nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒03‒20
34 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. The relative importance of global agricultural subsidies and tariffs, revisited. By Kym Anderson; Erwin Corong; Anna Strutt; Ernesto Valenzuela
  2. Sustainable financing ecosystem for cocoa irrigation in Ghana: a literature review By Sarpong, D. B.; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Minh, Thai; Cofie, Olufunke
  3. A framework for sustainable and inclusive irrigation development in western Nepal By Urfels, A.; Khadka, Manohara; Shrestha, Nirman; Pavelic, Paul; Risal, A.; Uprety, Labisha; Shrestha, Gitta; Dile, Y.; McDonald, A. J.; Pandey, V. P.; Srinivasan, R.; Krupnik, T. J.
  4. Use of drones to monitor water availability and quality in irrigation canals and reservoirs for improving water productivity and enhancing precision agriculture in smallholder farms By Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Bangira, T.; Sibanda, M.; Cofie, Olufunke
  5. Economic Contribution of Agriculture and Food to Arkansas' Gross Domestic Product 1997-2020 By English, Leah; Popp, Jennie; Miller, Wayne
  6. From re-instrumenting to re-purposing farm support policies. By Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt
  7. Agrifood systems policy research: historical evolution of agrifood systems in Odisha, India By Sarkar, Anindita; Chakraborty, Shreya; Mukherji, Aditi
  8. Ecological Transition: how creativity can contribute to limit soil sealing By Marie-Pierre Philippe-Dussine
  9. Distortions, Producer Dynamics, and Aggregate Productivity: A General Equilibrium Analysis By Stephen Ayerst; Loren Brandt; Diego Restuccia
  10. Restricted Entry: Shrimp Farms in the South Indian State of Tamilnadu By Arunkumar A S; Ajit Menon; K Nithya; H Shakila
  11. Factors Shaping Innovative Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of Technology Adoption Studies in Agriculture By Konstantinos Chatzimichael; Charoula Daskalaki; Gregory Emvalomatis; Michail Tsagris; Vangelis Tzouvelekas
  12. Changes in French purchases of pulses during an FAO awareness campaign By Ikpidi Badji; France Caillavet; Marie-Josephe Amiot
  13. Food riots redux: lessons from the 2007-08 food crisis By Charlotte Fontan Sers; Mazhar Mughal
  14. Impact of financial resources on agricultural growth in Sub-Saharan Africa By Nigo, Ayine; Gibogwe, Vincent
  15. RUSSIANS’ FOOD-CONSUMPTION PRACTICES UNDER THE RISING PRICES (RESULTS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL MONITORING) By Trotsuk Irina V.; Shagaida Nataliya I.
  16. Water Governance: effective needs for Sustainable Development By Mishra, Mukesh Kumar
  17. Inclusive sustainable landscape management in West and Central Africa: enabling co-designing contexts for systemic sensibility By Sobratee-Fajurally, N.; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe
  18. A Cost Comparison Analysis of Bird-Monitoring Techniques for Result-Based Payments in Agriculture By Markova-Nenova, Nonka; Engler, Jan O.; Cord, Anna F.; Wätzold, Frank
  19. Mind your language: Political discourse affects deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon By Magalhães de Oliveira, Gustavo; Sellare, Jorge; Börner, Jan
  20. Health comes by eating! Proposal of a typology of moroccan consumers based on their perception of the healthy character of a food product By Imane El Kerzazi; Béatrice Siadou-Martin; Fatiha Fort
  21. Impact of shocks to economies on the efficiency and robustness of the international pesticide trade networks By Jian-An Li; Li Wang; Wen-Jie Xie; Wei-Xing Zhou
  22. Environmental Kuznets curve on water pollution in Chinese provinces By Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Takeshi; Asada, Hidekatsu; Ma, Jui-Jun
  23. Benefit-cost analysis of iron fortification of rice in India: modelling potential economic gains from improving haemoglobin and averting anaemia By Qureshy, Lubina; Alderman, Harold; Manchanda, Navneet
  24. Analyses of Sample Farm Data: Number I -- A New Technique for the Estimation of Changes in Farm Employment. Number II -- Theoretical Aspects of the Use of the Crop Meter By Sabin, A. R.; Hendricks, Walter A.
  25. Climate Change and River Water Pollution: An Application to the Ganges in Kanpur By Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter
  26. International Commodity Prices Transmission to Consumer Prices in Africa By Thibault Lemaire; Paul Vertier
  27. When Nudges backfire : Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment to Boost Biological Pest Control By Sylvain Chabé-Ferret; Philippe Le Coënt; Caroline Lefebvre; Raphaële Préget; François Salanié; Subervie Julie; Sophie S. Thoyer
  28. Response of Inflation to the Climate Stress: Evidence from Azerbaijan By Yusifzada, Tural
  29. Preferences & choices experiments with real products consumption: application with plant-based proteins By Mélody Leplat; Youenn Loheac; Eric Teillet
  30. Price Transmission between Energy and Fish Markets: Are Oil Rates Good Predictors of Tuna Prices? By Guillotreau Patrice; Frédéric Lantz; Lesya Nadzon; Jonathan Rault; Olivier Maury
  31. The new frontier of valuation challenges – climate change, emissions, and sustainability By Georgia Warren-Myers
  32. Circular bioeconomy business models - energy recovery from agricultural waste: cases from Kenya and Burkina Faso By Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Taron, Avinandan; Odero, J.; Sanfo, S.; Ouedraogo, Ramata; Salack, S.; Diarra, K.; Ouedraogo, S.; Ojungobi, K.
