nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒05‒01
fifty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Kenya agricultural policy profile By Laichena, J.; Kiptoo, E.; Nkanyani, S.; Mwamakamba, S.; Jacobs-Mata, Inga; Ires, Idil
  2. U.S. Agricultural Policy Review, 2021 By Baldwin, Katherine; Williams, Brian; Tsiboe, Francis; Effland, Anne; Turner, Dylan; Pratt, Bryan; Jones, Jordan; Toossi, Saied; Hodges, Leslie
  3. U.S. Organic Production, Markets, Consumers, and Policy, 2000-21 By Carlson, Andrea; Greene, Catherine; Raszap Skorbiansky, Sharon; Hitaj, Claudia; Ha, Kim; Cavigelli, Michel; Ferrier, Peyton; McBride, William
  4. Zambia agricultural policy profile By Nawiko, M.; Chomba, C.; Mambwe, M.; Nkanyani, S.; Mwamakamba, S.; Jacobs-Mata, Inga; Ires, Idil
  5. Environmentally Adjusted Analysis of Agricultural Efficiency: A Systematic Literature Review of Frontier Approaches By Staniszewski, Jakub; Matuszczak, Anna
  6. The Impact of CSR on Rural Women Custodians of Seed, Food and Climate Change Resilience in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  7. United Kingdom Agricultural Production and Trade Policy Post-Brexit By Jelliffe, Jeremy; Gerval, Adam; Husby, Megan; Jarrell, Philip; Williams, Brian
  8. 2022 annual research and policy conference: Agricultural transformation and food security in Sudan By Kirui, Oliver K.; Siddig, Khalid
  9. Precision Agriculture in the Digital Era: Recent Adoption on U.S. Farms By McFadden, Jonathan; Njuki, Eric; Griffin, Terry
  10. Implications of Climate Policy for Local Agriculture and Irrigation By Haqiqi, Iman
  11. Capping the Farmer Premium-to-Liability Ratio for the Major Federal Crop Insurance Coverages: An Evaluation of the Potential Economic Implications By Bullock, David; Steinbach, Sandro
  12. Transformation of Family Farming in the Second Decade of the 21st Century By Zegar, Józef Stanisław
  13. Access to Farmland by Beginning and Socially Disadvantaged Farmers: Issues and Opportunities By Callahan, Scott; Hellerstein, Daniel
  14. Impact of small farmers' access to improved seeds and deforestation in DR Congo By Tanguy Bernard; Sylvie Lambert; Karen Macours; Margaux Vinez
  15. State Policies for Farm Animal Welfare in Production Practices of U.S. Livestock and Poultry Industries: An Overview By Ufer, Danielle
  16. Kenya National Policy Dialogue summary report. Summary report of the National Policy Dialogue, Nairobi, Kenya, 21 November 2022 By Laichena, J.; Kiptoo, E.; Nawiko, M.; Chomba, C.; Mambwe, M.; Nkanyani, S.; Mwamakamba, S.; Jacobs-Mata, Inga; Ires, Idil
  17. Selected Charts from Ag and Food Statistics: Charting the Essentials , February 2023 By Kassel, Kathleen; Lanigan, Tiffany; Martin, Anikka; Michael-Midkiff, Jacqueline; Russell, Dylan; Ruth, Timothy; Sanguinett, Christopher; Smits, Jennifer; Symanski, Elaine
  18. The drivers of the nutritional quality and carbon footprint of school menus in the Paris area By Pierre Chiaverina; Emmanuel Raynaud; Marie Fillâtre; Sophie Nicklaus; Valentin Bellassen
  19. The Impact of Household’s Better Access to Water on Children’s Health and Survival in Rural Rajasthan, India By Sarwal, Rakesh
  20. Land Reform and Productivity: Evidence from the Dissolution of the French Monasteries By Arnaud Deseau
  21. MATS Report: "Weaponization of Grain Trade. War Impacts on Ukraine’s Production and Market Shares" By Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
  22. The future of EU agriculture in a global context By Van Zeist, Willem-Jan; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans
  23. Innovative business models for a sustainable circular bioeconomy in the french agrifood domain By Mechthild Donner; Hugo de Vries
  24. Bulletin on food price dynamics, inflation, and the food security situation in Sudan: January 2023 By Ahmed, Mosab O. M.; Siddig, Khalid
  25. An Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Supply Chains on Society: A Post-COVID Perspective By Dayal Saraswat, Kinshuk
  26. Africa's Agricultural Trade: Recent Trends Leading up to the African Continental Free Trade Area By Johnson, Michael E.; Farris, Jarrad; Morgan, Stephen; Bloem, Jeffrey R.; Ajewole, Kayode; Beckman, Jayson
  27. Nationally determined contributions and scenarios of agricultural emission reductions at country level By Jensbye, Laerke; Clora, Francesco; Yu, Wusheng
  28. Financial Lives and the Vicious Cycle of Debt among Thai Agricultural Households By Sommarat Chantarat; Chayanee Chawanote; Lathaporn Ratanavararak; Chonnakan Rittinon; Boontida Sa-ngimnet; Narongrit Adultananusak
  29. Wheat subsidies, wheat markets and food security in Sudan: Current state and options for the future By Abay, Kibrom A.; Abdelaziz, Fatma; Abdelfattah, Lina Alaaeldin; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Resnick, Danielle; Siddig, Khalid; William, Amy
  30. Temperature shocks and their effect on the price of agricultural products: panel data evidence from vegetables in Mexico By Arellano Gonzalez Jesus; Juárez-Torres Miriam; Zazueta Borboa Francisco
  31. The economic effects of soil erosion in Africa: a 2050 analysis By Sartori, Martina; Ferrari, Emanuele; Simola, Antti
  32. Environmental matters in sport: sustainable research in the academy By Tim Breitbarth; Brian P Mccullough; Andrea Collins; Anna Gerke; David M Herold
  33. Global food policy report 2023: Rethinking food crisis responses: Synopsis By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  34. A Disaggregated View of Market Concentration in the Food Retail Industry By Zeballos, Eliana; Dong, Xiao; Islamaj, Ergys
  35. COVID-19 Working Paper: Consumer Food Spending Changes During the COVID-19 Pandemic By Okrent, Abigail; Zeballos, Eliana
  36. The Role of Gender Inequality in the Obesity Epidemic: A Case Study from India By Valentina Alvarez-Saavedra Ã; Pierre Levasseur; Suneha Seetahul
  37. Conditions for the Competitiveness of the Agricultural Sector in the EU, Japan, Canada, Vietnam, and Mercosur Countries By Jabkowski, Dawid Antoni
  38. Rural America at a Glance: 2022 Edition By Davis, James C.; Rupasingha, Anil; Cromartie, John; Sanders, Austin
  39. Traceability, value, and trust in the coffee market: A natural experiment in Ethiopia By Ludovic Mbakop; Glenn P. Jenkins; Leonard Leung; Kamil Sertoglu
  40. The Choice of Titling System in Land and the Blockchain By Bertrand Crettez; Marie Obidzinski
  41. An Estimate of Climate-Related Transition Risk in Irish Mortgage Lending By Adhikari, Tamanna; Carroll, James; Lambert, Derek
  42. Social Policies and Adaptation to Extreme Weather: Evidence from South Africa By Suchita Srinivasan
  43. (De Facto) Historical Ethnic Borders and Land Tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa By Depetris-Chauvin, Emilio; Özak, Ömer
  44. Global Biodiversity Scenarios By Julien CALAS; Antoine GODIN; Etienne ESPAGNE (World Bank); Julie Maurin (AFD)
  45. Do Grocery Feedback Systems Enabling Access to Past Consumption Impact Individual Food Purchase Behavior? By Koski, Heli; Kuikkaniemi, Kai; Pantzar, Mika
  46. COVID-19 Working Paper National Trends in Food Retail Sales During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from information Resources, Inc. (IRI) Retail-Based Scanner Data By McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Stevens, Alexander; Dong, Xiao; Chelius, Carolyn; Marchesi, Keenan; MacLachlan, Matthew
  47. Excise Tax Incidence: The Inequity of Taxing Obesity and Beauty By Osaid Alshamleh; Glenn P. Jenkins; Tufan Ekici
  48. Trust and CO2 emissions: cooperation on a global scale By Jo, Ara; Carattini, Stefano
  49. Effects of Early Childhood Climate on Cognitive Development and Home Environment By Wu, Wenjie; Yang, Zhe; Kim, Jun Hyung; Yue, Ai
  50. Mining the forests: do protected areas hinder mining-driven forest loss in Sub-Saharan Africa? By Jean-Louis Combes; Pascale Combes Motel; Manegdo Ulrich Doamba; Youba Ndiaye

  1. By: Laichena, J.; Kiptoo, E.; Nkanyani, S.; Mwamakamba, S.; Jacobs-Mata, Inga (International Water Management Institute); Ires, Idil (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Agricultural policies; Agricultural production; Diversification; Food security; Food policies; Climate change adaptation; Climate change mitigation; Economic aspects; Indicators; Strategies; Farmers
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Baldwin, Katherine; Williams, Brian; Tsiboe, Francis; Effland, Anne; Turner, Dylan; Pratt, Bryan; Jones, Jordan; Toossi, Saied; Hodges, Leslie
    Abstract: This report is the inaugural edition in a series examining annual developments in U.S. agricultural policies, focusing on policies related to production agriculture, agrofood value chains, and food and nutrition assistance. U.S. agricultural policies are designed to address multiple objectives—including providing an income safety net for agricultural producers, minimizing negative environmental impacts of agricultural production, ensuring agricultural supply chains are equipped to provide adequate quantities of safe food to consumers, and helping address food and nutrition insecurity among vulnerable populations. Different policy tools are used to meet these objectives—including cost share, direct payments, provision of credit, or access to services. Policy developments in 2021 continued to respond to the ongoing impacts of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and extreme weather. Other policy developments in 2021 were aimed at updating certain risk management tools, addressing the impacts of climate change, and supporting improved equity in access to farm programs and outreach to under-served communities.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Environmental Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Public Economics, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2023–02–22
