nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒05‒22
37 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Farm size and exposure to extreme heat: evidence from subsistence farms in Sub-Saharan Africa By Fernando Aragon; Juan Pablo Rud
  2. Assessing investment priorities for driving inclusive agricultural transformation in Tanzania By Aragie, Emerta; Benfica, Rui; Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josée; Thurlow, James
  3. Adaptation to natural disasters through the agricultural land rental market: evidence from Bangladesh By Eskander, Shaikh; Barbier, Edward B.
  4. Market access and agricultural land use: Does distance matter? Insights from Colombia By Arguello, R; García, A. F.; Bolivar, M. F.; Alzate, Maryury
  5. Is irrigation fit for purpose? A review of the relationships between scheme size and performance of irrigation systems By McCarthy, Nancy; Ringler, Claudia; Agbonlahor, Mure Uhunamure; Pandya, A. B.; Iyob, Biniam; Perez, Nicostrato
  6. Nutrient deficiencies and compositional variability in fertilizers : The case of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam By MANO, Yukichi; ARIMOTO, Yutaka; Nguyen, Duy Can; Do, Van Hoang; KOJIN, Emi; Nguyen, Thiet; TSUKADA, Kazunari; Vo, Hong Tu
  7. Estimating the cost and affordability of healthy diets: How much do methods matter? By Headey, Derek D.; Hirvonen, Kalle; Alderman, Harold
  8. Global food policy report 2023: Rethinking food crisis responses: Synopsis [in French] By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  9. An innovative Deep Learning Based Approach for Accurate Agricultural Crop Price Prediction By Mayank Ratan Bhardwaj; Jaydeep Pawar; Abhijnya Bhat; Deepanshu; Inavamsi Enaganti; Kartik Sagar; Y. Narahari
  10. Informed but Tempted: Latent Class Analysis of College Students’ Food Choices By Sivashankar, Pathmanathan; Huseynov, Samir; Duke, Joshua
  11. Agricultural Reclaimed Water in Florida By Liu, Wen; Onel, Gulcan; Useche, Pilar
  12. Estimating the Value of Near-Real-Time Satellite Information for Monitoring Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon By Biggs, Trent; Caviglia-Harris, Jill; Rodrigues Ribeiro, Jime; Ottoni Santiago, Thaís; Sills, Erin; AP West, Thales; Mullan, Katrina
  13. From Deforestation to Reforestation: The Role of General Deterrence in Changing Farmers' Behavior By Vieira, João Pedro; Dahis, Ricardo; Assunção, Juliano
  14. Institutional pluralism and pro-poor land registration: lessons on interim property rights from urban Tanzania By Manara, Martina; Pani, Erica
  15. Early Warning Systems, Mobile Technology, and Cholera Aversion: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh By Aziz, Sonia; Boyle, Kevin; Akanda, Ali S.; Hanifi, M.A.; Pakhtigian, Emily L.
  16. The dilemmas of relevance: exploring the role of Natural resources and Energy Consumption in managing climate crisis in Africa By Olatunji A. Shobande; Simplice A. Asongu
  17. The Value of Remotely-Sensed Data in Terrestrial Habitat Corridor Design for Large Migratory Species By Leonard, Bryan; Gigliotti, Laura; Middleton, Arthur; Kroetz, Kailin
  18. Is there a religious dimension to concern about farmer-herder conflicts in Nigeria? By Daniel Tuki
  19. Increasing supply for woody biomass-based energy through wasted resources: Insights from the US private landowners By Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Quang-Loc, Nguyen; Jin, Ruining; Nguyen, Minh_Hieu Thi Dr; Nguyen, Thi-Phuong; La, Viet-Phuong; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
  20. Can Resource-backed Loans Mitigate Climate Change ? By Yacouba Coulibaly
  21. Greening our Laws: Revising Land Acquisition Law for Coal Mining in India By Srivastav, Sugandha; Singh, Tanmay
  22. Changing North American Cattle and Beef Trade Flows By Strine, Joshua L.; Anderson, David P.
  23. Transmission of risks between energy and agricultural commodities: Frequency time-varying VAR, asymmetry and portfolio management By Furuoka, Fumitaka; Yaya, OlaOluwa S; Ling, Piu Kiew; Al-Faryan, Mamdouh Abdulaziz Saleh; Islam, M. Nazmul
  24. The UN Food Systems Summit 2021: Lessons of the gender and finance levers By Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; McNamara, Brian; Njuki, Jemimah; Swinnen, Johan; Vos, Rob
  25. Patterns of global and regional value chain participation in the EAC By Krantz, Sebastian
  26. Kentucky Produce Auctions and Regional Terminal Markets: An Analysis of Demand Conditions By Pierce, Thomas
  27. Agrarian governance – who, what, why, how, where, when, price? By Bachev, Hrabrin
  28. Cooperation and ethical choices through an experimental approach By Ngoc Thao NOET; Serge Blondel
  29. Assessing biodiversity-related financial risks: Navigating the landscape of existing approaches By OECD
  30. The Implementation of a Financial Software into an Educational Farm By Kacou, Yves-Bernard; Lopez, Jose A.; Eborn, Douglas; Djidonou, Desire
  31. Industrial Decarbonization and Competitiveness: Building a Performance Alliance By Kopp, Raymond J.; Pizer, William; Rennert, Kevin
  32. A Statistical Learning Approach to Land Valuation: Optimizing the Use of External Information By David Albouy; Minchul Shin
  33. Immersive Technologies Affecting Psychological Factors that Lead to Voluntary Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Transdisciplinary Survey By Barbara Buljat
  34. Land-use regulation and housing supply elasticity: evidence from France By Guillaume Chapelle; J.B. Eyméoud; C. Wolf
  35. Imperial Politics, Open Markets and Private Ordering: The Global Grain Trade (1875-1914) By Jérôme Sgard
  36. 2022 Annual Report of the Southwest Minnesota Farm Business Management Association By Brand, Devin L.; Van Nurden, Pauline A.; Paulson, Garen J.; Knorr, Tonya L.; Sandager, Nick; Nordquist, Dale W.
