nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒06‒19
89 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Does Organic Farming Jeopardize Food and Nutrition Security? By Ghislain B. D. Aihounton; Arne Henningsen
  2. The impact of UK food and bioenergy imports on global land use under future socioeconomic scenarios (UK-SSPs) By Arendarczyk, Bart; Alexander, Peter; Brown, Calum; Rounsevell, Mark
  3. Modelling the economic performance of Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) at the farm level By Campos-González, Jorge; Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Mancini, Mattia; Bateman, Ian
  4. Gendered Effects of Crop Diversification and Climate Shocks on Household Food Security Status in Nigeria By Amolegbe, Khadijat Busola; Fontep, Eugenie Rose; Ahodode, Bernadin Géraud Comlan; Pagal, Emmanuelle Dorcas Mbanga; Ardelkrim, Araar
  5. European farmers’ response to crop residue prices and implications for bioenergy policies By Maxence Gérard; Pierre-Alain Jayet
  6. Economic Effects of Organic Farming in Taiwan: Empirical Evidence from Population-Based Farm Household Data By Chang, Yun-Cih; Luh, Yir-Hueih; Hsieh, Ming-Feng
  7. Impact of Rice Production and Environmental Damage on Food Security Challenges in Bangladesh By Islam, Tania; Almas, Lak K.; Guerrero, Bridget; Kibria, Md. Golam
  8. The impact of perceived COVID-19 risks, food waste generation and food purchase control on the food security status during the pandemic By Costa-Font, Montserrat; Asquini, Martina
  9. The Impacts of Climate Change on Farmers and Indigenous Peoples’ Consumption: Evidence from Panama By Ambar Lineth Chavez Espinosa; Akira Hibiki
  10. Changing farm sizes and farmers’ demographics in Ethiopia By Bachewe, Fantu Nisrane; Minten, Bart
  11. Farmers’ preferences over alternative AECS designs. Do the ecological conditions influence the willingness to accept result-based contracts? By Canessa, Carolin; Venus, Terese; Wiesmeier, Miriam; Mennig, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes
  12. Miracle seeds: Biased expectations, complementary input use, and the dynamics of smallholder technology adoption By Miehe, Caroline; Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Nabwire, Leocardia; Sparrow, Robert; Spielman, David J.
  13. Inventory credit, a system to improve food security in sub-Saharan Africa By Tristan Le Cotty; Élodie Maître D’hôtel; Issoufou Porgo; Julie Subervie; Raphaël Soubeyran
  14. Policy support for organic farming in the European Union - past achievements and future challenges By Lampkin, Nicolas
  15. Crop Diversity and Resilience to Droughts: Evidence from Indian Agriculture By S. Madhumitha; Anubhab Pattanayak; K.S. Kavi Kumar
  16. German farmers' perceived usefulness of satellite-based index insurance - Insights from a transtheoretical model By Nordmeyer, Eike Florenz
  17. Does flexibility of biofuel mandates have the ability to mitigate price spikes? Modelling potential biofuel production reductions in the context of the recent invasion of Ukraine By Dyer, Richard; Davies, Grant
  18. Policies to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture, their implications for agricultural activity levels and land use decisions in Ireland By Rafiee, Zohreh; Breen, James; Kilcline, Kevin
  19. How can the design of Decision Support Tools for different agricultural stakeholders be improved? By Iakovidis, Dimitrios; Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Park, Julian; Gonzalez, Jorge Campos
  20. E-commerce improves dietary quality of rural households in China By Shen, Jiexi; Zhu, Zhanguo; Qaim, Matin; Fan, Shenggen; Tian, Xu
  21. A comparison of animal and plant-based proteins from an economic, environmental, and nutritional perspective in the Republic of Ireland By Merlo, Marie; Hennessy, Thia; Buckley, Cathal; O'Mahony, James
  22. Better together? The effect of VietGAP and PGS certification on farmers' welfare in Vietnam By Enthoven, Laura
  23. A farm-level ecological-economic approach of the inclusion of pollination services in arable crop farms By Giorgos Kleftodimos; Nicola Gallai; Stelios Rozakis; Charilaos Kephaliacos
  24. Crop prices and deforestation in the tropics By Nicolas Berman; Mathieu Couttenier; Antoine Leblois; Raphaël Soubeyran
  25. Technical Efficiency in Organic and Conventional Wheat Farms: Evidence from a Primary Survey from Two Districts of Ganga River Basin, India By Singh, S.P.; Sajwan, Priya; Sajwan, Komal
  26. Adoption and impact assessment of improved groundnut varieties on poverty using DNA-Fingerprinting data: Evidence frrom smallholder rural farmers in Northern Nigeria By Muricho, Geoffrey; Lokossou, Jourdain; Odhiambo, Collins; Ojiewo, Chris
  27. The financial cost of stabilizing US farm income under climate change By Cécile Couharde; Rémi Generoso
  28. Spatial analysis of influence of urban agriculture on food insecurity and stunting in Yogyakarta, Indonesia By Monteiro, Diogo M. Souza; Neill, Alexandra; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Sugiyanto, Catur; Sutiarso, Lilik; Thangavelu, Dhiwagaran; Jansen, Jens
  29. Assessing the (a)symmetric effect of global climate anomalies on food prices: Evidence from local prices By Emediegwu, Lotanna Ernest
  30. Price Support and Farm Incomes : Comparative Study of Rice Growing Regions in Southern India and Mekong-Delta Vietnam By JOHNSON, Deepak; KUROSAKI, Takashi
  31. Analysis of factors that influence adoption of agroecological practices in viticulture By Mohamed Ghali; Maha Ben Jaballah; Nejla Ben Arfa; Annie Sigwalt
  32. Estimation of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agriultural soil management at higher resolution and implications for defining the cost of carbon at farm level By Francisco-Cruz, Carlos Alberto; Buckley, Cathal; Breen, James; Lanigan, Gary
  33. Identification of Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture (NSA) Knowledge Gaps in the Integration of Nutrition into Training by Agricultural Extension Advisory Services (EAS) Providers in India By Junuthula, Shirisha; Kumari, Veenita; Srinivasan, Chittur
  34. Payments for agri-environmental schemes and green productivity in Germany: An impact assessment analysis By Sidhoum, Amer Ait; Mennig, Philipp; Frick, Fabian
  35. Modelling risk and constraints among smallholder farmers in North-East region of Nigeria By Peter, Emmanuel
  36. Assessing the prospects of the Sustainable Farming Scheme in Wales, fit for success or of limited relevance? By Lenormand, Théo; Janet, Dwyer; Devienne, Sophie
  37. Hydroeconomic Modelling for Irrigated Agriculture Water Use in the Riviersonderend-Berg River Basin, South Africa By Aina, Ifedotun Victor; Thiam, Djiby Racine; Dinar, Ariel
  38. A Bio-Economic Model of producing silage as a feedstock for Anaerobic Digestion in Ireland By Deasy, Maurice J.; Thorne, Fiona
  39. MATS Report: "Trade under War Conditions. Insecurity Decreases Ukrainian Revenues and Market Shares" By Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
  40. Farm-Level Assessments of Greenhouse Gas Marginal Abatement Cost Curve Emissions: Understanding the Implications of Interactions and Heterogeneity By Ogunpaimo, Oyinlola Rafiat; Buckley, Cathal; Hynes, Stephen; O'Neill, Stephen
  41. Boosting the Productivity of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries through Parcelization of Collective Certificate of Land Ownership Awards By Galang, Ivory Myka R.
  42. A horse on your plate? A cluster analysis of French consumers hippophagy acceptance By Maxime Sebbane; Céline Vial; Arnaud Lamy
  43. CAP reform and GHG emissions: policy assessment using a PMP agent-based model By Lisa Baldi; Arfini, Filippo; Calzolai, Sara; Donati, Michele
  44. Quantifying farmers' preferences for antimicrobial use for livestock diseases in northern Tanzania By Nthambi, Mary; Lembo, Tiziana; Davis, Alicia; Nasuwa, Fortunata; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Matthews, Louise; Hanley, Nick
  45. Assessing options for estimating carbon offshoring impacts of UK trade agreements in agriculture By Gobey, Will; O'Reilly, George; Franzoi, Marco; Giacomini, Francesco
  46. The Impact of Chinese Rice Support Policies on Rice Acreages By Jin, Yan; Gardebroek, Cornelis; Heerink, Nico
  47. The Cause and Effect of the Nutrition Transition in Nigeria: Analysis of the Value of Indigenous Knowledge & Traditional Foods in Enugu State, Igboland By Chukwu, Ellington; Dogbe, Wisdom
  48. The impact of the US dollar on international agricultural prices By Davies, Grant
  49. Resource Efficiency Estimation and Digital Recommendation: Sustainable Pathway to Improve Paddy Farmers' Productivity By Singh, Piyush Kumar; Dey, Shiladitya; Pal, Anirban
  50. Heterogeneity in the effect of GHG mitigation strategies on Irish dairy farms By Balaine, Lorraine; Buckley, Cathal; Breen, James; Krol, Dominika
  51. The impact of internet use on the performance of agricultural cooperatives in Vietnam By Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Do, Manh Hung; Rahut, Dil; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Chhay, Panharoth
  52. Spatially Coordinated Conservation Auctions: A Framed Field Experiment Focusing on Farmland Wildlife Conservation in China By Liu, Zhaoyang; Banerjee, Simanti; Cason, Timothy N.; Hanley, Nick; Liu, Qi; Xu, Jintao; Kontoleon, Andreas
  53. Adoption of Multiple Soil Fertility Management Practices and Its Impact on Farm Performance in Rural China By Kang, Shijia
  54. The impact of global warming on inflation: averages, seasonality and extremes By Kotz, Maximilian; Kuik, Friderike; Lis, Eliza; Nickel, Christiane
  55. Examining the Relationship Between Women, Minority Farmers, and Diversity in the Leadership of Farm Credit Institutions By Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia
  56. Can NBS address the challenges of an urbanized Mediterranean catchment? The Lez case study By Philippe Le Coent; Roxane Marchal; Cécile Hérivaux; Jean-Christophe Maréchal; Bernard Ladouche; David Moncoulon; George Farina; Ingrid Forey; Wao Zi-Xiang; Nina Graveline
  57. Comparing experiments for modelling farm risk management decisions with a focus on extreme weather losses By Duden, Christoph; Offermann, Frank; Mußhoff, Oliver
  58. The Effects of Rising Prices on Corn Production in Western African Countries By Rogna, Marco
  59. Groundwater irrigation in Bangladesh: changing modalities, resultant policies. Proceedings of the National Stakeholder Workshop on Groundwater Irrigation in Bangladesh: Changing Modalities, Resultant Policies, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 21 December 2022 By Banerjee, Anurag; Ray, S.; Chakraborty, Shreya; Mukherji, Aditi
  60. Could Foods High in Fat, Sugar and Salt (HFSS) Taxes Improve Climate Health and Nutrition in Scotland? By Nneli, Amarachi; Dogbe, Wisdom; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar
  61. Cost Benefit Analysis of a Catchment Management Scheme using the Avoided Cost Method By Glass, Catherine A.; Burgess, Diane E.
  62. Colonialism, Cash Crops and Women in Africa By Martina Miotto
  63. Plant diversity to cope with increased drought risk in grasslands By Alou, Nicolas; Schaub, Sergei; Finger, Robert
  64. Trade-offs between international migration and agricultural commercialization: evidence frrom Kyrgyzstan By Kimsanova, Barchynai; Sanaev, Golib; Herzfeld, Thomas
  65. Exploring the drivers of Sustainable Innovation in wine cooperatives: a case-studies analysis By Uliano, Anna; Marotta, Giuseppe; Stanco, Marcello; Nazzaro, Concetta
  66. Improving the ecological and economic performance of agri-environment schemes: Payment by modelled results versus payment for actions By Simpson, Katherine; Armsworth, Paul; Dallimer, Martin; Nthambi, Mary; de Vries, Frans; Hanley, Nick
  67. Economic assessment of nature-based solutions for water-related risks By Philippe Le Coent; Cécile Hérivaux; Javier Calatrava; Roxane Marchal; David Moncoulon; Camilo Benitez-Avila; Mónica Altamirano; Amandine Gnonlonfin; Ali Douai; Guillaume Piton; Kieran Dartée; Thomas Biffin; Nabila Arfaoui; Nina Graveline
  68. An resilience analysis of the contraction of the accommodation and food service on the Scottish food industry By Dogbe, Wisdom
  69. Accountability and transparency through water-energy-food nexus accounting in Central Asia [Abstract only]. By Siegfried, T.; Anarbekov, Oyture; Ragettli, S.
