nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒04‒17
39 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Consequences of national food system transitions in Ethiopia for ending hunger and achieving healthy diets By Levin-Koopman, Jason; Conijn, Sjaak; Kuiper, Marijke
  2. Organic farming offers promising mitigation potential in dairy systems without compromising economic performances By Mathieu Lambotte; Stéphane de Cara; Catherine Brocas; Valentin Bellassen
  3. Costing Healthy Diets and Measuring Deprivation: New Indicators and Modeling Approaches By Pauw, Karl; Ecker, Olivier; Thurlow, James; Comstock, Andrew R.
  4. U.S. Climate Policy Revisited: Spatially Distributed Spillover Effects on Agricultural Production, Trade and Land Use By Baldos, Uris Lantz; Chepeliev, Maksym; Haqiqi, Iman; Hertel, Thomas; Liu, Jing; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
  5. Agricultural Productivity in Southern Cone Countries By Daniel Lema; Nicolás Gatti
  6. The economywide effects of reducing food loss and waste in developing countries By Aragie, Emerta; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James
  7. Food prices and the wages of the poor: A low-cost, high-value approach to high-frequency food security monitoring By Headey, Derek D.; Bachewe, Fantu Nisrane; Marshall, Quinn; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Mahrt, Kristi
  8. Exploring Micronutrient Deficiency Risks in Africa using Projections of the Food System By Gabriel, Sherwin
  9. Why did the chicken cross the border? Assessing farm performance of broiler production in Ghana and Germany By Chibanda, Craig; Thobe, Petra; Almadani, Mohamad Isam; Deblitz, Claus; Awuni, Stephen
  10. Lebanon’s agrifood system in times of turbulence: obstacles and opportunities By Khafagy, Amr; Díaz-González, Ana María; Nano, Enrico; Soguero Escuer, Jorge; Morales Opazo, Cristian; Salibi, Amal; El Tawn, Lamia; Dikah, Wafaa
  11. Financial performance of dairy farms participating in Minnesota Dairy Initiative (MDI) over time By Weir, Rebecca; Hadrich, Joleen
  12. Knowledge, prices and factor demand: Fertilizers in Argentine Agriculture By Marcos Gallacher
  13. Tail dependence structure and extreme risk spillover effects between the international agricultural futures and spot markets By Yun-Shi Dai; Peng-Fei Dai; Wei-Xing Zhou
  14. Investigating Poultry Interventions in Ghana and Senegal By Zamani, Omid; Chibanda, Craig; Pelikan, Janine
  15. The impact of price insulation on world wheat markets during Covid-19 and the Ukraine crisis By Martin, Will; Minot, Nicholas
  16. Digital farmer registry and tailored extension and advisory services in Ethiopia: A process evaluation By Sebsibie, Samuel; Ketema, Dessalegn Molla; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse
  17. Income and wildlife hunting in the Anthropocene : Evidence from Cambodia By Kader, Sharar
  18. Health Insurance and Agricultural Investments: Evidence from Rural Thailand By Liu, K.; Prommawin, B.; Schroyen, F.
  19. Valuation of Marine Ecosystems and Sustainable Development Goals By Phoebe Koundouri; George Halkos; Conrad Landis; Konstantinos Dellis; Artemis Stratopoulou; Angelos Plataniotis; Elisa Chioattoa
  20. The Protective Role of Index Insurance in the Experience of Violent Conflict: Evidence from Ethiopia By Tekalign Gutu Sakketa; Dan Maggio; John McPeak
  21. Environmentally-friendly trade policies to shape Mauritius’ future By Jaime de Melo
  22. Impact of Reduced Funding for Agricultural Researches By Hong, Fei
  23. Economywide Impacts of Expansion of Maritime Infrastructure in Senegal By Sahoo, Amarendra; Nechifor, Victor; Ferrari, Emanuele; Amany, Damit Serge Didier
  24. The tragedy of the (anti-)commons: The case of prey-predator fisheries By Guillaume Bataille; Hubert Stahn; Agnes Tomini
  25. Brazil's Amazon Fund: a "green fix" between offset pressures and deforestation crisis By Horn, Claudia
  26. Conducting (Long-term) Impact Evaluations in Humanitarian and Conflict Settings: Evidence from a complex agricultural intervention in Syria By Aysegül Kayaoglu; Ghassan Baliki; Tilman Brück
  27. (Why) Do farmers’ Big Five personality traits matter? – A systematic literature review By Lehberger, Mira; Gruener, Sven
  28. Revisiting the environmental bias of trade policies based on an environmentally extended GTAP MRIO Data Base By Chepeliev, Maksym; Corong, Erwin
  29. Determinants of the economic profitability of peasant enterprises in rural areas of Borgou, Benin By Adam MALLA ISSIFOU; Yabi A Jacob
  30. Analysing practices, social representations and behaviours of socio-hydro systems' actors By Olivier Barreteau; Bruno Bonté; Yvan Caballero; Emmanuel Dubois; Stefano Farolfi; Patrice Garin; Cécile Hérivaux; Damien Jourdain; Philippe Le Coent; Julien Malard; Marielle Montginoul; Sylvie Morardet; Noémie Neverre
  31. A 5-day field experiment on cooperation in the horticultural supply chain By Ngoc Thao NOET; Marianne Lefebvre; Serge Blondel
  32. Fiscal Costs of Climate Change in the United States By Lint Barrage
  33. Science for nourishing the world, sustainably By Campbell, Andrew
  34. At the Right Time:Eliminating Mismatch between Cash Flow and Credit Flow in Microcredit By Hisaki KONO; Abu SHONCHOY; Kazushi TAKAHASHI
  35. Food aid in Europe in times of the COVID-19 crisis An international survey project By Johanna Greiss; Holger Schoneville; Aistė Adomavičienė Rimgailė Baltutė; Anikó Bernát; Bea Cantillon; Elena Carrillo Álvarez; Heleen Delanghe; Benedikt Goderis; Karen Hermans; Hilje van der Horst; Piotr Michoń; Elvira Sofia Leite de Freitas Pereira; José António Correia Pereirinha
  36. Economics and human dimension of active managment of forest grassland ecotone in south-central USA under changing climate By Bijesh Mishra
  37. Combining Risk Adjustment with Risk Sharing in Health Plan Payment Systems: Private Health Insurance in Australia By Josefa Henriquez; Richard C. van Kleef; Andrew Matthews; Thomas McGuire; Francesco Paolucci