  3. By: Carlson, Andrea; Greene, Catherine; Raszap Skorbiansky, Sharon; Hitaj, Claudia; Ha, Kim; Cavigelli, Michel; Ferrier, Peyton; McBride, William
    Abstract: Organic agriculture can support global and domestic food needs, expand consumer food choices, enhance farm profitability, and increase agricultural sustainability. Public policy has played a key role in the development of the organic industry in the United States, beginning with the passage of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) subsequent publication of national organic rules in 2000. While U.S. organic acreage was still only 1 percent of U.S. farmland in 2019, organic farm sales accounted for about 3 percent of U.S. farm receipts. Consumer demand for organically produced products has driven an expansion in U.S. organic production since 2000. The premiums paid by consumers give farmers the opportunity to recover the cost of production and improve their financial well-being. This report describes U.S. organic policy initiatives since 2000 and examines the importance of investment in research on organic practices. The report also investigates key components of organic supply chains—including production, certification, farm-level costs and returns, wholesale markets, and industry structure—along with the evolving characteristics of organic food consumers and retail markets.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Health Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Production Economics, Public Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03–09
  4. By: Nawiko, M.; Chomba, C.; Mambwe, M.; Nkanyani, S.; Mwamakamba, S.; Jacobs-Mata, Inga (International Water Management Institute); Ires, Idil (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Agricultural policies; Agricultural production; Diversification; Climate change; Food security; Food policies; Agricultural sector; Economic development; Strategies
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Staniszewski, Jakub; Matuszczak, Anna
    Abstract: The paper reviews 200 papers regarding environmentally adjusted analysis of agricultural efficiency found in the Scopus database. Based on the PRISMA method the scope of the review was limited to papers where efficiency is assessed with data envelopment analysis (DEA) or stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). The aim of this paper is to identify how efficiency analysis can be enhanced to take into account environmental aspects of agricultural production and indicate the research trends and gaps. Regarding the trends, most of the studies refer to agriculture in Europe, with a noticeable increasing trend in Asia. The production directions under research mainly include crops or milk production, usually in the farm scale. It can also be observed that a typical economic efficiency model is developed to include new environmentally detrimental inputs or undesirable outputs, such as fertilizing, climate impact, crop protection, water footprint, and energy usage. The most common determinants were farmers features, scale of production, intensification, agricultural practices, quality of the production environment, macroeconomic environment, specialization, environmental practices, and farm features. The following research gaps were identified. The case studies of Africa and North America are limited, like those at the field and local levels as well as those related to horticultural and animal production other than milk production. The SFA approaches are underdeveloped in comparison with DEA, like approaches other than additional inputs/outputs. In particular, the by-production approach seems promising. Limited attention has been paid to soil condition, biodiversity, waste generation in agriculture, and positive externalities provided by the agriculture. An interesting and less investigated area in terms of performance determinants remain farmers’ behavioral features.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03–30
  6. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the multinational oil companies’ (MOCs) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on development of enterprising rural women as custodians of seed, food and traditional knowledge for climate change resilience in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach – This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 768 rural women respondents were sampled across the rural areas of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria. Findings - The results from the use of a combined propensity score matching and logit model indicated that the meagre interventions of MOCs’ CSR targeted at the empowerment of rural women in custodians of seed, food and traditional knowledge for climate change resilience recorded significant success in improving the role of women in agricultural production, especially in women involvement across value chains. Practical implications - This suggests that any increase in the MOCs’ CSR targeted at increasing rural women’s access to seed preservation facilities, food processing facilities, extension system that impact strong body of knowledge and expertise that can be used in climate change mitigation, disaster reduction and adaptation strategies, will enhance women’s responsibilities in households and communities, stewards of natural and household resources, and will position them well to contribute to livelihood strategies adapted to changing environmental realities. Social implications – This implies that MOCs’ GMoUs’ policies and practices should enhance women’s participation; value and recognise women’s knowledge; and enable women, as well as men farmers to participate in decision-making process in agriculture, food production, land and governance; as women need to be acknowledged and supported, as the primary producers of food in the region, able to both cultivate healthy food and climate change resilience through small scale agro-ecological farming system. Originality/value – This research contributes to gender debate in agriculture from a CSR perspective in developing countries and rational for demands for social projects by host communities. It concludes that business has an obligation to help in solving problems of public concern.
    Keywords: Environmental justice, custodians of seed, climate change resilience, gender equality, corporate social responsibility, multinational oil companies, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2023–01
  7. By: Jelliffe, Jeremy; Gerval, Adam; Husby, Megan; Jarrell, Philip; Williams, Brian
    Abstract: The United Kingdom (UK) is an important regional agricultural producer with historical prominence in the global agri-food trade. Agriculture covers more than two-thirds of UK land, and top agricultural goods produced include animal products (beef, pork, lamb, poultry, and dairy) and grain (wheat, barley, and oats). Agri-food represents the largest manufacturing sector in the UK, which is known for specialty products. Over recent decades, the UK’s membership in the European Union (EU) mostly defined the country’s agri-food production and trade policies. After leaving the EU through Brexit, the UK is responsible for constructing agricultural policy and negotiating trade agreements. This report explores trends in UK agricultural production and trade and considers the historical UK-EU coupling and potential shifts in agri-food trade patterns post-Brexit.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy, Public Economics
    Date: 2023–02–21
  8. By: Kirui, Oliver K.; Siddig, Khalid
    Abstract: On Monday, October 10th, 2022, the Sudan Strategy Support Program (Sudan SSP) held the inaugural full-day Research and Policy Conference dubbed “Agricultural Transformation and Food Security in Sudan†at the Corinthia Hotel in Khartoum, Sudan. This event was organized in partnership with local and international organizations working on the Food Security and Agricultural Transformation themes in Sudan. They include the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD), Mamoun Behairy Centre for Economic and Social Studies and Research in Africa (MBC), Sudanese Researcher Foundation (SRF) and the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA). The conference brought together about 120 food security and nutrition experts from civil society, private sector, academia and international organizations and many other online participants who followed the proceedings on a livestream. The conference happened against a backdrop of the timely discussions on the risk of rising poverty and food insecurity to Sudanese people, the impacts of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, climate change, and global increase in fuel and commodity prices and the slow post COVID-19 recovery.