  70. Animal capital: a new way to define human-animal bond in view of global changes By Sueur, Cédric; Fourneret, Eric; Espinosa, Romain
  71. Impact of Climate Change on Economic Growth: A Case Study of India By Medhavi Sandhani; Anubhab Pattanayak; K.S. Kavi Kumar
  72. Cost-benefit of green infrastructures for water management: A sustainability assessment of full-scale constructed wetlands in Northern and Southern Italy By Laura Garcia-Herrero; Stevo Lavrnic; Valentina Guerrieri; Attilio Toscano; Mirco Milani; Giuseppe Luigi Cirelli; Matteo Vittuari
  73. Ostrom Meets the Pandemic: Lessons from Asian Rice Farming Traditions By Choi, Jaerim; Lim, Sunghun
  74. Sustainable livestock intensification and well-being in rural Brazil By da Silva, Jacqueline Tereza; Moran, Dominic; Barioni, Luis Gustavo; de Oliveira, Rafael
  75. Heterogeneous and time varying nexus between climate change and quality of life in Africa By Rilwan Sakariyahu; Olayinka Oyekola; Rasheed Adigun; Temitope Fagbemi; Oluwagbenga Seyingbo; Rodiat Lawal
  76. The opportunity costs of environmental exclusion zones for renewable energy deployment By Lehmann, Paul; Tafarte, Philip
  77. Potential Impact of Brexit on Fruits and Vegetables Purchases in Scotland By Dogbe, Wisdom
  78. Looking into the future: natural assurance schemes for resilience By Elena López-Gunn; Nina Graveline; Raffaele Giordano; Nora van Cauwenbergh; Philippe Le Coent; Peter van Der Keur; Roxane Marchal; Beatriz Mayor; Laura Vay
  79. Should the government sell you goods? Evidence from the milk market in Mexico By Diego Jimenez-Hernandez; Enrique Seira
  80. Samuel Garrido: una contribución fundamental a la historia económica y la historia agraria By Salvador Calatayud; Vicente Pinilla; Jordi Planas
  81. Determinants of financing demand from microcredit associations by small family farms in Morocco: The case of the Chtouka-Ait-Baha province By Mohamed Adaskou; Abdelkarim Hssoune
  82. A typology of Malian farmers and their credit repayment performance - An unsupervised machine learning approach By Olkers, Tim; Liu, Shuang; Mußhoff, Oliver
  83. Consumer demand for potatoes in Scotland during COVID-19 pandemic By Leslie, Max; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar
  84. Roads and Deforestation: Do Local Institutions Matter? By Francisco B. Galarza; Joanna Kámiche Zegarra; Rosario Gómez
  85. Strategies for Energy Management to Drive Green Entrepreneurship Growth in Agriculture By Saufillah, Zulfiyatus
  86. Visualizing climate activism on social media: How does Fridays for Future Germany picture climate action? By Shim, David
  87. Swallow This: Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Fast Food Restaurants, BMI, and Cognitive Ability By Sara Abrahamsson; Aline Bütikofer; Krzysztof Karbownik
  88. Editorial: Biogeosciences and Wine: The Management and Environmental Processes That Regulate the Terroir Effect in Space and Time By Simone Priori; Luca Brillante; Antonello Bonfante; Emmanuelle Vaudour; Silvia Winter; Sandro Conticelli
  89. An empirical analysis of the purchases of soft fruit in Scotland By Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Dogbe, Wisdom

  1. By: Ghislain B. D. Aihounton (Laboratory of Analysis and Research on Economic and Social Dynamics, University of Parakou, Benin; Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Arne Henningsen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: The prevalence of organic farming and other sustainability standards is increasing around the globe. While effects of organic farming on productivity, income, and poverty alleviation have been analyzed in numerous empirical studies, its effects on food and nutrition security are not yet understood. Using data from smallholder cotton farmers in Benin, we empirically investigate how adopting organic farming affects their food and nutrition security. Our results indicate that adopting organic farming substantially reduces their food security, while it tends to slightly reduce the nutritional quality of their diets. Evaluating pathways, we find that the decreased food and nutrition security is likely caused by lower household income due to lower income from cotton farming given a smaller land area cultivated with cotton, while a larger land area cultivated with food crops cannot fully compensate for the reduced income from cotton farming. This alarming result illustrates the need for evaluating and eventually improving programs for organic farming in developing countries to ensure that good intentions for more sustainable production practices do not jeopardize the livelihoods of vulnerable smallholder farmers.
    Keywords: organic farming, food security, dietary diversity, farm households, treatment effects
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2023–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:foi:wpaper:2023_02&r=agr
  2. By: Arendarczyk, Bart; Alexander, Peter; Brown, Calum; Rounsevell, Mark
    Abstract: Food imports are a critical part of the UK’s food supply, accounting for nearly half of all food consumed domestically. Reliance on imports raises concerns about food security as well as environmental impacts due to land use associated with imported commodities (the land footprint). Previous studies estimate that approximately 10 Mha of agricultural land is used globally outside the UK to produce food destined for the UK. However, previous methods fail to account for marginal yield effects as well as present and future feedbacks between food prices, demand, production, and international trade. Using a global land use modelling framework, LandSyMM, we produce estimates of the global land use impact of UK food and bioenergy imports. We simulate food demand, agricultural production, and trade under a range of global and UK-specific socioeconomic and climate scenarios. We estimate that 42 Mha of agricultural land could be currently linked to UK food and bioenergy imports, trending towards 22-46 Mha by 2070-2079. Given 17 Mha of agricultural land in the UK, our results suggest that UK food imports could have a disproportionate impact on global land use compared to domestic production and should be an important focus for evaluating the environmental consequences of food production.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334509&r=agr
  3. By: Campos-González, Jorge; Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Mancini, Mattia; Bateman, Ian
    Abstract: Agricultural production practices are one of the most significant drivers of biodiversity loss and make farming a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water pollution. Currently, agricultural policies and farm management interventions at a farm level are designed to contribute to a transformational reform of agricultural systems to improve environmental and economic sustainability. The new Agriculture Act for the UK commits to net zero carbon emissions and policies to enhance environmental stewardship and sustainability and support the production of public goods. Introducing recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with farm-based renewable energy (Anaerobic Digestors, AD) provides a novel diversified enterprise for farming systems with considerable but poorly understood economic and environmental benefits. This study conducts farm-based Net Margin analysis to show that an AD unit generating up to 500 kW combined with six to 12 RAS 157 m3 units for high-value shrimp ("king prawn") production is economically viable on medium and large arable farms in the East of England at 2022 prices. Besides, we explore further key issues such as impacts on other farm activities, land use due to AD feedstock choices, use of digestate and nutrients cycling, among others.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334548&r=agr
  4. By: Amolegbe, Khadijat Busola; Fontep, Eugenie Rose; Ahodode, Bernadin Géraud Comlan; Pagal, Emmanuelle Dorcas Mbanga; Ardelkrim, Araar
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of climate shocks and crop diversification on household food security in Nigeria by focusing on gender-disaggregated effects. We combine historical rainfall and temperature datasets with the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) for Nigeria. Furthermore, we use an adapted version of the crop diversification Weighted Shannon index (WSI) to measure crop diversification. The food security indicators adopted are the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS), the reduced Coping Strategy Index (rCSI), and the per capita food expenditures. We use a set of panel and dynamic panel models for our analysis, and our results show that climate shocks have negative effects on food security, especially in households with men plot managers. However, we find that crop diversification is positively linked to food security. Our results show the need to target policies to encourage crop diversification in households and promote crop diversification components in women empowerment programs.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334551&r=agr
  5. By: Maxence Gérard (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Pierre-Alain Jayet (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: To achieve the European bioenergy objectives, member states are likely to implement support policies targeting the use of lignocellulosic biomass for advanced bioenergy. Such policies could increase prices. In this study, we argue that with higher prices and new market opportunities for lignocellulosic biomass, farmers will account for crop residues in their choice of production and use of inputs. We test this hypothesis in an economic model of the EU agricultural supply coupled with a crop model to assess the effect of crop residue prices on residue supply, land allocation, yields, fertiliser use, and nitrogen pollution. We find that 120 million tonnes of dry matter (tDM) of crop residues are co-produced when they are unpriced. The price-induced additional supply is elastic to price but limited to 8% at €100/tDM and 13% at €200/tDM of the unpriced production. However, the increase in residue prices induces farmers to increase their crop areas and yields, which leads to significantly higher fertiliser consumption and nitrous oxide emission. These results indicate to policy makers that supporting prices would not substantially increase crop residue potential but could have collateral effects on the environment. They raise issues of coordination between bioenergy and agri-environmental policies in the EU.
    Keywords: Bioenergy policy, Renewable energy directive, Biomass supply, Crop residues, Mathematical programming model
    Date: 2023–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04071932&r=agr
  6. By: Chang, Yun-Cih; Luh, Yir-Hueih; Hsieh, Ming-Feng
    Abstract: Organic farming has been viewed as one of the promising farming practices of sustainable agricultural production. Evaluating the economic effects of organic farming is important while promoting environmental-friendly policies. Considering the four major components of the cropping system and spatial agglomeration effects, this study looks into three kinds of economic performancessales revenue, cost and profit, for rice farm households in Taiwan using large-scale national data drawn from the 2015 agriculture census. We apply the analysis of local indicators of spatial associations to gain a better understanding of the patterns of organic farming clusters. The spatial clusters are then incorporated into the Probit-2SLS instrumental variable model, finding that organic farming adoption leads to a significantly positive effect on rice farms’ economic performances in 2 turns of cost reduction and profit increase. This positive treatment effect can be further increased through spatial agglomeration. Moreover, the treatment effect of organic farming is found to vary with the farm characteristics such as farmland area and the number of hired workers. For practical implications, establishing organic agriculture specialized zones or providing economic incentives to small farms to expand their scale may be a more effective policy means to promote sustainable agrifood production.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, International Development
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334542&r=agr
  7. By: Islam, Tania; Almas, Lak K.; Guerrero, Bridget; Kibria, Md. Golam
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Production Economics
    Date: 2023–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saea22:335304&r=agr
  8. By: Costa-Font, Montserrat; Asquini, Martina
    Abstract: The outbreak of COVID-19 represents an unprecedented global health scenario closely related to food production and consumption. The transmission of COVID-19 through food and food packaging has been declared as very low by WHO, European Food Safety Authority and the British Food Standards Agency. Therefore, this pandemic radically differs from previous food safety incidents such as bovine spongiform encephalitis, salmonella, or dioxin contamination. However, its consequences for the food sector are related, such as food supply chain shocks and changes in consumer behaviour. One of the reasons behind the shift in consumer behaviour is the ‘fear of the unknown’ and the amplification of such risks by media coverage. Worldwide media widely reported a rise in demand for food banks and food aid, the disruption of food supply chains, and, with particular importance, the virus outbreaks in food factories, farms, and meat processing plants. We undertook a literature review on perceptions of risk, uncertainty, and safety to understand food purchase and utilisation during the pandemic. Finally, we analysed the impact of factors identified in the literature review, such as consumers’ enhanced food safety risk perceptions and distrust towards the stability of the food system as a response to the coronavirus pandemic on food purchase and consumption behaviour and the potential variation in food waste generation.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334511&r=agr
  9. By: Ambar Lineth Chavez Espinosa; Akira Hibiki
    Abstract: Climate change is a significant challenge faced by tropical developing countries. While efforts have been made to support vulnerable socio-economic groups such as farmers and indigenous peoples, little is known about how climate change affects these groups. This paper provides empirical evidence by estimating the impact of weather shocks (high temperature, temperature shock, and flood) on households' total consumption and its components (food and non-food consumption) in Panama. The study aims to explore the heterogeneity of weather shocks' impacts, specifically between households of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples, and farmers and non-farmers, thus contributing to the literature on the effects of belonging to a minority and indigenous group when facing climate change impacts. By combining repeated cross-sectional data from surveys on 17, 650 households with gridded climate data and flood events information for the years 1997, 2003, and 2008, the study examines if there are differences in the negative impact due to weather shocks between farmers and non-farmers or indigenous and non-indigenous households. The main findings are as follows: Firstly, higher temperature, temperature shock, and flood reduce consumption and their negative impact on food consumption is smaller than non-food consumption. Secondly, there are significant differences in the negative impact of heavy rain shocks between farmers and non-farmers. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the negative impact of weather shocks (higher temperature, temperature shock, and flood) on non-food consumption between indigenous and non-indigenous households, while there is no significant difference in total consumption and food consumption. Thirdly, the negative impacts of weather shocks on the consumption of poor households are less than those on the consumption of non-poor households. Hence, indigenous households are more vulnerable to climate change than farmers and poor households.
    Date: 2023–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:toh:tupdaa:37&r=agr
  10. By: Bachewe, Fantu Nisrane; Minten, Bart
    Abstract: Important changes in farms and farm demographics are noted in Ethiopia since 2004/05. These changes have important implications on discussions of the future of Ethiopian agriculture. Comparing the national agricultural sample survey of the Ethiopian Statistical Services (ESS) data between 2004/05 and 2016/17, we find that: (1) Average farm sizes of smallholders declined by more than 10 percent over the decade, from 1.2 to 0.9 hectares; the decline in farm sizes of female headed households is more pronounced at over 21 percent, (2) Farmers are becoming older: the share of Ethiopian farmers under 35 declined from 36 to 30 percent, (3) The youth have smaller and declining farm sizes, declining from 0.9 to 0.8 hectares, (4) Rental markets are becoming more important, with 12 percent of crop land being rented in at the end of the period; especially the youth rely more on rental markets to access land, with 20 percent of their land rented in, and (5) Education levels are rapidly increasing, with the share of illiterate youth farmers declining from 56 to 30 percent. This has important implications for the future of Ethiopian agriculture and the overall economy.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; farms; demographic transition; agriculture; farm size; smallholders; gender; women; age; rent; sharecropping; land; education; literacy
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:esspwp:161&r=agr
  11. By: Canessa, Carolin; Venus, Terese; Wiesmeier, Miriam; Mennig, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes
    Abstract: Agri-environmental-climate schemes provide payments for ecosystem services by compensating farmers to implement management actions or obtain ecological results. To compare farmer preferences for action-based schemes, result-based schemes, or a hybrid, we conduct a discrete choice experiment in a case study from Germany. We elicited farmers’ choices for alternative grassland biodiversity payments through an in-person survey and measured farms’ ecological performance using a biodiversity index. Results reveal that neither the payment mechanism nor its amount is a primary driver of farmer decision-making. Instead, the applicability of the prescribed management practice to the farming system, and the achievability of the outcome, are key for uptake. Intensive farmers are more likely to choose hybrid-based solutions than extensive farms, which prefer a result-based approach. Farms with higher biodiversity tend to accept result-based schemes more frequently and are willing to enrol a greater share of their land. Our findings suggest a potential lack of additionality but also that farmers’ awareness about their farms’ ecological potential influences uptake of result-based schemes. To encourage farmers participating and enroling more land in these schemes, policymakers should tailor the payment-mechanism to different farmers and provide in-site technical advice.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334508&r=agr
  12. By: Miehe, Caroline; Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Nabwire, Leocardia; Sparrow, Robert; Spielman, David J.
    Abstract: To fully benefit from new agricultural technologies like improved seed varieties, significant investment in complementary inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides, and practices such as systematic planting, irrigation, and weeding are also required. Farmers may fail to recognize the importance of these complements, leading to unsatisfactory crop yields and outputs and, eventually, dis-adoption of the variety. We provide a simple model of biased expectations, complementary input use and technology adoption and test its predictions using a field experiment among smallholder maize farmers in eastern Uganda. We find that pointing out the importance of complementary investments using a short, engaging video effectively deters some farmers from using commercial improved varieties. Consistent with the theoretical model, we find some evidence that this behavior change emanates from increased knowledge and expectations that are more in line with realized outcomes.
