nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒03‒27
23 papers chosen by

  1. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 89: Incorporating the Impact of Climate and Weather Variables in Impact Assessments: An Application to an IFAD Climate Change Adaptation Project in Viet Nam By McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Mabiso, Athur
  2. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 88: The Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production in Mozambique By McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Maggio, Giuseppe
  3. Carrying agricultural land in the name of public and collective interests: a diversity of institutional arrangements By Christine Léger Léger-Bosch; Mathilde Fromage
  4. Econometric Study of the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security in Morocco By Arib Fatima; Houria Et-Touile
  5. Goal oriented indicators for food systems based on FAIR data By Ronit Purian
  6. Symbolic classification methods applied to the intervals of quantile estimates of production costs By Dominique Desbois
  7. The Role of Arthi in Agriculture Marketing: an exploiter or facilitator of farmers? By Abedullah; Abida Naurin
  8. How Well Can Experts Predict Farmers’ Choices in Risky Gambles? By Henning Schaak; Jens Rommel; Julian Sagebiel; Jesus Barreiro-Hurlé; Douadia Bougherara; Luigi Cemablo; Marija Cerjak; Tajana Čop; Mikołaj Czajkowski; María Espinosa-Goded; Julia Höhler; Carl-Johan Lagerkvist; Macario Rodriguez-Entrena; Annika Tensi; Sophie Thoyer; Marina Tomić Maksan; Riccardo Vecchio; Katarzyna Zagórska
  9. Weather Shocks, Unconditional Cash Transfers and Household Food Outcomes By Ghulam Mustafa
  10. Land Titles in Punjab – Overview, Problems and Suggestions By Omer Siddique; Abida Naurin
  11. Long-Term Effects of Rainfall Shocks on Foundational Cognitive Skills: Evidence from Peru By Pazos, Nicolas; Favara, Marta; Sanchez, Alan; Scott, Douglas; Behrman, Jere R.
  12. Vins et spiritueux : un immense secteur économique aux contours flous By Jean Marie Cardebat
  13. Cooling Externality of Large-Scale Irrigation By Thomas Braun; Wolfram Schlenker
  14. Here Comes the Rain Again: Productivity Shocks, Educational Investments, and Child Work By Christophe Jalil Nordman; Smriti Sharma; Naveen Sunder
  15. Unpacking policies for the development of agricultural growth poles in West Africa By Emma Tyrou; Guillaume Soullier; Mamadou Coulibaly
  16. The ASD (healthy and sustainable agriculture) markets in Dakar. Emergence and development of a model of short cycle food solidarity between producer and consumer By El Hadji Bafodé Gassama
  17. Rain Rain Go Away: A Snapshot Of The Flood 2022 And Way Forward By Sobia Rose; Abedullah
  18. Regional market integration within the AfCFTA to further agri-food transformation and food security - The case of the Republic of Madagascar By Isabelle Tsakok
  19. Harmonised labelling of waste receptacles with matching product labels By ALBIZZATI Paola; CRISTOBAL GARCIA Jorge; ANTONOPOULOS Ioannis; EGLE Lukas; FOSTER Gillian; GAUDILLAT Pierre; MARSCHINSKI Robert; PIERRI Erika; TONINI Davide
  20. Price Effects of Temporary VAT Rate Cuts: Evidence from Spanish Supermarkets By AMORES Antonio F.; BARRIOS Salvador; SPEITMANN Raffael; STOEHLKER Daniel
  21. The French "Observatory of formation or food prices an margins : tool for stakeholders an public action By Philippe Boyer; Amandine Hourt; Philippe Pacquotte
  22. Input Subsidies and the Destruction of Natural Capital: Chinese Distant Water Fishing By Gabriel Englander; Jihua Zhang; Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez; Qutu Jiang; Mingzhao Hu; Olivier Deschenes; Christopher Costello
  23. Management of common pool resources in a nation-wide experiment By Jean-Christian Tisserand; Astrid Hopfensitz; Serge Blondel; Youenn Loheac; César Mantilla; Guillermo Mateu; Julie Rosaz; Anne Rozan; Marc Willinger; Angela Sutan

  1. By: McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Mabiso, Athur
    Abstract: This paper discusses which climate variables to collect, and from which sources, when incorporating them into an impact assessment. It finds that severe saline intrusion in Viet Name—caused by climate change and land and water use—had significant effects on crop choices and negative impacts on a range of production and livelihood outcomes.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–03–03
  2. By: McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Maggio, Giuseppe
