nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒04‒10
35 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Guiding policies and investments to reduce agriculture-led deforestation in Viet Nam – Expanding beef and dairy sectors, while reducing deforestation risks By Ilicic, Joanna; Crespi, Maria Giulia; Maggio, Giuseppe; Kwon, Jihae; Ngoc Nguyen, Hanh Thi; Mamidanna, Sravya; Ignaciuk, Adriana
  2. Does short food supply chain participation improve farm economic performance? A meta‐analysis By Pierre Chiaverina; Sophie Drogué; Florence Jacquet; Larry Lev; Robert King
  3. Employment options and challenges for rural households in Malawi: An agriculture and rural employment analysis of the fifth Malawi Integrated Household Survey, 2019/10 By Benson, Todd; De Weerdt, Joachim
  4. Increasing the Value of Manure for Farmers By Lim, Teng; Massey, Ray; McCann, Laura; Canter, Timothy; Omura, Seabrook; Willett, Cammy; Roach, Alice; Key, Nigel; Dodson, Laura
  5. Best practices in addressing the major drivers of food security and nutrition to transform food systems By Carrasco Azzini, Giuseppe; Conti, Valentina; Holleman, Cindy; Smulders, Mark
  6. Nutrition-sensitive food systems: integrating nutrition programming into agriculture development By Raneri, Jessica E.
  7. Why are overlapping land rights disincentive against investment in agriculture?: customary land tenure institution in West Africa By Kimura, Yuichi
  8. Economics of adoption for digital automated technologies in agriculture By Lowenberg-DeBoer, James
  9. Indian agriculture under climate change: The competing effect of temperature and rainfall anomalies By Gallé, Johannes; Katzenberger, Anja
  10. Crop diversification increased household welfare in Afghanistan (2011-2017) By Hayatullah Ahmadzai; Oliver Morrissey
  11. Agricultural mechanization and sustainable agrifood system transformation in the Global South By Daum, Thomas
  12. Looking to the future By Gyngell, Allan; Walker, Kylie; Glasser, Robert; Anderson, John AC
  13. Automation and social impacts: winners and losers By Charlton, Diane; Hill, Alexandra E.; Taylor, J. Edward
  14. Building food and agriculture innovation for the future – Q&A By Bentley, Alison; Mitter, Neena; McGill, David; Vivian-Smith, Gabrielle
  15. Agri-food R&D: re-examining the rewards and the risks By Pardey, Philip
  16. Which digital uses for which ecologisation of agriculture? The example of cereal farms in South-West France By Éléonore Schnebelin
  17. Water challenges in socio-ecological systems: is human decision-making accounted for in the analysis of climate change adaptation options? By Sara Floriani Zanini
  18. Food and nutrition security in the Pacific and the road ahead for small islands and developing states By Aumua, Audrey
  19. Geographical indications and trade: Firm-level evidence from the French cheese industry By Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer; Charlotte Emlinger; Carl Gaigné; Karine Latouche
  20. Panel: Agri-food R&D – re-examining the rewards and the risks By Khetarpal, Ravi; Healey, Madaline; Nukundj, Regina Bi; Pardey, Philip
  21. The social benefits of agricultural research By Gordon, Jenny
  22. Sectoral Impact and Propagation of Weather Shocks By Guglielmo Zappalà
  23. Opening address: Celebrating agriculture for development By Anderson, John
  24. The Effects of Observability and an Information Nudge on Food Choice By Astrid Dannenberg; Eva Weingaertner
  25. A tool to support the spatial prioritization of commodity-specific investments – An application to Uganda By Adjin, Kougblenou Christophe; Pereira Fontes, Francisco; Sánchez, Marco V.
