nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒06‒12
forty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. A gender-responsive approach to designing agricultural risk management bundles By Adhikari, Roshan; Kramer, Berber; Ward, Patrick S.; Foster, Timothy; Sharma, Varun; Gaur, Pushkar; Pattnaik, Subhransu
  2. Agricultural Policy in Ukraine By Oleg Nivievskyi; Pavlo Martyshev; Sergiy Kvasha
  3. Crop Diversity and Resilience to Droughts: Evidence from Indian Agriculture By S. Madhumitha; Anubhab Pattanayak; K.S. Kavi Kumar
  4. Gendered implications of the waves of COVID-19 and economic upgrading trajectories in digital value chains: Insights from Kenyan agricultural platforms By Aarti Krishnan; Monica Nganga; Tim Foster
  5. Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the United States, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Basin By Natural Resources Conservation Service
  6. Internet use and agricultural productivity: Evidence from rural Vietnam By Thanh-Tung Nguyen; Trung Thanh Nguyen; Ulrike Grote
  7. Impacts of the Russia-Ukraine War price shocks on the Bangladesh economy: A general equilibrium analysis By Chowdhury, Tahreen Tahrima; Dorosh, Paul A.; Islam, Rizwana; Pradesha, Angga
  8. Effect of Farming Systems for Nutrition on Nutritional Intakes: A Study of Two Regions in India By Nithya D.J.; S Raju; R V Bhavani; Akshaya Kumar Panda; Rupal D.Wagh; Brinda Viswanathan
  9. Sahel social cohesion research in Burkina Faso and Niger: Working paper By Pul, Hippolyt; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Konde, Bernard B.; Zogho, Donatus; Kuuchille, Emmanuel V.; McCarthy, Nancy; Marivoet, Wim
  10. Does the Tasting Note Matter? Language Categories and Their Impact on Professional Ratings and Prices By Clarissa Laura Maria Spiess Bru
  11. The Effects of Climate Change on Public Investment Efficiency in Resource-rich Countries : Evidence from Stochastic Frontier Analysis By Yacouba Coulibaly
  12. Households’ resilience and local commercialization in Thailand By Menglan Wang; Manh Hung Do
  13. Agricultural commercialization and asset growth for poverty reduction: Evidence from panel data for rural Vietnam By Oliver Schulte; Julian Mumber; Trung Thanh Nguyen
  14. Spatial Structural Change By Fabian Eckert; Michael Peters
  15. Assessing environmental profiles: An analysis of water consumption and waste recycling habits By Roberto Balado-Naves; Marian Garcia-Valiñas; David Roibas
  16. Do we need incentives for a field experiment with professionals? By Serge Blondel; Ngoc Thao NOET
  17. Seeing the Forest for More Than the Trees: a Policy Strategy to Curb Deforestation and Advance Shared Prosperity in the Colombian Amazon By Timothy Cheston; Patricio Goldstein; Timothy Freeman; Alejandro Rueda-Sanz; Ricardo Hausmann; Shreyas Gadgin Matha; Sebastian Bustos; Eduardo Lora; Sarah Bui; Nidhi Rao
  18. Economic Impact of Potato Virus Y (PVY) in Europe By Brice Dupuis; Pacifique Nkuriyingoma; Theodor Ballmer
  19. Evidence-based support for adaptation policies in emerging economies By Banning, Maximilian; Großmann, Anett; Heinisch, Katja; Hohmann, Frank; Lutz, Christian; Schult, Christoph
  20. Risk-return trade-offs in the context of environmental impact: a lab-in-the-field experiment with finance professionals By Sébastien Duchêne; Adrien Nguyen-Huu; Dimitri Dubois; Marc Willinger
  21. A generalization of environmental productivity analysis By Arnaud Abad; Paola Ravelojaona
  22. Eradicating rodenticides from pest management is less practical than you think By Elmore, Holly; McAuliffe, William H.B.; Mckay, Hannah
  23. Geographical indications as global knowledge commons: Ostrom's law on common intellectual property and collective action By Armelle Maze
  24. Geographical indication for kiwi fruits produced in the southeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina By Berges, Miriam; Lacaze, María Victoria; Lupín, Beatriz; Yommi, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Julieta A.; Tedesco, Lorena
  25. Report on valuation methods By Jens Abildtrup; Anne Stenger
  26. International Cooperation and Kantian Moral Behaviour – Complements or Substitutes? By Alistair Ulph; David Ulph
  27. Investigating urban residents' involvement in biodiversity conservation in protected areas: Empirical evidence from Vietnam By Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
  28. Food Expenditure and Mental Health: Outcomes from the UK Household Longitudinal Survey By Waqas, Muhammad; Iqbal, Syka; Stewart-Knox, Barbara
  29. Carbon Competitiveness is Shaped in Firms By Kaitila, Ville
  30. Gender Differences in Double Burden of Malnutrition in India: Quantile Regression Estimates By Archana Agnihotri; Brinda Viswanathan
  31. Droughts and Malnutrition in Africa By Nora Fingado; Steven Poelhekke
  32. Pro-Environmental Behavior and Actions: A Review of the Literature By Zehui, Zhao
  33. International production chains and the pollution offshoring hypothesis: an empirical investigation By Saussay, Aurélien; Zugravu-Soilita, Natalia
  34. Non-refunding of VAT to soybean exporters or economic impact of Soybean amendments By Oleg Nivievskyi; Roman Neyter; Olha Halytsia; Pavlo Martyshev; Oleksandr Donchenko
  35. Local infrastructure, resilience capacity and poverty in rural Southeast Asia By Tim Hartwig; Trung Thanh Nguyen
  36. Are India’s farm debt waivers a political tool that impacts government finances? By Sowmya Dhanaraj; Vidya Mahambare; Pragati
  37. The use of trade data in the analysis of global phosphate flows By Matthias Raddant; Martin Bertau; Gerald Steiner
  38. Wine rankings and the Borda method By Salvador Barberà; Walter Bossert; Juan D. Moreno-Ternero
  39. Can there be a common, risk-based framework for decisions around live insect trade? By M M Quinlan; J D Mumford; M Q Benedict; F Wäckers; C F Oliva; M Wohlfarter; G Smagghe; E Vila; J Klapwijk; A Michaelakis; C M Collins; J Prudhomme; G Torres; F Diaz; L Saul-Gershenz; K Cook; A Verghese; P Sreerama Kumar
  40. The Economic Tale of Two Amazons: Lessons in Generating Shared Prosperity While Protecting the Forest in the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon By Alejandro Rueda-Sanz; Timothy Cheston
  41. Inequality in exposure to air pollution in France: bringing pollutant cocktails into the picture By Camille Salesse
  42. A Mediation Analysis of the Relationship Between Land Use Regulation Stringency and Employment Dynamics By Uche Oluku; Shaoming Cheng
  43. Global Commodity Markets and Sovereign Risk across 150 Years By Angélica Domínguez-Cardoza; Adelina Garamow; Josefin Meyer
  44. Investor rewards to environmental responsibility: Evidence from the COVID-19 crisis By Alexandre Garel; Arthur Petit-Romec
  45. Determinants of the consumption of non-timber forest products in the City of Kananga: Case of Gnetum Africanum (MFumbwa) By Alain Mujinga Kapemba; Jean-Claude Nkashama Mukenge; Monique Kabongo Bafue; Alain Etshindo Aseke
  46. Does Green Transition promote Green Innovation and Technological Acquisitions? By Martinez Cillero, Maria; Gregori, Wildmer Daniel; Bose, Udichibarna

  1. By: Adhikari, Roshan; Kramer, Berber; Ward, Patrick S.; Foster, Timothy; Sharma, Varun; Gaur, Pushkar; Pattnaik, Subhransu