    Abstract: This paper incorporates climate variables, including rainfall conditions and patterns, into an impact assessment of the Value Chain Development Project in the Maputo and Limpopo Corridors (PROSUL) in Mozambique. It focuses on activities targeting improved pasture management, supplemental feed sources and livestock value chain development. Results show weather and climate conditions significantly impact households’ adoption of project activities and livestock productivity outcomes. Project beneficiaries in drought-prone areas are more likely to provide supplemental feed in the dry season, though livestock birth rates are still lower in those areas.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2023–03–03
  3. By: Christine Léger Léger-Bosch (Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Mathilde Fromage (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Land ownership by public and associative actors is developing as a support and lever for agricultural and environmental action. This article analyzes the diversity of the resulting agreements between these new lessors and their farmers through an analysis of institutional arrangements and bundles of rights. The study of 29 cases in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region shows that they emerge in territories that are rather densely populated and agriculturally diversified. The projects respond to the objectives of the lessors, which are sectoral – focusing on a single issue, such as water quality – or integrative – multi-stakeholder, such as food, landscape and economic. The lessors create demanding arrangements - in which the owner imposes terms of use – to partnership arrangements – in which the owner consults with the user to decide the terms of use. Prior to the agreement, the clarification of these objectives and their confrontation with the values of the user and his vision of the farming profession reduce the probability of renegotiation and even the risk of conflict.
    Abstract: Le portage foncier par les acteurs publics et associatifs se développe, comme support et levier d'action agricole et environnementale. Cet article analyse la diversité des accords en résultant, entre ces nouveaux bailleurs et leurs fermiers. Il s'appuie sur une lecture par les arrangements institutionnels et les faisceaux de droits. L'étude de 29 cas en région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes montre qu'ils émergent dans des territoires plutôt densément peuplés et diversifiés au niveau agricole. Les projets répondent aux objectifs des bailleurs qui sont sectoriels – portant sur un seul enjeu, la qualité de l'eau par exemple –, à intégrateurs – multi-enjeux, tels qu'alimentaire, paysager, économique. Les bailleurs façonnent des arrangements exigeants – dans lesquels le propriétaire impose des modalités d'usage –, à partenariaux – les modalités d'usage sont décidées en concertation entre propriétaire et usager. En amont de l'accord, l'explicitation de ces objectifs et leur confrontation aux valeurs de l'usager et à sa vision du métier d'agriculteur, réduisent la probabilité de renégociations voire le risque de conflits.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Public organizations, NGO, Institutional arrangements, Societal expectations, Bundle of rights, Portage foncier, Acteurs publics, Associations, Arrangements institutionnels, Demande sociétale, Faisceau de droits
    Date: 2023–02–01
  4. By: Arib Fatima; Houria Et-Touile (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: The agricultural sector is one of the most sensitive sectors to climate change, this sector is directly affected by temperature and rainfall and the rate of arable land, which are an input in food security. The main objective of this paper is to assess theimpacts of climate change and arable land on food security in Morocco between 1971 and 2017, using a cointegration model based on the ARDL (Autoregressive Staggered Delayed Rise) approach. The empirical results show that an increase in precipitationhas apositive effect on agricultural GDP, theincrease in temperatureby 1% has a negative effect on agricultural GDP with a decrease of 3.14% in the short term and 5% in the long term, while arable land does not directly influence the country's food security. In order to minimize the negative effects of climate change in Morocco, whose agricultural sector represents the most important sector of the economy, it is important to establish adaptation policies to fight against climate change