  33. Beyond Climate: `EU taxonomy' criteria, materiality, and CDS term structure By Andreas G. F. Hoepner; Johannes Klausmann; Markus Leippold; Jordy Rillaerts
  34. LIVING INCOME AND LIVING WAGE REPORT: RURAL AREAS AND SMALL TOWNS OF CENTRAL COLOMBIA (DECEMBER 2021) By Lykke E. Andersen; Natasha Nina Andersen

  1. By: Kym Anderson; Erwin Corong; Anna Strutt; Ernesto Valenzuela
    Abstract: Over the past three decades, tariff protection to farmers has fallen and partly been replaced by domestic support, whilst support for farmers in some emerging economies has grown. Against that backdrop, this paper provides new estimates of national economic impacts of global agricultural tariffs and domestic supports. Using the latest global economywide GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project) model calibrated to 2017, we simulate (a) the removal of food and agricultural domestic supports and agri-food tariffs and (b) the removal also of tariffs on imports of non-agricultural goods. We find that agricultural support policies are still an important part of the global welfare cost of all goods’ trade-restrictive policies (albeit only half as costly as in 2001), and tariffs still dominate the global welfare cost of all farm-support programs. That farm support could be re-instrumented to relieve natural resource and environmental stresses, boost food and nutrition security, and alleviate poverty and income inequality.
    Keywords: Distortions to agricultural incentives, Domestic support, Agricultural market access restrictions
    JEL: F13 F14 O13 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2023-03&r=agr
  2. By: Sarpong, D. B.; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe (International Water Management Institute); Minh, Thai (International Water Management Institute); Cofie, Olufunke (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Cocoa industry; Irrigated farming; Sustainability; Financing; Agricultural sector; Forest ecosystems; Ecosystem conservation; Stakeholders; Farmer-led irrigation; Smallholders
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051654&r=agr
  3. By: Urfels, A.; Khadka, Manohara (International Water Management Institute); Shrestha, Nirman (International Water Management Institute); Pavelic, Paul (International Water Management Institute); Risal, A.; Uprety, Labisha (International Water Management Institute); Shrestha, Gitta (International Water Management Institute); Dile, Y.; McDonald, A. J.; Pandey, V. P.; Srinivasan, R.; Krupnik, T. J.
    Keywords: Irrigation management; Sustainability; Social inclusion; Frameworks; Water resources; Watersheds; Groundwater management; Groundwater recharge; Surface water; Irrigation water; Farmer-led irrigation; Agricultural value chains; Crop yield; Investment; Multi-stakeholder processes; Gender equality; Socioeconomic environment; Technology; Climate change; Food security; Resilience; Policies; Governance; Capacity development; Modelling; Case studies
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051550&r=agr
  4. By: Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe (International Water Management Institute); Bangira, T.; Sibanda, M.; Cofie, Olufunke (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Water availability; Water quality; Monitoring; Irrigation canals; Reservoirs; Water productivity; Precision agriculture; Smallholders; Unmanned aerial vehicles; Imagery; Remote sensing; Floods; Mapping; Water levels; Parameters
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051656&r=agr
  5. By: English, Leah; Popp, Jennie; Miller, Wayne
    Abstract: Agricultural production, processing, and retail industries are major contributors to Arkansas’ GDP. Agriculture contributes to the state economy through direct agricultural production, value-added processing, and agricultural retail activities. The Agriculture and Food Sector, which is comprised of agricultural production, processing, and retail industries, promotes economic strength through various interactions with other industries. The use of non-agricultural goods and services as inputs into the agricultural sector promotes diversified growth in Arkansas’ economy and thus plays a vital role in maintaining economic stability throughout the state. This report 1) compares the relative size of the Agriculture and Food Sector in Arkansas with those of neighboring states; 2) provides an overview of Arkansas’ economy and discusses Arkansas’ agricultural sector in relation to the state economy; and 3) examines components of agricultural production and processing, including a review of historical sales trends for raw and processed agricultural output.
    Keywords: Production Economics
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uarkrr:330417&r=agr
  6. By: Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt
    Abstract: Food production has been globally inefficient for many decades, with too many resources employed in agriculture in high-income countries and too few in numerous low-income countries where governments heavily taxed farm exports. Over recent decades policy instrument choices of advanced economies have moved away from mostly price support at the border to also domestic output and input price supports and then to somewhat-decoupled payments, to direct income payments to farmers, and to more-concerted payments to farmers for their co-provision of public goods. Even so, many agri-food policy instruments are far from economically optimal for attaining society’s stated objectives, and (according to our global modeling) their global economic welfare cost is still high. The paper concludes by outlining ways in which present farm supports could be re-purposed in high-income and emerging economies to achieve more-efficient, more-equitable, healthier and more environmentally friendlier outcomes.
    Keywords: Policy instrument ranking; Welfare cost of farm price supports; Re-purposing farmer assistance; Institutional and policy reform; GTAP modelling of farm policy reform.