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, research, policies, food security, agriculture, stakeholders, agricultural transformation,
    Date: 2022
  9. By: McFadden, Jonathan; Njuki, Eric; Griffin, Terry
    Abstract: Digital agriculture (DA)—the ongoing transformation of farming that includes digitalization and automation of farming tasks, of which precision agriculture (PA) is a chief element—may be an impor-tant part of the solution to several challenges facing U.S. agriculture, including rising production costs, climate change, and labor shortages, among others. Adoption of digital technologies in row-crop production has generally increased since 1996, though use has varied widely by technology and crop. Using data from USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), we document trends in the adoption of digital agriculture technologies between 1996 and 2019, emphasizing changes after 2016. The adoption of yield maps and soil maps (i.e., maps that associate physical characteristics with geographic coordinates) and variable rate technologies (VRT), in addition to other technologies, has been substantial on corn and soybean acreage for many years. Though their use has been increasing in recent years, technologies such as yield maps, soil maps, and VRT have been adopted on only between 5 and 25 percent of total U.S. planted acreage for winter wheat, cotton, sorghum, and rice. However, adoption of automated guidance has increased sharply in the past 20 years, with application on well over 50 percent of the acreage planted to corn, cotton, rice, sorghum, soybeans, and winter wheat. Beyond documentation of trends, this report explores certain drivers of farmers’ uptake—including pricing, soil variability, USDA programs, labor-saving benefits, expected productivity impacts, and availability of consultant services.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2023–02–22
  10. By: Haqiqi, Iman
    Abstract: A national carbon pricing policy will have implications for energy-intensive economic sectors. The transmission to agriculture can be through nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation as they are major energy-intensive inputs for agricultural production. The goal of this study is to quantify the impact of the US carbon pricing policy on agricultural land use and irrigation water. Here a global general equilibrium model will inform a high-resolution partial equilibrium model of land use and water. Specifically, the shocks are obtained from the ENVISAGE model quantifying the final change in prices at the national level for factor returns and energy products. Then SIMPLE-G quantifies the likely changes in the spatial pattern of water and land use given the estimated shocks in input prices. This calculation entails grid-cell specific input shocks and heterogeneous economic responses.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Bullock, David; Steinbach, Sandro
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2023–04–19
  12. By: Zegar, Józef Stanisław
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to determine the course of transformation of family farming in Poland in recent years in terms of the industrial model and challenges related to its sustainability. The results of the 2010 and 2020 agricultural censuses, other public statistics data, and the literature on the subject were used to achieve this goal. Apart from the general characteristics of the transformation, the focus was on changes in labor inputs, resource productivity, and household income of individual farm users. The analysis showed that the development of agriculture does not differ from the general model of industrial transformation, including the following processes: commercialization, intensification, concentration, and specialization. However, new challenges are emerging, especially the need for putting agriculture on a sustainable track and the demographic, environmental, and economic conditions that require significant adjustments in the transformation of agriculture. Significant intervention by political institutions is needed, especially in creating eco-innovations and conditions for the use of new income opportunities, which also requires intensifying the cooperation of farmers themselves. It is also advisable to extend the scope of agricultural advisory services, going beyond the sphere of using public funds and conventional economics of farms.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2023–03–30
  13. By: Callahan, Scott; Hellerstein, Daniel
    Abstract: The 2017 Census of Agriculture reported that more than one-third of producers are over 65 years of age, and the distribution of agricultural land has shifted to fewer, larger landholders. Socially disadvantaged (SDA) producers (classified by race, ethnicity, and/or gender) may have fewer financial resources and face additional constraints when buying or raising capital for expanding farm operations. This report used USDA survey, census, and administrative data to examine measures of land access and other factors associated with the share of SDA and beginning farmers and ranchers in a county in 25 States. Several measures of land tenure, federal program participation, agricultural sales, and demographic information were used to estimate how land access and federal programs correlate with the percentage of SDA and beginning farming operations at the county level. The percentage of beginning farmers and ranchers in a county is positively correlated with the percent of rented farmland acres and negatively correlated with crop insurance premiums (measured in dollars per acre) and average farmer age. The study also found the percentage of SDA operations in a county is negatively correlated with the percentage of sales in field crops and positively correlated with the percentage of USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) loan applications granted, and percentage of direct-to-consumer sales. Results indicated the average lease size, the percentage of livestock sales, and decreasing urbanization are negatively correlated with the percentage of SDA and beginning operations. In contrast, the percentage of rented farmland and the percentage of SDA populations are positively correlated with the percentage of SDA operators in a county.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Financial Economics, Industrial Organization, Land Economics/Use, Political Economy, Production Economics
    Date: 2022–12–07
  14. By: Tanguy Bernard (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sylvie Lambert (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Karen Macours (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Margaux Vinez
    Abstract: Since the 1960s, the increased availability of modern seed varieties in developing countries has had large positive effects on households' well-being. However, the effect of related land use changes on deforestation and biodiversity is ambiguous. This study examines this question through a randomized control trial in a remote area in the Congo Basin rainforest with weak input and output markets. Using plot-level data on land conversion combined with remote sensing data, we find that promotion of modern seed varieties did not lead to an increase in overall deforestation by small farmers. However, farmers cleared more primary forest and less secondary forest. We attribute this to the increased demand for nitrogen required by the use of some modern seed varieties, and to the lack of alternative sources of soil nutrients, which induced farmers to shift towards cultivation of land cleared in primary forest. Unless combined with interventions to maintain soil fertility, policies to promote modern seed varieties may come at the cost of important losses in biodiversity.