  37. Potentials for improving the socioeconomic situation of Ghanaian cocoa farmers: The role of sustainability initiatives By Grohs, Hannes; Grumiller, Jan; Peham, Andreas

  1. By: Fernando Aragon (Simon Fraser University); Juan Pablo Rud (Royal Holloway, University of London)
    Abstract: This paper pools panel data from Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Malawi to examine the heterogeneous impact of extreme heat on subsistence farmers. Despite significant differences in agricultural practices and performance between smaller and larger farms, we find that high temperatures have a negative impact on agricultural productivity, output, and food security regardless of farm size. Farms of different size seem to respond differently to extreme temperatures: small farms increase their land use while larger farms use more pesticides. While all farms also increase off-farm work, these responses do not fully mitigate the effects on output and food insecurity.
    Date: 2023–02
  2. By: Aragie, Emerta; Benfica, Rui; Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josée; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: This study utilizes a recursive dynamic general equilibrium model calibrated with data for Tanzania to explore the link between agricultural and rural development spending and four development outcomes: economic growth, job creation, poverty reduction, and diet quality. Results show that no single expenditure option is the most effective in achieving all four desired development outcomes for Tanzania. Productivity-enhancing agricultural interventions in horticulture are effective at generating growth in the agri-food system (AFS) and improving diets, but have a limited effect on employment. Supporting cereal producers has large effects on growth and poverty reduction, with relatively high returns per dollar invested, but its effect on diet quality is weak. Providing livestock services to milk and poultry farmers consistently ranks high across the outcome indicators, with strong employment effects on downstream AFS. Crop research and development and feeder roads generate moderate impacts on all four outcomes. Partially reallocating the budget towards the most cost-effective spending options can substantially increase the development effectiveness for Tanzania of agriculture sector support expenditures. The approach adopted in this study can help policymakers design and prioritize agricultural interventions and expenditure portfolios that better reflect the country’s broad food system.
    Keywords: TANZANIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agricultural transformation; agrifood systems; diet quality; economic growth; equilibrium; farmers; horticulture; livestock; milk; policy innovation; poultry; poverty reduction; research; rural development;
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Eskander, Shaikh; Barbier, Edward B.
    Abstract: We examine the effects of natural disaster on agricultural households who make rent-in or rent-out transactions. Our econometric approach accounts for the effects of disaster-exposure both on the adjustments in the quantity of operated land and agricultural income conditional on the land quantity adjustments. Using a household survey dataset from Bangladesh, we find that farmers were able to partially ameliorate their losses from exposure to disasters by optimizing their operational farm size through these land rental transactions. Land rental market may be an effective instrument in reducing disaster risks, and post-disaster policies should consider this role more systematically.
    Keywords: Bangladesh; natural disasters; extensive and intensive margins; land rental markets
    JEL: Q24 Q54 D13 D64 Q15
    Date: 2023–02–01
  4. By: Arguello, R; García, A. F.; Bolivar, M. F.; Alzate, Maryury
    Abstract: A rich dataset, based on the agricultural census, characterizing Colombian agricultural units is used to examine the relationship between market access and market influence, on one hand, and the intensity of land use for productive purposes as instrumented as the share of usable land with respect to the total area of the production unit, on the other. We find that there is a stable and significant negative relationship between the two, meaning that as market access and market influence improve there is a decline in the share of usable land in average, reflecting a lower extent an intensity of agricultural activity. We additionally explore heterogenous effects arising from different market types and find that this relationship changes with the type of municipality, yielding significant implications for land and rural policy. Overall, the results provide evidence supporting the convenience of place-based policies and the usefulness of the qualified von Thunen model for approaching the analysis of rural land use.
    Keywords: Market access, Market influence, Land use, Land policy, von Thünen model, ColombiaDeclarations of interest: none.