  38. Murder nature: Weather and violent crime in rural Brazil By Phoebe W. Ishak
  39. Improving the quality of silk yarn and fabric using various edible oils during pre-treatment By Gaudia, Garizaldy G.

  1. By: Levin-Koopman, Jason; Conijn, Sjaak; Kuiper, Marijke
    Abstract: Countries have committed themselves to achieve Sustainable Development Goals, such as Zero Hunger (SDG2), and Life on Land (SDG15). Many countries are still far from reaching the targets as expressed in these goals. To help steer these developments, the necessary transitions in the food system of a country for achieving healthy and affordable diets for all people need to identified, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. The transition to healthy diets means a change in the demand for and consumption of various agricultural commodities. This change in demand will drive price changes, both for consumers and at the farm gate. This affects agricultural incomes, domestic food production and patterns of trade. Changes in domestic food production will in turn alter land use patterns, fertilizer use and other agricultural inputs which have environmental consequences with respect to land demand for agriculture, nutrient emissions, greenhouse gas emissions and irrigation water demand. In this study we investigate a number of aspects of this challenge by linking a biophysical (BIOSPCAS) and an economic (MAGNET) model, and simulating consequences of a transition to a healthy diet in Ethiopia in 2030. The impacts of economic and environmental consequences of a transition to a healthy diet in Ethiopia are compared with the SSP2 (O’Neill et al. 2017) business as usual future projections of the Ethiopian economy and agricultural system in 2030 with the current patterns of consumption, to illustrate the differences and highlight the impacts of the transition. Further as domestic food prices are linked to the global marketplace for agricultural commodities, we explore a scenario where the rest world makes the transition to a healthy diet as well. This global transition will affect the demand for Ethiopian exports and the prices for imports facing farmers and consumers.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:pugtwp:333408&r=agr
  2. By: Mathieu Lambotte (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Stéphane de Cara (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Catherine Brocas (IDELE - Institut de l'élevage); Valentin Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: There is a lack of clear empirical evidence towards the lower carbon footprint of organic food products, in particular in the dairy sector. Until now, small sample sizes, lack of properly defined counterfactual and the omission of land-use related emissions have hindered comparisons of organic and conventional products. Here we bridge these gaps by mobilizing a uniquely large dataset of 3, 074 French dairy farms. Using propensity score weighting, we find that the carbon footprint of organic milk is 19% (95%CI = [10%-28%]) lower than its conventional counterpart without indirect land-use change and 11% (95%CI = [5%-17%]) lower with indirect land use changes. In both production systems, farms' profitability is similar. We simulate the consequences of the Green deal target of 25% of agricultural land devoted to organic dairy farming and show that this policy would reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of the French dairy sector by 9.01 to 9.64%.
    Keywords: organic farming, greenhouse gas emissions, gross margin, dairy farms, land use changes, Green Deal
    Date: 2023–05–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03995376&r=agr
  3. By: Pauw, Karl; Ecker, Olivier; Thurlow, James; Comstock, Andrew R.
    Abstract: One of the greatest global challenges today is ensuring widespread availability and equitable access to affordable, nutritious foods produced in an environmentally sustainable manner. A rich literature exists around the definition of a healthy diet and the drivers of dietary change. We contribute to this literature by proposing a new quantifiable diet deprivation measure estimated from standard household consumption and expenditure surveys. The Reference Diet Deprivation (ReDD) index measures the incidence, breadth, and depth of diet deprivation across multiple, essential food groups in a single indicator. Although useful as a standalone measure, we show how ReDD can be integrated into an economywide model to examine changes in household diet quality under different simulation scenarios. Using Nigeria as case study, hypothetical agricultural productivity growth scenarios reveal that dairy, pulses, fruit, and red meat value chains have the greatest potential to reduce overall diet deprivation in Nigeria per unit of GDP growth generated, while productivity growth in more widely consumed crops such as cereals and root crops do little to improve diet quality. These findings have implications for the prioritization of agricultural development initiatives aimed at improving the quality of diets. More generally, the integration of a diet quality indicator in an economywide model allows for a deeper understanding of the drivers of dietary change.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:pugtwp:333410&r=agr
  4. By: Baldos, Uris Lantz; Chepeliev, Maksym; Haqiqi, Iman; Hertel, Thomas; Liu, Jing; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
    Abstract: Agriculture is the largest emitter of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, but it seems unlikely that these emissions will be covered by climate policies in the near future. However, even if carbon pricing were applied to CO2 emissions alone, as is the case with the EU emissions trading scheme (ETS), the agricultural sector would be impacted through the increasing costs of intermediate energy inputs, rising fertilizer prices and changing food demand in response to changing prices and incomes. Considering the tremendous heterogeneity of agricultural production systems across the continental U.S., it is also important to not only understand the potential macroeconomic and sectoral implications of the climate mitigation measures, but also the spatial distribution of the corresponding impacts. In this paper, we apply a harmonized macro-gridded modeling framework to provide an assessment of spatially distributed spillover effects of climate mitigation policies on U.S. crop sector. Our results suggest that even if mitigation measures would be implemented in a form of CO2 pricing only (i.e. non-CO2 GHGs would not be directly targeted), the crop sector would be impacted through a number of channels, with rising fertilizer prices being the key one. Overall, we find substantial environmental co-benefits achieved through this channel and resulting in a reduction of cropland use, nitrogen leaching and water withdrawals. In particular, we find that such a climate policy would yield substantial water quality co-benefits, mitigating nitrate leaching to a greater extent than current voluntary environmental policies targeting water quality directly.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:pugtwp:333502&r=agr
  5. By: Daniel Lema; Nicolás Gatti
    Keywords: Agricultural productivity, efficiency, stochastic frontiers
    JEL: Q16 Q18
    Date: 2021–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aep:anales:4485&r=agr