    Keywords: Agroecology, Agriculture, Environmental economics, Environmental impact
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Ufer, Danielle
    Abstract: Since 2002, 14 U.S States have passed and implemented policies addressing practices that can impact farm animal welfare. The most common policies directly ban confinement practices within a State’s pork, egg, and veal industries or prohibit the sale of products from noncompliant operations. Proposals for future changes are also beginning to target beef and dairy industries. As these policies become increasingly common across States, their influence on animal product industries, markets, and international trade opportunities grows. This report describes the current state of these policies, the extent of their implementation and geographic coverage, and the legal environment and challenges these policies have faced. State policies directly cover a relatively small share of operations and production, but retail sales restrictions can reach beyond State borders to affect U.S. animal product industries more broadly and create market implications for U.S. imports and exports.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics
    Date: 2022–12–15
  16. By: Laichena, J.; Kiptoo, E.; Nawiko, M.; Chomba, C.; Mambwe, M.; Nkanyani, S.; Mwamakamba, S.; Jacobs-Mata, Inga (International Water Management Institute); Ires, Idil (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Agricultural production; Policies; Agribusiness; Climate-smart agriculture; Diversification; Value chains; Investment; Multi-stakeholder processes; Climate change; Technology; Farmers
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Kassel, Kathleen; Lanigan, Tiffany; Martin, Anikka; Michael-Midkiff, Jacqueline; Russell, Dylan; Ruth, Timothy; Sanguinett, Christopher; Smits, Jennifer; Symanski, Elaine
    Abstract: USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) conducts high-quality, objective economic research to inform and enhance public and private decision making on emerging issues in agriculture, food, the environment, and rural America. Ag and Food Statistics: Charting the Essentials covers key food and agricultural indicators and illustrates the scope of ERS’s work through a series of charts and maps. This booklet provides a sample of those maps and charts available on the ERS website at Organized into nine topics, Charting the Essentials anticipates questions, such as: How much do agriculture and related industries contribute to the U.S. economy? What economic forces are shaping rural America? What are the top destinations for U.S. agricultural exports? What percent of income do U.S. households spend on food? Charting the Essentials provides a resource for public officials, researchers, educators, students, journalists, and anyone looking for current information on these topics. Visit the ERS website where you can view and download these charts and maps, as well as a variety of reports and other products, such as Charts of Note and Amber Waves online magazine.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Marketing, Production Economics, Public Economics, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2023–02–21
  18. By: Pierre Chiaverina (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Emmanuel Raynaud (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marie Fillâtre (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sophie Nicklaus (UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE], CSGA - Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation [Dijon] - UB - Université de Bourgogne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Valentin Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Public school food procurement has been identified as a key lever in the transition towards sustainable food systems. In this study, we assess the nutritional quality and the carbon footprint of 2020 school menus served in 101 municipalities in the inner suburbs of Paris. In this sample, school canteens menus meet an average 8.2/15 (min = 4, max = 14) adequacy score to the regulatory nutritional quality frequency criteria and their carbon footprint averages at 1.9 (min = 1.2, max = 2.6) kgCO 2 e/day. The nutritional and environmental qualities of canteen menus were not correlated with each other. In-house canteens have a significantly higher nutritional quality – 0.7 more points – and so do larger canteens. The carbon footprint significantly decreases with an increasing education level of the population and, for in-house canteens, it also decreases by 0.16 kgCO 2 e/day with a ten-fold increase in canteen size and by 0.0035 kgCO 2 e/day per percent of left-wing vote, breaking even with delegated canteens above 3500 enrolled children and 53% of left-wing vote respectively. The frequency of certified food (mean = 18%, min = 0%, max = 51%), a cornerstone of the 2018 national law aiming at more sustainable institutional catering, has no impact on our indicators of nutritional quality and carbon footprint. The substantial variations between canteens in both nutritional and environmental qualities suggests that there is room for improvement on both ends.
    Keywords: Green public procurement, Public school food procurement, Food sustainability, School canteen menus, Nutrition
    Date: 2022–06–29
  19. By: Sarwal, Rakesh
    Abstract: ​Malnutrition and lack of access to water and sanitation are responsible for one third of disability Adjusted Life Years lost in developing countries, and 62% of under-five mortality worldwide. Both factors are preventable, but persist as risks largely among the poor, 75% of whom live in rural area and depend on agriculture for livelihood. In the context of water and sanitation, Shuval suggests that a segmental approach for addressing the numerous handicaps that the poor face are unlikely to be successful, while a multi-dimensional intervention is likely to work synergistically. Income, and food security of the rural people are linked to their agricultural practices, which in turn is largely dependent on availability of irrigation. Water collection time is a good marker of thee dimensions of access to drinking water - quantity, quality and ease of availability - all of which impact health. Water, thus, is a common, distal determinant of health and income of people in rural areas of low-income countries. We studied the independent and combined effects of better access to water in rural, under-developed areas of Rajasthan, India. We also evaluated a community driven rural development project, piloted by TBS, a Non Governmental Organization, that constructed ponds to harvest rainwater and recharge groundwater, and thereby improved access to water for drinking and irrigation. Our outcomes were under-five mortality and anthropometry, which are the best indicators of population health, and are appropriate for evaluation of both agricultural and water projects. We used a combined retrospective cohort and cross-sectional design, benefiting from the high reliabilities of maternal birth histories, to evaluate the TBS project. Through a survey in 2004, we collected data on 1838 households and 1925 ever married women aged 15-49 years, weighed and measured 1715 children aged 0-59 months and their mothers. Our findings reveal the protective effects of: (i) Closer access to drinking water (i.e. 10 minutes or less of collection time) on risk of stunting among children (OR: 0.70, p<.1), (ii) Multiple cropping (a correlate of irrigation) on risk of stunting (OR: 0.53, p<.05), wasting (OR: 0.67, p<.1), and (iii) Irrigable land with the household on under-five mortality (Incidence Rate Ratio 0.78, p<.05 for one standard deviation increase). Closer access to water and multiple cropping were associated with multiplicative benefits in lowering the risk of stunting, though neither of them was protective in households with only a minimal access to the other. We identified better dietary intake by children and mothers, lower risk of diarrhea among children and low Body Mass Index among women, and higher incomes as pathways. We found weak evidence that the TBS project helped reverse the deteriorating trend in child survival, and reduced the prevalence of stunting relative to the control area. Our findings vindicate the role of water as an underlying determinant of health and income. We suggest that governments and developmental agencies should: • In rural areas, plan for improving access to water for both drinking and irrigation in a sustainable manner with community involvement; • Promote integrated delivery of inputs, drinking water and irrigation being mere examples, not only because of the likely synergisms, but also because a segmental approach is unlikely to benefit those who might need them the most. Even though water interventions are largely engineering based, public health professionals should play a proactive role in promoting access, in conjunction with other public health inputs.
    Date: 2023–03–01
  20. By: Arnaud Deseau (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: This article uses the confiscation and auction of monastic properties during the French Revolution to assess the effects of land reallocation on agricultural productivity. To proxy for monastic landholdings, I construct a novel dataset using the annual income and location of more than 1, 500 French monasteries in 1768. I perform several cross-checking analyses and demonstrate the validity of the data as a proxy for monastic landholdings both at the monastery and arrondissement levels. I show that arrondissements with greater land reallocation experienced higher levels of agricultural productivity in the mid-19th century. I trace these increases in productivity to the creation of larger and less fragmented farms, leading to an increase in mechanization and the substitution of family labor with a hired specialized labor force.
    Keywords: Land Reform, Productivity, French Revolution, Monasteries, Farm Size
    JEL: O13 O40 Q15 N53
    Date: 2023–03–16
  21. By: Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
    Abstract: The latest report of the project "Repairing Broken Food Trade Routes Ukraine – Africa” covers: Weaponisation of grain trade (continued) - war impact on Ukraine’ grain production and market shares Deeper study of risks for Ukrainian supply Quantification of effects of the war on agriculture, economy and ecology This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme “Making Agricultural Trade Sustainable” (MATS) programme ( The role of MATS/WTI in this programme is to identify and explore “broken” Ukrainian - African food trade routes due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Starting with a food trade flow chart pre- and post-24 February 2022, it will assess, first, whether Ukrainian (or African) traders can again supply these products (Output 1). Failing that, whether the new EU-financed “Crisis Management” (or another) programme can possibly make up for lost Ukrainian agrifood exports (Output 2). It will also identify alternative exporters (if any) which might already have filled in agrifood demand in Africa (Output 3). Importantly, the Project also looks at the potential effect of these developments on competing farm production in Africa (Output 4). For further information and/or offer to assist in project implementation, please write to Christian Häberli ( or to Bogdan Kostetsky (
    Date: 2023–04–12
  22. By: Van Zeist, Willem-Jan; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans
    Abstract: This study gathered views of the potential future development of the EU agri-food sectors in the long term (up to and including 2050) and investigated what this could mean for the course of action to be taken. What are the possible consequences of several driving forces – as far as they are known today – that will determine the future of EU agriculture and horticulture? The starting point was a reference scenario: how will agriculture develop if policies do not change? Several variants were then considered. The variation is related to the degree of greening (implementation of the Paris Agreement/Green Deal) and whether this greening takes place unilaterally in the EU or also globally. Another variable is the extent to which trade is further liberalised.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  23. By: Mechthild Donner (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Hugo de Vries (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UMR IATE - Ingénierie des Agro-polymères et Technologies Émergentes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: In recent years, the circular economy and the bioeconomy have increasingly been developed in France, driven by public policies. In this article, innovative circular bioeconomy business models in the French agrifood domain are studied concerning main drivers, business model elements, circular economy principles, enablers and barriers, and sustainability benefits. The study is based on an online review and analysis of 44 local, collaborative and small-scale initiatives. It appears that the strategies of the businesses are based on the seven circular economy pillars laid out by the French Agency for the Environment and Ecological Transition, mostly recycling, sustainable procurement, and industrial and territorial ecology. Geographical embeddedness and the relational proximity of actors are other crucial factors that play a role in the success of these business models, next to pro-environmental consumer trends and local public support. The outcomes further reveal that all three sustainability dimensions are integrally considered in France, with environmental and social dimensions slightly prominent above the economic one. The application of the game concept and its seven building blocks (time, playing fields, pieces, moves, players, rules, wins or loses) allows this study to demonstrate the essential elements of emerging business models within bioeconomy systems, their dynamic interrelations and the need for full policy attention.