    Keywords: UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agricultural technologies; seeds; investments; fertilizers; pesticides; planting; irrigation; weeding; farmers; crop yield; outputs; innovation adoption; smallholders; maize; behaviour; knowledge; systematic planting
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2183&r=agr
  13. By: Tristan Le Cotty (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Élodie Maître D’hôtel (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Issoufou Porgo (MRA - Ministère des Ressources Animales); Julie Subervie (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Raphaël Soubeyran (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Inventory credit is being developed in several Sahelian countries. This device is implemented by a farmers' organisation and a financial institution. It consists in storing a portion of harvested grain in a warehouse for several months in exchange for an individual loan. Without this loan, farmers tend to sell their grain immediately after harvesting in order to pay off their debts or to meet their needs. The consequence is that families subsequently struggle to get through the lean season – the transition period between the depletion of food stocks and the new harvest – and to invest in their agricultural production systems. An impact assessment study conducted in western Burkina Faso shows that inventory credit increases food availability in the lean season and boosts agricultural investment and production. To accelerate its development, three conditions must be met: providing access to suitable storage facilities; ensuring the quality of products stored; and building trust between financial institutions, producers' organisations and traders. The latter condition is undermined by the expansion of armed conflicts in the Sahel.
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04095753&r=agr
  14. By: Lampkin, Nicolas
    Abstract: Organic farming has been supported in almost all EU Member States since the early 1990s by means of an EU-wide legal definition, agri-environmental conversion and maintenance payments, rural development marketing and processing grants, promotion funding, public procurement and research and information initiatives. Often the support has been combined in organic action plans, designed to integrate supply push and demand-pull measures. The latest CAP round (2023-2027) has delegated responsibility for setting organic farming policy to Member States, but with an EU Farm to Fork Strategy target of 25% of agricultural land area to be managed organically by 2030, and an expectation that Member States will implement policies and action plans for organic farming to help deliver this. This paper charts the development of organic farming in the EU since the 1990s, the motivations for policy support, and the types and levels of support implemented in the 2010-2020 period. It analyses how Member State plans for policy in the next five years compare with previous periods and whether they are able to meet the challenge of the 25% target.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334516&r=agr
  15. By: S. Madhumitha (Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India); Anubhab Pattanayak ((Corresponding author), Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India); K.S. Kavi Kumar (Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India)
    Abstract: Agricultural intensification and technological specialisation have led to the prevalence of mono-culture in India. Diversity within crop species has been gradually declining since the advent of Green Revolution in the 1960s. With increasingly frequent weather shocks, agricultural systems face the risk of yield and income losses. A quantitative assessment of district level agricultural data for the period 1966-2015 is used to understand whether crop diversification can cushion yield and income losses for farmers during droughts. The results indicate that diversification enhanced resilience during a rainfall deficit period in the Green Revolution period. However, in the post-Green Revolution period, increased specialization mitigated the adverse effects of rainfall deficit. When simultaneous occurrence of rainfall deficit and high temperature is considered as an alternative characterization of drought, crop diversity did not provide any insulation against such weather extremes. In the absence of any weather extremes, monoculture is found to be more lucrative owing to both supply and demand side factors like improved inputs, irrigation and infrastructure facilities, government’s support prices and pattern of consumption demand. Spatial trends in crop diversification also revealed some anomalies to these general results since some states in the country have unique cropping patterns.
    Keywords: Crop diversity; Drought; Indian agriculture; Green Revolution
    JEL: Q10 Q15 Q54
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mad:wpaper:2021-205&r=agr
  16. By: Nordmeyer, Eike Florenz
    Abstract: Index insurance is a promising tool to mitigate drought-related income losses in agriculture. Yet, the basis risk of index insurance based on meteorological observations inhibits farmers’ demand. To reduce the basis risk, the integration of satellite data has received research attention. However, farmers’ perceptions of satellite-based index insurance remain unknown. To derive initial insights into German farmers’ perceived usefulness (PU) of satellite-based index insurance, we surveyed 127 German farmers in a risk management context and applied a modified transtheoretical model of behavioral change (TTMC). This revealed detailed information on German farmers’ PU of satellite-based index insurance and its influencing factors. The results indicate that the average farmer perceives satellite-based index insurance as useful. Particularly, a higher educational level in the agricultural context as well as higher trust in index insurance products increases farmers’ PU. Moreover, higher relative climate-related income losses increase farmers’ PU. The results are of importance to insurers interested in the drivers of farmers’ PU of upcoming satellite-based index insurance and offers a starting point for researchers focusing on acceptance of index insurance and satellite data as well as for further applications of the TTMU.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334557&r=agr
  17. By: Dyer, Richard; Davies, Grant
    Abstract: This paper looks at how reducing biofuel production by introducing flexibility to mandates can have a potentially mitigating effect on price spikes. In particular we look at the recent price spike caused by the invasion of Ukraine and the consequent impact on global agricultural impacts. We model scenarios of reduced biofuel use in a global agricultural market model to see the impact on prices of the major cereals and oilseeds. A modest reduction of 10% of the use of cereals in biofuels can have a significant impact on the magnitude of the price spike for cereals and in particular maize. The modelled price spike in maize is 37% smaller after a 10% reduction in biofuel production in G7 countries. Results for wheat and vegetable oils are smaller but still significant at 11% and 27% respectively. This modelling demonstrates the importance of biofuel mandates in global agricultural markets and consequently their impact on global food security.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334562&r=agr
  18. By: Rafiee, Zohreh; Breen, James; Kilcline, Kevin
    Abstract: To prevent the most damaging effects of climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have identified the need to limit the rise in the global average temperature to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. In support of the goal of climate change mitigation, Ireland’s Climate Action Plan has set a goal of reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and setting us on a path to reach net-zero emissions by 2050. As part of the plan the agriculture sector has been set of 25% reduction target relative to 2018. This paper utilises the CAPRI model to evaluate the effect of a hypothetical €100 carbon tax on non-CO2 emissions for agricultural. Results revealed that under a €100 carbon tax, overall GHG emissions would decrease in large part due to a decrease in beef meat activities, which is along with the dairy sector the dominant source of methane emissions in Irish agriculture. Average agricultural income would be projected to increase due to less profitable production exiting under carbon tax and price. A significant increase in the area of set aside and fallow land is also observed, which leads to a reduction in agricultural land and can be used for an increase in afforestation.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334507&r=agr
  19. By: Iakovidis, Dimitrios; Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Park, Julian; Gonzalez, Jorge Campos
    Abstract: The sustainability of Mediterranean agriculture is under threat due to factors such as climate change, the spatial distribution and size of holdings, the ageing rural population and the environmental and social pressures in rural areas. Decision Support Tools (DST) can help overcome these challenges by enhancing the decision-making of farmers and advisers, enabling evidence-based decisions which will improve the sustainability of farming systems in the area. An essential requirement of an effective design of a DST is the early-stage engagement of stakeholders in a co-production approach to define end user needs and requirements. In this research twenty-nine stakeholders comprising farmers and advisers, extension officers, policy makers and industry representatives were selected from within the regional unit of Argolida and the Greek National Ministry of Rural Development and Food to facilitate user need analysis. A Q-methodology approach was utilised to provide an in-depth understanding of the perspectives and needs of the differing stakeholder groups. The results illustrated that the use of the Q-methodology as a mechanism of analysing stakeholders’ subjective viewpoints can offer valuable insights and can be used to study distinct perspectives existing within a group on a topic of interest. In addition, the research illustrates how the method can serve as the required first step of end user need analysis in a co-production of services approach for the design of an effective DST in agriculture.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334568&r=agr
  20. By: Shen, Jiexi; Zhu, Zhanguo; Qaim, Matin; Fan, Shenggen; Tian, Xu
    Abstract: E-commerce is gaining importance in the food sector of many countries, and its potential influence on people’s access to food and dietary choices is yet to be thoroughly investigated. In this study, we analyze data from a food consumption survey conducted in rural China in 2021 to examine the impact of e-commerce on individual food consumption patterns and dietary quality. Our results with instrumental variable models show that e-commerce significantly reduces the consumption of staple foods, such as cereals and potatoes, while it increases the consumption of legumes, nuts, milk, and milk products, even after controlling for income and other confounding factors. Additionally, e-commerce contributes to higher dietary diversity and dietary quality among rural households. In the face of shrinking physical markets in rural areas, it seems that rural e-commerce can serve as an important mechanism to improve food access and meet the diversifying dietary demands of rural residents.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2023–06–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ubzefd:335226&r=agr
  21. By: Merlo, Marie; Hennessy, Thia; Buckley, Cathal; O'Mahony, James
    Abstract: Protein is a central component of health and nutrition. The current animal protein production systems might not be able meet this growing demand for food and protein while also meeting climate change policy commitments. Therefore, alternative sources of protein must be considered. This study uniquely compares animal-based protein sources (milk, beef, sheep meat) to plant-based protein (wheat, barley, oats) across a suite of economic, environmental, and nutritional metrics. Economic performance is measured through the gross margin earned by the farmer, environmental performance through the farm-level CO2 emissions, and the nutritional performance through the gross protein yield and the protein yield corrected for digestibility using the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS). Findings indicate that cereal crops perform better in terms of environmental and nutritional aspects but lag significantly behind the best economically performing livestock-based system, dairying. Moreover, dairy farms produce less gross protein than crop-specialized farms, but they produce a similar amount of available protein on a per hectare basis, i.e., protein that can be utilized by the body after digestion. The results do not allow for a definitive answer as to which protein source is the most holistically sustainable as the relative efficiency depends on the metric considered.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334515&r=agr
  22. By: Enthoven, Laura
    Abstract: To promote sustainable agriculture in low- and middle-income countries, local certification schemes, including participatory guarantee systems (PGS) have been promoted as inclusive mechanisms. In this study, we investigate the implications of two local certification schemes for farmers in Vietnam: VietGAP, a simplified version of GlobalGAP certified by a third-party body, and PGS, based on sustainable agricultural practices controlled internally by farmers and other local stakeholders. We use farm-household data from a two-round panel survey conducted in 2018 and 2022 among 301 vegetable farmers. First, we investigate factors that may affect farmers’ adoption of the two schemes. Second, we estimate correlated random effects models to evaluate the schemes’ effect on farmers’ welfare while accounting for unobserved timeconstant factors. We do not find significant evidence that either certification scheme has an effect on household revenues and income from vegetables. However, we report negative costs and price effects, but positive market access effects linked to certification.
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, International Development
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334546&r=agr
  23. By: Giorgos Kleftodimos; Nicola Gallai (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - UT Capitole - Université Toulouse Capitole - UT - Université de Toulouse - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT - Université de Toulouse - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - ENSFEA - École Nationale Supérieure de Formation de l'Enseignement Agricole de Toulouse-Auzeville); Stelios Rozakis; Charilaos Kephaliacos (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - UT Capitole - Université Toulouse Capitole - UT - Université de Toulouse - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT - Université de Toulouse - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - ENSFEA - École Nationale Supérieure de Formation de l'Enseignement Agricole de Toulouse-Auzeville)
    Abstract: Modern agricultural systems use both managed and wild bees in order to secure the provision of pollination services. However, the decline of both bee species due to the increased use of pesticides raises concerns for the supply of pollination services in agriculture. Because European policies seem ineffective in safeguarding bees as they fail to address farmers' socio-economic issues, farmers' adoption rate of friendlier practices by pollinators remains limited. This study uses a farm-level ecological-economic model to explore the potential impacts of changing policy intervention on the provision of pollination services and on farmers' incomes in two characteristic farms in Southwestern France. Moreover, it integrates the economic importance of behavioral interactions between managed and wild bees on crop production. The model assesses farmers' adoption decisions about alternative practices under risk aversion through an optimization choice among several crops, practices (novel/conventional), variable inputs, and pollination activity. The results show that a knowledge of bees' complementarity may facilitate farmers' adoption decisions. Furthermore, they highlight that different levels of Agri-Environmental Schemes and penalties can be efficiently targeted to encourage the implementation of new farming practices in order to preserve pollination services and maintain economically viable farms.
    Keywords: Pollination services, Ecological-economic modelling, Whole farm model, Policy scenarios, Agri-environmental policy, Farmers’ adoption decisions
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03223123&r=agr
  24. By: Nicolas Berman (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Mathieu Couttenier (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon - Saint-Etienne - ENS de Lyon - École normale supérieure de Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Étienne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Antoine Leblois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Raphaël Soubeyran (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms of deforestation is necessary in order to slow or arrest its progress. To accomplish this requires rigorously estimating the demand for deforestation. We contribute to this endeavor by estimating the effect of crop prices on the demand for conversion of land from forest to agriculture in the tropics during the 21st century. The two main difficulties involved are the lack of harmonized data on local crop prices in the tropics and the fact that they are determined simultaneously with decisions to deforest. We propose a strategy to circumvent these two issues using high-resolution annual forest loss data for the tropics, combined with information on crop-specific agricultural suitability and annual international crop prices. We find that crop price variation has a significant impact on deforestation: increases in crop prices are estimated to be responsible for one-third of total deforestation in the tropics (totaling about 2 million km2) during the period 2001–2018. We also find that the degree of openness to international trade and the level of economic development are first-order local characteristics affecting the magnitude of the impact of crop prices on deforestation.