  26. Consumed in China: Rebalancing China's demand and Chinese imports By Simola, Heli
  27. Innovations for extension: a case study from Pakistan By McGill, David
  28. RNA-based biopesticides for sustainable agriculture: BioClayTM technology By Mitter, Neena
  29. Into the blue: The role of the ocean in climate policy. Europe needs to clarify the balance between protection and use By Böttcher, Miranda; Geden, Oliver; Schenuit, Felix
  30. From Syringes to Dishes: Improving Food Security through Vaccination By Aslim, Erkmen Giray; Fu, Wei; Tekin, Erdal; You, Shijun
  31. Defining edible landscapes: a multilingual systematic review By Rupprecht, Christoph David Dietfried; Gärtner, Nadine; Cui, Lihua; Sardeshpande, Mallika; McGreevy, Steven R.; Spiegelberg, Maximilian
  32. The Value of Information in Water Quality Monitoring and Management By Amelie Luhede; Houda Yaqine; Reza Bahmanbijari; Michael Römer; Thorsten Upmann
  33. Towards a Modelling Process for Simulating Socio-ecosystems with a Focus on Climate Change Adaptation By Federico Cornacchia; Alberto Gabino Martínez-Hernández; Marco Bidoia; Carlo Giupponi
  34. U.S. Export Competitiveness in Select Crop Markets By Padilla, Samantha; Ufer, Danielle J.; Morgan, Stephen; Link, Noah
  35. The causes, course and consequences of the surge in Venture Capital AgTech investments By Julian S. Rochea

  1. By: Ilicic, Joanna; Crespi, Maria Giulia; Maggio, Giuseppe; Kwon, Jihae; Ngoc Nguyen, Hanh Thi; Mamidanna, Sravya; Ignaciuk, Adriana
    Abstract: The study unpacks the potential, current and future, linkages between beef and dairy development and deforestation, using Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces in Viet Nam as case study, where the beef and dairy production increases are important and potential impact on the primary forests is of particular concern. It shows how beef and dairy expansion creates demand for additional land, which combined with existing land constraints, increases risk of further deforestation. The study also proposes possible entry points for developing deforestation-free value chains, which are key for decision-makers to enact new policies to overcome the dual challenge of agriculture growth without forest loss, which is likely to intensify if no action is taken.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–10–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:faoets:330806&r=agr
  2. By: Pierre Chiaverina (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Sophie Drogué (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Florence Jacquet (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Larry Lev (OSU - Oregon State University); Robert King (University of Minnesota System)
    Abstract: Many researchers, policy makers and food activists view Short Food Supply Chains (SFSC) as attractive levers for improving farm income and the sustainability of farming systems. However, the empirical evidence documenting the association between SFSC participation and farm economic performance has been mixed. In this study, through a meta-analysis using a logistic regression, we identify key factors to explain differences between studies that find better economic performance in SFSC and those that do not. Our meta-analysis consists of 48 studies published in English and French from 2000 to 2022 that examine the economic performance of farms engaged in SFSC. Based on far more empirical evidence than previous reviews, we find that the relationship between SFSC participation and farmer income remains ambiguous. More specifically the findings indicate that the reported effect of SFSC on a farm economic performance varies depending on location and the indicator used to capture the economic performance of farms. Studies conducted in Europe are more likely to report higher farmer income as are studies that use profit satisfaction metrics rather than measures of gross or net income. We also emphasize the need to interpret the reported results cautiously because few are based on causal inference methods. Furthermore, the very few studies that account for selection bias often do so with inadequate corrections.
    Keywords: Economic performance, Farmers, Income, Meta-analysis, Short food supply chains
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04011734&r=agr
  3. By: Benson, Todd; De Weerdt, Joachim
    Abstract: Malawi has suffered from weak economic growth since its independence in 1964. Over 50 percentof the population live below the poverty line, unable to produce enough or to otherwise obtain sufficient income to meet all of their basic needs. Poverty is concentrated in rural areas. Smallholder agriculture dominates employment in rural Malawi. However, with continuing population growth, the average landholding size for smallholder farming households is declining, resulting in many being unable to produce sufficient food to meet their own needs. To escape poverty, rural households increasingly must diversify their sources of income, but many lack the human and financial capital to do so. In this report, a detailed examination is provided of the agricultural production, non-farm employment patterns, and overall incomes obtained by farming households across Malawi using data from the fifth Malawi Integrated Household Survey (IHS5), conducted in 2019/20. The analysis demonstrates that most poor farming households will never be able to escape poverty through their farming alone, even with substantially higher crop productivity. Rainfed cropping remains the primary form of agricultural production for farming households in Malawi. While increasing numbers are engaging in irrigated farming during the dry season, the returns from such farming are inconsistent and low. More importantly, off-farm income sources, particularly temporary ganyu wage employment, are now critical to the livelihoods of most rural households, particularly those with small cropland holdings. The common assumption that agriculture is at the center of the livelihoods of rural households across Malawi no longer holds. Of equal importance is their ability to obtain sufficiently remunerative off-farm employment. In developing strategies for rural economic and human development in Malawi, accelerating agricultural production growth, particularly through increased productivity, and increasing the returns to farming are necessary, but incomplete solutions. Equal attention must now be paid to how workers in farming households can also qualify for and obtain good off-farm jobs. Without increases in such employment opportunities, the economies of most rural communities across Malawi are likely to stagnate and poverty will deepen among households living in them.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; economic growth; poverty; income; rural areas; smallholder agriculture; employment; population growth; food; agricultural production; farming; irrigation; off farm employment; development strategies