    Abstract: - Bundling agricultural insurance with risk-reducing agricultural technologies can lower the cost of insurance for farmers, but before implementing bundled solutions, it is important to analyze how these bundles would impact men and women differently. - Using a survey with 900 men and women farmers in Odisha, India, we find that women and men have similar farming practices and input use in general, but women face more difficulties in hiring labor and transplant rice later than men. - Using biophysical crop models, we show that this delay in transplanting lowers expected yields and increases risk exposure for women farmers. - Direct-seeded rice (DSR) is a promising alternative method for establishing rice that can help to mitigate the risks posed by climate change. Our findings indicate DSR is especially beneficial for women farmers. - Gender-responsive policies are needed to ensure that women farmers have equitable access to agricultural insurance and risk-reducing technologies.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; agricultural insurance; agricultural technologies; risk; farmers; gender; labour; rice; transplanting; yields; women farmers; climate change; policies; gender equitydirect-seeded rice (DSR)
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Oleg Nivievskyi; Pavlo Martyshev; Sergiy Kvasha
    Abstract: Building upon the theory and methodology of agricultural policy developed in the previous chapter, in Chapter 2 we analyse and assess agricultural policy making in Ukraine since the breakup of Soviet Union till today. Going from top down to the bottom, we begin by describing the evolution of state policy in the agri-food sector. In the beginning, we describe the major milestones of agricultural policy making since independence, paving the way to the political economy of the modern agricultural policy in Ukraine. Then we describe the role of agri-food sector in the national economy as well as globally in ensuring food security in the world. After, we dig deeper and focus on a detailed performance of agricultural sector by looking at farm structures, their land use, overall and sector-wise untapped productivity potential. Modern agricultural policy and institutional set-up is contained and analyzed in details in the section 2.4. A review of the agricultural up- and downstream sectors wraps up this chapter
    Date: 2023–04
  3. By: S. Madhumitha (Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India); Anubhab Pattanayak ((Corresponding author), Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India); K.S. Kavi Kumar (Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India)
    Abstract: Agricultural intensification and technological specialisation have led to the prevalence of mono-culture in India. Diversity within crop species has been gradually declining since the advent of Green Revolution in the 1960s. With increasingly frequent weather shocks, agricultural systems face the risk of yield and income losses. A quantitative assessment of district level agricultural data for the period 1966-2015 is used to understand whether crop diversification can cushion yield and income losses for farmers during droughts. The results indicate that diversification enhanced resilience during a rainfall deficit period in the Green Revolution period. However, in the post-Green Revolution period, increased specialization mitigated the adverse effects of rainfall deficit. When simultaneous occurrence of rainfall deficit and high temperature is considered as an alternative characterization of drought, crop diversity did not provide any insulation against such weather extremes. In the absence of any weather extremes, monoculture is found to be more lucrative owing to both supply and demand side factors like improved inputs, irrigation and infrastructure facilities, government’s support prices and pattern of consumption demand. Spatial trends in crop diversification also revealed some anomalies to these general results since some states in the country have unique cropping patterns.
    Keywords: Crop diversity; Drought; Indian agriculture; Green Revolution
    JEL: Q10 Q15 Q54
  4. By: Aarti Krishnan; Monica Nganga; Tim Foster
    Abstract: Women play a critical yet under-researched role in global digital agri-food value chains, especially in smallholder production, which affects how they are able to economically upgrade (improve crop yields and product quality, and increase product diversification). Research suggests that women's participation in agricultural platform-driven value chains facilitates the overcoming of barriers such as access to productive resources and engenders upgrading.
    Keywords: Digital platforms, Agriculture, Gender, Upgrading, Value chains
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Natural Resources Conservation Service
    Abstract: Excerpts from the report Introduction: United States Department of Agriculture Handbook 296 is a broadscale synthesis of current knowledge about land areas based on patterns of physiography, geology, climate, water resources, soils, biological resources, and land use. These patterns were used to establish the unique central concept and boundaries for each land resource region (LRR) and major land resource area (MLRA). This handbook is designed primarily for use in developing soil and water conservation programs at the continental scale (using the LRR concept) and the inter-State scale (using the MLRA concept). The three previous editions of Agriculture Handbook 296 were published in 1965, 1981, and 2006. This update of Agriculture Handbook 296 was driven by the need to improve the usability of the land resource hierarchy system so that a more consistent application of soil-ecological-landscape concepts could provide more accurate and efficient application of conservation on the ground. It involved innovations to the current system through incorporation of updated climate, elevation, soil, and land use data and improvement in linework accuracy based on advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS).
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–05
  6. By: Thanh-Tung Nguyen; Trung Thanh Nguyen; Ulrike Grote
    Abstract: The use of the internet is growing rapidly and has become an engine for economic development. However, few studies have examined the impact of internet use on agricultural production, and the results are not yet conclusive. Employing a dataset of more than 2, 000 observations in rural Vietnam, our study analyses the impact of internet use on agricultural productivity using the heteroskedasticity-based instrument approach suggested by Lewbel (2012) and examines the heterogeneity and distribution of the impact using quantile regressions. Our results show that internet use has significant and positive effects on agricultural productivity. However, these effects are heterogeneous across population groups. The positive effects of internet use are stronger for households with a lower level of education, with a young and female head, and from ethnic minorities. The benefits are also found to be skewed towards the group of farmers at the bottom of the productivity distribution. Therefore, we propose facilitating the diffusion of the internet, since it not only boosts agricultural productivity, but also reduces productivity inequality. In addition, we recommend promoting rural education, supporting local markets, investing more in irrigation systems, and facilitating farm mechanisation.