    Keywords: circular economy, bioeconomy, business model, sustainability, agrifood sector, France, business models
    Date: 2023–03
  24. By: Ahmed, Mosab O. M.; Siddig, Khalid
    Abstract: International prices of food commodities continued to decrease in January 2023 especially for vegetable oils, sugar, dairy, and meat. Resulting in further sluggish overall price inflation in January 2023 of 83.6 compared to 87.3 percent in December 2022. The national retail prices of food commodities in January 2023 increased slightly compared to December 2022. Fluctuations in the exchange rate were associated with the change in local prices of imported commodities such as wheat and sugar. Food prices in relatively unstable states were higher than the national average. The monthly inflation rate of food and beverages decreased by 0.2 percent in January 2023 compared to December 2022 driven by the declining CPI for the vegetables and fruits.
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, food security, inflation, prices, commodities, economic situation,
    Date: 2023
  25. By: Dayal Saraswat, Kinshuk
    Abstract: As a result of the Covid pandemic that has occurred over the last few years, the global agricultural supply chain has shown itself to be extremely vulnerable to disruptions as a result of the disruptions caused by this pandemic. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, companies around the world have faced unprecedented challenges as well as challenges relating to the cross-border flow of components and materials in the agricultural industry as a result of the outbreak. It seems that such disruptions are more frequent and more intense than ever before as a result of the ongoing challenges of climate change as well as the changing geopolitical landscape. As farming is able to flourish in this dynamic environment of constant change by utilizing digital technology to find new ways to protect supply chains in an uncertain climate by leveraging digital technologies, they can find new ways to secure their supply chains in an uncertain climate by leveraging digital technologies. This recent pandemic has had a profound impact on every aspect of the value chain in the agriculture sector, from the raw materials sourced in the farming sector to the final consumer, all of which are affected by the recent pandemic. The commercial, operational, financial, and organizational resilience of many small and marginal farmers around the globe is being tested. This has resulted in a number of small and marginal farmers being exposed to risks and exposing their resiliency gaps as a result. Considering that none of us can predict what is going to happen in the future, we can only learn from the past and prepare for the uncertain future that lies ahead of us. Although there's no doubt that a lot of supply chains have become complacent over the past few years, the urgency to implement a supply chain which can adapt to the future is greater than ever with the discovery that many have become complacent over recent years. One silver lining of this situation is that we have the experience, the intelligence, and the technology available to us at all times in order to resolve supply chain disruptions as quickly as possible.
    Keywords: global supply chain, agriculture, technology advancement, digitalization, nearshoring, pandemics
    JEL: O1 Q13 Q16 Q17
    Date: 2023–02–15
  26. By: Johnson, Michael E.; Farris, Jarrad; Morgan, Stephen; Bloem, Jeffrey R.; Ajewole, Kayode; Beckman, Jayson
    Abstract: The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) has the potential to be among the largest free trade areas in the world once fully implemented; trade under the AfCFTA began on January 1, 2021. It could potentially connect 1.3 billion people across 55 countries with a combined gross domestic product (GDP) valued at $3.4 trillion, according to the World Bank. The free trade area could particularly influence African agricultural trade as growth in member economies increase the demand for processed agricultural products. These include sugars, beverages, miscellaneous prepared foods, animal and vegetable oils, dairy and poultry, and prepared cereals. This report examines past and emerging trends in Africa’s sources and destinations of agricultural commodities traded. Particular attention is given to the changing patterns of agricultural trade from within and outside the continent, including within existing free trade areas. While intraregional nonagricultural trade dominates the region, consumer-oriented agricultural goods contributed to about half of the intra-Africa agricultural trade from 2017–19. Much of the growth in agricultural trade was within the region over the last two decades. U.S. agricultural exports to Africa also slowly shifted from bulk cereals (wheat and corn) to higher value agricultural products such as poultry. Consumer-oriented and intermediate agricultural goods made up 44 percent of U.S. agricultural exports to Africa in 2017–19, up from 29 percent in 1999–2001. High urban population and income growth rates, together with the AfCFTA’s potential to expand intra-Africa trade may offer an opportunity for U.S. firms to help meet Africa’s rapidly growing demand.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy
    Date: 2022–11–17
  27. By: Jensbye, Laerke; Clora, Francesco; Yu, Wusheng
    Abstract: Reductions in GHG emissions to reach the Paris Agreement’s commitments will affect all sectors, including agriculture. The size of such commitments in the agricultural sector is likely to differ across countries. This creates the potential for shifts in competitiveness between producers from different countries, resulting in changes in production and trade patterns. In this paper, we first perform a cluster analysis to determine the likelihood of countries setting ambitious targets within their agricultural sector, using multiple dimensions for comparison. Second, these country-specific estimated climate targets for the agricultural sector (in addition to alternative technological developments) are utilized in simulating several alternative scenarios towards 2030, using a recursive dynamic CGE model.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Sommarat Chantarat; Chayanee Chawanote; Lathaporn Ratanavararak; Chonnakan Rittinon; Boontida Sa-ngimnet; Narongrit Adultananusak
    Abstract: This paper aims to explore drivers and dynamics of Thai agricultural households’ vicious cycle of debt, currently impeding their development prospects. We use unique combination of nationwide representative survey of 720 households and longitudinal administrative and financial account data from the farmer registration, the Bank of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC) and the National Credit Bureau (NCB) to reflect households’ financial problems from the lens of monthly income and expenditure flows, their financial attitudes and use of financial services from all sources to smooth consumption and debt dynamics and repayment behavior. The paper also tries to renew our understanding since Siamwalla et al. (1990) on the economic problems in Thai rural financial market and attempts to identify adverse impacts of debt moratorium policies, which are among the country’s most extensive policies aiming to help Thai agricultural households. The unique granularity and coverage of our data allow us to provide better understanding of the dynamics of problems and the heterogenous patterns across households – necessary to shed some lights for the redesign of rural financial system and sustainable farmers’ debt policies.