    Keywords: Deforestation, Agricultural commodity prices
    Date: 2023–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04093064&r=agr
  25. By: Singh, S.P.; Sajwan, Priya; Sajwan, Komal
    Abstract: This paper analyses the technical efficiency of wheat farms operating under organic and conventional farming systems. The study is based on a primary survey of 579 farms (294 organic and 285 conventional) conducted in 2021 in two districts located in the Middle Ganga River Basin, India. Technical, managerial, and scale efficiencies of individual farms are estimated by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The per hectare value of wheat production is taken as an output variable, and values of seeds, human labour, machine cost, plant nutrients, farm yard manure (FYM), plant protection, and irrigation charges are considered input variables for estimating the farm-level efficiencies. The post-DEA analysis is conducted using the Tobit regression to determine the efficiency factors. The results show that technical efficiency is significantly higher in conventional than organic farming systems due to a higher gap in scale efficiency than managerial efficiency. Further, 9.8% of conventional and only 1.0% of organic farms operate at the Most Productive Scale Size (MPSS), and 99% of organic and 81% of conventional farms at IRS. Organic farms perform well in managerial efficiency, but their technical efficiency is lower than conventional farms, mainly due to their relatively lower scale size. The paper suggests that technical efficiency in organic wheat farms can be increased by upscaling the farm size by incentivizing group/collective farming in clusters.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Farm Management
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334558&r=agr
  26. By: Muricho, Geoffrey; Lokossou, Jourdain; Odhiambo, Collins; Ojiewo, Chris
    Abstract: Poverty among rural farming households in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is associated with low adoption of modern farming technologies, especially improved crop varieties. Most studies that investigated adoption and impacts of improved crop varieties in SSA are based on farmers’ selfreported adoption status and average treatment effects. However, farmers self-reported adoption status is susceptible to errors and assessing adoption impacts using average treatment effects do not account for farmers’ heterogeneity. To address these challenges, we used DNA-fingerprinting data and Marginal Treatment Effect (MTE) framework to analyze adoption and impacts of adopting improved groundnut varieties (IGVs) in Northern Nigeria. DNA-fingerprinting results showed 57% adoption rate compared to 45% self-reported by farmers. About 29% of the sampled farmers made type I error (mistaking local varieties for improved varieties) while 44% made type II error (mistaking improved varieties for local varieties). Formal sources of seed information and empowering agricultural extension to reach more farmers was significant in ensuring accurate variety identification. Further, adopting IGV significantly reduced poverty gap and poverty severity, especially among households headed by females, older persons, lowly educated and those with limited access to credit. Therefore, policy options that enhance adoption of IGVs will significantly help in reducing poverty.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334554&r=agr
  27. By: Cécile Couharde; Rémi Generoso
    Abstract: The paper assesses the financial cost of federal farm programs in mitigating income losses due to drier conditions expected from climate change. Our study encompasses agricultural-producing counties within the conterminous United States during the census years from 2002 to 2017. We quantify historical drought patterns and their projected trends for the near (2020-2049) and more distant (2030-2059) future, using climate reanalysis data and 20 downscaled global circulation model products from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. We estimate the relationship between federal agricultural payments and climate change by analyzing how farm income losses due to drier conditions affect the magnitude and distribution of these payments under the RCP 8.5 scenario. We predict that, under unmitigated climate change, payments from federal farm program should significantly increase to maintain their income–stabilization capacity, with a greater likelihood
    Keywords: Climate change, Farm income, Federal farm payments, Uncertainty
    JEL: Q12 Q18 Q54
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:drm:wpaper:2023-18&r=agr
  28. By: Monteiro, Diogo M. Souza; Neill, Alexandra; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Sugiyanto, Catur; Sutiarso, Lilik; Thangavelu, Dhiwagaran; Jansen, Jens
    Abstract: Since 2000s there has been a renewed interest in the role urban farming plays on food security. Here we contribute to two branches of this literature: one promoting the use of geographic information systems to map urban systems and the other examining how urban farming contributes to malnutrition and stunting mitigation. We aim to produce a spatial visualization of the Yogyakarta, Indonesia urban farming system and examine the extent with which it mitigates childhood stunting the city. We conducted a survey to a sample of urban farmers where along with production and socio-economic information we collected information on the exact location of the farms. Our findings reveal a very diverse urban farming system both in terms of crops and areas of the city. Most farmers in our sample produce for auto-consumption and the majority is managed by women. The size of the farm, the use of polybags and hydroponic production technologies increase the odds of selling, while female managers decrease them. Then we investigate how urban farming mitigates childhood stunting, finding that it decreases when women manage the farm, age of farmer, number of children in the household and levels of education.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334523&r=agr
  29. By: Emediegwu, Lotanna Ernest
    Abstract: This paper uses time-vary ing smooth transition autoregressive (TV-STAR) model to investigate the asymmetric nature of ENSO (an exogenous climatic factor) with respect to the non-linear dynamics of food prices in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Curating food price series from more than 1100 markets from 36 SSA countries, the study finds that ENSO (linearly or nonlinearly) affects roughly half of food prices considered, with most nonlinear models exhibiting strong asymmetric properties with shock-inflicted persistence. Moreover, in terms of the location of the burden of ENSO impact, I find a geographical and food product divide. Specifically, ENSO appears to be more efficacious on maize prices in Southern, Eastern and some parts of Central Africa, while the effect is subdued in the Western African subregion. On the other hand, imported rice and processed foods such as bread appear to be the most affected, while local rice, cassava, millet and animal products like meat and milk are least affected. The policy implication of this dichotomy is that response to ENSO news should be subregion-specific rather than region-specific depending on how the subregions absorb the shock.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334555&r=agr
  30. By: JOHNSON, Deepak; KUROSAKI, Takashi
    Abstract: Drawing on the broad literature on agricultural development and particularly on the contribution of price and non-price factors, this study examines how government support contributes to farm incomes from rice cultivation in two frontier rice-growing regions in Asia: Kerala, southern India and Mekong Delta, Vietnam. We use a detailed case study approach to offer a unique comparison between two best-performing areas that are similar in agroclimatic conditions and institutional trajectories, which is generally wanting in literature. Our farm budget analysis and counterfactual simulations using household-level data show that the local (state-level) price support contributes to more than half of the average crop income per hectare in Kerala. While the per hectare crop income for a single season in Vietnam was significantly lower than in Kerala, the annual incomes were higher due to multiple cropping. We combine these survey-based results with qualitative insights to examine how various factors have led to the observed scenario. This comparative analysis demonstrates the need for specific non-price interventions, particularly in terms of research and extension services, in enhancing incomes for agriculturally advanced regions within developing countries.
    Keywords: Farm households, Rice cultivation, Agricultural policy, India, Vietnam, Price support, Infrastructure
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q18 Q16
    Date: 2023–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hit:hituec:741&r=agr
  31. By: Mohamed Ghali; Maha Ben Jaballah (LARESS - Laboratoire de recherches et études en sciences sociales - ESA - Ecole supérieure d'Agricultures d'Angers); Nejla Ben Arfa; Annie Sigwalt
    Abstract: Public policy reforms and consumer requirements for the environment have raised awareness among winegrowers of the need to review their farming practices. This renewal of production aims for high economic, environmental, and social performance, as well as product quality. Therefore, it often assumes changes in farming practices due to adoption of agroecological practices (AEP). However, adopting these changes depends not only on demonstrating positive economic and environmental impacts of AEP but also positive social impacts. This study investigated winegrowers' perceptions of AEP and analyzed the most important drivers of adoption of AEP. It was based on quantitative economic and sociological data from a survey of winegrowers in the Loire Valley (France). An original scoring method was used to identify adopters and non-adopters of AEP. Then, a logit econometric model was used to explore statistically significant relations between the adoption of AEP and internal and external farm variables. Results confirmed that winegrowers' perceptions converged with the results of the econometric analysis. AEP were adopted mainly by winegrowers sensitive to human health. Adoption also depended on the context and type of AEP: wine tourism activities on the farm, environmental training, and sales revenue were positively correlated with the adoption of AEP. However, the absence of partners, vineyard area and winemaking on the farm were negatively correlated with adoption. Thus, public and private agricultural actors should consider these influential factors to increase adoption of AEP by farmers.
    Keywords: Agroecological practices Adoption factors Viticulture Scoring Logit model Winegrower Farm, Agroecological practices, Adoption factors, Viticulture, Scoring, Logit model, Winegrower, Farm
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04071759&r=agr
  32. By: Francisco-Cruz, Carlos Alberto; Buckley, Cathal; Breen, James; Lanigan, Gary
    Abstract: This paper aims to define a high-resolution model to estimate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the application of fertilisers to agricultural soils across the Republic of Ireland and to assess the implications for this approach on the assessment and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. N2O emissions from the management of agricultural soils represented 10% of the total national GHG emissions in 2020. The high-resolution model proposed here modifies the current methodology based on the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 2006) by adding soil characteristics and climate (environmental factors). To apply the high-resolution model, we use farm level microdata from the Teagasc National Farm Survey (NFS) and high-resolution spatial climate-based data over the 2014 to 2020 period. Results from the high-resolution model indicates a reduction of 3% in N2O emissions compared to the baseline model (IPCC methodology). However, the difference in estimated N2O emissions on individual farms can range from -45% to +40%. The carbon cost estimated by taking the high-resolution model results ranges from 20 to 150 euros per hectare, depending on local environmental factors. The design of a high-resolution emissions estimation process allows analysis of different agricultural practices and can assist in targeting appropriate GHG based mitigation measures based on cost-effectiveness criteria.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334552&r=agr
  33. By: Junuthula, Shirisha; Kumari, Veenita; Srinivasan, Chittur
    Abstract: Extension Advisory Service (EAS) providers, who are mostly extension staff of agriculture 31 departments in developing countries, can serve as key agents of change in the development of 32 nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA). However, the conventional knowledge domains and 33 mandates of EAS staff are generally confined to production practices involving the use of 34 inputs and new technologies to improve crop productivity. The potential role of EAS staff in 35 promoting NSA may be hampered by their lack of knowledge of what NSA involves. We 36 develop a standardised and validated instrument to assess the knowledge of EAS staff on 37 different dimensions of NSA and their training needs. A survey of EAS staff in India using the 38 instrument highlights the significant knowledge gaps of EAS staff on NSA. We also find that 39 there are significant differences in the knowledge levels of EAS staff with and without NSA 40 training. We show that NSA training based on a systematic assessment of knowledge gaps can 41 strengthen the capacity of EAS staff to bring about the nutritionally sensitive transformation of 42 agriculture in developing country contexts.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334565&r=agr
  34. By: Sidhoum, Amer Ait; Mennig, Philipp; Frick, Fabian
    Abstract: This study offers a novel empirical application for assessing the impact of agri-environment schemes (AES) on the performance of farms. The existing evidence about the environmental and economic impact of these schemes is still limited. Therefore, our objective is to contribute to the literature on the impact evaluation of AES by considering three important aspects in our empirical analysis. First, the performance of farms is proxied by an indicator that incorporates environmental externalities into production activities. Second, our empirical analysis focuses on a sample of Bavarian dairy farms covering the period 2013-2018, thus, we can evaluate the effectiveness of Europe’s agri-environmental schemes during the latest programming period. Finally, in an effort to increase robustness, we employ an improved version of the MalmquistLuenberger productivity index, which enables us to get around some of the shortcomings of the original index. The obtained results suggest that agri-environment payments have a limited effect on improving farm-level green productivity.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334513&r=agr
  35. By: Peter, Emmanuel
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers supply over 80% of food consumed in Nigeria. However, they face many challenges, particularly socio-economic constraints and uncertainty associated with variability in yields and prices. In the last ten years, the activities of insurgents have also posed a concern to the personal safety of farmers in the north-east region of Nigeria. Together, these challenges have affected farmers' ability to manage their land. Therefore, building on the earlier optimisation framework of Peter (2019), this research uses a mathematical modelling approach that captures two main elements of the problem that farmers' face: their constraint boundaries and the uncertainty of production and market environments. Models used build on survey data, collected in 2019 and 2021, and reflect the land, labour, capital and social constraints faced by farmers. Crop Gross Margins (output value less Variable Costs of production) were constructed for different farm situations; uncertainty is captured through covariance matrices that reflect both real data and postulated relationships between prices and yields for different crops. We determine theoretically optimal farm plans at different levels of overall (farm) uncertainty through EV (Expected Value) Analysis. Acts of 'insurgency' were incorporated into the uncertainty framework (for example, through the effect of theft on crop production under different assumptions).
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334535&r=agr
  36. By: Lenormand, Théo; Janet, Dwyer; Devienne, Sophie
    Abstract: Post-Brexit agricultural support policy development in Wales is taking a holistic approach to sustainability combining economic, environmental and social goals in one scheme to replace the CAP. It is taking a different model compared to the other UK nations or the EU. But the challenges faced by farming have intensified with COVID and the Ukraine war including the input/output price squeeze. We used the agrarian diagnosis, a holistic case-study approach to analyse selected farm focused territories that represent typical trends in Welsh farming. We identified and quantified future scenarios relating to a range of challenges faced by Welsh farming and made a territorially sensitive impact assessment by applying those in successive steps to farm models originating from the case-studies. We first assessed the impact of the current macro-economic evolution, before considering the adoption and impact of the planned SFS with a specific focus on tenanted farms, the new form of tenancy and treeplanting, as these elements have featured heavily in stakeholder responses to the Welsh scheme. The results show that the current economic context represents a challenge for those farms using high levels of production factors. Particularly for these, it is possible to identify how the Welsh scheme could deliver many improvements; nevertheless, problems remain around impact on generational renewal, competing land uses and supply-chain and technological lock-ins.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334518&r=agr
  37. By: Aina, Ifedotun Victor; Thiam, Djiby Racine; Dinar, Ariel
    Abstract: This paper presents the development of an integrated hydroeconomic model for a large water system in which urban and agricultural sectors are the dominant water users, and climate change presents a major environmental challenge. The purpose of this model is to analyze the potential effects of different institutional scenarios and policy interventions on the environment and the regional economy, under varying water availability conditions. Our approach involves replicating base water use and environmental flow conditions in order to build the capacity to adapt to future climate-related water stresses. The modelling framework integrates hydrology, economics, climate stress, infrastructure constraints and institutional water supply decisions to address water stress variability. We analyze the effects of two water allocation policies, namely, water markets and proportional sharing. The results show the enhancement of economic benefits that can be achieved when high-valued water users are prioritized in the study area. We find that irrigated regions growing large quantities of higher valued crops such as fruit trees, maize and tobacco bear a smaller percentage of shortages than those with lower-valued crops as climate stress intensifies. This study informs strategies for water resource management in South Africa and many arid regions, given the imminent climate change impacts on water availability in coming decades.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334573&r=agr
  38. By: Deasy, Maurice J.; Thorne, Fiona
    Abstract: The economic case for the production of silage for Anaerobic Digestion (AD) can only be established by analysis of the potential costs and returns at farm level. This paper uses farm level data from Ireland in a bio-economic modelling framework to provide total costs per hectare and per tonne for production of silage for an off farm AD facility. Whilst perennial rye grass has traditionally been the sward of choice for livestock farmers in Ireland, the economics of a multi-cut nitrogen fixing crop such as red clover has been relatively unknown. The results from the simulated bio-economic model show that the total costs of production silage for AD has increased significantly in the past twenty four months. The modelled cost of Red-Clover based silage fertilised with digestate has increased from €29.35 to €43.68 per ton between 2018-2020 to 2022, an increase of 49%. The results also highlight the importance of accounting for the opportunity cost of nutrient content of digestate which increased from €370 to €907 between 2018-2020 and 2022. Furthermore, a 17% cost saving can be made while reducing overall GHG emissions by utilising digestate in a separate farm enterprise.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agribusiness
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334521&r=agr
  39. By: Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
    Abstract: The latest report on "Repairing Broken Food Trade Routes Ukraine – Africa” covers: handicaps of Ukrainian grain production, caused by the full scale invasion causes, circumstances and impact of restrictions of grain imports from Ukraine risk of loss of the MENA destination markets for Ukrainian grains This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme “Making Agricultural Trade Sustainable” (MATS) programme (https://sustainable-agri-trade.eu/). The role of MATS/WTI in this programme is to identify and explore “broken” Ukrainian - African food trade routes due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Starting with a food trade flow chart pre- and post-24 February 2022, it will assess, first, whether Ukrainian (or African) traders can again supply these products (Output 1). Failing that, whether the new EU-financed “Crisis Management” (or another) programme can possibly make up for lost Ukrainian agrifood exports (Output 2). It will also identify alternative exporters (if any) which might already have filled in agrifood demand in Africa (Output 3). Importantly, the Project also looks at the potential effect of these developments on competing farm production in Africa (Output 4). For further information and/or offer to assist in project implementation, please write to Christian Häberli (Christian.Haeberli@wti.org) or to Bogdan Kostetsky (bogdan.kostetsky@gmail.com).