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspp:40&r=agr
  4. By: Lim, Teng; Massey, Ray; McCann, Laura; Canter, Timothy; Omura, Seabrook; Willett, Cammy; Roach, Alice; Key, Nigel; Dodson, Laura
    Abstract: Animal manure provides crop nutrients and improves soil quality. However, manure’s nutrient variability and low phosphorus and nitrogen content per unit weight reduce its market value relative to chemical fertilizers. While manure remains an important source of fertilizer in many farming systems, alternative uses are becoming important. Manure can be used to generate renewable energy in the forms of heat, gas, and electricity with further processing, but innovation is required to compete against other renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. Entrepreneurs are also developing markets for fiber found in manure. Environmental policies related to animal farms, meant to protect air and water quality, can both raise manure management costs and increase manure’s value as an energy precursor. This study uses data from the USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) to describe current manure production, handling, storage, and use. An extensive literature review of manure-related research describes existing and emerging technologies that have the potential to increase the value of manure or reduce manure management costs. The study identifies potential government programs and policies for promoting the adoption of technologies that enhance manure value for farmers.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:333552&r=agr
  5. By: Carrasco Azzini, Giuseppe; Conti, Valentina; Holleman, Cindy; Smulders, Mark
    Abstract: After decreasing for nearly a decade, hunger is once again on the rise. The major drivers behind this reversal – especially in low- and middle-income countries – are conflict, climate extremes and variability, and economic downturns. This crisis – exacerbated by the economic shocks stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic containment measures – underlines the urgent need to transform food systems for food security, improved nutrition and affordable healthy diets. This prompted FAO, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to focus the theme of The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021 on possible transformative pathways and portfolios of policies to achieve these objectives. This paper analyses 136 case studies received from a call for best practices in transforming food systems to improve the affordability of healthy diets and build resilience to the major drivers of food security and nutrition. These can help countries formulate context-specific portfolios of policies, investments and laws that integrate different sectors – environmental, health and social protection, among others – to move from siloed approaches to integrated food systems solutions. The findings in this brief have been adapted from the FAO report "The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021 – Transforming food systems for food security, improved nutrition and affordable healthy diets for all" (https://doi.org/10.4060/cb4474en).
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–10–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:faoets:330809&r=agr
  6. By: Raneri, Jessica E.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Development
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:330872&r=agr
  7. By: Kimura, Yuichi
    Abstract: Under customary land tenure systems in Ghana, lands obtained via matrilineal bonds exhibit a low inclination to invest in rubber, or input use and yield are low when investment in rubber is made in those lands. The land titling project and the rubber company’s intervention in reconciling land tenure with the farmers’ lineage groups do not have causal impacts on investments. The property rights thesis predicts that the overlapped and unclear land rights in those family-provided lands hold back investment incentives. However, empirical findings did not support the explanations based on the risk of future re-appropriation of land, re-distribution pressure on the output, labor shirk in the commonly managed lands, or a lack of lands’ collateral function as the explanation for the investment gap in family-provided lands. Controversially, the low investment is more prominent when households have individualized land rights to perform within-household inheritance, which explains the most significant part of the low investment in family-provided lands. A particular inclination to avert investment risk must lie behind the low investment in customary lands.
    Keywords: Land tenure institution, land use, land titling, investment in agriculture
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q14 Q15
    Date: 2023–03–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:116613&r=agr
  8. By: Lowenberg-DeBoer, James
    Abstract: This working paper investigates the appropriateness of a wide range of digital solutions for agriculture, including in low- and middle-income countries, and, based on available evidence, summarizes the expected (social, economic and environmental) impacts of such technologies. It further discusses the main drivers and barriers to adoption, and the role of policies and regulations in creating an enabling environment. This working paper was developed as a background document for the FAO report "The State of Food and Agriculture 2022 – Leveraging automation in agriculture for transforming agrifood systems" (https://doi.org/10.4060/cb9479en).