    Keywords: Rural household, Instrumental variable, Quantile regression, Vietnam
    JEL: Q11 D63 O30
    Date: 2023–03
  7. By: Chowdhury, Tahreen Tahrima; Dorosh, Paul A.; Islam, Rizwana; Pradesha, Angga
    Abstract: The spike in global commodity prices caused by the Russia-Ukraine war has had major adverse impacts on many developing countries, including Bangladesh, that still depend heavily on energy and food imports. Although the Bangladesh economy has rebounded after the COVID-19 pandemic, the latest global trade shock has threated to increase food insecurity and poverty. This study utilizes the Bangladesh RIAPA economywide model to assess the impact of increases in global commodity prices and explores potential policy interventions to reduce negative impacts. Simulation results show that increases in international commodity prices create a GDP loss of 0.36 percent and an increase of three million in the number of poor (mainly rural poor). Energy price shocks account for most of this decline in real GDP (0.28 percent). The fertilizer subsidy helps spur agriculture production which leads to an increase in crop GDP by 0.78 percent and total agricultural GDP by 0.43 percent. Changes in policy could help mitigate the effects of these price shocks. In particular, petroleum subsidies would help increase production in both agriculture and services, leading to a 0.3 percent increase in household consumption, considerably more than the gain under a targeted cash transfer policy of equal cost. However, given that the petroleum subsidy does not specifically target the poor, it only reduces poverty by a fraction of what a targeted cash transfer would. Moreover, as illustrated by the experiences of other countries, increases in a fuel subsidy, once introduced, are likely to be very difficult to reverse. This suggests that if the major policy goal is to reduce poverty, a direct cash transfer would be more effective than the other policy options considered here. Combining these policies, however, would be even more effective than any single intervention, reducing poverty incidence by around 2.5 million people, and thereby preventing nearly all of the potential increase in poverty resulting from global price shocks.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; commodities; prices; developing countries; economics; shocks; food insecurity; poverty; policy intervention; gross domestic product; agricultural production; household consumption; subsidies; fuels; cash transfers; general equilibrium model; Russia-Ukraine War; global price
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Nithya D.J. (M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai); S Raju (M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai); R V Bhavani (M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai); Akshaya Kumar Panda (M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai); Rupal D.Wagh (M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai); Brinda Viswanathan ((Corresponding author), Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India)
    Abstract: In nutrition insecure regions of rural India, farming systems with focus on nutrition (or FSN) can prove effective in improving access and availability for nutrient intake. In 2017, a few villages in Koraput and Wardha were involved to increase their crop diversity, intercropping of pulses and cereals, promotion of seasonal fruits and vegetables and nutrition awareness. About 75-80 percent of households voluntarily agreed to involve, for whom the reported dietary habits were recorded in 2014, before the FSN interventions and in 2017, after the interventions. This study reports the findings from reported dietary changes for the two years. Household food consumption is converted into its nutrient content and normalized by the demographic composition of the households. The intake of micronutrients like vitamin A, vitamin C, iron and calcium show larger improvements compared to calories and proteins. This is partly because the intervention focused more on dietary quality than in improving energy dense food. The changes are more apparent in Wardha as their nutrient intakes and dietary diversity were low in 2014. Households in Koraput benefitted substantially from the newly introduced schemes for clean cooking fuel and sanitation thereby improving hygienic environment that would enable improved nutrient absorption.
    Keywords: Rural, Household Survey, Crop Diversification, Home Garden, Nutrition
    JEL: D13 I15 Q12 Q18 R11
  9. By: Pul, Hippolyt; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Konde, Bernard B.; Zogho, Donatus; Kuuchille, Emmanuel V.; McCarthy, Nancy; Marivoet, Wim
    Abstract: Intervention Context: WFP’s activities in Burkina Faso and Niger focus on fragile agrarian communities in the Sahel, where cyclical floods and droughts combine with decreasing soil fertility and increasing desertification, among other challenges, to aggravate food and livelihood insecurity. Increased competition for land for food crops and pastures as well as water for domestic, productive, and livestock use, intensify conflicts over ownership and usage rights for land and the commons such as forests. in particular, this competition has heightened conflicts between farmers and herders. Layered on these localized conflicts are recent increases in human safety and security concerns related to the spread of attacks by violent extremist groups across the eastern flanks of both countries. The increasing frequency and intensity of these attacks have led to the loss of lives, property, and the displacement of large groups of people. The attendant deepening of food, livelihood, and human insecurities has contributed to a rural exodus of men and women to cities and other economic enclaves in search of alternate sources of food and income. The arrival of displaced persons fleeing the attacks has increased pressure on already limited food stocks and other assets of host communities. COVID-19 added another layer of vulnerability. In addition to the disease burden, lockdowns and restrictions on the movement of persons affected the ability of communities to travel to engage in nonfarm economic activities for supplementary income and food. This greatly affected the food and livelihood security systems of the populations in these already impoverished and fragile communities.
    Keywords: BURKINA FASO; NIGER; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; resilience; shocks; food insecurity; livelihoods; natural disasters; climate change adaptation; agricultural systems; conflict; migration; infrastructure; resources; soil fertility; desertification; water allocation; use rights; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; economic conditions; WFP
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Clarissa Laura Maria Spiess Bru (Paderborn University)
    Abstract: Particularly in the wine industry, information asymmetry between consumers and wine producers regarding product characteristics leads prospects to consider available information, such as market prices, professional reviews, and ratings, as reliable indicators for product quality and purchase decisions. Nevertheless, few studies reflect wine reviews' textual dimension and content. This study explores the impact of reviews and defined language inventory like articles, verbs, or adjectives and their effects on wine prices and ratings. Using 83, 067 reviews from the professional wine critics magazine "The Wine Enthusiast, " a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) estimation, quantile regression (plots), and review text analysis utilizing the content analysis tool LIWC-22 was conducted to examine the simultaneous impact of linguistic categories on wine prices and ratings. The results indicate that the tasting note's increased word count and positive sentiment are significantly positively associated with a higher wine rating. Further, specific categories have a statistically significant positive impact on ratings but a negligible effect on wine prices. Consequently, a subsequent instrumental variables estimation is conducted to control for endogeneity and test for the effect of reviews on wine prices, revealing a significant positive influence. These findings could have practical strategic implications for wine market communication, marketing, and purchasing decisions, as linguistic indicators in reviews could be associated with wine quality by vintners and prospects.
    Keywords: : Professional Reviews, Information Asymmetry, Text Analysis, Prices and Ratings, Quantile regression, Seemingly Unrelated Regression, Instrumental Variables Estimation
    JEL: C31 L66 M30 O13 Q13
    Date: 2023–05
  11. By: Yacouba Coulibaly (UO - Université d'Orléans, UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: Developing countries suffer disproportionately from the negative impacts of climate change and environmental degradation on economic development in terms of financial costs and loss of potential revenues. In this paper, we examine the impact of climate change on the efficiency of public investment in 34 developing countries, with a particular focus on resource-rich countries, over the period 2000-2013. Using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to determine efficiency scores, we find that developing countries could increase the capital stock by 29% on average without changing their public investment spending. In particular, resource-rich countries could increase the capital stock by 26% without changing their spending. In the second step, we then use the fractional regression model (FRM) to capture the impact of climate change on the investment efficiency values obtained in the first step. Our results show that climate change has a negative impact on public investment efficiency. However, when the climate change index is disaggregated for the regressions, we find that only precipitation has a negative effect, while a 1°C temperature increase in resource-rich countries leads to a 16.32% improvement in public investment efficiency of GDP. These results are also statistically and economically robust to different controls and specifications. The main findings of this paper suggest that policies to address climate change in general and heavy rainfall shocks in particular should include strong provisions for financing more resilient public investments to adapt to climatic conditions and modernise public infrastructures to mitigate the negative environmental impacts for developing countries, especially resource-rich countries.
    Keywords: H81, C12, Q54, Q01, Climate change, Public investment, Technical efficiency, Weather shocks, Environment, Stochastic frontier analysis O13
    Date: 2023–04–11
  12. By: Menglan Wang; Manh Hung Do
    Abstract: Understanding households’ resilience strategies under uncertainties is important in several domains including social protection, adaptation to climate change, minimizing disaster-related risks, and humanitarian aid. At the same time, food security is an important problem for developing countries, especially in places where are vulnerable to external shocks. We use the data of 1648 identical households from Thailand collected in 2010, 2013, and 2016 to examine the factors affecting households’ resilience capacities and the impacts of these capacities on household consumption and crop commercialization. We employ savings per capita as households’ absorptive capacity and income diversification index as households’ adaptive capacity. We take into account household consumption and crop commercialization as the indicators of local food systems. Our results show that the experience of shocks in previous years positively correlates with households’ saving per capita and income diversification. Further, a better absorptive capacity in the form of better savings and a better adaptive capacity in the form of higher income diversification have a significant and positive influence on household expenditure per capita and crop commercialization. Therefore, development policies and programs aiming to improve income, increase savings, and provide income diversification opportunities are strongly recommended.