    JEL: F13 F14 O13 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2023-04&r=agr
  7. By: Sarkar, Anindita (International Water Management Institute); Chakraborty, Shreya (International Water Management Institute); Mukherji, Aditi (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Agrifood systems; Policies; Food production; Food security; Agrarian structure; Political aspects; Agricultural productivity
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051632&r=agr
  8. By: Marie-Pierre Philippe-Dussine (CEREFIGE - Centre Européen de Recherche en Economie Financière et Gestion des Entreprises - UL - Université de Lorraine)
    Abstract: Land use is a major aspect of sustainable development, as it determines the production of ecosystem services. However, among the various uses, soil sealing is of particular concern, as it is the most dangerous land degradation process. It threatens our food security, water and air quality, climate regulation and biodiversity but it keeps on developing despite many public policies. This article considers soils as common goods and aims to examine how public action or market tools can be complemented by the mobilisation of several levels of public and private actors around a polycentric equilibrium. But, because of a frequent lack of shared vision about soil sealing, this equilibrium requires to make social norms evolve in favour of enhancing old buildings rather than using new soils. This requires creativity and a stakeholders engagement: a social innovation whose conditions this article is trying to specify.
    Keywords: Behavioural Economics Creativity Social Innovation Information Institutional Change Land Use Polycentric Equilibrium Soils Sealing Sustainable Development, Behavioural Economics, Creativity, Social Innovation, Information, Institutional Change, Land Use, Polycentric Equilibrium, Soils Sealing, Sustainable Development
    Date: 2022–03–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03969209&r=agr
  9. By: Stephen Ayerst; Loren Brandt; Diego Restuccia
    Abstract: The expansion in farm size is an important contributor to agricultural productivity in developed countries, but the reallocation process is hindered in less developed economies. How do distortions to factor reallocation affect farm dynamics and agricultural productivity? We develop a model of heterogeneous farms making cropping choices and investing in productivity improvements. We calibrate the model using detailed farm-level panel data from Vietnam, exploiting regional differences in agricultural institutions and outcomes. We focus on south Vietnam and quantify the effect of higher measured distortions in the North on farm choices and agricultural productivity. We find that the higher distortions in north Vietnam reduce agricultural productivity by 46%, accounting for around 70% of the observed 2.5-fold difference between regions. Moreover, two-thirds of the productivity loss is driven by farms' choice of lower productivity crops and reductions in productivity-enhancing investment, which more than doubles the productivity loss from factor misallocation.
    JEL: O11 O14 O4 Q12 Q15 Q16
    Date: 2023–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30985&r=agr
  10. By: Arunkumar A S (IFP - Institut Français de Pondichéry - MEAE - Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ajit Menon (Madras Institute of Development Studies - Madras Institute of Development Studies); K Nithya; H Shakila
    Abstract: Shrimp farms in Tamil Nadu envisaged by state agencies as an alternative for increasing coastal salinity have hardly been able to be one as it on the one hand largely impacts the ecology and livelihood, while on the other hand are cost intensive for any farmers to immediately shift from agriculture.
    Keywords: Shrimp Farms, Aquaculture, Salinity, Agriculture
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03922220&r=agr
  11. By: Konstantinos Chatzimichael; Charoula Daskalaki; Gregory Emvalomatis; Michail Tsagris; Vangelis Tzouvelekas (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece)
    Abstract: In this paper, we employ a meta-regression analysis approach to synthesize empirical evidence on the average partial effects of eleven adoption determinants that regularly appear in empirical studies examining farmer's adoption behavior worldwide. Our analysis considers a total of 122 studies from the adoption literature using discrete choice models that are published in 24 peer-reviewed journals since 1985, covering farmer's adoption behavior around the world and for a wide variety of agricultural technologies.
    Keywords: Agricultural technology; Technology adoption; Average partial effect; Meta-regression analysis; Publication bias
    JEL: C21 D22 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2023–01–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:crt:wpaper:2301&r=agr
  12. By: Ikpidi Badji (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); France Caillavet (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Marie-Josephe Amiot (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Keywords: Awareness campaign, Pulses purchases, Box-Cox double-hurdle model, Pseudopanel, Nutritional guidelines, Sustainability
    Date: 2023–01–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03974613&r=agr
  13. By: Charlotte Fontan Sers (ESC PAU - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce, Pau Business School); Mazhar Mughal (ESC PAU - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce, Pau Business School)
    Abstract: The 2007-08 global food crisis led to hunger riots around the world. Food prices have again risen spectacularly since the Covid19 pandemic, but have fortunately not led to major social unrest in the global South. In this research note, we argue that the difference lies, in part, in the nature of the two price shocks, and in part, in the policy response from the governments and international organizations. This time round, the stability of rice prices appears to have dampened the impact of food inflation in major rice-importing countries. This pattern of global rice price is in sharp contrast to that seen in 2008 when the price tripled between January and May. The two food crises also differ substantially in the extent and responsiveness of public policy. Right from March 2020, governments began taking fiscal and administrative measures to help the populations suffering from the loss of livelihood. Nonetheless, food inflation remains a concern, and prolonged conflict in Ukraine and the ongoing inflation spiral could put in jeopardy the mitigating effects of the anti-inflationary policy measures.