    Abstract: Le secteur agricole est l'un des secteurs les plus sensibles au changement climatique, ce secteur est directement affecté par la température et les précipitations et le taux des terres arables, qui sont un intrant dans la sécurité alimentaire. L'objectif principal de cet article est d'évaluer les impacts du changement climatique et des terres arables sur la sécurité alimentaire au Maroc entre 1971 et 2017à partir d'un modèle de cointégration fondé sur l'approche ARDL (autorégressif à retards échelonnés). Les résultats empiriques montrent qu'une augmentation des précipitations a un effet positif sur le PIB agricole, l'augmentation de la température de 1% a un effet négatif sur le PIB agricole avec une diminution de 3.14% à court terme et de 5% à long terme, tandis que les terres arables n'influent pas directement la sécurité alimentaire du pays. Afin de minimiser les effets négatifs du changement climatique au Maroc, dont le secteur agricole représente le secteur le plus important de l'économie, il est important d'établir des politiques d'adaptation pour lutter contre le changement climatique
    Date: 2022–03
  5. By: Ronit Purian
    Abstract: Throughout the food supply chain, between production, transportation, packaging, and green employment, a plethora of indicators cover the environmental footprint and resource use. By defining and tracking the more inefficient practices of the food supply chain and their effects, we can better understand how to improve agricultural performance, track nutrition values, and focus on the reduction of a major risk to the environment while contributing to food security. Our aim is to propose a framework for a food supply chain, devoted to the vision of zero waste and zero emissions, and at the same time, fulfilling the broad commitment on inclusive green economy within the climate action. To set the groundwork for a smart city solution which achieves this vision, main indicators and evaluation frameworks are introduced, followed by the drill down into most crucial problems, both globally and locally, in a case study in north Italy. Methane is on the rise in the climate agenda, and specifically in Italy emission mitigation is difficult to achieve in the farming sector. Accordingly, going from the generic frameworks towards a federation deployment, we provide the reasoning for a cost-effective use case in the domain of food, to create a valuable digital twin. A Bayesian approach to assess use cases and select preferred scenarios is proposed, realizing the potential of the digital twin flexibility with FAIR data, while understanding and acting to achieve environmental and social goals, i.e., coping uncertainties, and combining green employment and food security. The proposed framework can be adjusted to organizational, financial, and political considerations in different locations worldwide, rethinking the value of information in the context of FAIR data in digital twins.
    Date: 2023–02
  6. By: Dominique Desbois (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This presentation uses symbolic data classification to explore the similarities between distributions of conditional quantile estimates, applying it to the problem of specific cost allocation in agriculture. After recalling the conceptual framework of agricultural production cost estimation, the first part presents the empirical model, the quantile regression approach and the interval data classification technique used. The second part presents the comparative analysis between twelve European Member States of the results of the hierarchical divisive classification of estimation intervals, applied to the estimation of fertiliser costs.
    Abstract: Cette communication utilise la classification des données symboliques pour explorer les similitudes entre distributions d'estimations quantiles conditionnelles, en l'appliquant au problème de l'allocation des coûts spécifiques en agriculture. Après avoir rappelé le cadre conceptuel de l'estimation des coûts de production agricole, la première partie présente le modèle empirique, l'approche de régression quantile et la technique de classification des données d'intervalle utilisée. La seconde partie présente l'analyse comparative entre douze États membres européens des résultats issus de la classification hiérarchique divisive des intervalles d'estimation, appliquée à l'estimation du coût des fertilisants.
    Keywords: Clustering Methods, agricultural production costs : distribution of estimates
    Date: 2022–09–14
  7. By: Abedullah (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics); Abida Naurin (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The agriculture sector contributes 19.2 percent to GDP and provides the raw material for textile and other agro-based industries. The textile industry accounts for 60 percent of the ‘country’s export. Agriculture employed roughly 38.5 percent of the workforce in 2020-21, while more than 65-70 percent of the people relied on it for their living. The target amount of formal credit was fixed at Rs. 1, 500 billion for 2020-21 but only 63.6 percent was disbursed during the fiscal year (GOP, 2020-21).