    JEL: Q15 R14 R12 Q18
    Date: 2023–05–04
  5. By: McCarthy, Nancy; Ringler, Claudia; Agbonlahor, Mure Uhunamure; Pandya, A. B.; Iyob, Biniam; Perez, Nicostrato
    Abstract: Irrigation is increasingly being called upon to help stabilize and grow food and water security in the face of multiple crises; these crises include climate change, but also recent global food and energy price crises, including the 2007/08 food and energy price crises, and the more recent crises triggered by the COVID 19 pandemic and the war on Ukraine. While irrigation development used to focus on public, large-scale, surface- and reservoir-fed systems, over the last several decades, private small-scale investments in groundwater irrigation have grown in importance and are expected to see rapid future growth, particularly in connection with solar-powered pumping systems. But is irrigation ‘fit-for-purpose’ to support population growth, economic development, and multiple food, energy and climate crises? This paper reviews how fit-for-purpose irrigation is with a focus on economies of scale of surface and groundwater systems, and a particular examination of systems in Sub-Saharan Africa where the need for expansion is largest. The review finds challenges for both larger surface and smaller groundwater systems in the face of growing demand for irrigated agriculture and dwindling and less reliable water supplies. To support resilience of the sector, we propose both a holistic design and management improvement agenda for larger surface systems, and a series of suggestions to improve sustainability concerns of groundwater systems
    Keywords: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA; AFRICA; ASIA; irrigation; agriculture; food security; water security; crises; climate change; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; Ukraine; development; scaling; solar energy; economics; groundwater;
    Date: 2023
  6. By: MANO, Yukichi; ARIMOTO, Yutaka; Nguyen, Duy Can; Do, Van Hoang; KOJIN, Emi; Nguyen, Thiet; TSUKADA, Kazunari; Vo, Hong Tu
    Abstract: Quality control in fertilizer markets is critical to food security by facilitating fertilizer application and increasing agricultural productivity. With the active proliferation of new fertilizer producers, Vietnam has also faced this problem, but public and market initiatives have recently been taken to address the issue This paper evaluates the quality of 141 randomly sampled fertilizers in the Mekong Delta, the country’s central rice producing area. We intentionally sampled unbranded products to focus on the most vulnerable market segment. On average, our sample contains the labeled nutrient content. However, the quality variability is high, and half of the sample has at least one nutrient content below the legal requirement. We also find that nitrogen is over-concentrated and phosphate is diluted. These findings suggest that the quality of fertilizers in Vietnam, even unbranded ones, is reliable on average, but efforts are needed to stabilize quality variability. In addition, over-concentration of nitrogen may warrant policy attention as farmers may inadvertently over-apply nitrogen and harm the environment.
    Keywords: low-quality fertilizer, experience goods, Vietnam
    JEL: L15 L51 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2023–04
  7. By: Headey, Derek D.; Hirvonen, Kalle; Alderman, Harold
    Abstract: Cost and affordability of healthy diet (CoAHD) metrics developed in a handful of academic studies have quickly become mainstream food security indicators among major development institutions. The World Bank and FAO now report CoAHD statistics in their widely used databanks, and the UN’s State of Food Insecurity and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) reports CoAHD metrics on an annual basis, with the headline conclusion being that over 3 billion people worldwide cannot afford a healthy diet. While quantifying affordability constraints is indeed a vital addition to the suite of global food security indicators, there is a dearth of scientific analysis on the accuracy and sensitivity of CoAHD methods. Published global CoAHD estimates rely on three implicit assumptions: that demographic differences across countries have little effect on average diet costs; that non-food expenditure requirements have little systematic variation across countries; and that international food price data is representative in a population sense and product coverage sense. Testing these assumptions on the cost of the EAT-Lancet reference diet, we find sizable sensitivity of baseline methods to adjusting diet affordability estimates for systematic cross-country differences in demographic profiles and non-food expenditure requirements, smaller effects of adjusting for inadequate food product coverage in international price data, and inconclusive evidence on issues of urban bias in price surveys. Our proposed methodological improvements significantly change country, regional and global estimates of healthy diet affordability, though not the headline conclusion that several billion people cannot afford a healthy diet. Even so, the accuracy, rigor, and reliability of CoAHD statistics warrant closer investigation given their widespread adoption and utilization.
    Keywords: diet; costs; metrics; food security; development; affordability; demography; expenditure; urban areas; nutrition; poverty; food prices
    Date: 2023
  8. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: In 2022, the world faced multiple crises. Disruptions to food systems from the protracted COVID-19 pandemic, major natural disasters, civil unrest and political instability, and the growing impacts of climate change continued, as the Russia-Ukraine war and inflation exacerbated a global food and fertilizer crisis. The growing number of crises, their increasing impact, and rising numbers of hungry and displaced people have galvanized calls to rethink responses to food crises, creating a real opportunity for change.
    Keywords: agriculture; development; food security; hunger; policy; resilience; crises
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Mayank Ratan Bhardwaj (Indian Institute of Science); Jaydeep Pawar (Indian Institute of Science); Abhijnya Bhat (PES University); Deepanshu (Indian Institute of Science); Inavamsi Enaganti (Indian Institute of Science); Kartik Sagar (Indian Institute of Science); Y. Narahari (Indian Institute of Science)
    Abstract: Accurate prediction of agricultural crop prices is a crucial input for decision-making by various stakeholders in agriculture: farmers, consumers, retailers, wholesalers, and the Government. These decisions have significant implications including, most importantly, the economic well-being of the farmers. In this paper, our objective is to accurately predict crop prices using historical price information, climate conditions, soil type, location, and other key determinants of crop prices. This is a technically challenging problem, which has been attempted before. In this paper, we propose an innovative deep learning based approach to achieve increased accuracy in price prediction. The proposed approach uses graph neural networks (GNNs) in conjunction with a standard convolutional neural network (CNN) model to exploit geospatial dependencies in prices. Our approach works well with noisy legacy data and produces a performance that is at least 20% better than the results available in the literature. We are able to predict prices up to 30 days ahead. We choose two vegetables, potato (stable price behavior) and tomato (volatile price behavior) and work with noisy public data available from Indian agricultural markets.