    Keywords: Covid-19, 2007-08, food prices, riot
    Date: 2023–02–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03973284&r=agr
  14. By: Nigo, Ayine; Gibogwe, Vincent
    Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on financial efficiency and growth. We show that banking development exerts a statistically significant and positive impact on local economic growth. We use the ARDL method to find the impact of institutional financial quality on agriculture sector growth in 14 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1990 to 2020. Our results show that land, rural population, and per capita agricultural income growth have long-run and significant (at 1% level) causal effects on the magnitude of agricultural value added as a percentage of GDP.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment, economic growth, absorptive capacity, human capital, market liberalization
    JEL: F36 F63 G21 O15 O19 O47 O55
    Date: 2023–01–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:116397&r=agr
  15. By: Trotsuk Irina V. (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); Shagaida Nataliya I. (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of the study is explained by its design to constantly monitor the state and risks of food security in Russia, the importance of such monitoring ever increasing with the pandemic and a resulting decrease in household incomes. The objective of the study is to examine the degree to which the Russian society has achieved food security, not according to government programs and strategies of national development, but regarding the economic affordability of food for the population. The subject of the research is the Russians’ everyday food practices and their perception of personal and family risks in food consumption. By 2020, a sociological monitoring model was developed and successfully tested, which is a combination of two methods – a representative telephone survey (nationwide sampling) and ‘expert’ interviews (the longest conversations of interviewers with respondents are transcribed in order to identify explanations in respondents’ answers to the questions of the standardized formalized interview). The results of the study (sociological data) supplement the statistical and economic assessments of the possibilities and limitations of the stable functioning of the internal market given the global economy shocks. The study allows a more accurate assessment of the state of the domestic market under the rising prices and the government’s attempts to limit them. Thus, we can make the following conclusions: the Russians’ inconsistent self-assessments of food practices can be explained by two factors – Russians not only assess their past and present food-consumer practices, but also compare their life situation with those around them; before the pandemic, the food assortment began to expand, and in the difficult social-economic conditions, exacerbated by the pandemic restrictions, food became almost the only source of a sense of ‘normality’ and of bright exceptions in the routine. In recent years, Russians have developed a stable model of food consumption, primarily due to the objective factors – the expansion and strengthening of retail chains, the rise in food prices and the exhaustion of households’ self-supplying strategies. Financial constraints, i.e. economic access to food, are the main threat to the food security situation in Russia. The scientific novelty of the study is the proposed interdisciplinary nature at the theoretical level (a combination of economic and sociological approaches) and methodological triangulation (quantitative and qualitative survey methods) at the empirical level. The proposed approach and the results of its application allow to recommend that the country’s leadership abandon its calls and attempts to stop the rise in food prices, which is somewhat late and ineffective, especially under the pandemic, and focus on a differentiated approach to increasing the economic access to food, instead of punitive measures restricting price growth.
    Keywords: Food security, physical access to food, economic access to food, consumer practices, family budget of Russian households, sociological monitoring
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rnp:wpaper:w2022060&r=agr
  16. By: Mishra, Mukesh Kumar
    Abstract: Over the past decades, there has been increasing competition for the available water resources and increasing water pollution. Consequently, water shortages, water quality degradation, and destruction of the aquatic ecosystem are seriously affecting prospects for economic and social development, political stability, as well as ecosystem integrity. In developing countries, scarcity and degradation of water resources may have a severely limiting impact on development options, especially for poor people. In order to meet basic human and ecological needs and services, societies need to address and solve several serious water challenges and must come to terms with dwindling water resources, their uneven geographic and seasonal distribution, and an inadequate and inequitable allocation of water services. Poor resource management, corruption, inappropriate institutional arrangements, bureaucratic inertia, insufficient human capacity, and shortages of finances for investments also undermine the effective governance of water in many places. These are also the challenges to be addressed by governance reforms. There is general agreement that improvements to water governance are a necessary part of the solution to the specific challenges that fall within this nexus of water ecosystem management and poverty reduction within the context of climate change. The objective of this paper is to contribute to integrated, participatory governance processes and a sense of urgency around the need to reclaim and rejuvenate water bodies in more effective ways to ensure the sustainable and equitable use of water resources and to expand the delivery of clean water supply and sanitation services to all, which will help the effort of the impact under "Jal-Jeevan-Hariyali Abhiyan."
    Keywords: Water Governance, Integrated water management
    JEL: Q25 Q2
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:esprep:268739&r=agr
  17. By: Sobratee-Fajurally, N. (International Water Management Institute); Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Landscape conservation; Sustainability; Inclusion; Resilience; Planning; Livelihoods; Water resources; Energy; Food systems; Nexus approaches; Participatory approaches; Natural resources; Governance; Youth; Women; Decision support systems
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051652&r=agr
  18. By: Markova-Nenova, Nonka; Engler, Jan O.; Cord, Anna F.; Wätzold, Frank
    Abstract: Result-based payments (RBPs) reward land users for conservation outcomes and are a promising alternative to standard payments, which are targeted at specific land use measures. A major barrier to the implementation of RBPs, particularly for the conservation of mobile species, is the substantial monitoring cost. Passive acoustic monitoring may offer promising opportunities for low-cost monitoring as an alternative to human observation. We develop a costing framework for comparing human observation and passive acoustic monitoring and apply it to a hypothetical RBP scheme for farmland bird conservation. We consider three different monitoring scenarios: daytime monitoring for the whinchat and the ortolan bunting, nighttime monitoring for the partridge and the common quail, and day-and-night monitoring for all four species. We also examine the effect of changes in relevant parameters (such as participating area, travel distance and required monitoring time) on the cost comparison. Our results show that passive acoustic monitoring is still more expensive than human observation for daytime monitoring. In contrast, passive acoustic monitoring has a cost advantage for nighttime and day-and-nighttime monitoring in almost all considered scenarios.