    Date: 2023–06–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wti:papers:1398&r=agr
  40. By: Ogunpaimo, Oyinlola Rafiat; Buckley, Cathal; Hynes, Stephen; O'Neill, Stephen
    Abstract: Mitigation of climate change remains a central focus of the EU; with it’s 2030 Climate Target Plan, the Commission proposes to raise the EU's ambition on reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) to at least 55% below 1990 levels by 2030. In Ireland, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are high compared to other developed countries at 37.1% of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Extensive efforts have been brought to bear on the development and evaluation of mitigation measures that reduce greenhouse gases from the agricultural sector. However, the extent to which mitigation measures reduce GHG emissions at the farm level has received less attention, most especially the implications of farm heterogeneity on optimal emission reduction. Using EU Farm Accountancy Data Network data for the Republic of Ireland in 2020, this study uses Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) analysis to assess a suite of GHG mitigation measures and accounts for interaction and heterogeneous effects across 5 different farm system types. The result of the study shows that crude protein in animal diets is the most cost-effective measure for all the farm systems. While liming and protected urea are cost-effective measures for all the farm systems on the other hand some measures fluctuate in their categorisation. The findings show that no two MACC curves across farm systems are the same, that is the rankings of measures change from one farm system to the other. The combination of mitigation measures to reduce GHG emissions may not necessarily yield a cost-effective outcome.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334541&r=agr
  41. By: Galang, Ivory Myka R.
    Abstract: This paper identifies the benefits and problems in the subdivision of collective land titles in the Philippines. In particular, it discusses how the parcelization of collective Certificates of Land Ownership Awards (CCLOAs) can improve the agricultural performance of farmers. Baseline survey data from the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)’s Project Convergence on Value Chain Enhancement for Rural Growth and Empowerment provide evidence favoring to accelerate the subdivision of CCLOAs. This study encourages the adoption of other rural development strategies, such as farm consolidation, aside from the parcelization of land titles. DAR must also adopt a modern cadaster and record system to improve the country’s agrarian justice delivery system and efficiently implement the parcelization program.
    Keywords: CCLOAs;agrarian reform beneficiaries;agriculture;Project ConVERGE
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:pjdevt:pjd_2022_vol__46_no__2a&r=agr
  42. By: Maxime Sebbane (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Céline Vial (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur], Pôle développement innovation et recherche - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation); Arnaud Lamy (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Paul Bocuse)
    Abstract: Hippophagy is a practice that is far from being consensual, even among meat eaters. Horse meat consumption remains limited or is even strongly declining in some countries such as France. However, the nutritional, organoleptic and environmental benefits of this meat invite us to consider horse meat products as a valuable alternative source of protein. This research therefore aims to identify and characterize different profiles of consumers and non-consumers of horse meat in terms of personal values, attitudes, motivations and behaviors. Based on data from a quantitative survey among 482 French meat consumers, we distinguish 4 categories of individuals: "Enthusiast", "Distant", "Aversive" and "Potential". While "Distant" and "Aversive" show a low level of acceptability towards horse meat, "Enthusiast" and "Potential" reveal characteristics that are favorable to horse meat consumption. Targeted strategies to support the horse meat market are proposed and discussed in light of these results that also provide insight into the future for meat in general.
    Keywords: Meat consumption, hippophagy acceptance, french consumer, Consumer behaviour, Horse meat
    Date: 2023–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04095090&r=agr
  43. By: Lisa Baldi; Arfini, Filippo; Calzolai, Sara; Donati, Michele
    Abstract: The aim of this research work is to assess the likelihood of dairy farmers to accept predefined policy scenarios that implies different level of CO2 taxation on GHG emissions produced by the livestock sector. It uses an agent-based model (ABM) and it follows the positive mathematical programming (PMP) approach. ABMs allow to evaluate agricultural policies and farmers’ level of acceptance simulating interaction between farmers, taking territorial specificity and farm heterogeneity into account. The PMP methodology enables to add social and cultural perspective to the economical drivers. The Least Square method, applied to the PMP methodology, allows to overcome shortage in data availability. The model is calibrated on FADN data for the Emilia Romagna region (Italy), year 2020. Results show that farmers take decisions based on economic profitability but also on social and cultural background. Farmers opt for more efficient agricultural management practices if economically convenient, however the possibility to exchange production factors can contribute to the optimisation of their utility function.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334520&r=agr
  44. By: Nthambi, Mary; Lembo, Tiziana; Davis, Alicia; Nasuwa, Fortunata; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Matthews, Louise; Hanley, Nick
    Abstract: Understanding the choice behaviours of farmers around the treatment of their livestock is critical to counteracting the risks of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) emergence. Using varying disease scenarios, we measure the differences in livestock species’ treatment preferences and effects of context variables (such as grazing patterns, herd size, travel time to agrovet shops, previous disease experience, previous vaccination experience, education level and income) on the farmers’ treatment choices for infections across three production systems - agro-pastoral, pastoral and rural smallholder - in northern Tanzania, where reliance on antimicrobial treatment to support the health and productivity of livestock is high. Applying a context-dependentstated choice experiment, we surveyed 1224 respondents. Mixed logit model results show that farmers have higher preferences for professional veterinary services when treating cattle, sheep and goats, while they prefer to self-treat poultry. Antibiotics sourced from agrovet shops are the medicine of choice, independent of the health condition to treat, whether viral, bacterial or parasitic. Nearness to agrovet shops, informal education, borrowing and home storage of medicines, and commercial poultry rearing increase chances of self-treatment. Based on our findings, we propose interventions such as awareness and education campaigns aimed at 2 addressing current practices that pose AMR risks, as well as vaccination and good livestock husbandry practices, capacity building and provision of diagnostic tools.
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334570&r=agr
  45. By: Gobey, Will; O'Reilly, George; Franzoi, Marco; Giacomini, Francesco
    Abstract: The UK has signed significant Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) since leaving the European Union. In some cases, these FTAs have included liberalisation on UK agricultural products, notably beef. The UK Government’s published assessment of these agreements demonstrates that it expects some UK consumption to shift from domestic production to imports. Given the emissions associated with this sector, there is likely to be some offshoring of carbon emissions. This paper sets out a variety of options to estimate and monetise the emissions impacts of this agri-food liberalisation on both the UK and partner countries. We attempt to fully capture the range of global emissions sources, including both domestic and international production and international transport emissions. A recommended approach is set out. We test this approach on the UK’s FTAs with Australia and New Zealand.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334526&r=agr
  46. By: Jin, Yan; Gardebroek, Cornelis; Heerink, Nico
    Abstract: Declining arable land and yield stagnation challenge food security in China. Since 2004, the Chinese government has introduced a bundle of subsidies and income support measures to stimulate production and increase national food security, including a minimum procurement price in the main rice-cultivating regions. Rice acreages have increased since 2004, but this could also be due to rising rice price levels nationally and globally. This raises the question whether the rice support policies were effective. Using a natural experiment created by the minimum procurement price policy being introduced in selected regions, we use a dynamic fixed effects model to perform a difference-in-differences analysis on the effectiveness of these rice support policies. We find that indica rice acreages respond to changes in the rice prices, and, controlling for rice prices, that China’s rice support policies were effective in increasing rice acreages of both early and late indica between 2004 and 2017.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334550&r=agr
  47. By: Chukwu, Ellington; Dogbe, Wisdom
    Abstract: The objective of this study is two-fold: one, to analyze the presence of the nutrition transition in Nigeria through assessment of national food consumption trends, obesity, and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) data over time, and two, to assess the role that indigenous knowledge and foodways can play in promoting healthy diets in the country through the case study of Enugu State, Igboland. A mixed-methods approach was utilized with quantitative data from the Nigerian Living Standards Survey (NLSS) and Demographic Health Survey (DHS) to measure changes in obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and food consumption across Nigeria from 2003 to 2018 using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Trend Analysis. Primary qualitative data in Enugu State was collected through semi-structured interviews in 2021 with random sampling technique undertaken to analyze the status of indigenous Igbo foods and traditions to curb the negative effects of the nutrition transition, as well as to document the motivations behind using or abandoning traditional foods in the present generation. The findings of the study depict the nutrition transition in Nigeria in multiple forms. The combined overweight and obese population in the country has experienced a 29% increase in the 15-year study period, while the NCDs hypertension and diabetes have experienced a combined 21% increase. Consumption patterns have shifted, though not always in the ways predicted from the literature, with statistically significant increases displayed in the consumption of Breads and Pastries, Starchy Roots and Tubers, Legumes, Plant and Animal Fats, Seafoods, Milk and Dairy Products, Beverages, Non-alcoholic Drinks, Vegetables, and Red Meats. The primary data analysis displayed that the traditional Igbo foodscape is defined by local, nutritious whole foods. The data depicted significant recent trends towards using ultra-processed seasoning cubes instead of local herbs as spices, with a huge shift from 0% frequency usage identified in the parents’ generation to a 35% frequency in the current generation. Eighty-three percent of the community surveyed stated that they believe that the diets of the younger generation are changing, with the majority stating that the change is for the worse. Participants from the community provided recommendations for curbing the nutrition transition and empowering indigenous foodways through policy, investment, and mindset change. Though consumption patterns are changing and Nigeria’s obesity and NCD rates are increasing, it is still far behind the rate of obesity in countries farther along in the nutrition transition such as its former colonizer Britain. Interviews conducted around Enugu State show how the indigenous food system is centered on fresh, healthy foods, primarily local tubers, legumes, vegetables, and spices. There is extensive knowledge and pride in the indigenous food system, even though there was a consensus that Igbo food culture is currently undergoing immense changes in part due to some of the younger generation’s new tastes for processed foods and convenience.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Institutional and Behavioral Economics
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334528&r=agr
  48. By: Davies, Grant
    Abstract: A strong US dollar and high international commodity prices have characterised much of 2022. To some, this juxtaposition is strange given the observed historical relationship between the two. This paper uses some simple regression models to provide insights and then utilises nonlinear auto regressive distributed lag (NARDL) models to investigate the possibility of an asymmetric relationship between the US dollar and international food prices. A sizeable proportion of the historical changes in international food prices seem to be explained by changes in the value of the US dollar. Evidence for short-run asymmetry in the relationship is found. In the long-run, such asymmetry is rejected by two of the three regression models utilised and the “unit-elastic” association between the US dollar and international prices cannot be rejected at the aggregate ‘food price’ level. Across individual agricultural products there are however notable differences. The provisional econometric modelling suggests that (i) a stronger US dollar in 2022 put some significant downward pressure on international food prices and (ii) allowing for asymmetry can be important in capturing economic relationships.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, International Development
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334517&r=agr
  49. By: Singh, Piyush Kumar; Dey, Shiladitya; Pal, Anirban
    Abstract: The study assesses the resource use efficiency of smallholder paddy farmers with/without considering undesirable outputs through the mobile-based application. Further, the study performs an impact assessment of digital recommendations on farmers' paddy yield improvement. A mobile app-based questionnaire was used to collect data from 153 paddy farmers in eastern India. The study employed Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to identify the farmers' resource use efficiency with/without undesirable output. We found lower farm eco-efficiency scores with undesirable output in the model compared to the case of not considering the undesirable output analysis. Results also showed that farmers are over-utilizing fertilizers, farming machinery, and labor in farming, which needs to be reduced to the recommended optimal level. Finally, using the Propensity Score Matching (PSM), we observed that the farmers achieved better paddy yield, i.e., an additional 0.6t/ha paddy, due to the adaptation of mobile-based recommendations. Subsequently, we used probit modeling to estimate the critical factors for adopting mobile-based services. Results show that farmers’ education level, farm experience, social capital, and market information play a significant role in mobile-app-based recommendation adoption. This study supports that farmers need to be suggested to use digital advisory services, and state/central policies may be aligned towards strengthening farmers' capacities for applying digital services in the farming system.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334522&r=agr
  50. By: Balaine, Lorraine; Buckley, Cathal; Breen, James; Krol, Dominika
    Abstract: The agricultural sector is increasingly under pressure to participate in the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction effort. At the farm level, significant improvements can be achieved through the adoption of new technologies. This study explores the heterogeneity in the effect of GHG mitigation strategies across the distribution of GHG emissions on Irish dairy farms. The econometric analysis is performed on an unbalanced panel dataset by using fixed effects (FE) unconditional quantile regression models. The preliminary results reveal that GHG mitigation strategies have a differential effect across the distribution of GHG emissions, with two main implications. First, the findings suggest that relying on estimations of a technology’s effect at the mean can be somewhat misleading as this does not reflect the effect of heterogeneity. Second, the study shows that the effect of GHG mitigation strategies is larger for high emitting farms than for low emitting farms.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334540&r=agr
  51. By: Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Do, Manh Hung; Rahut, Dil; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Chhay, Panharoth
    Abstract: Supporting agricultural cooperatives might contribute to the livelihood improvement of many small-scale farmers in developing countries. This research examined the factors affecting the internet use of agricultural cooperatives with a focus on female leadership, its effects on cooperatives’ economic, social, and innovative performance, and the distributional effects of internet use on economic performance. Our analysis relied on the data of 3, 512 agricultural cooperatives collected in 2021 from Vietnam. We addressed the endogeneity issue of internet use in impact assessment by employing an instrumental variable approach. Our results showed that female leadership was positively and significantly associated with internet use and that internet use had a positive and significant effect on returns on assets, returns on equity, labour productivity, payment per labourer, contribution to labour union and insurance per labourer, and innovation in products of agricultural cooperatives. In addition, unconditional quantile regressions showed that internet use in agricultural cooperatives exacerbated income inequality. Enhancing female leadership and promoting rural education were recommended to improve agricultural cooperatives’ performance.