  6. By: Aragie, Emerta; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: One of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is reducing food loss and waste (FLW) across all stages of food value chains, including the on-farm production, the off-farm postharvest, processing, and distribution, and the household consumption stages. We employ general equilibrium models for Bangladesh, Kenya, and Nigeria to assess the economywide implications of reducing FLW at different stages of value chains. Halving FLW results in GDP increases of between 1.1 and 2 percent, with up to 13 million people lifted out of poverty across the three countries. Diets also improve – especially in Kenya and Nigeria – due to greater availability and lower prices of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Although most of the gains originate from reducing FLW in the on-farm production stage, strong intersectoral linkages mean around 30 percent of measured GDP gains are realized in non-agricultural sectors. Reducing waste at the final consumption stage has small negative impacts on GDP as households purchase less food without reducing their food intake. We conclude that the significant economywide gains provide a justification for adopting FLW reduction strategies, although costing the policy and investment options needed to reduce FLW is an important area for future research.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; KENYA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; Sustainable Development Goals; postharvest losses; food waste; value chain; general equilibrium model; economy; poverty; diets; policies; food systems
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2173&r=agr
  7. By: Headey, Derek D.; Bachewe, Fantu Nisrane; Marshall, Quinn; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Mahrt, Kristi
    Abstract: International food prices have become increasingly volatile in recent decades, with “global food crises†in 2008, 2011 and most recently in 2022. The 2008 crisis prompted international agencies to ambitiously extend their monitoring of domestic food prices in developing countries to strengthen early warning systems and food and nutrition surveillance. However, food inflation by itself is not sufficient for measuring disposable income or food affordability; for that, one must measure either changes in income or changes in an income proxy. Here we propose the use of a low-cost income proxy that can be monitored at the same high frequency and spatial granularity as food prices: the wages of poor unskilled workers. While not all poor people are unskilled wage earners, changes in the real “reservation wages†of low skilled activities are likely to be highly predictive of changes in disposable income for poorer segments of society (Deaton and Dreze 2002). We demonstrate this by estimating changes in “food wages†– wages deflated food price indices – during well-documented food price crises in Ethiopia (2008, 2011 and 2022), Sri Lanka (2022) and Myanmar (2022). In all these instances, food wages declined by 20-30%, often in the space of a few months. Moreover, in Myanmar we use a household panel survey data to show that the decline in food wages over the course of 2022 closely matches estimate declines in household disposable income and proportional increases in income-based poverty. We argue that the affordability of nutritious food for “all people, at all times†is a critically important dimension of food security, and we advocate for monitoring the wages of the poor as a cheap and accurate means of capturing that dimension.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; SRI LANKA; MYANMAR; BURMA; SOUTHEAST ASIA; ASIA; food prices; food crises; food security; nutrition; wages; healthy diets; monitoring; inflation; household income; early warning systems
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2174&r=agr
  8. By: Gabriel, Sherwin
    Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies (MND) remain an important challenge in the 21st century, complicated by climate, economic, and demographic change. However, the lack of recent and reliable survey data challenge understanding of the magnitude and risks posed by MNDs. We examine projections of food availability to 2050, for 49 African countries, under various climate and socio-economic futures, using a global, multi-market partial equilibrium model. Food availability is used to estimate micronutrient availability, accounting for edible portions, nutrient loss, and country-specific characteristics of consumed foods. Projections from an ensemble of sixty scenarios are analysed and assessed against recommended daily intake to gauge nutrient adequacy. Of the panel of 13 micronutrients analysed, inadequate calcium, vitamin A, riboflavin, folate, and zinc appear to be the most prevalent in 2050. Further, estimates are sensitive to socio-economic growth, which have stronger effects on households' food availability than changes in production driven by alternative greenhouse gas concentrations. As the composition of micronutrient availability by crop varies by country, the characteristics of specific food projections need to be considered when recommending interventions in the food system. The method can also be used to assess alternative scenarios of dietary evolution, and whether food system interventions to enhance nutrient density or availability may meaningfully reduce shortfalls in nutrient availability. The analysis is limited to national average food availability, and further disaggregation of household food availability, by geography or income group, allows for more specific identification of MNDs, and for appropriate interventions.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:pugtwp:333433&r=agr
  9. By: Chibanda, Craig; Thobe, Petra; Almadani, Mohamad Isam; Deblitz, Claus; Awuni, Stephen
    Abstract: Ghana has experienced an explosion in the consumption of chicken meat in the last two decades. However, local production has failed to keep up with the growing demand for poultry meat. Consequently, Ghana is highly dependent on frozen chicken imports as it imports an estimated 65 % of its total poultry meat supply. Ghana’s dependency on chicken imports is a subject of significant debate. One of the questions in the debate is: “How is it possible that EU countries are able to export frozen chicken meat to Ghana at such low prices and still make a profit?”. Some studies explain that EU countries like Germany are able to export frozen chicken cuts to African countries at low prices because EU consumers prefer to consume chicken breasts, therefore, other parts are either exported or processed into pet food. However, this explanation does not provide insights into why a significant amount of frozen whole chickens are also exported to West Africa at lower prices than the locally produced ones. Therefore, this means that there are other factors that contribute to the low-cost of frozen chicken meat exports from the EU. In this context, this study investigates whether the farm performance of German conventional broiler farms contributes to the low prices of German frozen chicken exports to Ghana. The typical farm approach was used to construct and quantify typical conventional broiler farms in Ghana and Germany. The approach entails the construction of empirically grounded farm data sets through the use of semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Our preliminary results show that the typical German conventional broiler farm is technically more efficient in comparison to the Ghanaian farms. The production costs in Germany are significantly lower compared to the Ghanaian farms. The results also show that all typical conventional broiler farms in Ghana and Germany are profitable in the short-term, which considers only cash costs.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:pugtwp:333506&r=agr
  10. By: Khafagy, Amr; Díaz-González, Ana María; Nano, Enrico; Soguero Escuer, Jorge; Morales Opazo, Cristian; Salibi, Amal; El Tawn, Lamia; Dikah, Wafaa