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Henning Schaak (Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna); Jens Rommel (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Julian Sagebiel (Biodiversity Economics, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig); Jesus Barreiro-Hurlé (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)); Douadia Bougherara (CEE-M, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, INRAE, Institut Agro); Luigi Cemablo (Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II); Marija Cerjak (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb); Tajana Čop (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); María Espinosa-Goded (Faculty of Economic and Business Science, University of Sevilla); Julia Höhler (Business Economics Group, Wageningen University & Research); Carl-Johan Lagerkvist (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Macario Rodriguez-Entrena (WEARE - Water, Environmental, and Agricultural Resources Economics Research Group, Universidad de Córdoba); Annika Tensi (Business Economics Group, Wageningen University & Research); Sophie Thoyer (CEE-M, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, INRAE, Institut Agro); Marina Tomić Maksan (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb); Riccardo Vecchio (Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II); Katarzyna Zagórska (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Risk is ubiquitous in agriculture and a core interest of agricultural economists. While farmers’ risk preferences are well studied, there is limited knowledge on the perspectives of other stakeholders on farmers’ risk preferences. We address this gap by eliciting predictions for a multiple-price-list task from 561 students, farm advisors, and experts from Italy, Poland, Croatia, Spain, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands. First, we investigate whether the risk preferences of farmers from different European production systems differ in terms of predictability for the experts. Second, we compare the predictions of different groups of experts, as well as their accuracy. Third, we evaluate whether the accuracy of predictions can be improved by changing incentive mechanisms. Overall, we find substantial variation in individual predictions. Yet, average predictions are close to the averages of the observed responses of farmers. We find that an international group of researchers in experimental economics provides more accurate predictions than farm advisors and other experts or students of agriculture. Differences in predictions by production systems are small. Incentivizing predictions by either a tournament scheme (the best prediction receives a reward) or high accuracy (randomly selected participants are paid depending on the quality of their prediction) do not strongly affect the accuracy, but may slightly reduce noise in the predictions.
    Keywords: Risk attitudes, Expert predictions, Expert forecasts, Multiple prices lists, Meta-science, Experimental economics
    JEL: Q19 D81 C99
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Ghulam Mustafa (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: Weather shocks have become a colossal threat to Pakistan due to its limited financial and technical ability to mitigate and adapt to extreme weather events. These threats are expected to be increasingly scaled up in the coming years. Food insecurity is one of the most significant aspects of household wellbeing, directly affected by climatic variability. The ultra-poor segment of households is highly susceptible to increasing weather shocks. In such a scenario, the role of the Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) cash transfer scheme is inevitably essential.
    Keywords: Weather Shocks, Cash Transfers, Household Food,
    Date: 2022
  10. By: Omer Siddique (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics); Abida Naurin (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: In the 13th and 14th centuries, Alauddin Khilji began keeping land records, which is when the history of land records in the Subcontinent began (Ali, 2013). Successive rulers kept on amending land revenue records. For instance, Sher Shah Suri implemented fixed crop rates in the 16th century, greatly enhancing the measuring of land records (Thakur, et al., 2005). The Mughal Empire’s most powerful 17th-century ruler, Akbar, made significant changes to how the land was administered. He registered holdings according to several land classifications and income estates (Ali, 2013).
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Pazos, Nicolas (University of Nottingham); Favara, Marta (University of Oxford); Sanchez, Alan (Group for the Analysis of Development (GRADE)); Scott, Douglas (University of Oxford); Behrman, Jere R. (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: Global warming is changing precipitation patterns, harming communities strongly tied to agricultural production, particularly in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs). Whilst the long-term effects of being exposed to rainfall shocks early in life on school achievement tests are well-established, there is little population-based evidence from LMICs on the mechanisms through which these shocks operate. This paper analyses the effects of early exposure to rainfall shocks on four foundational cognitive skills (FCSs), including executive functions (EF) that have been found to be key predictors of educational success. These skills were measured via a series of tablet-based tasks administered in Peru as part of the Young Lives longitudinal study (YLS). We combine the YLS data with gridded data on monthly precipitation to generate monthly, community-level rainfall estimates. The key identification strategy relies on temporary climatic shocks being uncorrelated with other latent determinants of FCS development. Our results show significant negative effects of early life exposure to rainfall shocks on EF. We also find evidence of rainfall shocks decreasing households' abilities to invest in human capital, which may affect both FCS and domain-specific test scores. Interestingly, social policies providing affected households with additional resources partially offset the effects of the rainfall shocks.