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–11–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:faoaes:330794&r=agr
  9. By: Gallé, Johannes; Katzenberger, Anja
    Abstract: The latest generation of global climate models robustly projects that the summer monsoon rainfall in India will significantly increase in the 21st century due to global warming and that rainfall anomalies will occur more often. This raises the question of the impact of these changes on the agricultural yield. Based on annual district data for the years 1966-2014, we estimate the relationship between weather indices (amount of seasonal rainfall, number of wet days, average temperature) and the most widely grown kharif crops, including rice, in a flexible non-parametric way. We use this relationship in order to predict district-specific crop yield based on the climate projections of eight different climate models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - phase 6 (CMIP6) under two global warming scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways SSP1-2.6 & SSP5-8.5) for the years 2021-2100 (short-term, mid-term, long-term). We find that the loss in rice yield by the end of the 21st century lies on average between 3 - 22% depending on the underlying emission scenario. Potential gains due to increasing rainfall are more than offset by the negative impacts of increasing temperature. Adaptation efforts in the worst case scenario (SSP5-8.5) would need to cut the negative impacts of temperature by 50% in order to reach the outcome of the sustainable scenario (SSP1-2.6).
    Keywords: Climate change, monsoon, agriculture, India
    JEL: Q10 Q54 O53
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:rwirep:1002&r=agr
  10. By: Hayatullah Ahmadzai; Oliver Morrissey
    Abstract: Crop diversification is a farm level strategy to augment income, improve food security, and mitigate risks attributable to climate and market shocks. We use three-waves (2011/12 to 2016/17) of nationally representative repeated cross section surveys to study the impact of crop diversification on household welfare, measured by real adult equivalent consumption and food expenditure and dietary diversity, in Afghanistan. A multinomial endogenous switching regression (MESR) with instruments to correct for selection bias and endogeneity originating from both observed and unobserved heterogeneity is used to estimate average treatment effects of moving from one crop to two crops and then to three or more crops. Our analysis shows that crop diversification is a welfare enhancing strategy that increases household consumption, food security and dietary diversity. This holds for households in high and low conflict districts although the effect varies and households experiencing conflict tend to divert spending to food from other consumption spending. We also find a positive association between conflict, market related shocks and crop diversification, suggesting that households can adopt diversification to improve food security and mitigate the negative impacts of shocks by spreading risk through a wider production portfolio.
    Keywords: Crop diversification, Household welfare, Multinomial endogenous switching regression (MESR), Conflict, Afghanistan
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:not:notcre:23/01&r=agr
  11. By: Daum, Thomas
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the state of agricultural mechanization across the Global South – i.e. Eastern and South-eastern Asia, Southern Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean – and explores the potentials and risks of agricultural mechanization for the sustainable transformation of agrifood systems. A wide range of technological and institutional solutions is identified to harness the potential of agricultural mechanization for sustainable agrifood system transformation, while at the same minimizing the risks. This working paper was developed as a background document for the FAO report "The State of Food and Agriculture 2022 – Leveraging automation in agriculture for transforming agrifood systems" (https://doi.org/10.4060/cb9479en).
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–11–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:faoaes:330795&r=agr
  12. By: Gyngell, Allan; Walker, Kylie; Glasser, Robert; Anderson, John AC
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:333331&r=agr
  13. By: Charlton, Diane; Hill, Alexandra E.; Taylor, J. Edward
    Abstract: Understanding the social implications of automation in agriculture, from tractors in low-income countries to high-tech artificial intelligence (AI) solutions found mostly in high-income countries, requires viewing technology change on farms within the broader context of the agricultural transformation and agrifood systems, as well as changing economic incentives to develop and adopt labour-saving technologies. This paper provides an overview of the social implications of automation in agriculture, focusing on labour and employment, and provides policy recommendations. This working paper was developed as a background document for the FAO report "The State of Food and Agriculture 2022 – Leveraging automation in agriculture for transforming agrifood systems" (https://doi.org/10.4060/cb9479en).