    Keywords: internet use; performance; endogeneity; heterogeneity; instrumental variable
    JEL: D60 Q1 R2
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:117274&r=agr
  52. By: Liu, Zhaoyang; Banerjee, Simanti; Cason, Timothy N.; Hanley, Nick; Liu, Qi; Xu, Jintao; Kontoleon, Andreas
    Abstract: This paper presents a framed field experiment from China studying a spatially coordinated (SC) auction mechanism for the allocation of agri-environmental contracts, which pay farmers to change their agricultural practices to provide environmental benefits. The SC auction is designed to maximise a metric of environmental benefit that depends both on site-specific environmental values and benefits due to spatial coordination of conserved patches, subject to a budget constraint. We investigate whether auction performance can be improved by the introduction of agglomeration bonus (AB) and joint bidding (JB) mechanisms. The AB is a bonus payment awarded to neighbouring farmers who bid individually but receive agrienvironmental contracts simultaneously. The JB mechanism allows neighbouring farmers to bid jointly and provides a bonus payment for successful joint bids. We conducted experimental SC auctions with a total of 432 Chinese farmers randomly assigned to one of four treatments which differed in whether the AB and JB mechanisms were adopted, following a two-by-two full factorial experimental design. Our empirical results suggest that the SC auction has similar environmental performance regardless of whether an AB is provided, although cost-effectiveness is 1 slightly higher when AB is not provided. Moreover, introducing the JB mechanism into the SC auction leads to lower environmental performance and lower cost-effectiveness. Finally, the AB mechanism achieves higher environmental performance than the JB mechanism but has similar cost-effectiveness.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334572&r=agr
  53. By: Kang, Shijia
    Abstract: The adoption of soil fertility management practices (SFMPs) has become an important issue in the development economies, especially as a way to tackle land degradation, erosion, and low agricultural productivity. This study analyses the factors that facilitate or impede the probability and extent of adoption of multiple SFMPs as well as the performance effects, using farm survey data of 773 vegetable producers in rural China. Multivariate and ordered probit models are applied to the modeling of adoption decisions by farm households facing multiple SFMPs, which can be adopted in various combinations. A multinominal endogenous switching regression model is used to investigate the impact of SFMP adoption on farm productivity. The results show that: (1) the adoption of straw returning and advanced irrigation have substitution effect, and subsoiling practice is significantly correlated to straw returning and soil testing; (2) both the probability and the extent of adoption of SFMPs are influenced by many factors: household’s education, cadre membership, cooperative and training participation, social capital and individual awareness; (3) farms’ productivity is increasing with the intensive adoption of SFMPs. These results imply that policymakers should seek to promote local institutions and training providers, increase household education and awareness, and strengthen social networks in order to improve the adoption of SFMPs.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Farm Management
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334553&r=agr
  54. By: Kotz, Maximilian; Kuik, Friderike; Lis, Eliza; Nickel, Christiane
    Abstract: Understanding of the macroeconomic effects of climate change is developing rapidly, but the implications for past and future inflation remain less well understood. Here we exploit a global dataset of monthly consumer price indices to identify the causal impacts of changes in climate on inflation, and to assess their implications under future warming. Flexibly accounting for heterogenous impacts across seasons and baseline climatic and socio-economic conditions, we find that increased average temperatures cause non-linear upwards inflationary pressures which persist over 12 months in both higher- and lower-income countries. Projections from state-of-the-art climate models show that in the absence of historically un-precedented adaptation, future warming will cause global increases in annual food and headline inflation of 0.92-3.23 and 0.32-1.18 percentage-points per year respectively, under 2035 projected climate (uncertainty range across emission scenarios, climate models and empirical specifications), as well as altering the seasonal dynamics of inflation. Moreover, we estimate that the 2022 summer heat extreme increased food inflation in Europe by 0.67 (0.43-0.93) percentage-points and that future warming projected for 2035 would amplify the impacts of such extremes by 50%. These results suggest that climate change poses risks to price stability by having an upward impact on inflation, altering its seasonality and amplifying the impacts caused by extremes. JEL Classification: Q54, E31, C33
    Keywords: climate change, climate physical risk, inflation dynamics
    Date: 2023–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20232821&r=agr
  55. By: Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia
    Abstract: In lending, diversity in company’s leadership could increase credit access to minority and women borrowers. We estimate diversity among governing board of directors (BOD) and senior management (SM) at a major US agricultural lending institution and investigate its linkages to minority farmers and women farmers. Main objectives: 1) measure the level of diversity among the leadership; 2) identify correlations between lender diversity leadership levels and minority farmers. Data is collected from Farm Credit (FC) Intuitions’ websites. Diversity is measured using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and correlation tests are performed. Results show that females make up ~27% among SM and ~13.8% among BOD. White individuals dominate in BOD and SM. HHI for gender ranges between 0.67 for SM and 0.76 for BOD, while that for race is 0.96 for SM and 0.97 for BOD. As the percentage of minority and female farmers increases the BOD becomes more diverse (a negative correlation is observed). Correlation results indicate that the demographic composition of the BOD and SM is associated with that of the farmers in the county where the farm credit is located.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334564&r=agr
  56. By: Philippe Le Coent (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Roxane Marchal (Caisse Centrale de Réassurance - parent); Cécile Hérivaux (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Jean-Christophe Maréchal (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Bernard Ladouche (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); David Moncoulon (Caisse Centrale de Réassurance - parent); George Farina (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Ingrid Forey (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Wao Zi-Xiang (Caisse Centrale de Réassurance - parent); Nina Graveline (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The Lez catchment is characterized by a rapid urbanization, due to the attractiveness of the city of Montpellier, and is exposed to a typical Mediterranean weather with high risk of flash flood and other emerging issues, such as air pollution, heat island effects and biodiversity losses. We present the evaluation of two types of NBS to address these challenges, (i) urbanization strategies that have an impact on the conservation of agricultural and natural land and (ii) a network of green infrastructure (GI), with a focus on the economic analysis. Our results reveal that our most ambitious GI strategy can reduce up to a 20% of the mean annual damages due to annual flood damages. The largest share of the economic value of our NBS however lies in the co-benefits they generate. Overall, the two GI strategies present a positive cost-benefit analysis. We finally identify a pathway towards implementation in terms of financing and organizational challenges.
    Keywords: Nature Based Solution, Economic assessment, Ecosystem service, Flood risk
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04093882&r=agr
  57. By: Duden, Christoph; Offermann, Frank; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Abstract: Extreme weather events pose an economic threat to farms. The risk management behaviour against such events is often studied using prospect theory as a framework, but empirically deriving corresponding parameters in the field involving farmers is challenging. To address this issue, we compare three methods of eliciting prospect theory parameters using a multiple price list design in Germany: a framed field experiment, a framed student experiment and an artefactual field experiment. The results show that these experiments generate different prospect theory parameters. The lower the probability the higher the differences, which is particularly important for managing risk from low-probability shocks. Despite these differences, the mean coefficients of the three experiments reveal a low willingness to pay for crop insurance. We find evidence that individual responses to the artefactual and student experiments correlate with the risk attitude self-assessment, whereas responses to the framed field experiment correlate with the purchase of crop insurance.
    Keywords: prospect theory, risk management, catastrophic risk, behavioural economics, decision analysis
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:daredp:2301&r=agr
  58. By: Rogna, Marco
    Abstract: The intensification of the Russo–Ukrainian war started in February 2022 with the Russian invasion of Ukraine has generated a dramatic increase in the price of several goods. In particular, energy, gas and oil have been the most interested by this spike in prices, followed by several agricultural commodities. Fertilizers, whose production is energy intensive and/or directly dependent from oil derivatives, have also experienced a sharp increase in prices. This has risen concerns for food insecure countries, particularly in Africa, since, besides a lower possibility to purchase food commodities on the international market, they will likely decrease their own production due to a lower utilization of fertilizers. Quantifying this potential decrease in agricultural production is important in order to fully assess their vulnerability in terms of food security. The present paper tries to accomplish this task by forecasting the change in maize production in 2022 and 2023 compared to 2021 in seven Western African countries. We find an overall decline in maize production of 10% circa in both years with a strong heterogeneity among countries. Trivial users of fertilizers, such as Niger, experience a very modest decline in production (less than 2%) whereas others, such as Benin and Togo, have a double digit decline: approximately 13% the former and 32% the latter.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334549&r=agr
  59. By: Banerjee, Anurag; Ray, S.; Chakraborty, Shreya (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Mukherji, Aditi (International Water Management Institute (IWMI))
    Keywords: Groundwater irrigation; Stakeholders; Policies; Water markets; Sustainability; Solar powered irrigation systems; Pumps; Electrification
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:conprc:h051633&r=agr
  60. By: Nneli, Amarachi; Dogbe, Wisdom; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar
    Abstract: Foods high in fats, sugar and salt (HFSS) have huge impact on public health, climate health, and the economy. As such, it is critical to ascertain how pricing policies could help reduce their consumption in Scotland. This study analysed a secondary data of 3, 260 households from Kantar Worldpanel which comprised of eighteen food categories consumed in Scotland. The primary objective is to simulate the implications of an excise tax imposed on HFSS on food purchases, climate health and consumer welfare using uncompensated own and cross price elasticities estimated from the Exact Affine Stone Index demand model. Two policy scenarios were considered: taxing all HFSS whilst the prices of the remaining foods remained unchanged; and taxing HFSS whilst subsidizing fruit and vegetables with the revenue generated. Results from the study indicate that imposing taxes on HFSS would reduce their consumption due to price effects. Also, a 10 percent tax on HFSS food groups while subsidising fruits and vegetables with the tax revenues simultaneously brought about a 5-9 percent decline in the consumption of HFFS and an 11 percent and 7 percent rise in vegetables and fruits consumption, respectively. Weekly per capita greenhouse gas emission could increase by 2 percent when fruits and vegetables are subsidised with the tax revenues rather than decrease by 3 percent when only HFSS food groups are taxed. Taxing HFSS without any subsidy policy in place was more regressive on consumers than when fruits and vegetables are subsidized. In conclusion, imposing a revenue-neutral HFSS tax policy would result in a trade-off between dietary, welfare and environmental goals. The policy scenario adopted by government would depend on the national goal being pursued.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334527&r=agr
  61. By: Glass, Catherine A.; Burgess, Diane E.
    Abstract: Catchment-based management approaches to improving water quality have become a popular alternative in recent years to costly water treatment which deals with the consequences of water quality issues rather than tackling them at source. These schemes have the potential to deliver multiple benefits including improvements to water quality, carbon benefits, enhanced biodiversity, greater amenity value, reduced flood risk and benefits to the local economy. However, more evidence is needed to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. This paper reports on a cost-benefit analysis of a catchment management scheme called the Land Incentive Scheme (LIS) undertaken in the Derg catchment on the Ireland/Northern Ireland border. To calculate benefits, the Avoided Cost Method is used which provides a lower bound on the economic value of the water quality improvements secured by the scheme. Projected over a 30-year period, estimates of the benefits and costs of the LIS show that for every £1 invested there would be £3.36 worth of benefits. The majority of cost savings are achieved because regulatory breaches trigger substantial capital and operational spend that could be avoided with effective catchment management. This study shows that ‘Avoided Cost’ is a credible valuation method which can provide compelling evidence for water companies and policymakers to support investment in catchment-based approaches.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334563&r=agr
  62. By: Martina Miotto
    Abstract: I study the impact of European colonialism in Africa on the present status of women. The historical literature suggests that a critical determinant of persistent gender inequality is the colonial cash crop system. This favoured men’s entry into the cash economy and excluded women, whose workload increased as they provided additional labour in their husbands’ cash crop fields. By contrast, contemporary economic literature suggests that raising the status of women in the labour force could improve gender norms. I take districts with different levels of participation in cash crop agriculture during colonial rule and compare outcomes for the contemporary female descendants, using exogenous land suitability as the instrument for cash crop production. My findings show a persistent positive effect of cash crop agriculture on women’s status, measured as higher agency within the household, less willingness to justify husbands’ violence, and higher levels of education. No effect is found for labour force participation. The intergenerational transmission of culture plays a key role in explaining the long-run persistent effect, which is especially prevalent in regions whose cash crops were cocoa and palm oil, as women played a substantial role in producing these crops.