    Keywords: skills formation, human capital, rainfall, Peru, early childhood
    JEL: J24 Q54 I24 I14
    Date: 2023–02
  12. By: Jean Marie Cardebat (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Keywords: Vin, Agriculture, Consommation, Royaume-Uni, Alcool, Exportations, France, Bière
    Date: 2023–02–01
  13. By: Thomas Braun; Wolfram Schlenker
    Abstract: We provide novel evidence that large-scale irrigation heterogeneously shifts the temperature distribution towards cooler temperatures during the months of the growing season relative to the rest of the year. We employ a triple-difference estimator using a 59-year-long panel of weather records paired with the fraction of a county that is irrigated in 393 counties over the Ogallala aquifer. Cooling-by-irrigation propagates downwind and reduces the upper tail of the temperature distribution by up to 3C (5F) during the month of August, which has positive externalities on downwind crop yields ($120 million per year) and temperature-induced excess mortality ($240 million per year) that are of equal magnitude as the direct benefits of irrigation by enhancing heat tolerance ($440 million per year). The observed cooling helps explain why the US has seen less warming, especially of very hot temperatures, than what climate models project. Our findings highlight that weather shocks in highly irrigated areas are not exogenous but are influenced by human responses in the form of irrigation.
    JEL: I10 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2023–02
  14. By: Christophe Jalil Nordman (IRD [France-Nord] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IFP - Institut Français de Pondichéry - MEAE - Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme); Smriti Sharma; Naveen Sunder
    Abstract: This study uses household-level panel data from a nationally representative survey to estimate the effect of agricultural productivity shocks—as proxied by exogenous annual rainfall deviations—on education expenditures and children's work status in rural India. We find that a transitory increase in rainfall significantly reduces education expenditures and increases the likelihood of child labor across multiple work activities. Additionally, households owning land and those with better credit access increase the use of child labor as rainfall increases because labor (and land) markets are incomplete. The effects of productivity shocks are reinforced for marginalized castes and for less educated households, thereby exacerbating inequalities in education.
    Date: 2022–04–01
  15. By: Emma Tyrou (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord); Guillaume Soullier (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Mamadou Coulibaly
    Abstract: This paper investigates what national policies are implemented to foster the development of agricultural growth pole model in West Africa. We hypothesize this model is applied through national public policies centred on market allocation. We conducted case studies in Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal. Results show governments implement regulation, fiscal exoneration, business facilitation measures, or reform land tenure and invest in irrigation infrastructure to attract private investments. Measures supporting smallholders inclusion are less common. The ongoing development of the agricultural growth pole model therefore raises concerns regarding both family farmers' land rights and inclusion through vertical coordination.
    Abstract: Cet article étudie les politiques publiques mises en place pour soutenir le modèle de pôles de croissance agricoles au Burkina Faso, en Côte d'Ivoire, au Mali et au Sénégal. Nous portons un regard critique sur les hypothèses selon lesquelles la coordination verticale et la formalisation foncière ont nécessairement des effets d'entraînement positifs. Nous réalisons une analyse comparative des politiques publiques en mobilisant une typologie enracinée dans l'économie publiques. Nous montrons comment ces politiques publiques se concentrent sur les exemptions fiscales et l'accès au foncier, et ne procurent qu'un soutien limité à la coordination des acteurs au sein des chaines de valeur, à travers les services agricoles et l'accès au financement. Le développement des agropoles en Afrique de l'Ouest tel qu'il se poursuit comporte des risques d'impacts négatifs pour les petits producteurs
    Keywords: Contract Farming, Land grabbing, Value Chain, Policies, Growth poles, Rice value chain
    Date: 2023–02–07
  16. By: El Hadji Bafodé Gassama (Mesopolhis - Centre méditerranéen de sociologie, de science politique et d’histoire - IEP Aix-en-Provence - Sciences Po Aix - Institut d'études politiques d'Aix-en-Provence - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: By guaranteeing a remunerative price and marketing to farmers in the Niayes area, ASD markets help to dissipate the uncertainty and risks associated with marketing conditions. Our work has allowed us to place the alternative aspect of the ASD market phenomenon, as an original short food marketing circuit based on ethical principles, in a more general context - that of the increasing industrialization and standardization of food production, distribution and consumption. It appears that, under the fire of trade globalization, this question of social demand - which was nevertheless characteristic of Western societies in the northern hemisphere - is gradually gaining ground in a number of emerging societies in the South. New food behaviors are emerging. Henceforth, the urban demand requires healthy and more tasty products.