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–11–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:faoaes:330793&r=agr
  14. By: Bentley, Alison; Mitter, Neena; McGill, David; Vivian-Smith, Gabrielle
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:333328&r=agr
  15. By: Pardey, Philip
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:330868&r=agr
  16. By: Éléonore Schnebelin (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The development of digital technology is being promoted as a solution to cope with the economic and environmental challenges in agriculture (Lajoie-O'Malley et al., 2020). Digital technologies would support farmers in better allocating resources such as seeds, fertilisers, chemicals and in accessing knowledge about innovative farming practices. However, the effects of digital technology on the ecologisation of agricultural practices are the subject of scientific and political controversies (Lioutas and Charatsari, 2020). While there is consensus on the need to green agriculture, the form of agriculture to be developed is a matter of debate. Some propose to optimise and to improve efficiency of the actual production systems and other to redesign the production systems on the basis of biodiversity services, that is called agroecology (Duru et al., 2015). The controversies about digital technologies thus address the capacity of digital technologies to integrate and influence the diverse forms of agricultural ecologisation (Klerkx and Rose, 2020). However, little is actually known about farmers use of these technologies. Moreover, most of studies are still framed by a linear vision of adoption of digital solutions by farmers (between pioneers, laggards and followers) and overlook the diversity of technological trajectories in the sector. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to show the diversity of digital use patterns and to explain how these patterns connect to different forms of agricultural ecologisation. We applied a mixed qualitative-quantitative method to 98 interviews with cereal farmers in South-West France in order to study their use of digital technology as well as the economic characteristics of their farms and their agronomic practices. A statistical classification was used to construct three digital use patterns for two types of digital technologies: digital technologies for production (DTP) (guidance, variable rate technology, etc.) and digital technologies to get technical information (DTI) (social networks, websites, etc.). The individual, structural and agronomic characteristics of farms in each pattern were described. A qualitative analysis complemented this statistical analysis, by informing causal links that could explain highlighted statistical relations between the variables. We show that a diversity of uses patterns coexists. No interrelation between the uses of digital technologies for production (DTP) and digital technologies for information (DTI) is noted. The important use of DTP is rather linked to optimisation and efficiency strategies. Those strategies are associated with economic variables such as expansion, outsourcing, wage labour and specialisation. It reports on our first proposition: the important use of DTP is associated with weak forms of ecologisation integrated in the industrialisation of agriculture (Bronson, 2019; Clapp and Ruder, 2020). However, some farms that use widely DTP are also invested in more radical forms of ecologisation such as organic farming, while being in an industrialisation trajectory. DTP appear to allow the substitution of conventional inputs by organic ones or by organic mechanic tasks. Thus, DTP could accelerate the ‘conventionalisation' of organic farming (Darnhofer et al., 2010). Strategies of redesigning practices are more associated with low or intermediate uses of DTP. On the other side, the non-use of DTI is linked to more conventional practices. The use of DTI seems to inform farmers about ecologisation practices, to fill the information gap of ecologisation knowledge in farmers' traditional knowledge network. DTI complement rather than substitute face-to-face knowledge exchanges. It informs our second proposition: the use of DTI can be associated with stronger ecologisation forms of agriculture. We highlight that the diversity of technological trajectories is also related to farmers' innovation system and value chain. Actually, advisers, buyers, suppliers of other intermediaries can have a major role on the digitalisation of farms. This work allows us to go beyond a linear vision of innovation adoption, by showing how digital technologies can be included in technological trajectories and reinforce them. This invites us not to consider a uniform technology deployment policy, but rather the support of a diversity of solutions adapted to a diversity of agricultural models.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Digital uses, Ecologisation, Digitalisation
    Date: 2021–09–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-04009789&r=agr
  17. By: Sara Floriani Zanini (Department of Management, Ca' Foscali University and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: This mixed-method systematic review is motivated by the willingness to identify the efforts of the most recent developments of the literature on the understanding of water challenges in socioecological systems, particularly coastal ones. The attention, in the exercise, is directed at the analysis of individual and collective decision-making processes concerning the use of the environmental good. This is because ultimately, if it is true that water resources are affected by external trends and shocks, it is also relevant how distinct paths of local and regional level responses impact on resource status. The inquiry, departs from a conceptual point of view mainly pinpointing scholars’ already proposed method- ological solutions for the concern, being them mostly participatory modelling excercises, bayesian net- work analyses, multi-agent games and experiments and finally integrated assessment models. Even if methodological tools with a potential to explicitly represent human decision-making coupled with its connection with the natural environment do exist, these methods are found to be relatively superficially articulated in interdisciplinary water management analyses. Particularly, the study explores to what extent is the human behaviour, in relation to water resources, included into the extant analyses.
    Keywords: human behaviour, decision-making process, climate change adaptation, water resources
    JEL: D80 D90 Q25 Q54
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2023.06&r=agr
  18. By: Aumua, Audrey
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:330860&r=agr
  19. By: Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Charlotte Emlinger (Virginia Tech [Blacksburg], CEPII - Centre d'études prospectives et d'informations internationales); Carl Gaigné (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Karine Latouche (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The protection of geographical indications is now an important feature of trade agreements. In this paper, we examine whether geographical indications are valued by foreign consumers and whether they have implications for trade at firm level. We use firm-product level data from French Customs and a unique dataset of firms and products concerned by Protected Designations of Origin (PDO) in the cheese and butter sector. Our estimations show that PDO varieties are perceived by consumers as varieties of higher quality than non-PDO varieties and that the prices of PDO varieties are 11.5% higher than those of non-PDO. Firms producing PDO varieties do not export higher volumes, but benefit from a better access to European markets and to countries with a similar policy about geographical indications. The inclusion of some GI varieties in trade agreements may thus constitute an opportunity for PDO producers to increase their market access.