    Abstract: Lebanon currently faces one of the worst economic crises of this century. The political deadlock, the economic crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic have further intensified the country’s existing economic fragility. Based on preliminary estimates, it is expected that the total cultivated area (mainly temporary crops and crops under greenhouses) will decrease during the 2021–2022 agricultural season due to the expected further increase in prices of inputs and soaring fuel prices. Overall, farmers will tend to shift to low-cost and less water demanding crops to reduce their overall production costs. Farmgate prices for agricultural products are also on the rise with the increase in production costs due to further depreciation of the Lebanese Pound. Despite the increase in export costs, exports of fresh fruits and vegetables are projected to increase for a variety of products and countries. This study aims to identify Lebanon’s main economic and social challenges related to the agrifood sector and to recommend evidence-based strategies and priority areas for public investment to cope with the impacts of the financial crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic and the PoB explosion. It aims to update and complement the June 2021 ASR. It should be noted that this study was prepared during the period from September 2021 to February 2022 and does not cover latest developments, such as the impact of the Ukraine war on the agricultural and food security sectors in Lebanon.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–10–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:faoets:330802&r=agr
  11. By: Weir, Rebecca; Hadrich, Joleen
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:umaesp:333597&r=agr
  12. By: Marcos Gallacher
    Keywords: Fertilizer demand, technical change, Argentine agriculture
    JEL: D24 Q12
    Date: 2021–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aep:anales:4474&r=agr
  13. By: Yun-Shi Dai; Peng-Fei Dai; Wei-Xing Zhou
    Abstract: This paper combines the Copula-CoVaR approach with the ARMA-GARCH-skewed Student-t model to investigate the tail dependence structure and extreme risk spillover effects between the international agricultural futures and spot markets, taking four main agricultural commodities, namely soybean, maize, wheat, and rice as examples. The empirical results indicate that the tail dependence structures for the four futures-spot pairs are quite different, and each of them exhibits a certain degree of asymmetry. In addition, the futures market for each agricultural commodity has significant and robust extreme downside and upside risk spillover effects on the spot market, and the downside risk spillover effects for both soybeans and maize are significantly stronger than their corresponding upside risk spillover effects, while there is no significant strength difference between the two risk spillover effects for wheat, and rice. This study provides a theoretical basis for strengthening global food cooperation and maintaining global food security, and has practical significance for investors to use agricultural commodities for risk management and portfolio optimization.
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2303.11030&r=agr
  14. By: Zamani, Omid; Chibanda, Craig; Pelikan, Janine
    Abstract: The present paper primarily aims to compare different key factors behind the high cost of production in the Ghanaian poultry value chain and investigate the possible scenarios to reduce it. In the case of Senegal, the poultry ban is the major policy intervention in the poultry market. Since 2005, the Senegalese poultry sector has been experiencing a trade ban on poultry imports to prevent the Avian Influenzas outbreak. We evaluate the potential effects of the ban policy on the performance of poultry farms using a comparative analysis between Senegal and Ghana. Given the scope of our analysis and data availabilities, we use different methods to evaluate the policies of interest. To begin with, we develop a spatial partial equilibrium model including different stages to assess the spillover effects of feed costs on the poultry meat market. Figure 1 presents the input and product flow in a typical poultry value chain in Ghana from farm to home. The model is based on a spatial partial equilibrium model developed by Samuelson (1952) and extended by Takayama, and Judge (1964). The final calibrated model is applied to investigate the impact of feed processing capacity and efficiency on poultry meat production. In our analysis, the main advantage of using a partial equilibrium approach compared to general equilibrium is that it permits analysis within the value chain context including feed conversion ratio and processing details. Additionally, it allows us to assess the effects of policies at price levels.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:pugtwp:333455&r=agr
  15. By: Martin, Will; Minot, Nicholas
    Abstract: This paper begins with a survey of recent commodity price developments that highlights the magnitude of this price surge and identifies the rapid rise in wheat prices as a key element. The analysis in this paper focuses on the extent to which domestic markets are insulated from these changes and on the resulting impacts on world prices. An econometric analysis using Error Correction Models finds stable long-term relationships between world wheat prices and most domestic prices of wheat and wheat products, but with considerable variation across countries in the rate of price transmission. A case study of the price shocks during the Covid pandemic and the Ukraine food price crisis finds that price insulation roughly doubled the overall increase in world wheat prices and raised their volatility both during periods of price increase and price decline.
    Keywords: Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; error correction model; food prices; food price crisis; models; price stabilization; wheat; shocks; cointegration; ECM; price insulation; Ukraine war
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2175&r=agr
  16. By: Sebsibie, Samuel; Ketema, Dessalegn Molla; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse
    Abstract: Ethiopia hosts one of the largest extension systems in Africa, with approximately 43 development agents (DAs) per 10, 000 farmers, more than 15, 000 farmers training centers (FTCs) that serve as a focal point for agricultural development activities at the local level, and 25 Agricultural Technical Voca tional Education and Training (ATVET) institutes that prepare and update extension staff in both general and specialized fields of expertise (Berhane et al. 2018; ATA 2014; Davis et al. 2010). DAs report edly reach more than 75% of farm households in the country (CSA 2017), and every kebele hosts an average of three DAs, each with his or her own specialization. However, there are concerns about the quality of extension and advisory services DAs provide mainly because DAs are overburdened and under-resourced. DAs actively engage in activities that do not typically fall under the mandate of agricultural extension services, including the collection of taxes, loan repayments and mobilization of labor for public works. A related concern is the simple “technology-push†approach to agricultural intensification followed by most DAs since they do not have the time to closely know the farmers and provide a more “tailored and knowledge-driven†advisory that puts farmers’ priorities and technical capabilities at the center of DA’s effort (Berhane et al. 2018; Bachewe et al. 2017).
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; extension; development; farmers; agricultural development; households; technology; agricultural intensification; Farmer Training Centers (FTC)
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:february2023&r=agr
  17. By: Kader, Sharar (Monash University)
    Abstract: Wildlife hunting is one of the largest causes of biodiversity loss, yet its drivers are still poorly understood. This paper quantifies the relationship between income and wildlife hunting in Cambodia, a country at the forefront of the clash between economic development and biodiversity loss. We use two nationally representative datasets which, unusually, collect detailed data on both the consumption and sales of hunted wildlife to estimate the importance of income on wildlife hunting in rural areas. Using rainfall shocks in the beginning of the main agricultural production season and prices of other protein sources as sources of exogenous variation in household income, we show that income has a causal negative relationship with wildlife hunting in rural Cambodia. We use these estimates to explore the effectiveness of cash transfers as a policy that promotes both wildlife conservation and poverty alleviation by primarily reducing the value of hunted wildlife as a coping strategy.