    Keywords: Absorptive capacity, Adaptive capacity, Crop commercialization, Panel data, Instrumental variable
    JEL: C33 Q00 Q12
    Date: 2023–01
  13. By: Oliver Schulte; Julian Mumber; Trung Thanh Nguyen
    Abstract: Poverty remains a substantial threat in rural areas of many developing countries, and solving this problem requires an in-depth understanding of the income generating capacity that determines poverty. This paper examines the impact of agricultural commercialization on the capability of rural households to accumulate assets and on structural and multidimensional poverty. A longitudinal dataset of around 2000 households with a total of 9781 observations from five rural surveys undertaken in the period 2008 - 2017 in Vietnam is used. Results from a fixed effects regression with an instrumental variable and a control function approach show that agricultural commercialization has a positive effect on the accumulation of assets and reduces multidimensional and structural poverty over time. However, the effect is not homogeneous and larger for households not mainly engaged in rice commercialization. This suggests that commercialization can be a path out of poverty, especially if policy makers move towards utilizing other crops instead of rice.
    Keywords: Asset growth, Asset-based income, Commercialization, Fixed effects, Instrumental variable, Control function
    JEL: C21 I32 Q12 Q13
    Date: 2023–04
  14. By: Fabian Eckert; Michael Peters
    Abstract: Between 1880 and 1920, the US agricultural employment share fell from 50% to 25%. However, despite aggregate demand shifting away from their sector of specialization, rural labor markets saw faster wage growth and industrialization than non-agricultural parts of the US. We propose a spatial model of the structural transformation to analyze the link between aggregate structural change and local economic development. The calibrated model shows that rural areas adapted to the decline of the agricultural sector by adopting technologies already in use in urban locations. Without such catchup growth, economic development would have been urban-biased and spatial inequality would have increased.
    Keywords: Structural change; Industrial structure; Economic geography; Growth
    Date: 2022–09–22
  15. By: Roberto Balado-Naves; Marian Garcia-Valiñas; David Roibas
    Abstract: In the current context of pressure on available water resources, sustainable patterns of water consumption emerge as an important matter of concern. In this sense, efficient consumption is usually understood as the optimal usage of the available resources. Thus, we study households’ efficiency levels by considering a stochastic frontier analysis of the demand for water services using a representative sample of a northern city in Spain. Besides, efficient consumption habits require a costly acquisition of accurate information, whether in terms of prices or the effective demand of a given resource. Thus, we also study the impact of several determinants on the efficiency levels of water demand, as in Hung et al. (2017). These range from the deviations between perceived and real prices to social characteristics such as the average age of households or their degree of environmental awareness. We find strong evidence in favor of higher efficiency levels among more informed households which also commit themselves to the environment. The relevance of this research to the current state of the empirical literature is twofold: first, it expands the number of scarce analyses on stochastic frontiers of residential water demand; second, it contributes to a better understanding of the importance of accurate information on optimal decisions of consumers. Moreover, we use a novel and exclusive database for a representative sample of households in the city of Gijón (Spain) between 2017 and 2021, where we combine real data on water prices and consumption with consumer perceptions obtained from a survey.
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Serge Blondel (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Ngoc Thao NOET (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Keywords: public good (PG) game, Incentives, Hypothetical or real payment
    Date: 2023–04–19
  17. By: Timothy Cheston (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Patricio Goldstein (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Timothy Freeman; Alejandro Rueda-Sanz; Ricardo Hausmann (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Shreyas Gadgin Matha; Sebastian Bustos (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Eduardo Lora (Center for International Development at Harvard University); Sarah Bui; Nidhi Rao
    Abstract: Does economic prosperity in the Colombian Amazon require sacrificing the forest? This research compendium of a series of studies on the Colombian Amazon finds the answer to this question is no: the perceived trade-off between economic growth and forest protection is a false dichotomy. The drivers of deforestation and prosperity are distinct – as they happen in different places. Deforestation occurs at the agricultural frontier, in destroying some of the world’s most complex biodiversity by some of the least economically complex activities, particularly cattle-ranching. By contrast, the economic drivers in the Amazon are its urban areas often located far from the forest edge, including in non-forested piedmont regions. These cities offer greater economic complexity by accessing a wider range of productive capabilities in higher-income activities with little presence of those activities driving deforestation. Perhaps the most underappreciated facet of life in each of the three Amazonian regions studied, Caquetá, Guaviare, and Putumayo, is that the majority of people live in urban areas. This is a telling fact of economic geography: that even in the remote parts of the Amazon, people want to come together to live in densely populated areas. This corroborates the findings of our global research over the past two decades that prosperity results from expanding the productive capabilities available locally to diversify production to do more, and more complex, activities.
    Keywords: Colombia, Amazon rain forest
    Date: 2023–02
  18. By: Brice Dupuis (Agroscope); Pacifique Nkuriyingoma (Agroscope, UR - Université de Rennes); Theodor Ballmer (Agroscope)
    Abstract: As the fourth most prevalent food crop, potato is very important in the global economy, but it is affected by numerous pests, and by many bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. Among these diseases, potato virus Y (PVY), which is transmitted from plant to plant by aphids, causes significant yield losses, but as far as we know, the economic impact of PVY in Europe has not been quantified. Our economic study covers a period of 13 years between 2004 and 2017 and is based on an analysis of statistical, economic and agronomic data, obtained from various stakeholders in the potato sector in Switzerland and the European Union, as well as from field experiments. In Switzerland, the economic loss due to PVY for seed and ware production was estimated at about 2000 and 200 CHF/ha, respectively. For the European Union, the annual losses were estimated at 187 M EUR, respectively 96 and 91 M EUR for seed and ware. These losses were due mainly to the cost of chemical treatments applied in seed potato production and the yield drop in ware potato production. However, based on literature, these significant losses are lower than those caused by potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans), which is considered to be the most economically damaging potato disease in Europe.
    Keywords: Certification, Economy, Loss, PVY, Seed, Ware
    Date: 2023
  19. By: Banning, Maximilian; Großmann, Anett; Heinisch, Katja; Hohmann, Frank; Lutz, Christian; Schult, Christoph
    Abstract: In recent years, the impacts of climate change become increasingly evident, both in magnitude and frequency. The design and implementation of adequate climate adaptation policies play an important role in the macroeconomic policy discourse to assess the impact of climate change on regional and sectoral economic growth. We propose different modelling approaches to quantify the socio-economic impacts of climate change and design specific adaptations in three emerging market economies (Kazakhstan, Georgia and Vietnam) which belong to the areas that are heavily exposed to climate change. A Dynamic General Equilibrium (DGE) model has been used for Vietnam and economy-energy-emission (E3) models for the other two countries. Our modelling results show how different climate hazards impact the economy up to the year 2050. Adaptation measures in particular in the agricultural sector have positive implications for the gross domestic product (GDP). However, some adaptation measures can even increase greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the focus on GDP as the main indicator to evaluate policy measures can produce welfare-reducing policy decisions.