    Keywords: Agricultural households; Financial behavior; Household debt; Household debt; Policies; Rural financial market; Thailand
    JEL: D82 G20 G28 O12 O16 Q12 Q14
    Date: 2023–03
  29. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Abdelaziz, Fatma; Abdelfattah, Lina Alaaeldin; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Resnick, Danielle; Siddig, Khalid; William, Amy
    Abstract: This policy note summarizes the key findings from the following four research papers prepared by the International Food Policy Research Institute with financial support by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID): 1. Bottlenecks in Sudan’s Wheat Value Chains: Insights from Surveys 2. Evaluating Cereal Market (Dis)Integration in Sudan 3. Distributional Consequences of Wheat Policy in Sudan: A Simulation Model Analysis 4. Political Economy of Wheat Value Chains in Post-Revolution Sudan
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, wheat, subsidies, food security, markets, value chains, food prices, bread,
    Date: 2022
  30. By: Arellano Gonzalez Jesus; Juárez-Torres Miriam; Zazueta Borboa Francisco
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the effect of temperature shocks on the price of nine vegetables with a high contribution to Mexico's non core inflation. We utilize monthly panel data of the price index of each vegetable at the city level which we combine with high resolution weather data of the producing states. For every city, we construct a relevant temperature measure by weighting the different temperatures of its supplier states using historic production shares and distance. Our findings elicit a convex U-shaped relationship between temperature and vegetable prices and a high sensitivity of the latter to contemporaneous and lagged temperature shocks that occur within their growing period. Our findings also suggest that temperature shocks may have a detrimental effect on vegetable yields which may be an important driver of the impact on prices.
    Keywords: Food Inflation;Weather Shocks;Vegetable Prices;Local Markets
    JEL: E31 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2023–03
  31. By: Sartori, Martina; Ferrari, Emanuele; Simola, Antti
    Abstract: This paper investigates the economic impacts of soil erosion on the African continent in 2050. Soil erosion rates are converted into land productivity losses and fed the MAGNET CGE model. Preliminary results suggest that declining productivity in agriculture arising from the deterioration of the land factor will have a negative and unevenly distributed economic impact on the African economies. The most affected countries will be Nigeria and those located in the central-eastern region.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  32. By: Tim Breitbarth (Cologne Business School); Brian P Mccullough (Texas A&M University [College Station]); Andrea Collins (Cardiff University); Anna Gerke (Audencia Business School); David M Herold (QUT - Queensland University of Technology [Brisbane])
    Abstract: Research Question: Climate change continues to be a critical issue that impacts the ways we produce and consume sport. The extent to which sport responds to climate change (e.g. minimizing carbon emissions, adapting to climate impacts) will become more dire. Thus, it is crucial for sport to respond now to address current and emerging sustainability challenges. The popularity of sport can create opportunities to promote and influence individual behaviour change and drive organizational efforts to be environmentally sustainable. Research Methods: The sport management academy is currently limited in its efforts to highlight, examine, and educate industry and students on the issues raised due to changes in the natural environment and the impact on the sport sector. The five articles included in this special issue aim to begin to bridge this gap. Results and Findings: Sport is not inherently sustainable or unsustainable. We introduce this special issue to provide an overview of the current and future environmental challenges in sport management. Implications: We encourage sport researchers to critically assess existing practices and enhance the management knowledge that not only influences the world of sport and sport managers, but also policymakers and sport fans on mitigating the impacts of climate change. We hope the following articles spark ideas, discussions, and further research projects.
    Keywords: Ecology environmental sustainability climate change global warming sport management, Ecology, environmental sustainability, climate change, global warming, sport management
    Date: 2023–01–31
  33. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: In 2022, the world faced multiple crises. Disruptions to food systems from the protracted COVID-19 pandemic, major natural disasters, civil unrest and political instability, and the growing impacts of climate change continued, as the Russia-Ukraine war and inflation exacerbated a global food and fertilizer crisis. The growing number of crises, their increasing impact, and rising numbers of hungry and displaced people have galvanized calls to rethink responses to food crises, creating a real opportunity for change.
    Keywords: agriculture; development; food security; hunger; policy; resilience; crises
    Date: 2023
  34. By: Zeballos, Eliana; Dong, Xiao; Islamaj, Ergys
    Abstract: The U.S. food retail sector has experienced substantial change in market concentration over the last three decades. To understand how the change in concentration might impact consumers, researchers would ideally focus on geographic markets that mimic where consumers actually shop. This report investigates the changes in food retailing market concentration at the national, State, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), and county levels in the United States from 1990 to 2019, using data from the National Establishment Time Series dataset. The research finds that food-retailing market concentration at the county level is much higher than estimates of concentration using national-level data. Food retailing markets in rural and small nonmetro counties are considerably more concentrated than food retailing markets in metro and large nonmetro counties. Further, the study documents a significant rise in food retailing market concentration in the United States over the last three decades, at the national level as well as the State, MSA, and county levels during the period. Finally, the study shows that when excluding the largest food retailer, the concentration in retailing at the national and State level, markets would have been lower, but at the MSA and county level, markets would have been higher for most of the period analyzed.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Financial Economics, Marketing, Public Economics
    Date: 2023–01–05
  35. By: Okrent, Abigail; Zeballos, Eliana
    Abstract: The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic affected the way U.S. consumers purchased food. The evidence is mixed on how these changes translated into dietary and nutritional outcomes. This report uses the Consumer Expenditure Diary Survey to examine food purchasing behaviors before (2016–19) and during the early onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). As U.S. households shifted away from meals from full-service restaurants, they purchased more food and beverages at grocery stores and other food-at-home (FAH) establishments. Increased FAH spending was driven by higher spending on protein foods, fruits, vegetables, and other FAH (e.g., desserts, prepared meals and salads). However, these increases were uneven across food categories and subpopulations. The largest increases in the FAH share between 2016–19 and 2020 were among single households without children, non-Hispanic Asian households, and in the Northeast. The largest decreases in the food-away-from-home (FAFH) share were among non-Hispanic Asian households and in the Northeast.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Financial Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Public Economics
    Date: 2022–12–21
  36. By: Valentina Alvarez-Saavedra à (UB - Université de Bordeaux); Pierre Levasseur (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Suneha Seetahul (The University of Sydney)
    Abstract: Recent empirical evidence emphasizes the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity for women, especially in developing countries. However, the potential link between gender inequality and obesity has rarely been investigated. Using longitudinal data from India (IHDS 2005–11), we implement Hausman-Taylor and fixed-effect models to estimate the effect of different dimensions of gender inequalities on female overweight. This study demonstrates that the form of gender inequality or women's mistreatment differently affects female bodyweight. Indeed, we show that some forms of women's mistreatments (such as perceived community violence and age difference with husband) increase the risk of female overweight, whereas more severe forms of abuse such as child marriage increase the risk of underweight. Moreover, we also find that higher decision-making power and autonomy about outings are risk factors of weight gain and obesity, especially in urban settings, perhaps indicating a higher exposure to urban obesogenic lifestyles. To conclude, our results suggest that, although improving women's status in society may be a key action to address the epidemic of obesity, policies must also target hazardous habits that emancipation may imply in urban (obesogenic) environments.