    Date: 2023–04
  10. By: Sivashankar, Pathmanathan; Huseynov, Samir; Duke, Joshua
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Liu, Wen; Onel, Gulcan; Useche, Pilar
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023
  12. By: Biggs, Trent; Caviglia-Harris, Jill; Rodrigues Ribeiro, Jime; Ottoni Santiago, Thaís; Sills, Erin; AP West, Thales; Mullan, Katrina
    Abstract: We estimate the amount of avoided deforestation due to the use of near-real-time satellite imagery (DETER) to support the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Legal Amazon (PPCDAm), the conservation of indigenous and other protected areas, and compliance with the Brazilian Forest Code (FC). We develop a Directed Acyclical Graph (DAG) that outlines some of the econometric challenges that arise from the role of policy in the estimation of satellite data on deforestation and consider that policy could be a mediator and/or a moderator along this causal chain. We control for other policies that were introduced simultaneously with DETER, and allow for changes in the influences of prices, agricultural settlement, and forest conservation policies on deforestation after near-real-time monitoring was introduced. We find both direct impacts of DETER on deforestation, and indirect impacts via changes in the influences of commodity prices on deforestation. Our counterfactual estimates suggest that 652, 216 km2 of forest was saved from 2000 to 2015 in the Legal Amazon region due to the presence of satellites (43, 481 km2 per year). We estimate that avoided emissions amount to approximately 24 Pg CO2 during our study period. At the municipality level, standardized carbon emission reductions ranged from -1447 to 288, 611 Mg CO2 per km2.
    Date: 2022–10–19
  13. By: Vieira, João Pedro; Dahis, Ricardo; Assunção, Juliano
    Abstract: We investigate the role of general deterrence in improving forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon. Using a difference-in-differences strategy and novel farm-level data, we find that sanctions curbed deforestation and promoted reforestation among punished farmers and their neighbors. Heterogeneities reveal that even sanctions lacking incapacitation components lead to substantial behavioral changes and that farmers’ responsiveness to sanctions coincides with the government's commitment to enforcement. We find no evidence of significant strategic responses regarding spatial displacement or monitoring evasion. Overall, sanctions prevented 1.6 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions between 2006-2019, equivalent to 31% of US emissions in 2021.
    Date: 2023–04–19
  14. By: Manara, Martina; Pani, Erica
    Abstract: While interim property rights are thought to achieve incremental improvements of tenure security and rights for the urban poor, there is surprisingly little research into the provision of starter documents in sub-Saharan Africa. Namely, how effective are interim property rights in responding to local demands for tenure security and rights in the long run and vis-à-vis other de facto and de jure tenure options? Drawing on an institutional analytic approach and mixed-method research, we study the Residential Licence programme of Tanzania, which offers short-term leases to around 220, 000 plots in Dar es Salaam. This interim property right has undergone substantial institutional drift, with decreasing uptake rates, low renewal rates and poor updating of records. Today, landholders value other de facto and de jure proofs of ownership over and above the Residential Licence, which is now less perceived as pro-poor and fit-for-purpose. These results illustrate that interim property rights need maintenance and recalibration, or they will ‘come adrift’ amidst other institutional layers. Reflecting on the effects of institutional layering in property rights, this paper contributes to literatures on incremental land reform and demand for land titles, and it provides important policy recommendations relevant to urban Tanzania and wider contexts.
    Keywords: Dar es Salaam Tanzania; incremental policy; institutional layering and Drift; interim property rights; land registration; land tenure security; legal pluralism; International Growth Centre TZA-19071; Richard Oram Fund (through Regional and Urban Planning Studies at the LSE; Postdoctoral Fellowship ( ES/W005719/1
    JEL: J50 Q15
    Date: 2023–06–01
  15. By: Aziz, Sonia; Boyle, Kevin; Akanda, Ali S.; Hanifi, M.A.; Pakhtigian, Emily L.
    Abstract: In Bangladesh, cholera poses a significant health risk. Yet, information about the nature and severity of cholera risk is limited as risk varies over time and by location and changing weather patterns have made historical cholera risk predictions less reliable. In this paper, we examine how households use geographically and temporally personalized cholera risk predictions to inform their water use behaviors. Using data from an eight month field experiment, we estimate how access to a smartphone application containing monthly cholera risk predictions unique to a user’s home location affects households’ knowledge about their cholera risk as well as their water use practices. We find that households with access to this application feel more equipped to respond to environmental and health risks they may face and reduce their reliance on surface water for bathing and washing—a common cholera transmission pathway. We do not find that households invest additional resources into drinking water treatment, nor do we find reductions in self-reported cholera incidence. Access to dynamic risk information can help households make safer water choices; tailoring information provision to those at highest risk could reduce cholera transmission in endemic areas.
    Date: 2022–10–19
  16. By: Olatunji A. Shobande (University of Aberdeen, UK); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The study examines the role of natural resources and energy consumption in managing the climate crisis in Africa, using annual series data from the World Bank from 1980 to 2019. The empirical strategy is based on the second-generation panel techniques that account for cross-sectional dependency in the series. Specifically, the empirical evidence is based on the Westerlund (2017) panel cointegration test, panel augmented mean group, common correlated effects mean group and the vector autoregressive-vector error correction approach. Evidence from the panel analysis confirmed the existence of Carbon Kuznets Curve (CKC) U-shaped nexus in Africa, but the country-level results are mixed. Furthermore, results using the vector autoregressive-vector correction model indicate possible convergence among the variables across the African countries. Natural resource unidirectionally Granger-causes carbon emissions. We suggest the consideration of environmental factors in the utilisation of natural resources. Similarly, energy efficiency is crucial to decouple carbon from energy usage. The study complements the extant literature by assessing the role of natural resources and energy consumption in managing climate crisis in Africa.