    Date: 2023
  20. By: Sébastien Duchêne (Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School); Adrien Nguyen-Huu (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Dimitri Dubois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Marc Willinger (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: We assess the impact of environmental externalities on port folio decisions in a lab-in-the-field experiment on finance professionals and students. Participants are prone to accept lower returns for positive environmental impact but will not bear increased risk. They show a symmetric pro-environmental preferences depending on the sign of the externality. Finance professionals are more pro-environment than students, particularly regarding positive externalities, and less influenced by a ranking signal about environmental performance. Control tasks show that experimental measures of pro-social and environmental preferences have less influence on port folios than market practices for professionals but are significant predictors for students.
    Date: 2022–12–02
  21. By: Arnaud Abad (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Paola Ravelojaona (UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia)
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze environmental Total Factor Productivity (TFP) change. Indeed, innovative environmental TFP measures are introduced through convex and non convex environmental production processes. Hence, the impacts of input and output quality change on environmental productivity variation are underscored. In addition, general decomposition of the new ratio- and difference-based environmental TFP measures is proposed. Finally, an empirical example is provided to illustrate these propositions.
    Keywords: Environmental efficiency, Non Convexity, Pollution-generating Technology, Total Factor Productivity Indices
    Date: 2022–02
  22. By: Elmore, Holly; McAuliffe, William H.B. (Cambridge Health Alliance); Mckay, Hannah
    Abstract: Rodenticide poisons are cruel and reducing their use would likely represent an improvement in wild animal welfare. This report explores the reasons why rodenticides are used, under what circumstances they could be replaced, and whether they are replaceable with currently available alternatives. As summarized in the table below, agricultural use of rodenticides is well-protected by state and federal laws and that seems unlikely to change, but the use of rodenticides in food processing and conservation would likely be reduced if there were an adequate alternative such as solid form rodent birth control. Continued innovation of reactive tools to eliminate rodent infestations should reduce the use cases where rodenticides are the most cost-effective option for residential customers or public health officials, but will not eliminate their availability to handle major infestations.
    Date: 2023–03–24
  23. By: Armelle Maze (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Abstract In this article, we reconceptualize, using an extended discrete and dynamic Ostrom's classification, the specific intellectual property (IP) regimes that support geographical indications (GIs) as ‘knowledge commons', e.g. a set of shared collective knowledge resources constituting a complex ecosystem created and shared by a group of people that has remained subject to social dilemma. Geographical names are usually considered part of the public domain. However, under certain circumstances, geographical names have also been appropriated through trademark registration. Our analysis suggests that IP laws that support GIs first emerged in Europe and spread worldwide as a response to the threat of undue usurpation or private confiscation through trademark registration. We thus emphasize the nature of the tradeoffs faced when shifting GIs from the public domain to shared common property regimes, as defined by the EU legislation pertaining to GIs. In the context of trade globalization, we also compare the pros and cons of regulating GIs ex-ante rather than engaging in ex-post trademark litigation in the courts.
    Keywords: Place names, Collective reputation, GKC framework, IAD/SES framework, international trade agreement, self-governance, trademark, traditional knowledge JEL Classification: D02, D23, K11, L51, O34, Q13
    Date: 2023–03–20
  24. By: Berges, Miriam; Lacaze, María Victoria; Lupín, Beatriz; Yommi, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Julieta A.; Tedesco, Lorena
    Abstract: Quality differentiation in food production, including certification of specific standards or attributes, makes possible to obtain better prices and differential access to markets or specific niches of external and domestic demand in medium-high and high incomes segments. These activities usually involve intensive productions, integrated into highly specialized production chains, which imply not only agro-industrial transformations, but also include relatively complex personal and productive services, as well as sophisticated distribution, communication, and packaging channels. Fruit production in the southeast (SE) of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is a labor and capital-intensive activity, generates high profitability in small areas and mobilizes the local and regional economy. Kiwi fruit production in this region has increased steadily over the last ten years in terms of area, volume and infrastructures and recently has incorporated new packaging facilities and cool rooms. The region is the most important and productive zone of kiwi in the country (David et al, 2018). A favorable climate and very suitable soils allow achieving excellent quality fruits and high yields per surface unit.
    Keywords: Comportamiento del Consumidor; Atributos de Calidad; Valor Agregado; Kiwi; Sudeste Bonaerense;
    Date: 2023–04
  25. By: Jens Abildtrup (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Anne Stenger (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The demand for non-marketed forest ecosystem services, like for example, carbon sequestration has been increasing the last decades and this has been accompanied by attempts to establish new market for such services. This development is an opportunity for forest owners to increase their rentability of their forest management. It will also provide the beneficiaries of the services an instrument to influence the forest owners to increase their supply of services which, without new markets, would be considered as externalities and therefore often ignored in their management. This concerns both governmental funded payment schemes, crowd-funding projects, or companies use of forest project in their corporative social responsibility activities. To increase the transparency of transactions between forest owners and buyers of services and to better assess the potential of such new markets, it is important to estimate the demand for services. Likewise, it is also important to assess the cost of increasing the supply of services to increase the transparency and also to assess additionality of projects. In this report we present and discuss different methods which have typically been used in assessing the preferences for forest ecosystem services or to estimate the costs of provision. Besides a brief introduction to the methods the report also makes references to more detailed technical guidelines and key scientific references. Finally, the report also gives an example of how a change in forest management may influence the values of carbon sequestration and recreational use of a forest project in the French NOBEL pilot demonstrator.
    Keywords: Economic valuation, Forest ecosystem services, Valuation methods
    Date: 2022–09–09
  26. By: Alistair Ulph; David Ulph
    Abstract: Faced with a global emissions problem such as climate change we know that if countries' emissions decisions are made in an independent and self-interested fashion the outcome can be very far from optimal. One proposed solution is to have countries act more morally by co-operating and so taking account of the impact of their emissions decisions on the welfare of other countries. However, if the decision to co-operate is made in a self-interested fashion the standard non-cooperative model of IEAs yields the pessimistic conclusion that the more serious the environmental problem the smaller will be the equilibrium membership of an IEA. Our paper examines the implications for emissions, IEA membership and welfare of assuming that countries make both emissions and IEA membership decisions in the alternative moral fashion of acting as imperfect Kantians as defined by Alger and Weibull (2013). A similar approach has been taken in Eichner and Pethig (2022) who show that the grand coalition (and first-best) can be achieved when countries have a weight on Kantian behaviour greater than a critical value below 2/3. We argue that their approach to modelling the membership decision of imperfect Kantians is problematic and propose an alternative approach. We show that (i) for any weight attached to Kantian behaviour, the equilibrium level of IEA membership and resulting global welfare is higher using our model; (ii) consequently achieving the grand coalition and hence first-best does not require such a high weight on Kantian behaviour; (iii) acting cooperatively and in a Kantian fashion are complementary rather than substitute moral approaches to achieving the first best.