    Keywords: India, gender inequality, obesity, Hausman-Taylor estimations, fixed effects estimations
    Date: 2023–03–10
  37. By: Jabkowski, Dawid Antoni
    Abstract: Głównym celem pracy było zidentyfikowanie zasobowych uwarunkowań konkurencyjności sektora rolnego w UE, Japonii, Kanadzie, Wietnamie i państwach Mercosur. Dokonano analizy zasobów czynników wytwórczych i relacji między nimi oraz struktury gospodarstw rolnych w wymienionych wyżej regionach. Przeprowadzone badania dowiodły, że analizowane państwa posiadają silny potencjał konkurencyjny. Największe zasoby pracy skupia rolnictwo wietnamskie, mimo 40% odpływu w ostatnich latach osób pracujących. W rolnictwie UE zaobserwowano duże nakłady środków trwałych brutto. Natomiast rolnictwo wietnamskie charakteryzuje się największą dynamiką nakładów kapitałowych. Kanada i państwa Mercosur charakteryzują się znaczącą ilością użytków rolnych i skoncentrowaną strukturą agrarną, przez co mogą korzystać z efektów skali produkcji, a to z kolei determinuje ich konkurencyjność na arenie światowej. Odwrotna sytuacja jest w Japonii i Wietnamie, gdzie ponad 90% gospodarstw rolnych zajmuje powierzchnię o wielkości do 5 ha.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2023–03–30
  38. By: Davis, James C.; Rupasingha, Anil; Cromartie, John; Sanders, Austin
    Abstract: This report looks at recent population trends, the changing structure of economic sectors, the labor force, and job growth in rural areas. After a decade of overall population loss from 2010 to 2020, nonmetropolitan areas grew at a faster rate than metropolitan areas during 2020–21 due to a sharp turnaround in migration flows occurring in the first year and a half of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The rural population is aging, and the working-age population is declining. The fastest growing rural industries are smaller in employment size than many of the slower growing rural industries—except for health care and social assistance, which is a large and growing industry. Industries in rural areas have been growing; however, agriculture and manufacturing grew in output and productivity but not in jobs. The diversity of the rural workforce is increasing. Rural job growth from 2012 to 2019 for all other races and/or Hispanic workers was higher than for White workers in every industry except agriculture.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Public Economics
    Date: 2022–12–15
  39. By: Ludovic Mbakop (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey); Glenn P. Jenkins (Department of Economics, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada and Cambridge Resources International Inc.); Leonard Leung (Asian Development Bank, Manilla, The Philippines); Kamil Sertoglu (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study measures the impact of traceability attributes on international buyers’ willingness to pay for coffee produced in Ethiopia and the impact of accurate information on the production location of the coffee on the pricing according to its type and grade. Two sets of regressions models were used to investigate the important determinant factors affecting the export prices of trader and producer coffee, one each for trader and producer coffee, to measure the impact of the ECX on the prices and to evaluate the effect of the coffee types and grades on the prices. The results show that after coffee was forced to be traded via the ECX, traceable coffee export prices increased more than the reported price of non-traceable coffee. We also found that after the introduction of the ECX, the reported export prices of coffee were much more closely aligned to the movements in the international prices of coffee than before the ECX. Furthermore, we also find evidence that exporters and overseas buyers do not trust the results of the inspection and grading of coffee by the ECX unless traceability is also present. This is the first study to evaluate foreign buyers’ willingness to pay for the attribute of traceability of Ethiopian coffee and to see how traceability has affected buyers’ trust in the grades given by the ECX for the coffee it graded.
    Keywords: Ethiopian commodity exchange; Ethiopian coffee; Coffee traceability; Commoditization.
    JEL: D40 E23 Q17
    Date: 2023–04–08
  40. By: Bertrand Crettez (CRED - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit - UP2 - Université Panthéon-Assas); Marie Obidzinski (CRESE - Centre de REcherches sur les Stratégies Economiques (UR 3190) - UFC - Université de Franche-Comté - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE], CRED - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit - UP2 - Université Panthéon-Assas)
    Abstract: Should the advent of the blockchain lead to the reorganization or even the replacement of traditional land title registration systems? In addressing this issue we first generalize the model developed by Arrunada and Garoupa (2005) to study optimal land titling systems. Instead of considering only recording and registration alone, we examine an a priori infinite set of systems, each characterized by its quality (the probability that there is no forfeiture for a given plot of land) and its unit transaction cost. In this respect, the blockchain is viewed as a cost-efficient mechanism, albeit one potentially jeopardized by hacking. We find that, despite the introduction of the blockchain, under some reasonable assumptions it is still socially optimal to maintain traditional public registration. In that case, the optimal quality of protection provided by traditional registration must be either sufficiently high (and higher than that of the blockchain), or low enough (and lower than that of the blockchain). Yet under another set of assumptions, it is optimal to rely on the blockchain alone and to abandon traditional registration.
    Keywords: Blockchain, Land titling, Forfeiture
    Date: 2021–07–15
  41. By: Adhikari, Tamanna (Central Bank of Ireland); Carroll, James (Central Bank of Ireland); Lambert, Derek (Central Bank of Ireland)
    Abstract: Climate change will potentially affect households through direct weather/climate-related damages (“physical risks”) and the policy changes required to achieve a global decarbonisation of production and consumption (“transition risks”). The potential financial stability and economic implications of various transition risk channels are currently difficult to measure due to the nature of data available to most authorities. This paper proposes a new methodology to populate loan-level data with borrower energy and emissions estimates to facilitate the analysis of transition risks. Using these estimates, we consider the possible impacts of a number of future medium and long run carbon price scenarios to household resilience. In our framework, the current carbon intensity of households is key to explaining vulnerability in the transition to net zero, with rural and, in particular, low-income households most at risk. The speed of adopting energy-saving technologies and behaviours are important determinants for mitigating these vulnerabilities. We note that our estimation framework, while providing a platform to analyse climate risk, does not replace the need to collect data from source.
    Date: 2023–01
  42. By: Suchita Srinivasan (Center of Economic Research, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Can social policies assist households in coping with the effects of extreme weather events? We evaluate the role of the Indigent Program, an income-based social assistance program in South Africa that provided free electricity and water to poor households, in helping rural households adapt to drought conditions, using household-level panel data. We first analyse the impact of eligibility for the program on the likelihood of acquiring access to electricity and piped water, as well as on expenditure on these amenities, and find that program eligibility did not have a significant impact on these measures. While eligibility for the program was largely ineffective in increasing appliance adoption, electricity use, or welfare, we find that eligible households were more likely to use a borehole as their main water source, a result primarily driven by drought-affected households, suggesting a possible adaptation response facilitated by the program. In general, the benefits offered by the program may have only been marginal in facilitating significant adaptation responses, exacerbated by the fact that households in droughtaffected areas may not have enough assets/wealth to purchase durables, or to make complementary investments. Policy implications relate to the effective design of policies to enable access and use of amenities such as electricity and water, and easing access to credit to facilitate adaptation responses, as climatic conditions intensify.
    Date: 2023–04
  43. By: Depetris-Chauvin, Emilio (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile); Özak, Ömer (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: We study the role of proximity to historical ethnic borders in determining individual land ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa. Following an instrumental variable strategy, we document that individuals have a lower likelihood of owning land near historical ethnic borders. In particular, the likelihood of owning land decreases by 15 percentage points, i.e., about 1/3 of the mean rate of landownership, for rural migrants who move from 57km (90th percentile) to 2 km (10th percentile) from the border. This result aligns with the view that competition for land is stronger and property rights are weaker close to historical ethnic borders in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: land ownership, borders, property rights, historical homelands, development, Africa, Voronoi Tessellation, Thiessen Tessellation
    JEL: D74 N57 O13 O17 O43 P48 Q15 Q34
    Date: 2023–03
  44. By: Julien CALAS; Antoine GODIN; Etienne ESPAGNE (World Bank); Julie Maurin (AFD)
    Abstract: Policy Paper 12 : Global Biodiversity Scenarios - Mandarin Version This paper aims to review and compare existing global and quantitative biodiversity scenarios that could help to build a forward-looking assessment of the consequences of biodiversity loss. More broadly, it provides a literature review of existing biodiversity scenarios and models as well as an assessment of the path forward forresearch to developing scenarios for biodiversityrelated socio-economic impacts at each step of the process:from building narratives, quantifying the impacts and dependencies, assessing the uncertainty range on the results all the way from the ecosystem to the economic and financial asset.This publication is also available in English and French.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2023–03–17
  45. By: Koski, Heli; Kuikkaniemi, Kai; Pantzar, Mika
    Abstract: Abstract This article empirically explores whether and how providing consumers with detailed access to their past food purchase data at different levels of aggregation affects their subsequent food purchase behavior. We employ unique data covering more than 84, 000 quarterly observations on Finnish consumers’ purchases of various food items from August 2018 to January 2021, as well as their usage of a digital application that provides past purchase data. The data indicate that a digital feedback application that provides consumers with detailed visual and numerical information about their past food item purchases, including both monetary and health-related measures, can impact their future purchase patterns. We find apparent food item-specific and sex-, age- and household-type-specific differences in the ways that the usage of digital feedback applications affects consumers’ food purchase patterns. We find that the feedback system’s usage had the most noticeable and comprehensive impact on the purchase of fruit and vegetables, which was its most promoted and salient feature and provided more detailed purchase information than that for any other food category since the launch of the feedback system. Our empirical findings thus indicate that information salience does matter.