    Keywords: Carbon Kuznets Curve; carbon emission; Natural resource; climate crisis; energy consumption; Africa
    Date: 2023–01
  17. By: Leonard, Bryan; Gigliotti, Laura; Middleton, Arthur; Kroetz, Kailin (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Cost-effective conservation program design to support seasonal migratory species is urgently needed, but to-date has received little attention by economists. Conserving migratory corridors is a complicated design problem because of the large spatial scales over which migratory species can travel and the weakest-link characteristic of the problem. If one section or area of a potential migratory corridor is unable to support species movement, the migration through that route will not be successful. We develop and apply an integer-programming modeling approach that leverages innovative new data products to propose a cost-effective, landscape-scale conservation planning approach. We apply our approach to the Cody elk herd range within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), leveraging satellite data on crop type and density over time and GPS collar data on elk migrations. We provide empirical evidence that using new satellite data products can avoid unconnected corridors and increase the cost effectiveness of corridor construction. In the Cody context, we estimate that achieving the conservation outcome associated with using satellite data on both costs and benefits would cost close to twice as much when using satellite benefit data but only limited cost data and about three times as much when using satellite cost data but only limited benefit data. Empirical work across additional herds is needed to provide additional insights into characteristics of contexts under which we expect gains from satellite and/or GPS collar data.
    Date: 2022–10–19
  18. By: Daniel Tuki (Research Fellow, WZB Berlin Social Science Center, Germany)
    Abstract: Although many studies have been conducted on the conflicts between Fulani nomadic herders and sedentary farmers over land and water resources in Nigeria, very few have examined the religious dimension of these conflicts. In fact, some studies have described the religious dimension as an oversimplification of a complex social problem. But is this really the case? Is religion important in understanding the dynamics of the conflict? My instrumental variable regression results show that Muslim domination – a scenario where the population in a local government area (LGA) (i.e. municipality) is predominantly Muslim – reduces the likelihood of being concerned about farmer-herder conflicts. It also shows that Muslims are less concerned about the conflict than Christians. A plausible mechanism behind this finding is that the common religion of Islam shared by the nomadic Fulani herders and the Muslim sedentary population allows for trust to be established between members of the two groups, which in turn makes it easier for conflicts over land and water resources to be resolved amicably without recourse to violence.
    Keywords: Farmer-herder conflict, Pastoral conflict, Muslim domination, Religion, Nigeria
    JEL: D74 N57 Q24 Q25 Z12
    Date: 2023–04
  19. By: Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Quang-Loc, Nguyen; Jin, Ruining; Nguyen, Minh_Hieu Thi Dr; Nguyen, Thi-Phuong; La, Viet-Phuong; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
    Abstract: Preventing climate change from reaching the tipping point requires the reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Woody biomass is suggested as a substitute for fossil fuels to achieve sustainable development. Transitioning the land purpose entails investment and a tradeoff between wood pellet production and the current utilities created by the land, hindering the private landowners’ willingness. The current study suggests that utilizing the woody leftover on the land can potentially increase the woody biomass supply. Employing the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics on a dataset of 707 private landowners in the United States (US), we aimed to identify the characteristics of woody-resource-wasting landowners and examine how to increase their likelihood to contribute to woody biomass-based energy. We discovered that landowners being male, having higher income, and being a member of a state/national forestry organization are more likely to waste woody resources. Moreover, woody-resource-wasting landowners perceiving woody biomass-based energy as a substitution for fossil fuel are likelier to sell wood, while those perceiving environmental costs over benefits of woody biomass-based energy are less likely to sell. These findings can be used as insights for policymakers, logging companies, and state agencies to find an additional supply of woody biomass-based energy from landowners likely to waste woody resources.
    Date: 2023–04–11
  20. By: Yacouba Coulibaly (UO - Université d'Orléans, UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: Resource-backed loans are used today by many resource-rich countries as an effective means of providing public goods and services. However, this type of financing can undermine environmental sustainability (e.g., forest cover loss, CO2 emissions, pollution, ecological collapse, material footprint, etc.). In this paper, we first use propensity score matching, which allows for self-selection bias in signature policies, coarsened exact matching, and the entropy balancing method to test whether resource-backed loans have a causal impact on forest cover loss in 64 developing countries from 2004 to 2018. Through a series of econometric and alternative specification tests, we find that resource-backed loans increase forest cover loss. Nevertheless, when we disaggregate resource-backed loans to run the regressions, we find that mineral, tobacco, and cocoa-backed loans increase forest cover, while oil-backed loans have no significant direct impact on forest cover. We recommend that signatory countries and those considering signing resource-backed loans put in place a very strong compensation mechanism, such as introducing taxes or reforming the current tax system in resource-backed loan agreements, to protect biodiversity and mitigate the environmental impacts of these loans. Signatory countries must ensure full transparency of resource-backed loans to make the characteristics of the loans more fluid, avoiding a situation of budgetary debauchery.