    Abstract: En garantissant un prix et une mise en marché rémunérateurs aux paysans de la zone des Niayes, les marchés ASD contribuent à dissiper l'incertitude et les risques liés aux conditions de commercialisation. Notre travail nous a permis d'inscrire l'aspect alternatif du phénomène des marchés ASD en tant que circuit court de commercialisation alimentaire original basé sur des principes éthiques, dans un contexte plus général – celui de l'industrialisation et de l'uniformisation croissantes des modes de production, distribution et consommation alimentaires. Il appert que, sous le feu de la mondialisation des échanges, cette question de la demande sociale – qui était pourtant caractéristique des sociétés occidentales de l'hémisphère nord – prend progressivement de l'ampleur dans un ensemble de sociétés émergentes du Sud. Il s'esquisse alors de nouveaux comportements alimentaires. Désormais, la demande citadine requiert des produits sains et plus savoureux.
    Keywords: ASD markets, short circuit, Niayes area, Senegal, organic agriculture, agro-ecology, marchés ASD, circuit court, zone des Niayes, Sénégal, agriculture biologique, agro-écologie
    Date: 2023–02–06
  17. By: Sobia Rose (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics); Abedullah (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The devastation caused by the recent floods in Pakistan is the result of poor management. Despite several warnings of an unusually high rainfall during the months of July and August, a lack of preparedness resulted in a huge catastrophe. The knowledge brief provides a snapshot of the extent of rainfall and subsequent floods, losses that occurred after the disaster and how the issue can be tackled in case of any such disaster in future. The major threats from the recent floods include the spectre of food insecurity of an already deprived population; loss of education and health; and an increase in social unrest due to more criminal activity.
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Isabelle Tsakok
    Abstract: If the recent peaceful transfer of power in Madagascar heralds a new trend, then the Malagasy people can dream big. For decades, the exercise of economic-cum-political power in the hands of a tiny elite has held the entire nation hostage. Today, the high poverty rate—around 80% (2021) stands in stark contrast to the natural resource abundance of this huge enormous island. There is hope, however, that with political stability, the Plan d’EÌ mergence Madagascar (PEM) President Andry Rajoelina will undertake critical investments and reforms the Plan d’EÌ mergence Madagascar (PEM) under President Andry Rajoelina will undertake key critical investments and reforms.
    Date: 2022–11
  19. By: ALBIZZATI Paola (European Commission - JRC); CRISTOBAL GARCIA Jorge (European Commission - JRC); ANTONOPOULOS Ioannis (European Commission - JRC); EGLE Lukas (European Commission - JRC); FOSTER Gillian (European Commission - JRC); GAUDILLAT Pierre (European Commission - JRC); MARSCHINSKI Robert (European Commission - JRC); PIERRI Erika (European Commission - JRC); TONINI Davide (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Separate collection of waste is an enabler for the recovery of valuable materials which can be recycled or otherwise valorised. However, it relies on adequate sorting by individuals, which can be facilitated by relevant information provided on the product packaging (on-pack labelling), and on the receptacles used for waste collection. Waste from packaging represents up to 40% of municipal solid waste and can drive the improvement in collection of recyclable materials. Meanwhile, as EU deadlines for separate collection targets close in, Member States are implementing various schemes designed to assist sorting, including labelling on products and bins. This often results in a multiplication of labels to be displayed in different jurisdictions, increasing costs for producers and increasing the risk of confusion for consumers. Harmonised labels to be displayed on product packaging, with matching labels on waste receptacles indicating where those should be disposed of, would address these issues and yield economic and environmental benefits. The analysis presented herein assesses the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of introducing such a harmonised labelling in the EU over the coming years. Results suggest that this measure would generate a net benefit as compared to a business-as-usual scenario. It would be expected to yield overall socio-economic benefits, and improvements in environmental performance in all cases considered.