    Keywords: Behavioral economics, Consumer choice, Bounded rationality, Salience, Food purchases, Digital feedback applications, Nudging
    JEL: D12 D83 D9 O33
    Date: 2023–04–18
  46. By: McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Stevens, Alexander; Dong, Xiao; Chelius, Carolyn; Marchesi, Keenan; MacLachlan, Matthew
    Abstract: This report summarizes national trends in the level and composition of food retail sales associ- ated with the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The analysis primarily uses weekly retail-based scanner data that span the start of the pandemic through March 13, 2022. For the first 2 years of the pandemic, between the declaration of the national emergency concerning the pandemic on March 13, 2020, and March 13, 2022, real food retail sales increased by roughly 10 percent compared to pre-pandemic levels. These increases were especially driven by sales of meat products (including beef, pork, and seafood), although the relative composition of food retail sales roughly returned to pre-pandemic makeup as of March 2021. Real food retail sales during the second year of the pandemic, between March 13, 2021, and March 13, 2022, were 6.6 percent higher compared to pre-pandemic levels. While total nominal food retail sales varied across States, changes in national-level nominal sales largely explain changes in sales over time within each State. Changes in real food retail sales generally mirrored changes in the number of transactions taking place at food service establishments, but during March and April 2020, real food retail sales rose faster than the rate at which the number of food service transactions fell.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Public Economics
    Date: 2022–12–01
  47. By: Osaid Alshamleh (Department of Accounting and Finance, Cyprus International University, Hespolat, Mersin 10, Turkey); Glenn P. Jenkins (Department of Economics, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada and Cambridge Resources International Inc.); Tufan Ekici (Department of Economics, Ramapo College of New Jersey, Mahwah, N.J. USA)
    Abstract: The estimation and analysis of the distribution of the negative health impacts of certain commodities subject to excise taxes in Belize and the distribution of the burdens of the excise taxes across households of different income levels are the focus of this article. Particular attention is given to the taxation of soft drinks and cosmetics. We examine the income distribution and tax revenue impacts using the commodity data from the household expenditure survey by and the effective tax rates expressed as a percentage of the value of the final consumption of each item. As in many developing countries, taxes on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products are found to be regressive. The most regressive excise taxes are on soft drinks and cosmetics. Households across the economy pay more in excise taxes on cosmetics than they do on either alcoholic beverages or tobacco products. Relative to the level of household expenditures, the burden of the excise taxes on cosmetics is highest for households in the lowest quintile of total expenditures. The impact of soft drinks in creating obesity is likely to be much greater for high income households whose total consumption per household is twice that of low-income households.
    Keywords: excise tax, tax incidence, cosmetics, soft drinks, obesity, regressivity, Belize
    JEL: H22 L66
    Date: 2023–04–10
  48. By: Jo, Ara; Carattini, Stefano
    Abstract: Although the effect of trust on local cooperation is well-documented, little is known about how trust influences global cooperation. Building on a large body of theoretical and experimental literature, we hypothesize that trust shared in a society may positively affect global cooperative behavior. We provide empirical evidence in the context of climate change that an increase in trust is associated with a larger reduction in CO2 emissions across countries, controlling for country fixed effects and a number of time-varying factors. As a falsification test, we estimate the relationship on an earlier period when there was no concern of man-made climate change (before the 1980s) and find no impact of trust on CO2 emissions during that period.
    Keywords: climate change; cooperation; trust; P2SKP1_16502
    JEL: Q54 N50 Z10
    Date: 2021–10–01
  49. By: Wu, Wenjie (Jinan University); Yang, Zhe (Jinan University); Kim, Jun Hyung (Jinan University); Yue, Ai (Shaanxi Normal University)
    Abstract: Climate change poses a significant threat to the development of young children, but its impacts are not well known because of data and methodological limitations. Using a unique panel study in disadvantaged rural communities, we find that exposures to low temperatures undermine subsequent cognitive development before age 5, and reduce caregiver-child interactions and material investments. Results do not support income, health and temporary disruption in cognitive performance as potential channels. By undermining children's home environment, climate change may widen socioeconomic inequalities across households by their capacity to adapt, which is severely limited among disadvantaged households.
    Keywords: early childhood, cognitive skills, home environment, temperature, climate change, China
    JEL: I14 I18 J13 P25
    Date: 2023–03
  50. By: Jean-Louis Combes (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans [2022-...] - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Pascale Combes Motel (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans [2022-...] - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Manegdo Ulrich Doamba (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans [2022-...] - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Youba Ndiaye (ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse, UMR ASTRE - Animal, Santé, Territoires, Risques et Ecosystèmes - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: African countries are natural resource-rich. The continent has natural forests, homes of endemic biodiversity and various ores. This richness brings hope for sustainable and inclusive development in a continent whose population is rapidly growing. It also raises fears of environmental degradation. This article studies mining-driven deforestation using unique finescale data from 2001 to 2019. The dataset covering all Sub-Saharan African countries entails 2, 207 polygons with an average size of about 12, 000 square kilometres. 926 polygons were forested in 2001, of which 198 hosted industrial mines. A spatial autoregressive model allows taking dependence between deforestation decisions at the polygon level. The econometric results show that an additional mine increases deforestation by about 155 square kilometres. Protected areas mitigate deforestation poorly. One hundred square kilometres under protected areas enable only a 9.7 square kilometres reduction in forest loss. More than doubling protected areas would be necessary to offset mining-driven forest loss. Protected areas cannot alone mitigate the adverse effects of mining on forest loss and other environmental consequences. Moreover, the effectiveness of protected areas is not uniform across space: it vanishes in highly conflicted regions.
    Abstract: Les pays africains sont riches en ressources naturelles. Le continent possède des forêts naturelles, foyers de biodiversité endémique et divers produits miniers. Cette richesse est porteuse d'espoir pour un développement durable et inclusif dans un continent dont la population croît rapidement. Elle suscite également des craintes de dégradation de l'environnement. Cet article étudie la déforestation due à l'activité minière en utilisant des données uniques à échelle fine sur la période 2001-2019. L'ensemble de données couvrant tous les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne comprend 2 207 polygones d'une taille moyenne d'environ 12 000 kilomètres carrés. 926 polygones comportaient une surface forestière en 2001, dont 198 accueillaient des mines industrielles. Un modèle spatial autorégressif permet de prendre en compte la dépendance entre les décisions de déforestation au niveau des polygones. Les résultats économétriques montrent qu'une mine supplémentaire augmente la déforestation d'environ 155 kilomètres carrés. Les aires protégées atténuent peu la déforestation. Cent kilomètres carrés d'aires protégées ne permettent qu'une réduction de 9, 7 kilomètres carrés de déforestation. Il faudrait plus que doubler les zones protégées pour compenser la perte de forêt due à l'exploitation minière. Les zones protégées ne peuvent à elles seules atténuer les effets négatifs de l'exploitation minière sur la déforestation et les autres conséquences environnementales. En outre, l'efficacité des aires protégées n'est pas uniforme dans l'espace : elle disparaît dans les régions fortement conflictuelles.
    Keywords: Deforestation, Mining, Protected areas, Panel data, Spatial econometrics, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2023–04–06

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