    Keywords: Performance-based payments, monitoring costs, PAM, ARU, AudioMoth, bird surveys, payments for ecosystem services, agri-environment schemes
    JEL: Q18 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2023–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:116311&r=agr
  19. By: Magalhães de Oliveira, Gustavo; Sellare, Jorge; Börner, Jan
    Abstract: Land users make decisions in an increasingly dynamic environment. Changes in expectations are driven by market and non-market factors, but research on market related drivers of land use change so far dominates in the literature. This paper examines how political discourses affect deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon region. Relying on novel data from Twitter, we present the first causal evidence of political discourse on deforestation. Our analysis relies on municipal level monthly panel data for 2019 with alternative remotely sensed measures of forest loss and vegetation fires as outcome variables. The effect of political discourse on these outcomes is identified using a shift-share regression approach. High exposure to laissez-faire political discourses increases forest loss by 2.3-3%, and fires by 2.2%. Our findings are robust across land tenure regimes, varying levels of policy enforcement, and alternative shift-share measures. Moreover, excluding dry season periods from the analysis does not change the main result. Land use in the Brazilian Amazon is highly sensitive to whether, how, and when authorities communicate their will to enforce environmental policy regulations. ‘Walking the talk’ remains imperative to protect the world’s tropical forests, but this study suggests that policy makers must carefully choose their words while walking.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2023–03–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ubzefd:333334&r=agr
  20. By: Imane El Kerzazi (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM - Université de Montpellier); Béatrice Siadou-Martin (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM - Université de Montpellier); Fatiha Fort (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This research analyzes the process of categorizing a healthy food. Based on the theory of cognitive psychology, it shows that the categorization of a healthy food differs from one individual to another, not only according to the characteristics of the product but also in relation to the motivations. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study using 22 semi-structured individual interviews. The results of the survey highlight the existence of four distinct groups of consumers : the traditionalists-nostalgic, the savvy-cautious, the distrustful and the hedonists. The in-depth knowledge of these profiles will allow decision-makers to design more targeted public actions to promote healthy eating, as well as food manufacturers to segment their customers according to the different perceptions of healthy food and the underlying motivations.
    Abstract: Cette recherche analyse le processus de catégorisation d'un aliment sain. Sur la base de la théorie de la psychologie cognitive, elle montre que la catégorisation d'un aliment sain diffère d'un individu à l'autre, non seulement selon les caractéristiques du produit mais aussi par rapport à ses motivations. Nous avons mené une étude exploratoire qualitative à l'aide de 22 entretiens individuels semi-directifs. Les résultats de l'enquête mettent en évidence l'existence de quatre groupes distincts de consommateurs : les traditionnalistes - nostalgiques, les avertis – prudents, les méfiants - sceptiques et les hédonistes. La connaissance poussée de ces profils permettra aux pouvoirs publics de concevoir des actions publiques plus ciblées pour promouvoir une alimentation saine ainsi qu'aux industriels de l'agroalimentaire de segmenter leurs clients en fonction des différentes perceptions de l'aliment sain et des motivations sous-jacentes.
    Keywords: Healthy food, Categorization, Typology of consumer, Catégorisation, typologie de consommateur, Aliment sain
    Date: 2023–01–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03977534&r=agr
  21. By: Jian-An Li; Li Wang; Wen-Jie Xie; Wei-Xing Zhou
    Abstract: Pesticides are important agricultural inputs to increase agricultural productivity and improve food security. The availability of pesticides is partially achieved through international trade. However, economies involved in the international trade of pesticides are impacted by internal and external shocks from time to time, which influence the redistribution efficiency of pesticides all over the world. In this work, we adopt simulations to quantify the efficiency and robustness of the international pesticide trade networks under shocks to economies. Shocks are simulated based on nine node metrics, and three strategies are utilized based on descending, random, and ascending node removal. It is found that the efficiency and robustness of the international trade networks of pesticides increased for all the node metrics except the clustering coefficient. Moreover, the international pesticide trade networks are more fragile when import-oriented economies are affected by shocks.
    Date: 2023–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2302.13695&r=agr
  22. By: Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Takeshi; Asada, Hidekatsu; Ma, Jui-Jun
    Abstract: This study, focusing on the water pollutions in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen by industrial and household discharges in Chinese provinces, investigates the contribution of capacity shortage for pollution control to the provincial pollution levels, by conducting a factor analysis to the heterogeneity of provincial pollutions under the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) framework. The study’s contribution to the literature lies in its framework of analyzing the heterogeneity of Chinese provinces’ EKCs in terms of their positions (not their shapes) by using a fixed-effect model to extract the province-specific pollution effects. The main finding of this study is that the capacity shortage for pollution control accounts for around 30% as a pollution factor of industrial COD and ammonia nitrogen, and accounts for around 60% and 80% as a pollution factor of household COD and ammonia nitrogen, respectively. It suggests that China has still much policy space and room to mitigate the water pollutions, by building the capacity for pollution control through developing human resources and training them.