    Keywords: Waste Collection, Recycling, Municipal Solid Waste, Labelling, Separate Collection, Waste Sorting
    Date: 2023–02
  20. By: AMORES Antonio F. (European Commission - JRC); BARRIOS Salvador (European Commission - JRC); SPEITMANN Raffael (European Commission - JRC); STOEHLKER Daniel (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The Spanish government has implemented a temporary VAT rate cut on basic food products as part of its anti-inflationary measures to protect households' purchasing power. Starting from January 2023, and for six months, bread, flour, milk, cheese, eggs, fruits, vegetables, legumes, tubers and cereals are taxed at a 0% VAT rate (down from 4%), while pasta and cooking oil are subject to a new super-reduced rate of 5% (down from 10%). This paper analyses the extent to which such measure led to an effective reduction in final consumer prices. This is done by comparing the prices of affected products in Spain with those in Germany, where such measure has not been taken. Our results suggest that the prices of products concerned have dropped significantly in January 2023, indicating a high pass-through to consumer prices, and therefore an effective application of the policy reform.
    Keywords: Tax policy, pass-through analysis, inflation
    Date: 2023–01
  21. By: Philippe Boyer (Académie d'Agriculture de France); Amandine Hourt (CEP - Centre d'études et de prospective - Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentaire et de la forêt); Philippe Pacquotte (FranceAgriMer)
    Abstract: The French "Observatory of formation or food prices an margins was created in 2010, by the Law of Modernization of Agriculture and Fisheries. This tool, which mobilizes statistical and economic data, aims to facilitate consultation and the search for a shared diagnosis between stakeholders in the sectors and to contribute to the development of public policies through the publication of monitoring and analysis. After the publication of its eleventh annual report in June 2022, this note reviews the conditions of its creation, and its activities and achievements. Since the 1950s, there have been many debates and studies in France about the differences between agricultural producer prices and consumer prices. More recently, the creation of the French "Observatory on formation or food prices an margins" (OFPM) has made it possible to analyse the transmission of prices and the distribution of value in agri-food chains. These topics proved to be central during the "Etats Généraux de l'Alimentation" (EGAlim) (a national government consultation on agriculture and food) in 2017 and the preparatory discussions of the Laws about food and agriculture named EGalim (2018) and EGalim 2 (2021). In other countries, the significance of these issues varies and devices similar to the OFPM are sometimes deployed: "Food dollar "in the United States, "Observatorio de la cadena alimentaria" in Spain, etc. Their work, which respond to public orders, are aimed at consumers, economic stakehorders, elected officials and the administration. Their methods are microeconomic (business expenses and results) or macroeconomic (creation and distribution of value added). The OFPM combines these two approaches. In the first part of this paper, the events and conditions of its creation are recalled. The following section presents some of its work and results, and the last section discusses the challenges facing the OFPM today.