    Keywords: Biodiversity loss ; Hunting ; Rainfall shocks ; Cash transfers ; Cambodia JEL classifications: O13 ; Q56 ; Q57 ; Q58
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wrk:wrkesp:46&r=agr
  18. By: Liu, K.; Prommawin, B.; Schroyen, F.
    Abstract: Exploiting the 2001 universal health insurance reform in Thailand as a source of identification, we estimate the effects of health insurance coverage on agricultural production decisions and welfare. Our estimates suggest that the reform led to long-run increases in total cultivation investments and output, and that households shifted their cultivation portfolio towards riskier crops. We explain these findings using a model of agricultural investment, highlighting the important roles of health insurance in terms of mitigating background medical expenditure risk and improving health. We also find that the reform improved households’ welfare by reducing debts and defaults on loans.
    Keywords: Health insurance, Risk-taking, Cultivation, Investments.
    JEL: D1 G5 H51 I13 Q12
    Date: 2023–03–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cam:camdae:2327&r=agr
  19. By: Phoebe Koundouri; George Halkos; Conrad Landis; Konstantinos Dellis; Artemis Stratopoulou; Angelos Plataniotis; Elisa Chioattoa
    Abstract: This paper refers to the valuation of European, Marine and Fresh Water Ecosystem Services. Using a meta-regression approach, we estimate the Annual Willingness to Pay (WTP) for several classifications of the ecosystem services and various biogeographical and marine regions across all twenty-seven EU markets. Moreover, we explore the correlation between WTP and the national level of achievement of the 17 SDGs, with particular focus on SDG 14 - Life Below Water. Results indicate that regulating services of marine and freshwater ecosystems are ranked high and that in almost 63% of the European countries, the WTP for the improvement of the marine & freshwater ecosystem is high and exceeds estimates for terrestrial ecosystems. Valuing ecosystem services and link them to the Sustainable Development Goals, we find that marine ecosystems are mainly positively correlated to SDGs 2, 12, 13, 14 and 17, while a high MWTP value is assigned to specific SDG14 individual indicators like fish caught from overexploited or collapsed stocks and fish caught that are then discarded. Overall, results indicate that societies attributing greater value to ecosystem services mark greater progress towards the implementation of SDGs and SDG 14 in particular.
    Keywords: Valuation, Sustainable Development Goals, Ecosystem Services, Meta-Regression, Marine, Freshwater
    Date: 2023–03–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aue:wpaper:2308&r=agr
  20. By: Tekalign Gutu Sakketa (German Institute of Development and Sustainability); Dan Maggio (Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University); John McPeak (Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University)
    Abstract: Droughts are among the leading causes of livestock mortality and conflict among pastoralist populations in east africa. To foster climate resiliency in these populations, index based livestock insurance (ibli) products have become popular. These products, which allow herders to hedge climate risk, often utilize remote-sensed data to trigger indemnity payouts, thus ameliorating moral hazard issues associated with standard insurance products. We study how one such program, implemented in the southern ethiopia, impacted the experience of violent conflict among participating households. Using causal mediation analysis, we show first that there is a strong link between rangeland conditions and violent conflict; a one-unit decrease in the standardized normalized difference vegetation index (zndvi) in the previous season is associated with a 0.3-1.7 percentage point increase in the likelihood of conflict exposure. Within the mediation framework, we leverage a randomized encouragement experiment and show that insurance uptake reduces the conflict risk created by poor rangeland conditions by between 17 and 50 percent. Our results suggest that social protection programs, particularly index insurance programs, may act as a protective factor in areas with complex risk profiles, where households are exposed to both climatic and conflict risks, which themselves may interact.
    Keywords: pastoralism, conflict, weather, index insurance, causal mediation
    JEL: D74 G52 O13 Q54
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hic:wpaper:385&r=agr
  21. By: Jaime de Melo (UNIGE - Université de Genève = University of Geneva, FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International)
    Abstract: Mauritius and other Small Island Development States (SIDS) depend heavily on international trade. This presents challenges to environmental management. SIDS are vulnerable to all forms of environmental degradation, of which part are related to international trade, the focus of this chapter. While climate change causes of environmental degradation are beyond the control of the government, others like deforestation, loss of biodiversity or degradation of their maritime and terrestrial environments including depletion of fish stocks in their Extended Economic Zones (EEZs) are, at least, partly, under their control.
    Keywords: Environment, Mauritus, SIDS, EEZs, Climate change
    Date: 2023–02–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-04001711&r=agr
  22. By: Hong, Fei (Researcher)
    Abstract: Impact of Reduced Funding for Agricultural Researches
    Date: 2023–03–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:8te6h&r=agr
  23. By: Sahoo, Amarendra; Nechifor, Victor; Ferrari, Emanuele; Amany, Damit Serge Didier
    Abstract: Senegal’s port enjoys its strategical location to form Trans-Saharan trade rout boasting as one of the best infrastructure in the region. Country’s trade industry largely depends on its port. Over 70% of country’s mineral and forest production are exported, while around 15% of its agricultural products enters the export market. About 50% of the Senegal’s demand for agricultural products, including rice, come from the imports. Petroleum products and petrochemicals dominate the country’s import industry. However, the port capacity is increasingly facing pressures due to its infrastructural constraints, which could create iceberg types of trade costs, and also adversely affect the efficiencies of exports and imports. The infrastructural investment can potentially raise the port capacity and hence will increase the efficiencies of trade transactions, and will raise the preference for traded goods. A recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model is used to evaluate potential outcome of increased preferences and efficiencies of exports and imports on the economic performances and wellbeing of the country. The model imitates the structure of the Senegal economy in the year 2017 and projected the business usual baseline to 2022. The simulated scenarios are contrasted against the baseline. It is expected that increase in trade, in general, would support increased food security and growth of the economy. However, the impacts of increase in efficiencies and preferences of exports and imports would bring a change in the structure of the domestic activities differently.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Public Economics
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:pugtwp:333420&r=agr
  24. By: Guillaume Bataille (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Hubert Stahn (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Agnes Tomini (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We examine the efficiency and environmental consequences of assigning species-specific common-property rights, considering a Lotka-Volterra model in which fisheries are specialized in the harvesting of a single species. We show that the fragmentation of the ecosystem implies the tragedy of the anticommons even when fisheries compete for the resource. Indeed, contrasting the private exploitation equilibrium with the socially optimal solution, we demonstrate that the predator stock is too high while the prey stock is too low under private property rights. A puzzling result is that the "abundant" species is actually underused because of insufficient economic incentives; however, the scarce and high-priced species does not necessarily suffer from overexploitation. Biological interactions are consequently the main driver of stock depletion. Finally, we investigate how to simultaneously solve both the tragedy of the commons and that of the anticommons and analyze the economic costs of regulating only the tragedy of the commons.