    Keywords: H81, C12, Q54, Q01, Resource-backed loans, Resource rents, Forest cover loss, Resource taxation, Environment, Climate Change, Propensity score matching O13
    Date: 2023–04–18
  21. By: Srivastav, Sugandha; Singh, Tanmay
    Abstract: Laws that govern land acquisition can lock in old paradigms. We study one such case: the Coal Bearing Areas Act of 1957 (CBAA) which provides minimal social and environmental safeguards, and deviates in important ways from the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (LARR). The lack of due diligence in the CBAA confers an undue comparative advantage to coal development, which is inconsistent with India's current stance to phasedown coal use, reduce air pollution, and advance modern sources of energy. We argue that the premise under which the CBAA was historically justified is no longer valid due to significant changes in the local context. Namely, the environmental and social costs of coal-based energy are far more salient and the market has cleaner energy alternatives that are cost competitive. We recommend updating land acquisition laws to bring coal under the general purview of LARR or, at minimum, amending CBAA to ensure adequate environmental and social safeguards are in place, both in letter and practice.
    Keywords: coal, land acquisition, environmental protection, social impact assessment, rehabilitation and resettlement.
    Date: 2023–05
  22. By: Strine, Joshua L.; Anderson, David P.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023
  23. By: Furuoka, Fumitaka; Yaya, OlaOluwa S; Ling, Piu Kiew; Al-Faryan, Mamdouh Abdulaziz Saleh; Islam, M. Nazmul
    Abstract: This paper examines energy and agricultural commodities' short-run and long-run connectedness by using the Time-varying parameter vector autoregressions (TVP-VAR). It applies the frequency version of the TVP-VAR model, which is a modified version of the dynamic TVP-VAR model. The frequency decomposition definition also decomposes into short-run and long-run connectedness. We further the analysis by investigating the effect of asymmetry in returns on connectedness. It also examines how portfolio management strategies would lead to a maximization of profits with minimal risks. Empirical evidence indicates that only 32.52% and 31.38% of connectedness in oil and gas, respectively, are transmitted to agricultural commodities, which suggests their weak tendencies in influencing agricultural commodities; the total connectedness index hovers around 40-60% in the 2018-2019 period; however, it dropped below 40% in 2020-2021 when the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to disintegrate the connectedness between energy and agricultural commodities but increased further during the 2022 Russia-Ukraine saga. The findings also indicate that corn, wheat, and flour are net transmitters of risks to oil and natural gas in the long and short-run, and wheat-flour pairwise connectedness is the strongest in the connectedness. Asymmetry is also pronounced in the network of connectedness. Portfolio analyses indicate that investors require a low proportion of energy in a portfolio of energy-agricultural commodities to achieve an optimum profit. The findings will offer exciting insights into the connectedness of agricultural and energy commodities, particularly during periods of high price uncertainty.
    Keywords: Agricultural commodity; Asymmetry; Frequency TVP-VAR; Optimal weight; Risk
    JEL: C22
    Date: 2023–02–03
  24. By: Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; McNamara, Brian; Njuki, Jemimah; Swinnen, Johan; Vos, Rob
    Abstract: The United Nations Food Systems Summit, aimed to move food systems transformation to the top of the global policy agenda. An important element of the discussions were the “levers of change, †cross-cutting areas of work for food systems transformation. This paper reviews the operation of two levers: gender and finance. It analyzes the main debates and implementation issues related to mainstreaming gender dimensions and to leveraging finance for food system transformation. Using a political-economy framework of analysis, the paper draws conclusions for global food system governance and the likelihood of the UNFSS agenda for action to succeed.
    Keywords: food systems; gender; finance; governance; political economy; united nations; transformation; policies; implementation
    Date: 2023
  25. By: Krantz, Sebastian
    Abstract: Using global Multi-Region Input-Output (MRIO) data from 2005-2015, this paper empirically investigates the extent and patterns by which East African Community (EAC) countries have integrated into Global Value Chains (GVCs) and Regional Value Chains (RVCs). Results imply that the foreign content of exports (I2E) and the share of exports being re-exported (E2R) are between 10% and 20% in most EAC countries. During 2005-2015, all EAC members apart from Kenya experienced a decline in E2R. Trade in intermediates with the rest of the world remains 12-14 times greater in value-added (VA) terms than inside the EAC. Kenya expanded its role as a regional supplier of manufactured inputs (higher E2R with EAC partners), and Uganda slightly increased its agricultural input to the Kenyan food processing sector. Furthermore, a downstream shift is evident, by which more VA (both domestic and foreign) is used for the production of final goods while maintaining high levels of exports in primary agriculture and mining. Only Kenya was able to broadly maintain and improve its comparative advantage in manufacturing. Econometric analysis suggests that higher I2E and E2R shares increase GDP with an average elasticity of Ï 0.25 over 2 years. Estimates for manufacturing sectors were slightly higher at elasticities Ï 0.3 in response to E2R shifts. These results imply that policy measures to increase manufacturing competitiveness and promote more horizontal RVCs would benefit EAC economic growth in the medium run.