    Keywords: water pollutions, pollution-control capacity, Chinese provinces, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, environmental Kuznets curve
    JEL: O53 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:116468&r=agr
  23. By: Qureshy, Lubina; Alderman, Harold; Manchanda, Navneet
    Abstract: This paper presents an ex-ante Benefit-Cost analysis of proposed fortification of extruder rice with iron under the social safety net in India. The benefits of iron fortification are estimated in terms of economic gains from increases in current work productivity among adults and future productivity from improvements in learning among school-going children. The base case scenario indicates a benefit cost ratio of 8.2, with 69 percent coming from improved learning in school and the remainder through enhanced work productivity. Benefit-cost ratios are also presented for a range of alternative assumptions, all of these resulting in ratios greater than 1. Nevertheless, despite decades of fortification at scale, a principal conclusion of this study is that future benefit cost models would gain confidence if more evidence is generated on the relationship of improved biomarkers for iron and changes in measures of cognition and labour productivity.
    Keywords: Cost-benefit; fortification; anaemia; school meals; productivity
    JEL: I15 Q18
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:116281&r=agr
  24. By: Sabin, A. R.; Hendricks, Walter A.
    Abstract: Excerpt from Number I: This report gives the results of an investigation to determine more exactly the nature of the voluntary sample of employment conditions on farms of regular crop correspondents of the Agricultural Marketing Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. A basis for improving quantitative estimates of employment based on that voluntary sample was developed from this investigation. Analysis of the basic data, made possible by this study, uncovered a method for stratifying and weighting the sample which overcame many previous difficulties. The new method was thoroughly tested during the study, and the feasibility of using a voluntary sample in estimating employment was demonstrated. Excerpt from Number II: This report gives the results of an investigation to determine the validity of assumptions made in translating linear measurements of crop frontages on highways into estimates of corresponding crop acreages in the region traversed. Such a study must obviously be based upon a universe of known constitution so that various phases of the problem can be examined in detail. Agricultural data obtained from usual sources are not sufficiently extensive for an analysis of this kind but aerial survey photographs made available by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration provided a good source of experimental material for the purpose at hand. After the crops in the various individual fields shown on the photographs were identified by visits to the farm operators concerned and the highways traversing the region were traced on the photographs, an ideal universe for study was made available.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Labor and Human Capital, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersmp:333336&r=agr
  25. By: Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter
    Abstract: We provide a theoretical framework to analyze how climate change influences the Ganges and how this influence affects pollution in the river caused by tanneries in Kanpur, India. We focus on two tanneries, A and B, that are situated on the same bank of the Ganges in Kanpur. Both produce leather and leather production requires the use of noxious chemicals. Tannery A is situated upstream from tannery B. Tannery A's leather production depends on labor use but tannery B's leather production depends on labor use, the chemical waste generated by tannery A, and the natural pollution absorbing capacity of the Ganges. In this setting, we perform four tasks. First, we construct a metric that measures the climate change induced mean reduction in the natural capacity of the Ganges to absorb pollution in the time interval [0, t]. Second, we use this metric and determine the equilibrium production of leather by both tanneries in the benchmark case in which there is no pollution. Third, we ascertain how the benchmark equilibrium is altered when tannery B accounts for the negative externality foisted upon it by tannery A. Finally, we study the impact on leather production and on labor use when the two tanneries merge and then discuss the policy implications stemming from our research.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Ganges River, Tannery, Unitization, Water Pollution
    JEL: Q25 Q54
    Date: 2022–09–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:116453&r=agr
  26. By: Thibault Lemaire (UP1 UFR02 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - École d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Paul Vertier (Banque de France - Banque de France - Banque de France)
    Abstract: Global commodity prices spikes can have strong macroeconomic effects, particularly in developing countries. This paper estimates the global commodity prices pass-through to consumer price inflation in Africa. Our sample includes monthly data for 48 countries over the period 2002m02-2021m04. We consider 17 commodity prices separately to take into account both the heterogeneity in price variations and the cross-correlations between them, and to depart from aggregate indices that use weights unrepresentative of consumption in African countries. Using local projections in a panel dataset, we find a maximum passthrough of 24%, and a long-run pass-through of about 20%, higher than usually found in the literature. We also consider country-specific regressions to test whether estimated pass-through are related to countries' observable characteristics.
    Keywords: Commodity prices, food prices, energy prices, inflation, pass-through, Africa
    Date: 2023–01–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03944888&r=agr
  27. By: Sylvain Chabé-Ferret (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Institute for Advanced Studies - Institute for Advanced Studies); Philippe Le Coënt (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Caroline Lefebvre (Laboratoire de Virologie [Toulouse] - CHU Toulouse [Toulouse]); Raphaële Préget (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); François Salanié (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Subervie Julie (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Sophie S. Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Nudges are increasingly used to alter the behavior of economic agents as an alternative to monetary incentives. However, little is known as to whether nudges can backfire, that is, how and when they may generate effects opposite to those they intend to achieve. We provide the first field evidence of a nudge that is designed to encourage pro-environmental behavior, which instead backfires. We randomly allocate a social comparison nudge inviting winegrowers to adopt biological pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticide use. We find that our nudge decreases by half the adoption of biological pest control among the largest vineyards, where the bulk of adoption occurs. We show that this result can be rationalized in an economic model where winegrowers and winegrower-cooperative managers bargain over future rents generated by the adoption of biological pest control. This study highlights the importance of experimenting on a small scale with nudges aimed at encouraging adoption of virtuous behaviors in order to detect unexpected adverse effects, particularly in contexts where negotiations on the sharing of the costs of adoption are likely to occur.