    Keywords: Exclusive property rights, Common-pool resource, Anticommons, Fisheries, Prey-predator relationship, Optimal control, Exclusive property rights Common-pool resource Anticommons Fisheries
    Date: 2023–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-04002122&r=agr
  25. By: Horn, Claudia
    Abstract: Emissions trading and nature-based solutions, particularly REDD+, have lent themselves to the critical literature on the “socioecological fix” in neoliberal capital accumulation and state regulation. Prone to reversals, land conflict, and leakage, these mechanisms displace the burden of carbon emissions reductions to global South countries, promote new green commodities, and thus increase rather than curb the chance of capital accumulations by big polluters. Studies of existing REDD+ projects register the privatisation of forest management on the one hand and “aidification” on the other, suggesting impediments to fully commodifying forest carbon ranging from social movement resistance to technical issues. This case study of Brazil's national Amazon Fund points to global South protagonism in constructing and negotiating REDD+, challenging Northern and market hegemonies. Progressive Southern actors use the political space of the fix to defend rural communities' territorial rights and demand resources in line with historic responsibilities and climate justice.
    Keywords: Amazon Fund; Brazil; carbon markets; green economy; green fix; socioenvironmental fix; Wiley deal
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2023–03–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:118136&r=agr
  26. By: Aysegül Kayaoglu (ISDC - International Security and Development Center, Germany; Department of Economics, Istanbul Technical University, Türkiye; IMIS, University of Osnabrück, Germany); Ghassan Baliki (ISDC - International Security and Development Center, Germany); Tilman Brück (Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany; ISDC - International Security and Development Center, Berlin, Germany; Thaer-Institute, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany; Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops (IGZ), Germany)
    Abstract: The number of vulnerable people in humanitarian emergencies worldwide is increasing due to the rising frequency and intensity of risk exposure. At the same time, most interventions in humanitarian emergency and conflict settings (HECS) are short-term in nature, as if people only require temporary help to overcome adversity. Yet there is an acute scarcity of rigorous impact evaluations in HECS testing if assistance works well (or at all). Moreover, the few available studies only cover a small range of countries and contexts. Furthermore, the knowledge gap concerning the long-term impacts of crisis interventions is even more pronounced. These gaps are primarily caused by the unavailability of (long-term) panel data in emergencies and by the challenges of constructing feasible counterfactuals. Our paper contributes to the literature in four ways. First, we review recent research on covariate balancing to assist researchers in conducting a rigorous impact evaluation in HECS with non-randomized treatment assignments and significant covariate imbalances between the treatment and control groups due to targeting. We thus suggest methods to overcome the challenges associated with conflict or humanitarian contexts. Second, employing a range of such methods for one case study, we offer rigorous evidence on the long-term causal impacts of agricultural interventions in a humanitarian crisis setting. Third, we show that agricultural or livestock interventions have different impacts in the long term, which implies that the combined interventions might have a more sustainable impact on households. In other words, our analyses demonstrate that short-term humanitarian assistance can indeed have long-term development impacts. Fourth, we offer innovative evidence for the case of Syria, using unique panel data with four waves of treated and untreated households, thus expanding the range of countries ever studied in the literature on humanitarian emergencies.
    Keywords: causal inference, matching, entropy balancing, conflict, food security, resilience, agricultural interventions
    JEL: C18 C3 D1 I31 O13 Q1
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hic:wpaper:386&r=agr
  27. By: Lehberger, Mira; Gruener, Sven
    Abstract: Agricultural economists are increasingly incorporating insights from psychology into their research to better understand farmers’ behavior. The Big Five model of personality is frequently used in psychological research. This paper aims at answering how and when researchers use the Big Five personality traits when focusing on farmers (research questions, measurement of personality traits). In addition, we analyze to what extent the Big Five personality traits contribute to explaining farmers’ behaviors and outcomes. To answer these research questions, we carry out systematic literature research guided by the PRISMA approach. We searched three databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed) at the end of February 2022 and identified n = 36 eligible studies. We included studies, which were written in English, which focused on farmers, including primary data and measurements of the Big Five personality traits. This is the first systematic and comprehensive review of the role of the Big Five personality traits in farmers’ behavior. Our review shows an increase in interest in the farmers’ Big Five personality traits in the past years, most often incorporated in research conducted in Europe. By carrying out the main steps of content analysis, we develop a taxonomy, categorizing the research aims of the reviewed studies. We identify three main categories: well-being (human and animal), business (in a broad sense and in a narrow sense), and methodological aims. Overall, our review suggests that some personality traits are more important for understanding farmers’ behaviors and outcomes than others, depending on the context. Indeed, we were able to identify some patterns. For instance, our review shows that neuroticism is most often negatively related to measures of human well-being, or business development, whereas agreeableness supports non-technical skills and education. Openness and extraversion seem to be strong predictors of pro-environmental behavior, whereas conscientiousness tends to increase business performance. To assess the possible risk of bias in the reviewed studies, we included a quality discussion. We further discuss the limitations of our review and identify avenues for future research. To increase the review’s credibility, we pre-registered our procedure (INPLASY202230138, DOI: 10.37766/inplasy2022.3.0138).