    Keywords: international environmental agreements; moral behaviour; Kantian ethics
    JEL: C72 Q50 Q58
    Date: 2023–05
  27. By: Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
    Abstract: Biodiversity provides many benefits to humans in general and urban residents in particular. However, the rising population, income, and wildlife product consumption demands contribute to the deliberately organized illegal wildlife trade expansion. Protected areas are designated mainly for biodiversity conservation but face financial constraints for management activities. The increased illegal wildlife trade and lack of financing in protected areas can negatively affect biodiversity levels. Thus, the current dissertation is dedicated to answering the question: “How can we mitigate biodiversity loss in protected areas by better involving urban residents in biodiversity conservation?” To answer this question, the dissertation comprises three studies and data collection about the psychology and behaviors related to biodiversity and conservation among urban residents.
    Date: 2023–03–30
  28. By: Waqas, Muhammad; Iqbal, Syka; Stewart-Knox, Barbara
    Abstract: The incidence of mental health problems is increasing in the United Kingdom (UK) and may be associated with lower dietary quality. Food expenditure is an indicator of economic deprivation and a marker of dietary quality with implications for mental health. This analysis considers data collected as part of the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Survey (UKHLS), also known as ‘Understanding Society’ (2009-2021) (N=388, 944) to determine the extent to which food expenditure, both within and outside the household, is associated with mental health, whist controlling for demographic factors. Mental health was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) with household food expenditure and food expenditure outside the home as outcomes. Controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, fixed-effects models indicated that better mental health was associated with greater household food expenditure and with greater food expenditure outside the home and that this association persisted post-lockdown. Among those on lower incomes better mental health was associated with lower food expenditure. When people who identified as white and non-white were modelled separately, better mental health was associated with lower food expenditure within and beyond the household only in those who identified as white. Together these findings imply that the mental health of people residing in the UK, particularly those on lower incomes and those who identify as white, may benefit from spending less of the household budget on food. In promoting mental health, policies are needed to render healthy food more affordable and to reduce other aspects of expenditure that impact upon food budgeting.
    Date: 2023–04–25
  29. By: Kaitila, Ville
    Abstract: Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are now one factor that affects firms’ broader competitiveness. We analyse the development of emission intensities – GHG emissions relative to value added produced – at the level of industries in 2008–2020 in Europe. Finland’s carbon competitiveness, as measured by relative GHG-emission intensities, is average but varies by industries. Competitiveness is good in most industries, but it falls behind the EU27 average in agriculture, paper industry, construction, and land transportation, and behind Sweden and/or Germany also in basic metals, energy industry, and sewerage and waste management. We find that labour productivity is negatively associated with the level of and changes in GHG-emission intensities in Europe. Furthermore, higher investments, higher carbon prices within the ETS mechanism, and higher environmental taxes are associated with lower emission intensities. Consequently, policies that promote productivity growth and financial incentives to decrease emissions are likely to help reach lower emissions. See also Etla Report no 139 Labour Productivity and Development of Carbon Competitiveness: Industry-Level Evidence from Europe.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions, GHG-intensity, Carbon competitiveness, Productivity, ETS
    JEL: C23 O44 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2023–05–22
  30. By: Archana Agnihotri ((Corresponding author), Research, Chennai, India); Brinda Viswanathan (Professor, Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India)
    Abstract: India has witnessed growing prevalence of double burden of malnutrition among both men and women. Based on BMI quantile regression estimates using NFHS-4 data, a comparative assessment on the role of dietary patterns, lifestyle, education, health and hygiene, household’s demographic composition and region of residence on double burden of malnutrition, is provided separately for men and women in India. NFHS-4 data differs in sample size and nature of questions for men and women. In order to provide robustness checks gendered comparisons are also discussed by contrasting the results from full sample with the sub-samples for couples, and women only from the households of male sample. Within each BMI quintile BMI increases with education except for women in top quintile where the magnitude reduces for 10 or more years and even more for 12 or more years of education, after controlling for other factors. This perhaps is a reflection of an expectation for women to be lean than it may be for men as they are more likely to be younger and exposed to media particularly social media. Vegan diets worsen BMI for the lowest quintile while the same diet is beneficial to those at the top quintile. For men sedentary occupations are associated with overweight and for women household drudgery is associated with increased underweight. There is a broad geographic segregation of malnutrition with low BMI more prevalent in Central and Eastern India and high BMI in Southern and Northern India while double burden is more prevalent among men in Western India. Overall, the conditional quantile estimates are discerning of the covariates associated with double burden of malnutrition in India compared to the conditional mean (OLS) estimates.
    Keywords: BMI, Quantile Regression, Gendered Difference, Diet, Lifestyle, Sample Size
    JEL: C21 C83 I12 J16 L66
  31. By: Nora Fingado; Steven Poelhekke
    Abstract: How costly are droughts to individuals’ nutrition in Africa? We measure severe droughts using a detailed satellite-based vegetation index observed bi-monthly for 0.08° grids between 1982 and 2015. Across 32 African countries, conditional on individual characteristics, timing relative to growing seasons, irrigation, climate, and country-year effects, we show that, unlike recurring droughts, a first-time exposure to a three-month severe drought reduces individuals’ body mass index by 2.5%. Droughts are worse for underweight and uneducated individuals. The uneducated are more likely to become unemployed during first-time droughts, whereas both labor reallocation across occupations and migration mitigate the effect of recurring droughts.
    Keywords: drought, nutrition, body-mass index, education, labor reallocation
    JEL: Q54 I10 I24 O13 J60
    Date: 2023
  32. By: Zehui, Zhao
    Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on pro-environmental behavior and actions, highlighting key theories, empirical evidence, and practical implications for both sociology and economics. We begin by outlining the foundations of pro-environmental behavior research, drawing from the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the Value-Belief-Norm Theory (Stern, Dietz, & Guagnano, 1995), and the Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) as primary theoretical frameworks. We then discuss the role of individual, social, and contextual factors in shaping pro-environmental behaviors, focusing on the importance of personal values (Schwartz, 1992), environmental concern (Dunlap & Van Liere, 1978), social norms (Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990), and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977). Next, we explore the role of economic incentives in promoting pro-environmental actions, highlighting the effectiveness of market-based instruments, such as carbon pricing (Stavins, 1998) and environmental subsidies (Goulder & Parry, 2008), as well as non-market approaches, like nudges (Thaler & Sunstein, 2008) and informational campaigns (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). We emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary approaches in understanding and promoting pro-environmental behavior, including the integration of behavioral economics (Shogren & Taylor, 2008) and social psychology (Gifford & Nilsson, 2014) within the broader field of environmental studies. In conclusion, we highlight the most promising avenues for future research, such as the role of digital technologies in fostering environmental engagement (Milkoreit et al., 2018), the impact of climate change communication on behavior change (Moser, 2010), and the potential for leveraging social networks and community-based initiatives to promote sustainable lifestyles (Burchell, Rettie, & Patel, 2013). By synthesizing the extensive body of literature on pro-environmental behavior and actions, this paper aims to guide both researchers and practitioners in developing more effective strategies to foster sustainable societies.
