef trade and other animal products such that they respond to the changing trade environment, particularly with respect to the use of NTMs.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–01
  36. By: ElDidi, Hagar; Zhang, Wei; Gelaw, Fekadu; De Petris, Caterina; Blackmore, Ivy; Teka, Natnael; Yimam, Seid; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Ringler, Claudia; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
    Abstract: The goal of this study is to assess the potential of game-based experiential learning in raising awareness and stimulating discussions about groundwater resource systems, the social dilemma in groundwater management, and the need for institutional arrangements (rules) governing this shared resource, as well as whether such awareness and community discussions lead to actual change in groundwater governance in Ethiopia. Groundwater management is highly complex, with many users sharing the same resource often without realizing their interconnectedness. Behavioral experiments (games) that simulate real-life common-pool resource use have shown promise as an experiential learning tool for improving resource governance. This study pilots an experiential learning intervention in Ethiopia using a groundwater gameto help raise awareness of groundwater over-extraction and improve understanding of the importance of collective action in governance. The Meki River catchment in rural Ethiopia is a unique context where small-scale irrigation is expanding, but overextraction and competition over groundwater have not yet reached alarming levels. The groundwater game, adapted from Meinzen-Dick et al. (2016 and 2018), was played in 15 villages, accompanied by community-wide debriefing discussions in each village after the game to reflect on the process and lessons learned, and to stimulate discussions around groundwater governance. We carried out participant surveys to capture individual mental models regarding groundwater use and management, as well as any immediate learning effects. Focus group discussions were held in each village prior to the intervention to establish a baseline and again six months after the intervention to assess possible lasting effects. The findings indicate cognitive, normative and relational learning, including increased understanding of groundwater dynamics (such as the joint effect of diverse water uses and users), the importance of collective action in resource management, and the benefits of communication. We find gendered differences in decision-making about resource extraction in the game and evolvement of group-level resource management across no-communication, communication, and rule-making rounds of the game. We discuss community-wide learning and institutions-building, and considerations for future intervention designs. We recommend embedding experiential learning, facilitated by local extension officers or other community engagement practitioners, in intervention packages that include both technical assistance on water-conserving technologies and management approaches and support in building communities’ institutional capacity.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; governance; groundwater; irrigation; resources; experiential learning; resource management; collective action; decision making; gender; communication; extension; games; common-pool resource; Meki River
    Date: 2023
  37. By: Agrawal, Ashwini; Kim, Daniel
    Abstract: We show that the collapse of the municipal bond insurance industry plays an important, but previously overlooked, role in driving regional variation in U.S. drinking water pollution. Public water infrastructure has traditionally been financed using municipal debt partly backed by a small number of monoline insurers. Starting in the 1990's, some - but not all - of these insurers began insuring structured financial products unrelated to water infrastructure. After these products crashed in value in 2007, several bond insurers ceased to insure new debt issues. We show that municipalities that were previously more reliant on relationships with adversely affected insurers subsequently face higher borrowing costs. These municipalities then reduce their borrowing and scale back investments in water infrastructure, leading to increased water pollution. The data suggest that market failures in the municipal bond insurance industry explain 32% of the relative rise in U.S. drinking water pollution since 2007.
    JEL: G22 H41 H74 Q53
    Date: 2021–11–29
    Abstract: To understand any discussion on the issues of climatic change one much first be conversant with some of the key components of climatic change. These components are deforestation, desertification, droughts, freshwater usage, water pollution, greenhouse gas emission (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases), air pollution, water and refuse waste disposal, land use (e.g. agriculture, mining and bush burning), energy use (oil and industrial processes), and electricity production (see, World Bank, 2008). Out of all these components, the concentration of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases) is the main cause of climate change. For instance, in 2005, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases contributed 77 per cent, 14 per cent, 8 per cent, and 1 per cent emissions respectively in the world (World Resources Institute, cited in World Bank, 2008). And in 2004, 79.2 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions in sub-Saharan Africa were from solid fuel consumption, while South Asia and Europe had 32.7 and 27.5 per cents respectively. In Nigeria, the greenhouse gas emission was 0.3 per cent (World Bank, 2008). In the realisation of this and the need to address the issue of climate change, several climates and environmental conventions/conferences were held. Prominent among them were the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in 1994, the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference in 2009, the Paris Agreement (COP21) in 2015, the Kigali Amendment in 2016, the Katowice Climate Change Conference (COP24) in 2018, and the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP25) in 2019. A follow-up to these conventions/conferences were several initiatives such as the Great Green Wall in 2007, the African Climate Policy Centre in 2010, the Africa Climate Change Fund (ACCF) in 2014 and the Africa Adaptive Initiative in 2015 (see, CFR, nd; UPSC, nd; United Nations, 2015).
    Date: 2023–05–22
  39. By: Di Liberto, Yuri
    Abstract: What if I told you that they knew everything? And that they have known it for a very long time? On January 13 of this year, 2023, in the journal Science, perhaps the most important article to date on climate change was published. In political, social, and ethical terms, this article represents the equivalent of a nuclear bomb, despite the fact that (as is sadly obvious to expect) no one in mainstream news channels (and very few in academia) has mentioned it.
    Keywords: capital as power, climate, ExxonMobil, differential accumulation, sabotage
    JEL: P1 P18 Q4 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2023
  40. By: Bernard Hoekman; Petros Mavroidis; Sunayana Sasmal
    Abstract: By prohibiting subsidies that support illegal, unregulated or unreported fishing activities and contribute to unsustainable depletion of marine resources, the 2022 Agreement on Fisheries Subsidies (AFS) is the first WTO treaty to recognize that a specific trade policy instrument can have adverse consequences for the global commons. We assess the AFS as such, and through the lens of the broader challenge confronting WTO members in determining how to address subsidy spillovers and adapt trade policy rules to protect the global commons. While the AFS is a step forward for the WTO, definitions of what constitutes a subsidy and the approach taken to ensure transparency are those that have been part of the WTO since 1995 and have become cause for contestation and calls for reform. We suggest ways in which birth defects can be addressed in the course of implementing and expanding the coverage of the agreement.
    Keywords: Subsidies, environmental spillovers, transparency, international cooperation, WTO
    Date: 2022–12

This nep-agr issue is ©2023 by Angelo Zago. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.