    Keywords: Regional Integration, Global Value Chains, Africa
    Date: 2023
  26. By: Pierce, Thomas
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Marketing
    Date: 2023
  27. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: The problem of adequate understanding and evaluation of the system of governance, and agrarian governance in particular, is among the most topical academic and practical (policies and business and farms strategies forwarded) tasks. However, there are huge differences in understanding of governance among scholars, practitioners, and official and business documents. Sometimes it is associated with the top management of a country, a company, or an organization; sometimes it is related to government agencies (public administration); sometimes it encompasses the management outside and beyond government entities; sometimes it is used as a synonym of Management, in other instances it is part of the Management of an organization, while in some case it is more general than Management including a great variety of modes, etc. The article aims to adapt the interdisciplinary methodology of the New Institutional Economics and propose an adequate definition and framework for analyzing the system of agrarian governance in Bulgaria. Based on a critical review of previous research and practical experience in this area, it is underlined that agrarian governance is to be studied as a complex system, including four principle components: agrarian and related agents involved in making management decisions; rules, forms, and mechanisms that govern the behavior, activities, and relationships of agrarian agents; processes and activities related to making governing decisions; a specific social order resulting from the governing process and functioning of the system. The analysis of agrarian governance should include the individual elements of the system, different levels of governance, and the main functional areas of agrarian governance, for each of which adequate quantitative or qualitative methods of institutional approach are suggested. When evaluating the agrarian governance system, the personal characteristics of the participating agents, the institutional environment, transaction costs, and benefits, the comparative efficiency of alternative governing structures, and the "time factor" must be taken into account. Further theoretical and empirical research in this "new" field is needed to understand this complex category better and refine approaches to its economic analysis.
    Keywords: governance, agriculture, definition, assessment, Bulgaria
    JEL: H1 K0 Q0 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q18 Q5
    Date: 2023–04
  28. By: Ngoc Thao NOET (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Serge Blondel (LIRAES (URP_ 4470) - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Appliquée en Economie de la Santé - UPCité - Université Paris Cité, GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Using a contingent valuation approach over 114 subjects, we assess the degree of cooperation and explain the factors underlying ethical choices. Implementing the prisoners' dilemma and public good games reveals a correlation between the amount of the ethical premium and the degree of cooperation. We identify factors that increase this cooperation, such as the frequency of interactions with individuals. The more cooperative individuals are, the higher the ethical premium. In addition, individuals naturally seek to cooperate. The more the game is repeated, the higher the degree of cooperation. According to the items, the degree of contribution is lower when dilution of responsibility occurs.
    Keywords: cooperation, ethical values, public good game, prisoners' dilemma
    Date: 2023–01–01
  29. By: OECD
    Abstract: Although measurements of biodiversity-related financial risks are in their infancy, several metrics and indicators are available to assess their impacts and dependencies in the financial system, and approaches are emerging to translate biodiversity risks into financial risks. This mapping paper provides a comprehensive catalogue and literature review of existing and emerging definitions, key metrics and indicators, measurement approaches, tools and practices for central banks, financial supervisors, and financial market participants to measure biodiversity-related financial risks.
    Keywords: biodiversity, biodiversity loss, central banks, ecosystem services, ecosystems, financial risk, financial system, nature
    Date: 2023–04–27
  30. By: Kacou, Yves-Bernard; Lopez, Jose A.; Eborn, Douglas; Djidonou, Desire
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023
  31. By: Kopp, Raymond J. (Resources for the Future); Pizer, William (Resources for the Future); Rennert, Kevin (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from carbon-intensive industrial sectors like steel, aluminum, cement, and chemicals will be aided by the introduction of new low- and zero-carbon production process technologies. While the cost of new technologies will decline over time, in the short run they will likely cost more than more carbon-intensive, incumbent technologies. When the products from these sectors are exchanged on highly competitive international markets, decarbonization efforts could therefore lead to lost competitive advantage vis-à -vis nations with weaker environmental policies.A recent issue brief, “Industrial Decarbonization and Competitiveness: A Domestic Benchmark Approach†(hereafter, “Benchmark†), introduced an idea for a domestic emissions reduction policy that targets the US industrial sector, paired with a border adjustment tariff. The Clean Competition Act recently introduced by Senator Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) builds on the paired policy structure. As US industry continues to decarbonize, these paired policies would protect domestic producers from competitive imports, maintain competitiveness in export markets, and provide incentives for trading partners to increase environmental ambition.In this issue brief, we introduce the related idea of a “performance alliance†in which a group of countries align industrial decarbonization efforts and trade policies to maintain competitiveness, limit leakage of emissions, and provide incentives for others to pursue ambitious decarbonization policies. This idea can be traced to work on “climate clubs, †initially popularized by William Nordhaus. The most recent reference to a climate club can be found in the G7 Leaders Communiqué, released May 20, 2022. Catalyzing leadership, action, and inclusivity is a key element of the G7 grouping and suggests the idea of an alliance more than the notion of exclusivity and protectionism suggested by a club.The international policy proposed in the Clean Competition Act and the EU carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM) proposal point to implicit climate clubs. In the EU case, a nation exporting primary commodities to the European Union could be a member of the club if that nation imposes a carbon price on its domestic production. That carbon price for the nation’s primary commodities would have to be equal to or greater in magnitude to the price charged within the European Union. In such a case the exporting nation does not face an EU-imposed border fee. In the case of the Clean Competition Act, a nation exporting primary commodities to the United States could be a member of the club if the GHG intensity of its domestic primary commodity production is less than the US benchmark intensity. In such a case the exporting nation does not face a US-imposed border fee. If one were to consider the Clean Competition Act and the EU CBAM as forms of climate clubs, true members of each club might further align their own border measures to match the European Union and the United States.Admission to such an EU club requires the adoption of a common policy to address emissions from the industrial sector; that policy is a specific and explicit carbon price. Admission to such a US club requires environmental performance on a par with the United States, where that performance is measured in terms of GHG intensity of production. We might think of the EU approach as a policy club, while thinking of the US as a performance club.In the remainder of this issue brief we elaborate on the idea of an alliance, rather than a “club, †where members work to drive industrial sector decarbonization–this would happen through an alignment of efforts and advanced technology that levels the playing field of economic competition and negates the need for border measures within the alliance. Border measures would remain a component of this approach for countries that do not choose to increase their ambition and join the alliance. The border measures need not be harmonized among the alliance members. This reduces the protectionist feel of the alliance.