    Date: 2023–02–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:jbx4p&r=agr
  28. By: Chepeliev, Maksym; Corong, Erwin
    Abstract: Recently, Shapiro (2021) identified a new fact which shows an environmental bias of trade policies. This fact reveals that in most countries both import tariffs and non-tariff barriers are much lower on dirty than on clean goods—where “dirtiness” is defined as a commodity’s emission intensity measured in terms of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion per dollar of that commodity’s value. In this paper, we revisit this fact by using a newly-developed environmentally-extended GTAP MRIO Data Base and extend an earlier analysis in several ways. Our preliminary results that rely on the emissions embodied into trade (EEBT) approach and consider import tariffs only (i.e. do not include NTBs) indicate that when looking at the global average indicators, the environmental regressivity/progressivity of trade policy substantially depends on the scope of emissions coverage. We find substantial evidence of environmental bias of trade policies when only CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are considered. In contrast, when a broader set of GHG emissions is analyzed, an opposite relation is observed with more GHG-intensive commodities facing higher tariffs. The latter is largely driven by the fact that import tariffs are high for agricultural and food commodities (e.g. meat and rice) that are relatively clean as they combust less fossil-fuel related CO2 emissions, but are much more emission intensive, when non-CO2 GHGs are accounted for. Our preliminary results also indicate that in the case of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions, one of the major cause of pre-mature mortality worldwide, a positive relation between import tariffs and emission intensities is observed.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:pugtwp:333478&r=agr
  29. By: Adam MALLA ISSIFOU (LARDES - Laboratoire d’Analyse et de Recherches sur les Dynamiques Economiques et Sociales - UP - Université de Parakou); Yabi A Jacob (LARDES - Laboratoire d’Analyse et de Recherches sur les Dynamiques Economiques et Sociales (LARDES) - UP - Université de Parakou)
    Abstract: This study of 293 rural farmers in Borgou, aimed primarily at identifying the non-economic and technical factors of the economic profitability of farmers' enterprises, shows that innovation and value creation, and the search for a remunerative market have a positive influence on the economic profitability of farmers. On the other hand, the farmer's attitude to take less risk has a negative influence on his profitability. In other words, the farmers whose enterprises are the most profitable are those who develop the spirit of creativity, search for a remunerative market and take more risks. Individual data collection on socio-demographic variables and the entrepreneurial spirit of rural farmers made it possible to conduct the various statistical analyses that led to these results. These analyses were based on descriptive statistics and the binary probit linear regression model.
    Abstract: Cette étude menée auprès de 293 paysans ruraux dans le Borgou visant principalement à identifier les facteurs non économiques et techniques de la rentabilité économique des entreprises paysannes montre que l'innovation et de création de valeur, la recherche de marché rémunérateur influence positivement la rentabilité économique des paysans. Par contre, l'attitude du paysan à prendre moins de risque a une influence négative sur sa rentabilité. En d'autres termes, les paysans dont les entreprises sont les plus rentables sont ceux qui développent l'esprit de créativité, de recherche de marché rémunérateur et qui prennent plus de risque. Une collecte de données individuelles sur les variables sociodémographiques et de l'esprit entrepreneurial des paysans ruraux a permis de mener les différentes analyses statistiques ayant abouti à ces résultats. Il s'agit des méthodes de statistiques descriptives et celle du modèle de régression de type probit binaire.
    Keywords: Rural entrepreneurship, Agricultural entrepreneurship, Peasant enterprise, Profitability, Entrepreneuriat rural, Entrepreneuriat agricole, Entreprise paysanne, Rentabilité
    Date: 2023–02–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03961554&r=agr
  30. By: Olivier Barreteau (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Bruno Bonté (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Yvan Caballero (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Emmanuel Dubois (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Stefano Farolfi (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Patrice Garin (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, UM - Université de Montpellier); Cécile Hérivaux (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Damien Jourdain (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Philippe Le Coent (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Julien Malard (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Marielle Montginoul (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Sylvie Morardet (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Noémie Neverre (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: This working paper presents and discusses the approaches and methods used by the PRECOS Team of the G-Eau research unit to analyse practices, social representations and behaviours of sociohydro systems' actors. Four groups of methods are presented: 1) surveys, interviews, and focus groups, 2) stated preferences, 3) experimental economics, 4) hybrid methods. A wide literature review is provided for each group of methods, facilitating a better understanding of the tools proposed. Through examples and concrete applications, the methods are compared and their advantages and limitations discussed. The paper concludes that there is no ideal method for the analysis of actors' practices, social representations and behaviours in socio-hydro systems, and suggests moving in the direction of transversality and interdisciplinarity, by adapting the existing methods to the specificities of the socio hydro systems and producing hybrid methods that benefit from the complementarity of the original methods
    Keywords: Actors, Practices, Social representations, Behaviour, Water, Socio-Hydro systems, Hybrid method
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:cirad-03945762&r=agr
  31. By: Ngoc Thao NOET (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Marianne Lefebvre (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Serge Blondel (LIRAES (URP_ 4470) - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Appliquée en Economie de la Santé - UPCité - Université Paris Cité, GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Through a field experiment based on the prisoner's dilemma, we analyze the determinants of cooperative behavior in the horticultural sector, specifically on the effect of group membership. We focus on the Flowers for Bees Week initiative, a collective action in the supply chain (in particular producers and landscapers). We compare the behaviors of professionals in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game over 5 days, in two treatments: in-group (the players have the same role in the sector) and out-group (one player is a producer and the other a landscaper). The results are threefold. First, cooperation is higher in the in-group treatment compared to the out-group treatment. Second, when they cooperate, it is because they believe that the other will also cooperate. Lastly, the two sectors share the same views on collective actions and cooperation. We suggest levers to encourage collective actions in the sector.
    Keywords: Cooperation, Field experiment, In-group Out-group effect, Horticulture, Prisoner's dilemma
    Date: 2023–02–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-04004727&r=agr
  32. By: Lint Barrage (Center of Economic Research, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper explores the …scal impacts of climate change and their policy implications for the United States. I develop and empirically quantify a climate-macroeconomic model where climate change can a¤ect (i) government consumption requirements (e.g., healthcare), (ii) transfer payments (e.g., income support), (iii) tax revenues, and where (iv) adaptation to sea level rise (e.g., sea walls) must be publicly …nanced. First, the paper presents a novel bottom-up quanti…cation of …scal costs based on literature synthesis and an empirical analysis of public healthcare costs associated with extreme temperatures and wild…res. Climate change is projected to increase total government consumption (transfer) requirements by around 2.2% (0.4%) by 2100 in a business-as-usual climate policy scenario, with healthcare accounting for the majority of cost increases. Second, I show theoretically that the social cost of carbon must account for climate impacts on both government consumption and household transfer payments if the marginal cost of public funds exceeds unity. Finally, the numerical results indicate that …scal considerations are of …rst order importance for climate policy design. The elasticity of the social cost of carbon with respect to government consumption (transfer) impacts per degree warming is estimated to be around 20 (10). Accounting for …scal considerations moreover increases the projected domestic U.S. welfare bene…ts of climate policy by up to a factor of three.