    Keywords: Geographical indications, PDO cheeses, Export performance, Product quality, Trade margins
    Date: 2021–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03269987&r=agr
  20. By: Khetarpal, Ravi; Healey, Madaline; Nukundj, Regina Bi; Pardey, Philip
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:330869&r=agr
  21. By: Gordon, Jenny
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:333326&r=agr
  22. By: Guglielmo Zappalà
    Abstract: Local weather shocks have been shown to affect local economic output, however, little is known about their propagation through production networks. Using a six-sector global dataset over the past fifty years, this paper examines the effect of weather fluctuations and extreme weather events on sectoral economic production and the transmission of weather shocks across sectors, countries and over time. I document that agriculture is the most harmed sector by heat shocks, droughts and cyclones. Using input-output interlinkages, I find that sectors at later stages of the supply chain suffer from substantial and persistent losses over time due to domestic and foreign heat shocks in other sectors. A counterfactual analysis of the average annual output loss accounting for heat shocks across trade partners shows a substantial underestimation of the economic cost of temperature increases since 2000.
    Keywords: Climate change; sectoral shocks; spillovers; weather shocks
    Date: 2023–03–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2023/053&r=agr
  23. By: Anderson, John
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:330859&r=agr
  24. By: Astrid Dannenberg (University of Kassel); Eva Weingaertner (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Our choice of food has major impacts on the environment. At the same time, it is visible to all people with whom we spend our daily lives. This raises the question of whether people are adapting their diets to gain a green reputation, as has been observed for other environmentally relevant consumption choices. Using an experiment in which participants can choose between vegan, vegetarian, and meat-based food vouchers, we examine how observation by others and the provision of an information nudge influence food choices. The results show that providing an information nudge reduces the likelihood of choosing meat by 12 percentage points. Observation by others does not significantly reduce the likelihood of choosing meat. Contrary to our prediction, when participants are observed and receive the information nudge, they are less inclined to choose one of the more sustainable options. We discuss the reasons for the partly surprising results and the implications for policy.
    Keywords: Food choice; meat consumption; information nudge; observability; experiment
    JEL: C9 D91 Q18
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mar:magkse:202301&r=agr
  25. By: Adjin, Kougblenou Christophe; Pereira Fontes, Francisco; Sánchez, Marco V.
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a simple methodology to select a limited number of geographical areas to prioritize for commodity-specific investments in Uganda. Similar to other approaches for prioritizing investments geographically, the basic idea behind the proposed method is that districts with high agro-ecological potential, that are also far from their potential and have high levels of poverty, should be prioritized for commodity-specific investments as they are where investments are likely to have the highest impact. The methodology then proposes an iterative elimination algorithm to provide a list of suggested districts that rank high in all dimensions. The results highlight that prioritized districts are very context and commodity specific. In certain cases (e.g. sugar cane or millet), prioritized districts tend to be highly concentrated in one geographical region, whereas they tend to be more spread out for the sectors producing other commodities (i.e. bananas, coffee, goats, cassava and maize). The results are expected to inform a discussion with policymakers in Uganda which is expected to culminate in the selection of an even narrower set of districts for which more in-depth analyses of commodity-specific investments will be undertaken at the level of priority areas, including, among others, irrigation, mechanization, seeds and fertilizers.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2022–11–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:faoaes:330796&r=agr
  26. By: Simola, Heli
    Abstract: The share of private consumption has long been small in the Chinese GDP. The share started to increase in the past decade, but the trend reversed with the covid-19 pandemic. Now as the Chinese economy reopens and recovers from covid restrictions, the share of consumption could return to a growing trend. This resumption of a longer-term trend could have important implications for global trade. Our simulations, which are based on recent international input-output data, suggest that the current shift in China's demand structure is likely to increase import demand for sectors such as the food industry, agriculture, textiles, and travel services. Sectors facing a demand slowdown include base metals, non-metallic minerals, and machinery and equipment.