    Date: 2023–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cer:papers:wp750&r=agr
  63. By: Alou, Nicolas; Schaub, Sergei; Finger, Robert
    Abstract: Grasslands are essential for the global milk and meat production and for the provision of other crucial ecosystem services. With climate change and the increased likelihood of extreme weather events, the stability of the provision of those ecosystem services is expected to decrease. In this paper, we study theoretically and empirically how plant diversity can function as a natural insurance under different drought risk exposures in grassland. The theoretical framework, which uses a portfolio perspective to describe plant diversity and uses community asynchrony as an indicator of complementarity between species, shows how plant diversity may provide insurance value against increased drought risk. Our empirical findings suggest that for a risk averse decision maker, accounting for risk (variance) and downside risk (skewness), plant diversity has a negative effect on risk premium, demonstrating that plant diversity does offer insurance value. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that this effect remains consistent even under higher levels of drought risk exposure. The results are relevant to both policy and industry, as plant diversity can provide a sustainable adaptation to climate change and complement or substitute traditional financial insurance against droughts.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334567&r=agr
  64. By: Kimsanova, Barchynai; Sanaev, Golib; Herzfeld, Thomas
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between international migration, labor, remittances, and agricultural commercialization in Kyrgyzstan using nationally representative household panel surveys covering eight years from 2013 to 2020. Unlike other studies, we focus on evaluating the impact of international migration on total farm commercialization, including crop, livestock, and live animals. We use quantile regression via moments and a three-stage least squares method to overcome the potential endogeneity of migration, labor, and remittances. Overall results show that sending household members abroad has a significant labor-loss effect on households with a consequent impact on farm commercialization. Remittances only partially compensate for losses for households with the lowest level of commercialization. Furthermore, the quantile regressions show little heterogeneity between the selected quantiles, except for the number of migrants, which is detrimental to the lowest level of commercialization
    Keywords: Agribusiness, International Development
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334559&r=agr
  65. By: Uliano, Anna; Marotta, Giuseppe; Stanco, Marcello; Nazzaro, Concetta
    Abstract: With the current social, economical, and environmental scenarios, the intensive farming is no longer viable. In this context, innovation may play a crucial role. In particular, responsible innovation represent a value creation driver, allowing farms to realize internal economies and external social economies. The development of innovative processes is particularly suited to cooperatives, as they generate a competitive advantage and allow to overcome two constraints to sustainable innovation adoption: high costs and complexity. These aspects, which highlight the significant role of cooperation and innovation in the shared value creation process, have not been broadly addressed in previous contributions, especially regarding the wine sector. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the drivers of innovation processes for shared value creation in wine cooperatives. A 2-step analysis was implemented, including the definition of an interpretative model on the drivers of sustainable innovation processes for shared value creation in cooperatives, and a comparative analysis among two wine cooperatives, in order to validate such model. Results have validated the hypothesized scheme: in both cases, the drivers included in the model are essential for the adoption of innovations in viticulture. In particular, governance mechanisms and the very effectiveness of innovations change according to the territorial context.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334524&r=agr
  66. By: Simpson, Katherine; Armsworth, Paul; Dallimer, Martin; Nthambi, Mary; de Vries, Frans; Hanley, Nick
    Abstract: Researchers and policy designers have become increasingly interested in re-designing agrienvironmental policy to improve both economic efficiency and ecological effectiveness. One idea within this debate has been payments for results (outcomes) rather than payment for actions. Payment for result policies have been argued to have some important advantages, but two key disadvantages are the higher risks faced by land owners, leading to low participation rates; and the potentially high costs of monitoring outcomes. Bartkowski et al (2021) propose an alternative policy design of payment for modelled results, which claims to avoid these two problems. Our paper provides the first empirical test of the economic and ecological consequences of applying such a payment for modelled results policy to farmland biodiversity in England. We compare payment for modelled results findings with approximately equivalent payment for actions schemes designed to deliver increases in the same biodiversity indicators. Key insights from the work are that payment for modelled results delivers superior ecological outcomes for the same budgetary cost as payment for actions, whilst economic surpluses to farmers are also higher.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334545&r=agr
  67. By: Philippe Le Coent (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Cécile Hérivaux (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Javier Calatrava (UPCT - Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena / Technical University of Cartagena); Roxane Marchal (Caisse Centrale de Réassurance - parent); David Moncoulon (Caisse Centrale de Réassurance - parent); Camilo Benitez-Avila (Deltares [The Netherlands]); Mónica Altamirano (TU Delft - Delft University of Technology); Amandine Gnonlonfin (UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Ali Douai (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (1965 - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015-2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Guillaume Piton (UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes, IGE - Institut des Géosciences de l’Environnement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Kieran Dartée (Fields Factors); Thomas Biffin (Fields Factors); Nabila Arfaoui (UCLy - Université Catholique de Lyon (UCLy)); Nina Graveline (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Evidence are dearly needed to understand under which conditions it is relevant for decisions makers to invest in NBS for water-related risk. This chapter presents the methodological framework developed for the economic assessment of NBS for water-related risks and its application to seven case studies. We particularly develop methods for the evaluation of implementation and opportunity costs, the assessment of the reduction of damage costs, and the monetary value of co-benefits. The study confirms that the cost of implementation and maintenance of NBS strategies is lower than the cost of grey solutions for the same level of water risk management, emphasizing the better cost-effectiveness of these solutions. Benefits in terms of avoided damages are however generally not sufficient to cover investment and maintenance costs. Co-benefits represent the largest share of the value generated by NBS strategies. The overall cost-benefit analysis implemented in four cases, is positive in three case studies and negative in one. This confirms the importance to carry out thorough economic assessments for the elaboration of Natural Assurance Schemes.
    Keywords: Nature Based Solution, Economic assessment, Ecosystem service, Flood risk
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04093533&r=agr
  68. By: Dogbe, Wisdom
    Abstract: The Scottish economy, such as the United Kingdom (UK) economy, has been exposed to several adverse shocks over the past 5 years. Examples of these are the effect of the UK exiting the European Union (Brexit), the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and more recently the Russia-Ukraine war, which can result in adverse direct and indirect economic losses across various sectors of the economy. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to explore the degree of resilience of the Scottish food and drinks sector, (2) to estimate the effects on interconnected sectors of the economy; and (3) to estimate the economic losses which is the financial value associated with the reduction in output. For this analysis, the study relied on the Dynamic Inoperability Input-Output Model (DIIM). The results indicate that the accommodation and food service sector was the most affect by the covid-19 pandemic lockdown contracting by about 60 per cent having a cascading effect on the remaining 17 sectors of the economy. The Processed and preserved fish, fruits and vegetable sector is the least resilient whilst Preserved meat and meat products sector is the most resilient to final demand disruption in the accommodation and food service sector. The least economically affected sector was the other food products sector whilst the other services sector had the highest economic loss. Despite the fact that the soft drinks sector had a slow recovery rate, economic losses were lower compared to the agricultural, fishery and forestry sector. From the policy perspective, stakeholders in the accommodation and food service sector should re-examine the sector and develop capacity against future pandemics. In addition, it is important for economic sectors to collaborate either vertically or horizontally by sharing information and risk to reduce the burden of future disruptions. Finally, the most vulnerable sector of the economy i.e. other services sector should form a major part of government policy decision-making when planning against future pandemics.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334529&r=agr
  69. By: Siegfried, T.; Anarbekov, Oyture; Ragettli, S.
    Keywords: Water use; Energy; Foods; Nexus approaches; Accountability
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:conppr:h051662&r=agr
  70. By: Sueur, Cédric (Université de Strasbourg); Fourneret, Eric; Espinosa, Romain
    Abstract: We propose a new conceptual framework called "animal capital" to recognize the contribution of animals to human society beyond their immediate material value. Humans directly or indirectly depend on 50, 000 of the approximately eight million animal species on Earth, but in their daily lives, they only interact with a dozen species at most. This limited interaction weakens the stability of current civilizations and contributes to the decline of biodiversity. The loss of biodiversity increases the risk of ecosystem destabilization, higher food insecurity, and pandemic outbreaks. global economic system fails to correctly value the benefits of biodiversity, leading to suboptimal investment in animal protection. Therefore, recognizing the social contribution of non-human animals is crucial for their survival and the survival of humankind. We propose four components of animal capital: material, natural, social, and cultural, which can be linked to the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The material animal capital refers to the products of animals, such as food production and clothing. The natural capital refers to the ecological services provided by animals, such as pollination and pest control. The social capital recognizes the emotional and psychological benefits of animals, such as companionship and emotional support. The cultural capital acknowledges the cultural and historical significance of animals, such as their role in art and literature. We argue that recognizing the contribution of animals to society through the framework of animal capital can lead to more optimal investment in animal protection and conservation. It can also contribute to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, such as the reduction of poverty and hunger, the promotion of good health and well-being, and the protection of life on land.
    Date: 2023–05–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:svg7x&r=agr
  71. By: Medhavi Sandhani (Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India); Anubhab Pattanayak ((Corresponding author), Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India); K.S. Kavi Kumar (Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India)
    Abstract: This study examines climate change impact on economic growth in the Indian context. Using state and district level data on climate variables and growth rate of per capita real GDP, the present study evaluates the short- as well as medium-run effects of climate change on growth. The results based on state-level analysis are suggestive of negative effects of rising temperature on growth during 1980-2019. These aggregate level results are further reinforced by the results from district-level analysis. First, higher temperatures have significant negative impact for poorer districts with a 1?C rise in temperature leading to nearly 4.7 percent fall in growth rate of district per capita income. Second, higher temperatures not only have level effects, but also growth effects, especially for richer districts. Credit access, electrification and urbanization and increased roads and market network may play a significant role in mitigating the negative impact of climate change
    Keywords: Regional Growth; Climate Change; India
    JEL: E23 O13 Q54 R11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mad:wpaper:2020-204&r=agr
  72. By: Laura Garcia-Herrero; Stevo Lavrnic; Valentina Guerrieri; Attilio Toscano; Mirco Milani; Giuseppe Luigi Cirelli; Matteo Vittuari
    Abstract: Sustainable water management has become an urgent challenge due to irregular water availability patterns and water quality issues. The effect of climate change exacerbates this phenomenon in water-scarce areas, such as the Mediterranean region, stimulating the implementation of solutions aiming to mitigate or improve environmental, social, and economic conditions. A novel solution inspired by nature, technology-oriented, explored in the past years, is constructed wetlands. Commonly applied for different types of wastewater due to its low cost and simple maintenance, they are considered a promising solution to remove pollutants while creating an improved ecosystem by increasing biodiversity around them. This research aims to assess the sustainability of two typologies of constructed wetlands in two Italian areas: Sicily, with a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland, and Emilia Romagna, with a surface flow constructed wetland. The assessment is performed by applying a cost-benefit analysis combining primary and secondary data sources. The analysis considered the market and non-market values in both proposed scenarios to establish the feasibility of the two options and identify the most convenient one. Results show that both constructed wetlands bring more benefits (benefits-cost ratio, BCR) than costs (BCR > 0). In the case of Sicily, the BCR is lower (1) in the constructed wetland scenario, while in its absence it is almost double. If other ecosystem services are included the constructed wetland scenario reach a BCR of 4 and a ROI of 5, showing a better performance from a costing perspective than the absence one. In Emilia Romagna, the constructed wetland scenario shows a high BCR (10) and ROI (9), while the scenario in absence has obtained a negative present value indicating that the cost do not cover the benefits expected.
    Date: 2023–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2305.06284&r=agr
  73. By: Choi, Jaerim; Lim, Sunghun
    Abstract: A robust public health system during a pandemic is a common good. We argue that the ongoing coronavirus pandemic is a tragedy of the commons. During the early phases of the pandemic, Asia outperformed the US and Europe in managing it. The traditions and practices of rice farming in Asian countries are key to understanding the regional differences. Farming rice, unlike wheat, requires finding cooperative solutions to common goods problems such as irrigation. The history of rice cultivation in Asia implies that those societies have long had institutions that deal well with the commons through credible commitment, mutual monitoring, and sanctions. The descendants of Asian rice farmers commit themselves to a set of rules and are vigilant in monitoring their neighbors in common goods situations because they fear social rejection if they do not. Exploiting Asian immigration history in the US and the pandemic as a natural experiment, and using a patient-level CDC dataset, we show that Asian rice farming descendants are less likely to contract and/or die from the coronavirus even in the US. Then, using a Facebook survey, Google mobility data, and the US Census household pulse survey, we find that they were better able to resolve commons problems associated with the pandemic by getting vaccinated, wearing masks, and practicing social distancing.
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334543&r=agr
  74. By: da Silva, Jacqueline Tereza; Moran, Dominic; Barioni, Luis Gustavo; de Oliveira, Rafael
    Abstract: Since the early 2000s, sustainable livestock intensification (SI) practices have slowly displaced unsustainable beef production in Brazil. Numerous studies have investigated the environmental and economic effects of SI, but the implications for social well-being and rural development are under-explored. This study investigates how a tendency towards livestock SI affects rural well-being in Brazil. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the effects of SI trends on a rural development index (RDI), poverty rates and other common development metrics of Brazilian microregions. We analysed historical data (10 years) on pasture area and herd size. Based on linear regressions, we assume microregions with a positive slope in herd size and a negative slope in pasture areas are following a SI trend. We found a negative correlation between the contribution of beef production to GDP and RDI across all regions (- 0.201, p-value < 0.001). However, using PSM we found the average effect of the SI trend is positive, with a magnitude of ~4 points in the RDI (95% CI 0.02; 7.74). The results suggest that beef production value does not drive rural development, but microregions following an intensification trend have better rural development than non-intensified regions.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334566&r=agr
  75. By: Rilwan Sakariyahu (Business School, Edinburgh Napier University); Olayinka Oyekola (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Rasheed Adigun (JPMorgan Chase); Temitope Fagbemi (Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University); Oluwagbenga Seyingbo (Business School, University of Winchester); Rodiat Lawal (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London)
    Abstract: Climate change, one of the world's existential problems, has sparked widespread concern at national and multinational levels. In this study, we deviate from the existing scores of academic literature by investigating heterogenous and time-varying effects of climate change on quality of life at the continent and regional levels in Africa. Towards this end, we utilise carbon emissions and ecological footprint as our climate change variables and human development index to proxy quality of life for 31 African countries over the period 2000 to 2018. Several econometric techniques are then employed to account for cross-sectional dependence, panel unit root, long-term cointegration with structural break, and heterogeneous panel causality, whilst we also present results based on Bayesian panel VAR impulse response functions. The results indicate cross-sectional dependence due to spill-over effects from common factors in Africa, while the panel cointegration test affirms that climate change variables have long-term consequences for quality of life only in sub-Saharan African region. Moreover, our results reveal a uni-directional causality between climate change variables and quality of life at both the continent and sub-Saharan African region levels. However, the test shows a bi-directional causality between these variables in North Africa. This differential impacts of climate change variables on quality of life between Northern and sub-Saharan Africa suggests that policy initiatives toward mitigating the effects of climate crises should consider regional dynamics of the continent.
    Keywords: climate change, carbon emissions, ecological footprints, quality of life, SDGs 3 and 13, Africa
    JEL: Q5 I3 R11
    Date: 2023–05–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exe:wpaper:2308&r=agr
  76. By: Lehmann, Paul; Tafarte, Philip
    Abstract: Exclusion zones, like protected areas or setback distances, are the most common policy instrument to mitigate environmental impacts of human land-use, including the deployment of renewable energy sources. While exclusion zones may provide environmental benefits, they may also bring about opportunity costs. This paper aims to understand and quantify the drivers determining the opportunity costs related to environmental exclusion zones. Using a simple analytical model, we propose that opportunity costs of exclusion zones can be decomposed into a substitution effect (because production is shifted to sites with higher or lower marginal production costs) and an output effect (because more sites may be needed to satisfy demand for produced goods). We provide a numerical illustration for the opportunity costs for two examples of environmental exclusion zones - setback distances to settlements and forest bans - which are implemented for wind power deployment in Germany. The numerical illustration builds on a spatially explicit optimization model using GIS data for more than 100, 000 potential wind turbine sites in Germany. Our analysis reveals that opportunity costs may primarily arise in terms of higher local environmental impacts of wind power generation. Opportunity costs are mainly due to the output effect for setback distances, and the substitution effect for forest bans. We also show that the actual sign and size of opportunity costs depends a lot on the cost criteria under consideration as well as the type and stringency of the environmental exclusion zone. Our analysis emphasizes the importance to properly understand possible opportunity costs, and compare them carefully with possible benefits when implementing exclusion zones. Interestingly, our analysis also shows that very restrictive setback distances may not be recommendable at all: In our analysis they turn out to increase the total disamenity costs produced by wind power deployment - contrary to the policy objective pursued by this instrument. We believe that our analytical insights are also helpful when thinking about the impacts of environmental exclusion zones applied to other fields of environmental policy, such as urban development or agriculture.