    Date: 2023–04–25
  33. By: Saussay, Aurélien; Zugravu-Soilita, Natalia
    Abstract: Most analyses of the impact of heterogeneous environmental policy stringency on the location of industrial firms have considered the relocation of entire activities – the well-known pollution haven hypothesis. Yet international enterprises may decide to only offshore a subset of their production chain – the so-called pollution offshoring hypothesis (POH). We introduce a simple empirical approach to test the POH combining a comprehensive industrial mergers and acquisitions dataset, a measure of sectoral linkages based on input-output tables and an index score of environmental policy stringency. Our results confirm the impact of relative environmental policy stringency on firms’ decisions to engage in cross-country M&As. Our findings also indicate that environmental taxation have a stronger impact on international investment decisions than standards-based policies. Further, we find that transactions involving a target firm operating in a sector upstream of the acquirer are more sensitive to environmental policy stringency, especially when that sector is highly pollution-intensive. This empirical evidence is consistent with the pollution offshoring hypothesis.
    Keywords: FDI; pollution offshoring; global supply chain; firm location; environmental regulation; Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy grant (ES/R009708/1);Climate SOLSTICE project JUST-DECARB (ES/V013971/1);PRINZ (ES/W010356/1); Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship (ECF/2021/536); Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment; Elsevier deal
    JEL: D20 F23 Q28
    Date: 2023–02–23
  34. By: Oleg Nivievskyi; Roman Neyter; Olha Halytsia; Pavlo Martyshev; Oleksandr Donchenko
    Abstract: Exempting soybean and rapeseed exporters from VAT has a negative effect on the economy of $\$$44.5-60.5 million per year. The implemented policy aimed to increase the processing of soybeans and rapeseed by Ukrainian plants. As a result, the processors received $\$$26 million and the state budget gained $\$$2-18 million. However, soybean farmers, mostly small and medium-sized, received $ 88.5 million in losses, far outweighing the benefits of processors and the state budget.
    Date: 2023–04
  35. By: Tim Hartwig; Trung Thanh Nguyen
    Abstract: We examine the association between infrastructure and a household’s resilience capacity against shocks and the impacts of a household’s resilience capacity on household consumption and poverty. We use panel data (collected in 2010, 2013, and 2016) from 1, 698 households in Thailand and 1, 701 households in Vietnam and employ an instrumental variable approach. We find that transportation and information and communication technology infrastructure help improve households’ absorptive capacity in coping with shocks. Furthermore, this capacity can prevent households from reducing consumption and falling into poverty. Thus, rural development policies should attend to transportation and information and communication technology infrastructure.
    Keywords: Infrastructure, Resilience capacity, Poverty, Instrumental variable, Thailand, Vietnam
    JEL: D01 O12 Q12
    Date: 2022–12
  36. By: Sowmya Dhanaraj ((Corresponding author), Madras School of Economics); Vidya Mahambare (Great Lakes Institute of Management); Pragati (Madras School of Economics)
    Abstract: Farm debt waivers which are meant to be a one-time settlement of loans have become common in India. We find that the timing of waiver announcements by state governments between 2001-02 and 2018-19 is associated with the timing of elections rather than agrarian distress reflected in droughts or farmer suicides. The waivers, unanticipated shocks to government expenditure, are associated with an increased revenue deficit, which is accommodated by a nearly 1/3rd cut in capital expenditure to control fiscal deficit within a stipulated norm. Given its path dependence, lower capital expenditure also reduces the quality of government spending in subsequent years.
    Keywords: debt waivers, agriculture policy, agriculture credit, welfare programs, electoral promises, state finances
    JEL: H53 H31 H81 Q18 Q14
    Date: 2021–11
  37. By: Matthias Raddant; Martin Bertau; Gerald Steiner
    Abstract: In this paper we present a new method to trace the flows of phosphate from the countries where it is mined to the counties where it is used in agricultural production. We achieve this by combining data on phosphate rock mining with data on fertilizer use and data on international trade of phosphate-related products. We show that by making certain adjustments to data on net exports we can derive the matrix of phosphate flows on the country level to a large degree and thus contribute to the accuracy of material flow analyses, a results that is important for improving environmental accounting, not only for phosphorus but for many other resources.
    Date: 2023–05
  38. By: Salvador Barberà (MOVE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and Barcelona School of Economics); Walter Bossert (CIREQ, University of Montreal); Juan D. Moreno-Ternero (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: We propose to establish wine rankings using scores that depend on the differences between favorable and unfavorable opinions about each wine, according to the Borda rule. Unlike alternative approaches and specifications, this method is well-defined even if the panelists’ quality relations are not required to exhibit demanding properties such as transitivity or acyclicity. As an illustration, we apply the method to rank wines assessed by different experts and compare the resulting ranking with that obtained according to Condorcet’s method of majority voting.
    Keywords: Wine ratings; Wine rankings; Borda methods.
    JEL: C18 D71 L15 L66
    Date: 2023
  39. By: M M Quinlan (Imperial College London); J D Mumford (Imperial College London); M Q Benedict; F Wäckers (Biobest Groupe NV); C F Oliva (CTIFL - Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Légumes); M Wohlfarter; G Smagghe; E Vila; J Klapwijk; A Michaelakis; C M Collins; J Prudhomme (MIVEGEC - Maladies infectieuses et vecteurs : écologie, génétique, évolution et contrôle - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IRD [France-Sud] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UM - Université de Montpellier); G Torres (WOAH - World Organisation for Animal Health); F Diaz (WOAH - World Organisation for Animal Health); L Saul-Gershenz (UC Davis - University of California [Davis] - UC - University of California); K Cook; A Verghese; P Sreerama Kumar
    Abstract: A network of scientists involved in shipment of live insects has met and generated a series of articles on issues related to live insect transport. The network is diverse, covering large-scale commercial interests, government operated areawide control programmes, biomedical research and many smaller applications, in research, education and private uses. Many insect species have a record of safe transport, pose minimal risks and are shipped frequently between countries. The routine shipments of the most frequently used insect model organism for biomedical research, Drosophila melanogaster, is an example. Successful large-scale shipments from commercial biocontrol and pollinator suppliers also demonstrate precedents for low-risk shipment categories, delivered in large volumes to high quality standards. Decision makers need access to more information (publications or official papers) that details actual risks from the insects themselves or their possible contaminants, and should propose proportionate levels of management. There may be harm to source environments when insects are collected directly from the wild, and there may be harm to receiving environments. Several risk frameworks include insects and various international coordinating bodies, with experience of guidance on relevant risks, exist. All stakeholders would benefit from an integrated overview of guidance for insect shipping, with reference to types of risk and categories of magnitude, without trying for a single approach requiring universal agreement. Proposals for managing uncertainty and lack of data for smaller or infrequent shipments, for example, must not disrupt trade in large volumes of live insects, which are already supporting strategic objectives in several sectors.
    Keywords: Courier services, Insect, Intergovernmental treaties and organisations, Risk analysis, Trade
    Date: 2022
  40. By: Alejandro Rueda-Sanz; Timothy Cheston (Center for International Development at Harvard University)
    Abstract: Achieving economic prosperity in the Amazon rainforest is often seen as incompatible with protecting the forest. Environmental researchers rightly warn that rapid deforestation is pushing the Amazon close to a potential tipping point of forest dieback into grassy savanna. Less has been said about what is required to generate shared prosperity in Amazonian communities. Deforestation is often treated as inevitable to serve human needs, local and global. This report synthesizes the findings of two engagements by the Growth Lab at Harvard University that study the nature of economic growth in two Amazonian contexts: Loreto in Peru, and Caquetá, Guaviare, and Putumayo, in Colombia. The aim of these engagements is to leverage the Growth Lab's global research into the nature of economic growth to apply those methods to the unique challenge of developing paths to prosperity in the Amazon in ways that do not harm the forest. This report compares and contrasts the findings from the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon to assess the extent to which there are generalizable lessons on the relationship between economic growth and forest protection in the Amazon.