    Keywords: Nudges, Behavioral Economics, Pesticides, Government Policy.
    Date: 2023–02–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03971193&r=agr
  28. By: Yusifzada, Tural
    Abstract: This research is the first study that analyzes the effects of climate change-related factors on the inflation environment in Azerbaijan during 2005-2020 and forecasts annual inflation for the 2021-2030 period. For this purpose, considering the possible long-run cointegration relation among variables and limited historical observations, the chain impact of temperature on agricultural producer prices is analyzed through the BVAR model. Additionally, the transition requirements to the effects of green energy on inflation are examined through the exchange rate pass-through. Since the aim of the research is to reveal climate change’s impact on the long-run trend of inflation, the study generates two climate scenarios for the 2021-2030 period and analyzes the inflation difference at the end of the horizon. According to the model results, climate change’s contribution to inflation is expected to be 1.3 percentage points (pp) in the long run with the baseline scenario, where climate-related variables follow their historical trends. On the other hand, climate contribution to inflation is estimated to be 2.2 pp in the worst scenario of climate change, where 1.2 °C additional temperature anomaly deteriorates the trends. The results imply that climate change is not only the determinant of seasonality but the trend of inflation. In light of these results, the paper highlights the importance of a well-developed climate action plan set by the government and monetary incentives for transitioning to a green environment set by the Central Bank of the Republic of Azerbaijan. This research is the first study that analyzes the effects of climate change-related factors on the inflation environment in Azerbaijan during 2005-2020 and forecasts annual inflation for the 2021-2030 period. For this purpose, considering the possible long-run cointegration relation among variables and limited historical observations, the chain impact of temperature on agricultural producer prices is analyzed through the BVAR model. Additionally, the transition requirements to the effects of green energy on inflation are examined through the exchange rate pass-through. Since the aim of the research is to reveal climate change’s impact on the long-run trend of inflation, the study generates two climate scenarios for the 2021-2030 period and analyzes the inflation difference at the end of the horizon. According to the model results, climate change’s contribution to inflation is expected to be 1.3 percentage points (pp) in the long run with the baseline scenario, where climate-related variables follow their historical trends. On the other hand, climate contribution to inflation is estimated to be 2.2 pp in the worst scenario of climate change, where 1.2 °C additional temperature anomaly deteriorates the trends. The results imply that climate change is not only the determinant of seasonality but the trend of inflation. In light of these results, the paper highlights the importance of a well-developed climate action plan set by the government and monetary incentives for transitioning to a green environment set by the Central Bank of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
    Keywords: inflation, climate, fossil fuel, green energy, BVAR, forecasting
    JEL: C32 E31 E37 E58 Q54
    Date: 2022–04–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:116522&r=agr
  29. By: Mélody Leplat (L@BISEN - Laboratoire ISEN - Institut supérieur de l'électronique et du numérique (ISEN) - YO - YNCREA OUEST, AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Youenn Loheac (ESC Rennes School of Business - ESC [Rennes] - ESC Rennes School of Business, CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Eric Teillet (SensoStat)
    Abstract: In a context of vegetablization of meals, a range of plant-based substitutes is developing that imitate the taste and nutritional properties of meat products. Moreover, the motivations to reduce the consumption of meat products or to replace them by plant-based substitutes are based on several arguments such as health, environment or animal welfare. Through two studies, we explore the preferences for plant-based meat substitutes by combining the tools of sensory evaluation with those of experimental economics. Thus, subjects taste real products and express themselves about them, then they are exposed to choices related to these products (maintaining consumption or returning to their usual product). Our results show that a third of the participants appreciate the substitutes and are ready to renew their consumption.
    Abstract: Dans un contexte de végétalisation des repas se développe une offre de substituts végétaux imitant les propriétés gustatives et nutritionnelles des produits carnés. Par ailleurs, les motivations à réduire la consommation de produits carnés ou à les remplacer par des substituts végétaux repose sur plusieurs arguments tels que la santé, l'environnement ou le bien-être animal. A travers deux études, nous explorons les préférences pour des substituts végétaux à la viande en associant les outils de l'évaluation sensorielles à ceux de l'économie expérimentale. Ainsi les sujets dégustent des produits réels et s'expriment à leur sujet, puis ils sont soumis à des choix relatifs à ces produits (maintient de la consommation ou retour à leur produit habituel). Nos résultats montre qu'un tiers des participants apprécient les substituts et qu'ils sont prêt à en renouveler la consommation.