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eth:wpswif:23-380&r=agr
  33. By: Campbell, Andrew
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:330866&r=agr
  34. By: Hisaki KONO; Abu SHONCHOY; Kazushi TAKAHASHI
    Abstract: Despite the expansion of microcredit access, its outreach is still limited among farmers. One potential cause is a timing mismatch between cash flow and credit flow. Farmers have little income until their harvest is realized, while standard microcredit requires weekly installment payments. This mismatch causes underinvestment and borrowing for repayment, resulting in lower uptake rates. Furthermore, agricultural investment is sequential, while credit is disbursed as a lump sum. Present-biased (PB) farmers may fail to set aside sufficient money for later investment. To test these predictions, we conducted a randomized control trial modifying standard microcredit targeted at tenant farmers by setting repayment schedules to one-time repayment after harvest and making loan disbursement sequential. Discarding weekly repayment increased uptake and borrower’s satisfaction without worsening repayment rates. Sequential disbursement increased later investments among PB borrowers and reduced loan sizes. We attribute the loan size reduction to the option value: Sequential disbursement allowed borrowers to adjust the total loan size after observing credit demand shocks, eliminating the need for precautionary borrowing. Calibrated models are used to evaluate counterfactual credit designs, showing that letting borrowers set the credit limit is beneficial for PB borrowers, while credit lines will be suboptimal for PB borrowers.
    Keywords: Microcredit; Timing mismatch, Commitment; Option value; Precautionary borrowing
    JEL: G21 O16 Q14
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:kue:epaper:e-22-013&r=agr
  35. By: Johanna Greiss; Holger Schoneville; Aistė Adomavičienė Rimgailė Baltutė; Anikó Bernát; Bea Cantillon; Elena Carrillo Álvarez; Heleen Delanghe; Benedikt Goderis; Karen Hermans; Hilje van der Horst; Piotr Michoń; Elvira Sofia Leite de Freitas Pereira; José António Correia Pereirinha
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hdl:wpaper:2205&r=agr
  36. By: Bijesh Mishra
    Abstract: The south central ecoregion was a mosiac ecoregion of forest and grassland continnum which is transiting towards closed canopy forests and losing ecosystem benefits. We studied role of active management, its economic benefit, and landonwers atttitdue and behavior towards restoring ecosystem services in this region. We further studed how the economic benefit varies in this region with the change in rainfall.
    Date: 2023–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2302.11675&r=agr
  37. By: Josefa Henriquez; Richard C. van Kleef; Andrew Matthews; Thomas McGuire; Francesco Paolucci
    Abstract: Health plan payment systems with community-rated premiums typically include risk adjustment, risk sharing or both to compensate insurers for predictable profits (on young and healthy people) and predictable losses (on the elderly and chronically ill). This paper shows how a payment system based only on risk sharing (like in Australia), is improved by combining risk sharing with risk adjustment. Using Australia’s private health insurance market as a case study, we compare and assess the current risk sharing based payment system against alternative systems which combine risk adjustment and risk sharing. Specifically, we develop outcome measures to compare the models in terms of incentives for risk selection and incentives for cost control. We find that a payment system composed of risk adjustment based on simple risk-adjustor variables, supplemented with outlier risk sharing outperforms the current system based solely on risk sharing. Our results show that as more and better data become available, reliance on risk sharing can be reduced whilst the use of risk adjustment can be expanded. In an additional analysis, we show that changes in the payment system affect the redistribution of claims costs across different levels of coverage. We discuss qualitatively additional measures that can be taken to achieve the desired level of redistribution.
    JEL: I11 I13
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:31052&r=agr
  38. By: Phoebe W. Ishak (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of weather shocks on violent crime using disaggregated data from Brazilian municipalities over the period 1991–2015. Employing a distributed lag model that takes into account temporal correlations of weather shocks and spatial correlation of crime rates, I document that adverse weather shocks in the form of droughts lead to a significant increase in violent crime in rural regions. This effect appears to persist beyond the growing season and over the medium run in contrast to the conventional view perceiving weather effects as transitory. To explain this persistence, I show that weather fluctuations are positively associated not only with agriculture yields, but also with the overall economic activity. Moreover, evidence shows the dominance of opportunity cost mechanism reflected in the fluctuations of the earnings especially for the agriculture and unskilled workers, giving credence that it is indeed the income that matters and not the general socio-economic conditions. Other factors such as local government budget capacity, (un)-employment, poverty, inequality, and psychological factors do not seem to explain violent crime rates.
    Keywords: Weather shocks, Violent crime, Labor market, Brazil
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03691432&r=agr
  39. By: Gaudia, Garizaldy G.
    Abstract: Silk, being the “queen of textiles”, passes through various procedures to ensure its quality. Pre-treatment is the process of soaking raw silk in a solution consisting of soap, oil, and water. Its primary purpose is to smoothen and elasticize the raw silk to expedite throwing operations. This paper aimed to modify the soaking solution for raw silk being used at DMMMSU-Sericulture Research and Development Institute, to improve the quality of fabric produced. The study utilized an experimental research design, using raw silk from silkworm hybrid DMMMSU 406. Pre-treatment was done using three types of edible oils such as castor oil, corn oil, and coconut oil as soaking agents with a material liquor ratio of 1:4:5:6. All the treatments passed the standards for breaking strength, dimensional change, and colorfastness. Results revealed that coconut oil had the lowest registered number of breaks, and the highest registered reflectance percentage. The same treatment also performed better in terms of cleanness, evenness, and neatness test.
    Keywords: Edible oil, Pre-treatment, Raw silk, Silk fabric, Silk quality, Soaking agents
    JEL: Q0
    Date: 2022–08–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:116655&r=agr

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