    Keywords: forest, Germany, land use, land-use restriction, setback distances, spatial modelling, wind power
    JEL: Q23 Q24 Q28 Q42 R14 R32
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ufzdps:22023&r=agr
  77. By: Dogbe, Wisdom
    Abstract: At the start of 2021, the economics observatory suggested that the British pound was 15 per cent weaker relative to the Euro than it was on the eve of the Brexit referendum. The goal of the present study is to assess the implications of an unfavourable Brexit deal that has the potential to depreciate the British pound by making fruits and vegetables imported from the EU relatively more expensive than the pre-Brexit era in Scotland. Demand for fourteen kinds of fruits and vegetables purchased in Scotland was estimated using monthly time series data constructed from a consumer panel collated by Kantar Worldpanel from 2006 to 2020. Using short-run elasticities calculated from the demand model we simulated the implications of a 10 per cent price increase for fruit and vegetable resulting from changes to trade tariffs with the EU or movements in exchange rates. The results tend to suggest that a major share of the vegetables purchased in leading retail shops in Scotland are either produced in the UK or the rest of the world. For fruits, a major share of fruits especially tropical fruits and grapes bought are sourced from the rest of the world. The depreciation of the British pound relative to the Euro has negative implications for demand for all kinds of fruits and vegetables. The impact of the price increases is highest for fruits and vegetables of the EU origin. This could result in as high as 63 per cent reduction in net total purchases for seed vegetables and as low as 2 per cent reduction in purchases for edible plant stem vegetables. The fall in purchases could potentially affect Scottish government’s goal to increase fruits and vegetable consumption by 400 grams per person per day.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, International Development
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334510&r=agr
  78. By: Elena López-Gunn (I CATALIST MADRID ESP - Partenaires IRSTEA - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture); Nina Graveline (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Raffaele Giordano (IRSA - CNR Water Research Institute - CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche); Nora van Cauwenbergh (IHE Delft - Institute for Water Education); Philippe Le Coent (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Peter van Der Keur (GEUS - Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland); Roxane Marchal (Caisse Centrale de Réassurance - parent); Beatriz Mayor (I CATALIST MADRID ESP - Partenaires IRSTEA - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture); Laura Vay (I CATALIST MADRID ESP - Partenaires IRSTEA - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture)
    Abstract: This chapter summarizes the main findings from the book in relation to the conceptual framework centered on the linked but separate concepts of assurance and insurance value of nature, to then highlight the key methods developed namely physical assessments, co-design, and a full integrated economic assessment model that incorporates the value of avoided costs and other co-benefits. This can help to generate and implement natural assurance scheme projects aligned with adaptive planning, innovative financing and new business models centered around prevention by investing in nature.
    Keywords: Tool and method, Lessons learnt, Natural assurance scheme, Assessment frame, Case study
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04093862&r=agr
  79. By: Diego Jimenez-Hernandez; Enrique Seira
    Abstract: Governments spend considerable resources providing goods directly. We show that such behavior may increase welfare when private suppliers have market power. We do this by studying the staggered rollout of hundreds of government milk “ration stores” in Mexico using a proprietary panel of household food purchases. The rollout lowered the price per liter of privately supplied milk by 2.4% and increased household consumption. To compare direct provision with budget-neutral alternatives, we develop and estimate an equilibrium model of the market that accounts for quality differences. Direct provision generates larger consumer surplus than milk vouchers and unrestricted cash transfers.
    Keywords: private provision; public provision; market concentration
    JEL: H42 L33 L44 L66 O15
    Date: 2022–04–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fip:fedhwp:96204&r=agr
  80. By: Salvador Calatayud; Vicente Pinilla; Jordi Planas
    Abstract: This article analyzes the contribution of Samuel Garrido, who passed away in 2022, to economic and rural history. To this end, we address the three fundamental axes around which his research was developed. First, we study his contribution to agricultural cooperativism, the main subject of his work. Next, we explain his contributions on irrigation, mainly those of Valencia, and the institutions that regulated them. Finally, we study how he analyzed some agricultural crops and products, in which cooperatives or irrigation had an outstanding importance, mainly orange trees, hemp and wine. We highlight how Samuel Garrido based his work on careful archival research, but also how he combined the study of historical documentation with the use of econometric techniques for data analysis. His concern for providing a theoretical foundation for his approaches was also notable. He thus combined the virtues of the historian with those of the economist, with an outstanding result.
    Keywords: Samuel Garrido, rural history, agricultural cooperatives, economic history, irrigation
    JEL: N53 N54 Q13 Q15
    Date: 2023–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:seh:wpaper:2302&r=agr
  81. By: Mohamed Adaskou (FSJES - Faculté des sciences juridiques économiques et sociales d’Agadir); Abdelkarim Hssoune (FSJES - Faculté des sciences juridiques économiques et sociales d’Agadir)
    Abstract: This article examines the determinants of demand for microcredit by small family farms in the Chtouka-Ait-Baha province of Morocco. The study was conducted with 296 farmers using a stratified sampling method.The data was analyzed using Logit model. The results show that socioeconomic characteristics such as income, facing usury interest and proximity to microcredit association (MCA) have a negative and significant relationship with the probability of microcredit demand. However, credit information and engagement in non-agricultural activities have a positive and significant relationship with the probability of microcredit demand. With regard to the intrinsic characteristics of small family farms, the study shows a negative relationship between the number of cattle and the available surface area with the probability of microcredit demand, and a positive relationship between the cultivated area and microcredit demand. This article recommends the implementation of financial products that are better suited to the needs of small family farms and a better structuring of the agricultural sector to improve access to financing and encourage diversification of activities. These recommendations can strengthen the role of microcredit associations in financing small family farms in Morocco and contribute to the economic and social development of rural areas.
    Abstract: Cet article examine les déterminants de la demande de microcrédit par les petits exploitants agricoles familiaux dans la province Chtouka-Ait-Baha au Maroc. L'étude a été menée auprès de 296 exploitants agricoles en utilisant une méthode de sondage stratifiée. Les données ont été analysées à l'aide d'un modèle Logit. Les résultats montrent que les caractéristiques socioéconomiques telles que le revenu, la confrontation de l'intérêt à l'usure et la proximité de l'Association de microcrédit (AMC) ont une relation négative et significative avec la probabilité de demande de microcrédit. Cependant, l'information sur le crédit et l'exercice d'une activité non agricole ont une relation positive et significative avec la probabilité de demande de microcrédit. En ce qui concerne les caractéristiques intrinsèques des petites exploitations agricoles familiales, l'étude montre une relation négative entre le nombre de bovins et la superficie disponible avec la probabilité de demande de microcrédit, et une relation positive entre la superficie cultivée et la demande de microcrédit. L'article recommande la mise en place de produits financiers plus adaptés aux besoins des petites exploitations familiales et une meilleure structuration du secteur agricole pour améliorer l'accès aux financements et encourager la diversification des activités. Ces recommandations peuvent renforcer le rôle des associations de microcrédit dans le financement des petites exploitations agricoles familiales au Maroc et contribuer ainsi au développement économique et social des zones rurales.
    Keywords: Chtouka-Ait-Baha, determinant, logit model, microcredit, small family farm, déterminant, microcrédit, modèle logit, petite exploitation familiale
    Date: 2023–04–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04070987&r=agr
  82. By: Olkers, Tim; Liu, Shuang; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Abstract: The availability of formal credit is crucial for the development of the agricultural sector as it can enhance farmers’ purchasing power to acquire inputs and agricultural technology. This, in turn, can increase productivity and resilience throughout the sector. Therefore, the analysis of bank client and loan data in the agricultural sector in a developing country is of interest. We explore the question of who the clients of agricultural credit are and whether they can be clustered into different groups by using an unsupervised machine learning technique. We also investigate whether the loan repayment performance of these clusters differs based on various logit regressions. According to our results, there are 3 different clusters of farmers in Mali that differ by personal characteristics (such as age or gender) as well as credit demand characteristics (e.g., loan amount, interest rates, credit duration, number of credits). Each cluster that differs in their characteristics demonstrates a dissimilar repayment performance. Hence, different instruments as well as communication designs are needed to meet the financial needs of the different clusters and to strengthen the resilience of different groups of farmers in Mali. Our findings provide an important foundation for the design of future agricultural policies and financial products for the agricultural sector as they emphasise the heterogeneity of agricultural lenders in general.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334547&r=agr
  83. By: Leslie, Max; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar
    Abstract: Potatoes are a beneficial component of a healthy Scottish diet, when cooked healthily without excessive and potentially harmful additives. However, in recent decades fresh potato preparation has declined accompanied with an increase in consumption of potato-based convenience foods that may be higher in fat, sugar, and salt additives. Reduced time allocated by households towards cooking from scratch was identified in the existing literature as a potential causal factor for the decline in fresh potato consumption. The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate using differences in differences and data from a home-scanner dataset whether the advent of COVID-19 marked a deviation from this long-term trend in fresh potato consumption by providing households with an additional time endowment for exclusively domestic tasks, including cooking. The results did not find differences in the consumption patterns.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334536&r=agr
  84. By: Francisco B. Galarza; Joanna Kámiche Zegarra; Rosario Gómez
    Abstract: We study the role of subnational institutions in forest conservation in a context in which areas near roads are prone to deforestation. We develop an index of institutionalism to examine the extent to which local institutions can contribute to mitigate the road infrastructure’s adverse effect on deforestation. Using a large dataset from Peru, home to the second largest portion of the Amazon rainforest, we find that a higher value of our index of local institutions is significantly correlated with lower deforestation. However, the effect of our institutions index is not sufficiently large to offset the deforesting effect that closeness to roads has, at least not for relatively short distances to road. These results are robust to different specifications of our institutions index and to the inclusion of a large set of control variables.
    Keywords: Environment and development, deforestation, infrastructure, institutions
    Date: 2023–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:apc:wpaper:192&r=agr
  85. By: Saufillah, Zulfiyatus
    Abstract: Energy management is critical to achieving sustainable agriculture development and reducing environmental impacts. The strategies for energy management discussed in this essay, including energy efficiency measures, energy management systems, and green financing, can help drive green entrepreneurship growth in the agriculture sector. Implementing these strategies can help green entrepreneurs reduce energy consumption and costs, improve productivity, promote sustainable development, and create new growth opportunities. Therefore, policymakers, investors, and other stakeholders should work together to support the implementation of these strategies in the agriculture sector.
    Date: 2023–05–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:5qcwr&r=agr
  86. By: Shim, David
    Abstract: This paper examines the visual dimension of climate activism by exploring how Fridays for Future Germany (FFFG) uses visual imagery to convey the politics of climate change to wider audiences. The author argues that FFFG is an ideal-type form of visual activism in which visual imagery is central to its climate activism. The paper builds on climate change communication scholarship and visual social movement studies to contribute an inquiry about FFFG's visual activism. The focus is on FFFG's visual self-representations, which promises to give insights into its strategies of self-legitimation. The empirical analysis identifies recurring visual patterns in FFFG's visual activism and provides an interpretive reading about the implications of certain ways of seeing and showing climate change. The conclusion puts the findings in a wider political context, highlighting the importance of visualization in the (self-)legitimation of FFFG in debates about global climate governance.
    Keywords: Fridays for Future, visual activism, climate change communication, environmental communication, social movements, imaginaries/narratives, visibility
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:khkgcr:33&r=agr
  87. By: Sara Abrahamsson; Aline Bütikofer; Krzysztof Karbownik
    Abstract: Using spatial and temporal variation in openings of fast food restaurants in Norway between 1980 and 2007, we study the effects of changes in the supply of high caloric nutrition on the health and cognitive ability of young adult males. Our results indicate that exposure to these establishments during childhood and adolescence increases BMI and has negative effects on cognition. Heterogeneity analysis does not reveal meaningful differences in the effects across groups, including for those with adverse prenatal health or high paternal BMI, an exception being that cognition is only affected by exposure at ages 0-12 and this effect is mediated by paternal education.
    Keywords: fast food restaurants, food supply, BMI, obesity, cognitive ability
    JEL: I12 I20 J13 L66
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_10408&r=agr
  88. By: Simone Priori (Università degli studi della Tuscia [Viterbo]); Luca Brillante (Fresno State - California State University [Fresno]); Antonello Bonfante (CNR-ISAFOM - Institute for agriculture and forestry systems in the Mediterranean); Emmanuelle Vaudour (AgroParisTech); Silvia Winter (BOKU - Universität für Bodenkultur Wien = University of Natural Resources and Life [Vienne, Autriche]); Sandro Conticelli (UniFI - Università degli Studi di Firenze = University of Florence)
    Keywords: vineyard adaptation, viticultural areas, climate change, soil management, grapevine
    Date: 2021–06–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04081560&r=agr
  89. By: Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Dogbe, Wisdom
    Abstract: The production of soft fruits in Scotland, the main fruit category produced in the country, has a marked seasonality. In addition, the availability of soft fruit depends on imports from the rest of the UK and abroad (i.e., EU and non-EU countries) during the entire year. The purpose of this paper is to update the evidence of a previous analysis (Revoredo-Giha et al., 2011) regarding the purchases of soft fruit in Scotland. There are three main motivations on the topic: (1) the Scottish Government interest about the country’s dependence on fruit from elsewhere; (2) whether the expansion of the domestic supply of soft fruit may increase the quantity demand for it, and therefore, getting consumers closer to the health-related recommendations and (3) to what extent consumers’ purchases of soft fruit follow locality and seasonal patterns. For the empirical work we used time series constructed from the Kantar Worldpanel dataset for the period 2013 to 2021. Besides a descriptive analysis where we consider the origin of soft fruit purchased in Scotland, we pursued two further analyses: one was a seasonality analysis, and another was an estimation of an incomplete demand system by socioeconomic groups augmented by seasonal and trend terms. The results indicated that the share of Scottish soft fruit as a proportion of the total purchases is still modest and the purchases of soft fruit are still highly seasonal despite the possibility of getting out-of-season imported soft fruit; however, some of them show an increasing trend. Although strawberries, the main produced soft fruit from Scotland, are price sensitive and inelastic, raspberries price elasticities are above one showing more reaction to prices and possibilities to increase consumption if prices decrease.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc23:334512&r=agr

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