    Keywords: meat substitutes, sensory evaluation, choices experiment, real products
    Date: 2022–05–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03932623&r=agr
  30. By: Guillotreau Patrice (UMR MARBEC - MARine Biodiversity Exploitation and Conservation - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier); Frédéric Lantz (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, IFP School); Lesya Nadzon (LINDE GAS Benelux); Jonathan Rault (UMR MARBEC - MARine Biodiversity Exploitation and Conservation - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier); Olivier Maury (UMR MARBEC - MARine Biodiversity Exploitation and Conservation - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Because most food processes are fossil fuel-based, many food markets are more or less connected to the oil market. Fishing technology in the high seas being energy-intensive, higher oil prices should affect the fish markets. This research looks at price transmission between Marine Diesel Oil and a global fishery commodity, frozen Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) through a time series analysis combining four different methods to look for possible structural breaks and regime shifts in the relationship (Bai-Perron, Lavielle, Gregory-Hansen, Markov-switching). Our results prove that the long-run equilibrium between both prices is weakening after the turn of the 2010s. Explaining the drivers of change is of great interest for short-term forecast but also to build long-term scenarios where both supply and demand variables are likely to affect tuna markets.
    Abstract: Puisque la plupart des filières agro-alimentaires reposent sur des énergies fossiles, de nombreux marchés alimentaires sont plus ou moins connectés au marché du pétrole. La technologie des pêcheries hauturières étant elle-même intensive en énergie, un prix plus élevé du pétrole devrait se refléter dans le prix du poisson. Cette recherche s'intéresse à la transmission des prix entre le diesel marin et un produit de la pêche global, le listao (Katsuwonus pelamis) congelé, via une analyse de séries temporelles croisant quatre méthodes différentes pour repérer des changements structurels et de régime dans la relation de prix (Bai-Perron, Lavielle, Gregory-Hansen, Markov-switching). Nos résultats montrent que l'équilibre de long terme s'atténue au tournant des années 2010. Expliquer les facteurs de ce changement représente certes un enjeu important pour des prévisions de court-terme, mais permet également de bâtir des scénarios de long-terme où les variables d'offre et de demande sont susceptibles de perturber conjointement les marchés thoniers.
    Keywords: Cointegration, oil prices, tuna markets, regime shift, structural breaks
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03948692&r=agr
  31. By: Georgia Warren-Myers
    Abstract: Anticipated climate change impacts on the real estate sector has the potential for devastating value implications, in both the short and long term. Businesses, organisations, governments, and real estate owners and occupiers are currently tackling a changing policy environment relating to emissions reporting. In addition, a greater understanding of a range of climate change risks and the exposure of assets to a raft of risks is seeing an altering in assessment and action to future proof their businesses and assets. Valuers, in their pivotal role of evaluating real estate markets and assessing market values will need to consider how this changing environment, shifting understanding of traditional risk considerations and how policy and climate and transitional risks are incorporated into valuation practice. This paper presents current valuation practice challenges identified in valuing real estate and consideration of sustainability, emissions and climate change risks.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Risks; sustainability; Valuation
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arz:wpaper:2022_47&r=agr
  32. By: Gebrezgabher, Solomie (International Water Management Institute); Taron, Avinandan (International Water Management Institute); Odero, J.; Sanfo, S.; Ouedraogo, Ramata (International Water Management Institute); Salack, S.; Diarra, K.; Ouedraogo, S.; Ojungobi, K.
    Keywords: Circular economy; Bioeconomy; Business models; Energy recovery; Agricultural wastes; Biogas; Fertilizers; Resource recovery; Waste management; Public-private partnerships; Markets; Value chains; Technology; Financial analysis; Environmental impact; Health hazards; Case studies
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051646&r=agr
  33. By: Andreas G. F. Hoepner (Smurfit Graduate Business School, University College Dublin; European Commission's Platform on Sustainable Finance); Johannes Klausmann (ESSEC Business School); Markus Leippold (University of Zurich; Swiss Finance Institute); Jordy Rillaerts (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the EU Taxonomy's non-climate environmental criteria on the corporate credit risk term structure. We focus on infrastructure firm-level credit risk transmitted through CDS with differential maturities (e.g., ten-year minus one-year) in relation to biodiversity, water risks, and pollution prevention to understand the incentives created by these criteria for green infrastructure investments. Where these criteria describe risks of the environment for the firm (i.e., conventional materiality), we find that firms managing any of these three risks best have up to 93bps better relative long-term refinancing conditions than the worst ones. With respect to the second part of double materiality (i.e., the impact of the firm on the environment), we find statistically significant results only for pollution prevention of up to 70bps. Unexpected political right-wing shocks, such as the Trump election, had reversing effects on biodiversity and pollution prevention but not on water risks. These reversals were evident on the short end of the CDS curve but modest on the long end. Overall, our results suggest that investors appear to credit better management of the environmental criteria beyond climate with improved long-term financing conditions on infrastructure investments.
    Keywords: Double materiality, EU Taxonomy, infrastructure, term structure.
    JEL: G12 G18 G32 M14 Q52
    Date: 2023–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:chf:rpseri:rp2310&r=agr
  34. By: Lykke E. Andersen (Sustainable Development Solutions Network - Bolivia); Natasha Nina Andersen (Sustainable Development Solutions Network - Bolivia)
    Abstract: This report estimates the family living income and the living wage for the coffee-growing regions of Antioquia and Huila, Colombia for December 2021. Living costs were found to be sufficiently similar across these regions for one estimate to be valid for both. The living income expenses for a family of four is COP 2, 527, 125, while the gross living wage is COP 1, 783, 685 (USD 453) per month.
    Keywords: Living costs, living wages, living income, coffee, Colombia, Anker methodology.
    JEL: J30 J50 J80
    Date: 2021–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iad:glliwa:210103&r=agr

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