    Keywords: China, imports, rebalancing, input-output
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:bofitb:52023&r=agr
  27. By: McGill, David
    Keywords: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:333330&r=agr
  28. By: Mitter, Neena
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp22:333329&r=agr
  29. By: Böttcher, Miranda; Geden, Oliver; Schenuit, Felix
    Abstract: Since net zero targets have become a keystone of climate policy, more thought is being given to actively removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while continuing to drastically reduce emissions. The ocean plays a major role in regulating the global climate by absorbing a large proportion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. As the challenges of land-based carbon dioxide removal (CDR) approaches are increasingly recognised, the ocean may become the new 'blue' frontier for carbon removal and storage strategies in the EU and beyond. However, the ocean is not an 'open frontier'; rather, it is a domain of overlapping and sometimes conflicting rights and obligations. There is a tension between the sovereign right of states to use ocean resources within their exclusive economic zones and the international obligation to protect the ocean as a global commons. The EU and its Member States need to clarify the balance between the protection and use paradigms in ocean governance when considering treating the ocean as an enhanced carbon sink or storage site. Facilitating linkages between the ongoing review of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the establishment of the Carbon Removal Certification Framework could help pave the way for debate about trade-offs and synergies in marine ecosystem protection and use.
    Keywords: climate policy, net zero targets, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, reduce emissions, carbon dioxide removal (CDR), ocean governance, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, UN Ocean Conference, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:swpcom:122023&r=agr
  30. By: Aslim, Erkmen Giray (Grand Valley State University); Fu, Wei (University of Pennsylvania); Tekin, Erdal (American University); You, Shijun (Lehigh University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on food insecurity in the United States, using data from the Household Pulse Survey. Our primary research design exploits variation in vaccine eligibility across states over time as an instrumental variable to address the endogeneity of vaccination decision. We find that vaccination had a substantial impact on food hardship by reducing the likelihood of food insecurity by 24%, with even stronger effects among minority and financially disadvantaged populations. Our results are robust to alternative specifications and the use of regression discontinuity as an alternative identification strategy. We also show that vaccine eligibility had a positive spillover impact on food assistance programs, specifically by reducing participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which suggests that vaccination policy can be effective in alleviating the fiscal burden of the pandemic on the government. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that vaccinated individuals exhibit increased financial optimism, as measured by expectations about future loss of employment and income as well as ability to make mortgage and debt payments. Based on the point estimates, the implied elasticity of food insecurity with respect to financial optimism is between -0.57 and -0.86. Our findings suggest that the COVID-19 vaccination program has implications that extend beyond the direct health benefits. Taken together, our results underscore the critical role of medical innovations and health interventions in improving economic optimism and food security, especially among vulnerable populations, during public health crises.
    Keywords: food insecurity, food stamps, vaccination, financial optimism, COVID-19
    JEL: I14 I18
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp16009&r=agr
  31. By: Rupprecht, Christoph David Dietfried (Ehime University); Gärtner, Nadine; Cui, Lihua; Sardeshpande, Mallika; McGreevy, Steven R.; Spiegelberg, Maximilian
    Abstract: The concept of edible landscapes seeks to combine a participatory approach to food production with wider concerns about well-designed, sustainable human-landscape relationships. Despite its decade-long history and seeming potential for holistically addressing multiple intertwined socio-ecological crises, the concept has received much less attention than related ideas such as green infrastructure or nature-based solutions. We conducted a systematic, multilingual review of 79 studies to understand how edible landscapes are defined, what their characteristics are, what trends exist in the literature, and how edible landscapes can be situated in the broader context of food production. Findings suggest that no clear definition of the term ‘edible landscape’ currently exists, although the implicit consensus is that edible landscapes feature food production as well as an aesthetic contribution. The literature holds high expectations but provides only limited empirical evidence for benefits. Edible landscape frames a unique conceptual space, which we visualize by placing it in relation with related concepts. We then propose two concise, genus-differentia definitions as a basis for academic debate, one of which expands the concept to include multispecies agency in designing landscapes. We conclude with a call for more empirical as well as theory-focused research to facilitate edible landscapes’ contributions to more sustainable human-nature relationships.