    Date: 2022–07–06
  32. By: David Albouy; Minchul Shin
    Abstract: We develop a statistical learning model to estimate the value of vacant land for any parcel, regardless of improvements. Rooted in economic theory, the model optimizes how to combine common improved property sales with rare, but more informative, vacant land sales. It estimates how land values change with geography and other features and determines how much information either vacant or improved sales provide to nearby areas through spatial correlation. For most census tracts, incorporating improved sales often doubles the certainty of land value estimates.
    Keywords: land values; hierarchical modeling; spatial data; Bayesian estimation
    JEL: C11 C43 R1 R3
    Date: 2022–11–14
  33. By: Barbara Buljat (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: We often read about environmental issues, but we rarely personally witness them. Because of this lack of direct experience, people often perceive environmental threats as events distant in space and time and therefore underestimate their risks. Although direct contact with environmental threats might enhance people's risk perception and engagement, in reality such experiences may be dangerous, costly, and complicated to implement. One strategy to bridge this gap could be communication through virtual immersive experiences. This meta-research identifies the key psychological factors that lead to voluntary pro-environmental behavior (PEB) that have been investigated in previous studies using virtual experiments. After a systematic review of the existing literature, we conclude that immersive virtual experiences can influence some of the psychological factors that are important predictors of pro-environmental behavior, namely, concern, risk perception, connectedness to nature, intrinsic motivation for pro-environmental behavior, psychological distance, and presence. This work makes an academic and a practical contribution. It provides a foundation for policy makers and environmental communicators who want to enhance their campaigns with immersive storytelling, and for researchers who want to enrich and contextualize laboratory experiments that test environmental behaviors and risk preferences.
    Keywords: Pro-environmental behavior (PEB), immersive technology, virtual experiments, meta research
    Date: 2022–05
  34. By: Guillaume Chapelle; J.B. Eyméoud; C. Wolf (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: This study gathered original data on French metropolitan statistical areas to estimate and decompose their inverse housing supply elasticity, describing how housing prices react to demand shocks. Our findings confirm that French cities are highly inelastic, with an estimated average supply elasticity of 0.5. Furthermore, leveraging a nationwide regulation protecting historical monuments as an instrument, we found that land-use regulations controlled by local authorities appear to be mainly responsible for this low supply elasticity.
    Keywords: housing supply, land use regulation, real estate, urban growth.
    JEL: R31 R52 R21
    Date: 2023
  35. By: Jérôme Sgard (CERI - Centre de recherches internationales (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: From the 1870s onwards, global commodity markets were all governed by self-standing private bodies, typically controlled by elite merchants. The London Corn Trade Association thus standardized supply from across the world, turning grain into a fungible commodity; it arbitrated disputes; and it offered to traders a range of standard contracts that integrated the value chains, from the various export harbors till destination. Enforcement rested on market power and the threat of blacklisting, which were inherently extra-territorial: few merchant houses in the world could afford being expelled from the London market. On the other hand, governments, whether sovereign or colonial, played a very limited direct role in how transactions were conducted. Ultimately, however, this private trading platform worked under English law exclusively and it was upheld by both the London courts and the Bank of England. It was both global and local, and hence a full part of Britain's imperial project. It policed a global network of private commercial routes while mediating the demands for market integration and the sheer instability of the global political geography. Rule-based market power should thus be seen as a specific factor in Britain's economic supremacy, together with relative productivity levels or capital exports.
    Keywords: grain trade, market governance, imperialism, globalization, United Kingdom
    Date: 2023–04
  36. By: Brand, Devin L.; Van Nurden, Pauline A.; Paulson, Garen J.; Knorr, Tonya L.; Sandager, Nick; Nordquist, Dale W.
    Abstract: Of the 118 farms in the Southwest Association, the data for 111 farms are included in this report. The rest were omitted because the records were incomplete at the time of the preparation of this report. In addition to this report, members receive an annual farm business analysis, on-farm instructional visits, end-of-year income tax planning and preparation, periodic meetings, tours and seminars, a monthly newsletter, and other managerial and educational assistance. Each farmer pays an annual fee which covers the cost, with the balance defrayed by the University of Minnesota Extension and research programs of the University of Minnesota. The livestock enterprise summaries include data from both Southwest Minnesota Farm Business Management (FBM) Association farms and Minnesota State Farm Business Management program farms. This provides a greater number of instances for each enterprise with the goal of providing more accurate benchmark information. Minnesota State FBM programs are distributed across the state and include over 2, 400 participating farms.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2023–04
  37. By: Grohs, Hannes; Grumiller, Jan; Peham, Andreas
    Date: 2023

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