    Keywords: Colombia, Amazon, Economic Complexity, Remoteness
    Date: 2023–02
  41. By: Camille Salesse (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: I estimate the relationship between income, the number of days of exposure to the four main air pollutants and the proportion of "cocktail days" with French municipal data over the period 2012-2018. I find contrasting results between rural and urban areas. The most affluent urban municipalities have on average a lower number of pollution days compared to the poorest urban municipalities. In urban areas, the pollution days are composed of an equal proportion of cocktail days between the poorest and the most affluent municipalities. On the other hand, in the rural areas the better-off municipalities have on average a higher number of days of pollution, composed of more toxic mixtures, compared to the poorer municipalities. I also show that the pollution levels and the difference in the number of pollution days between the better-off and poorer municipalities are higher in urban areas.
    Keywords: air pollution, cocktail, inequality, environmental justice
    Date: 2022–12–02
  42. By: Uche Oluku; Shaoming Cheng
    Abstract: The paper examines the effects of stringent land use regulations, measured using the Wharton Residential Land Use Regulatory Index (WRLURI), on employment growth during the period 2010-2020 in the Retail, Professional, and Information sectors across 878 local jurisdictions in the United States. All the local jurisdictions exist in both (2006 and 2018) waves of the WRLURI surveys and hence constitute a unique panel data. We apply a mediation analytical framework to decompose the direct and indirect effects of land use regulation stringency on sectoral employment growth and specialization. Our analysis suggests a fully mediated pattern in the relationship between excessive land use regulations and employment growth, with housing cost burden as the mediator. Specifically, a one standard deviation increase in the WRLURI index is associated with an approximate increase of 0.8 percentage point in the proportion of cost burdened renters. Relatedly, higher prevalence of cost-burdened renters has moderate adverse effects on employment growth in two sectors. A one percentage point increase in the proportion of cost burdened renters is associated with 0.04 and 0.017 percentage point decreases in the Professional and Information sectors, respectively.
    Date: 2023–05
  43. By: Angélica Domínguez-Cardoza; Adelina Garamow; Josefin Meyer
    Abstract: How do commodity price movements affect sovereign default risk over the long-run? Using a novel dataset covering 41 countries and 42 raw commodities, we take a comprehensive long-run view to shed light on this so far understudied relationship between commodity risk and sovereign risk across 150 years. We create a novel country-specific commodity price index that allows us to take advantage of countries’ variation in their commodity export compositions. Our results are twofold: first, commodity price fluctuations show a persistent association with sovereign borrowing costs for countries that are commodity export dependent across the last one and a half centuries. Second, historically this relationship was driven by agricultural price movements; today it is driven by mineral and energy price movements.
    Keywords: Sovereign Risk, commodity prices
    JEL: E44 F41 F34 H63 G12
    Date: 2022
  44. By: Alexandre Garel (Audencia Business School); Arthur Petit-Romec
    Date: 2021–06
  45. By: Alain Mujinga Kapemba (UPC - Université protestante au Congo); Jean-Claude Nkashama Mukenge (UPC - Université protestante au Congo, Université Pédagogique Nationale); Monique Kabongo Bafue (Institut supérieur des techniques médicales de Kisangani); Alain Etshindo Aseke (Université Notre-Dame du Kasayi)
    Abstract: Non-timber forest products are of great socio-cultural and religious importance in forest areas. They provide food, medicinal plants, ornamental plants, energy, construction materials, fishing equipment, goods and various utensils to the populations. As such, non-timber forest products contribute both to food security and to the general well-being of the population of the city of Kananga. Despite their importance and their enormous potential, there is a very low valuation and consumption of certain non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in this City, difficult legal access to these products and a large-scale exploitation that is difficult for the different social strata concerned. Following this constant, this study aims to identify the factors associated with the consumption of Gnetum Africanum (MFumbwa) by households in the City of Kananga in the DR. congo. Therefore, the use of primary data through the probability sampling method associated with the multistage sampling technique was necessary to determine the 209 households to be surveyed. After analysis and processing of the statistical data, the results of the Probit regression indicate that the consumption of MFumbwa increases with the variables : household size, marital status, tribute of the head of household, occupation of the head of household, religion, and main source of income. Information. These results attest to the importance of households in the city of Kananga to adopt MFumbwa in their usual food consumption, because it has a significant nutritional value in the body.
    Abstract: Les produits forestiers non ligneux sont d'une grande importance socioculturelle et religieuse dans les zones forestières. Elles procurent de la nourriture, des plantes médicinales, des plantes ornementales, de l'énergie, des matériaux de construction, deséquipements des pêches, des biens et des ustensiles divers aux populations. Àce titre, les produits forestiers non ligneux contribuent tant à la sécurité alimentaire qu'au bien-être général de la population de la ville de Kananga. Malgré leur importance et leur énorme potentialité, on constate une très faible valorisation et consommation des certains produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL) dans cette Ville, un accès légal difficile à ces produits et une exploitation en grande échelle malaisée par les différentes couches sociales concernées. Suite à ce constant, cette étudea pour objetd'identifier les facteurs associés à la consommation du Gnetum Africanum (MFumbwa) des ménages de la Ville de Kananga en RD. Congo. De ce fait, le recours aux données primaires à travers la méthode d'échantillonnage probabiliste associée à la technique d'échantillonnage à plusieurs degrés a été nécessaire pour déterminer les 209 ménages à enquêter. Après analyse et traitement des données statistiques, les résultats de la régression Probit renseignent que la consommation de MFumbwa augmente avec les variables: taille de ménage, statut matrimonial, tribut du chef de ménage, profession du chef de ménage, religion, et principale source d'information.Ces résultats attestent l'importance des ménages de la ville de Kananga, d'adopter le MFumbwa dans leur consommation habituelle alimentaire, car ce dernier a une valeur nutritionnelle non négligeable dans l'organisme.
    Keywords: Déterminants, consommation, Produits forestiers non ligneux, Gnetum Africanum, Probit, MFumbwa, Kananga
    Date: 2023–04–12
  46. By: Martinez Cillero, Maria (European Commission); Gregori, Wildmer Daniel (Banco de Portugal); Bose, Udichibarna (University of Essex)
    Abstract: This analysis explores the implications of technological shifts towards greener and sustainable innovations on acquisition propensity between firms with different technological capacities. Using a dataset of completed control acquisition deals over the period of 2009-2020 from 23 OECD countries, we find that innovative firms are more likely to acquire innovative target companies. We also find that green acquirors (i.e., firms with green patents) are more inclined to enter into acquisition deals with green firms, possibly due to their technological proximity and informational advantages which further enhances their post-acquisition green innovation performances. Our results also show an increase in green acquisitions after the Paris Agreement by non-green acquiror firms, and these are more pronounced for acquirors in climate policy-relevant sectors and countries with low environmental standards than their counterparts. However, green acquisitions after the Paris Agreement do not show any significant impact on their post-acquisition innovation performances, raising concerns related to greenwashing behaviour by investing firms.
    Keywords: Acquisitions, green patents, firm innovation, Paris agreement, green transition
    JEL: G34 O30 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2023–04

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