    Date: 2023–03–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:64uvj&r=agr
  32. By: Amelie Luhede; Houda Yaqine; Reza Bahmanbijari; Michael Römer; Thorsten Upmann
    Abstract: Environmental managers face substantial uncertainty when deciding on management actions. To reduce this uncertainty prior to decision-making, collecting new data may help arrive at more informed decisions. Whether any resulting improvement in the decision will outweigh the cost of collecting the data, and thus make investing in the acquisition of the information worthwhile, is an intricate question. The concept of the value of information (VoI) is a convenient tool to address this problem. We use the VoI framework to analyse a decision problem in water quality management. Based on real-world monitoring data, we calculate the VoI of monitoring nitrogen, which is used as an indicator of the ecological state of water body. We find that the VoI is significant in our case and we further investigate the dependency of the VoI in a similar setting on the management cost, the assumed value of a good state and on the level of uncertainty regarding the ecological state. In addition, we observe a negative relation between the relative management cost and the prior probability that maximises VoI. These insights may help decide on information acquisition in the presence of substantial uncertainties and sparse data.
    Keywords: value of information, decision analysis, uncertainty, environmental management, monitoring
    JEL: C11 C61 D81 Q25 Q57
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_10307&r=agr
  33. By: Federico Cornacchia (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Alberto Gabino Martínez-Hernández (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Marco Bidoia (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Carlo Giupponi (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Department of Economics, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice)
    Abstract: As the impacts of climate change are expected to be increasingly disruptive, a growing share of the economic literature moved to modelling approaches to address the interconnectedness of social, economic, and environmental issues. Among them, System Dynamics (SD) stands out as a well-established modelling approach to analyse complex social-ecological systems. In order to benefit from such modelling exercises it is necessary to follow a structured process, bearing in mind that models should have as their ultimate ambition that of supporting decision-making processes. Yet, the connection with decision-making is addressed only in the last phases of the modelling process, with emphasis placed only on few particular sectors. Hence, a lack of a general framework that can be used as a reference to address climate change adaptation and which could provide insights to economic valuations to support decision-making processes for a different range of sectors emerges. Consistently, the present study aims to bridge the observed gap by employing a combined SES-DAPSIR framework to build a conceptual modelling process for simulating the behaviour of a generic socio-ecosystem, with a particular focus on climate change adaptation. It also illustrates how the proposed conceptual modelling process is concretely put into practice with an application for a coastal socio-ecosystem. This allows demonstrating how the proposed methodology constitute a potential common starting point for different targeted modelling exercises, resulting particularly useful when moving from analytical modelling to decision support.
    Keywords: Climate change adaptation, system dynamics, decision-making, socio-ecosystem, SES-DAPSIR framework, conceptual modelling
    JEL: C63 Q54 Q57
    Date: 2023–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2023.05&r=agr
  34. By: Padilla, Samantha; Ufer, Danielle J.; Morgan, Stephen; Link, Noah
    Abstract: The United States has historically been one of the largest exporters of agricultural crops in terms of volume and value. In recent decades, increased competition from countries, such as Argentina and Brazil, have threatened the current U.S. standing in the global arena. The purpose of this study is to examine export competitiveness—in terms of value—of the top five crop commodity groups exported: corn, soybean products, cotton, wheat products, and tree nuts. These commodities are widely produced in the United States and, in 2021, represented 38 percent of total U.S. agricultural exports. The first section of the report broadly discusses U.S. competitiveness, current trade agreements, and world events that impacted global markets. The report notes that not having signed new free trade agreements (FTA) from mid-2012 to 2020 has limited the U.S. presence in emerging economies such as those in Africa. The second section focuses on a commodity-specific analysis using export shares and trade indices for each of the five crop groups. Using data from the Trade Data Monitor (TDM) and the Production, Supply and Distribution (PSD) database of USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), this report identifies major competitors and trends in U.S. exports over the last 20 years. Within each commodity section, there is a detailed overview of the U.S. export position, a list of the top five competitors in that commodity, export-to-production ratios over time, and a history of significant changes within each market, such as the entry of a new competitor or reductions in exports to a particular country.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, Financial Economics, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy
    Date: 2023–03–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:333553&r=agr
  35. By: Julian S. Rochea
    Abstract: Between 2018-2022, there was a significant surge of venture capital in Agtech. The causes were many: the rise in global population and its consequences, AgTech developments themselves, the search for new investment sectors by VCs themselves, and even the pandemic all played a part. The surge brought investment to locations that hitherto had been completely outside the VC radar, notably Asia but now also Africa. Now that the surge has ebbed, along with VC investment as a whole, it is possible to begin to take stock. The evidence to date suggests that the majority of investment during the surge has flowed into downstream companies with the opportunity for rapid growth and high valuations. No global champion has yet emerged for upstream AgTech, whether in plant genetics, animal health or even novel farming systems. The impact of the surge in raising yields therefore rests on exits to or partnerships with major corporates, as they have the capacity to deliver technology at scale.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2023–03–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uwauwp:333555&r=agr

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