    Abstract: L'Observatoire de la formation des prix et des marges des produits alimentaires (OFPM) : un outil au service des professionnels et de l'action publique L'OFPM a été créé en 2010, par la loi de modernisation de l'agriculture et de la pêche. Cet outil, qui mobilise données statistiques et économiques, vise à faciliter la concertation et la recherche d'un diagnostic partagé entre acteurs des filières et à contribuer à l'élaboration des politiques publiques par la publication de suivis et d'analyses. Après la publication de son onzième rapport annuel, en juin 2022, cette note revient sur les conditions de sa création, et sur ses activités et réalisations. Depuis les années 1950, de nombreux débats et travaux existent en France sur les écarts entre prix agricoles à la production et prix à la consommation. Plus récemment, la création de l'Observatoire de la formation des prix et des marges des produits alimentaires (OFPM) a permis d'analyser la transmission des prix 1 et la répartition de la valeur dans les chaînes agroalimentaires. Ces sujets se sont révélés centraux lors des États généraux de l'alimentation (2017) et des discussions préparatoires des lois EGalim (2018) et EGalim 2 (2021). Dans d'autres pays, la prégnance de ces questions varie et des dispositifs analogues à l'OFPM sont parfois déployés : Food dollar aux États-Unis, Observatorio de la cadena alimentaria en Espagne, etc. Leurs travaux, qui répondent à des commandes publiques, sont à destination des consommateurs, des acteurs économiques, des élus et de l'administration. Ils ont une dimension microéconomique (charges et résultats des entreprises) ou macroéconomique (création et répartition de la valeur ajoutée). L'OFPM combine ces deux approches. Dans la première partie de cette note sont rappelés les événements et conditions de sa création. La partie suivante présente quelques uns de ses travaux et résultats, puis la dernière évoque les défis auxquels est confronté l'OFPM aujourd'hui.
    Keywords: food chain, value added, agricultural prices, food prices, agricultural policy, chaine alimentaire, valeur ajoutée, prix agricoles, prix alimentaires, politique agricole
    Date: 2022–12–14
  22. By: Gabriel Englander; Jihua Zhang; Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez; Qutu Jiang; Mingzhao Hu; Olivier Deschenes; Christopher Costello
    Abstract: Input subsidies in natural resource sectors are widely believed to cause depletion of the natural capital on which those sectors rely. But identification and data challenges have stymied attempts to empirically estimate the causal effect of subsidies on resource extraction. China’s fishing fleet is the world’s largest, and in 2016 the government changed its fuel subsidy policy for distant water vessels to one that increases with predetermined vessel characteristics. The policy features 25 thresholds at which subsidies discontinuously increase. Using a regression discontinuity design, we estimate that a 1% increase in fuel subsidy increases hours of fishing by 2.2%. Reducing Chinese distant water fuel subsidies by 50% could eliminate biological overfishing in several ocean regions.
    JEL: H23 O13 Q22 Q28
    Date: 2023–03
  23. By: Jean-Christian Tisserand (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC), CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'ENtreprise [Dijon] - BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC)); Astrid Hopfensitz (EM - emlyon business school, GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Étienne - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Serge Blondel (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Youenn Loheac (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ESC Rennes School of Business - ESC [Rennes] - ESC Rennes School of Business); César Mantilla (Universidad del Rosario [Bogota]); Guillermo Mateu (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC)); Julie Rosaz (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC)); Anne Rozan (UMR GESTE - Gestion Territoriale de l'Eau et de l'environnement - ENGEES - École Nationale du Génie de l'Eau et de l'Environnement de Strasbourg - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marc Willinger (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Angela Sutan (BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC), CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'ENtreprise [Dijon] - BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC))
    Abstract: Dilemmas related to the use of environmental resources concern diverse populations at local or global scales. Frequently, individuals are unable to visualize the consequences of their actions, where they belong in the decision-making line, and have no information about past choices or the time horizon. We design a new one-shot extraction game to capture these dynamic decisions. We present results from a nationwide common pool resource experiment, conducted simultaneously in eleven French cities, involving a total of 2813 participants. We examine, for the first time, the simultaneous impact of several variables on the amount of resource extracted: the local vs. the national scale of the resource, the size of the group (small vs. big), the low vs. high recovery rate of the resource, and the available information. We show that individuals significantly reduce extraction levels in local as compared to national level dilemmas and that providing recommendations on sustainable extraction amounts significantly improves the sustainability of the resource. Overall, women extract significantly less, but care more about preserving the local resource; older participants extract significantly more resources but extract less from the national resource. Our experiment also fulfills a science popularization pedagogical aim, which we discuss..
    Keywords: Common Pool Resource, Experiment, Large Sample, Science Popularization
    Date: 2022–11

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.