nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒02‒27
thirty-one papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Trade liberalisation, market behaviour and food security: Evidence from Tanzania By Christian Estmann
  2. Retailer-driven value chains in the agri-food sector By Kossi-Messanh Agbekponou; Angela Cheptea; Karine Latouche
  3. Policy framework for contract farming: An alternate to Aarthi system in Pakistan By Rana, Abdul Wajid; Gill, Sitara; Akram, Iqra
  4. Effects of weather and food market risks on household agriculture-nutrition linkage: Micro-level insights from India By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Saroj, Sunil; Kumar, Anjani
  5. Quality upgrading and position in global value chains By Kossi-Messanh Agbekponou; Angela Cheptea; Karine Latouche
  6. L'agriculture européenne face au défi alimentaire mondial By Vincent Chatellier
  7. Agricultural intensification in Ethiopia: Patterns, trends, and welfare impacts By Berhane, Guush; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Wolle, Abdulazize
  8. Coconut productivity in the Caribbean: Relational value chains in traditional farming By Nenci, Silvia; Pietrobelli, Carlo; De Angelis, Marina; Manson, Hernan
  9. The unintended environmental effect of a climate change adaptation strategy: evidence from the Colombian coffee sector By Helo Sarmiento, Juliana; Pirelo-Ríos, Ana; Muñoz-Mora, Juan Carlos
  10. The competitiveness of the French agri-food industry By Vincent Chatellier
  11. January 2023 report on the progress of Ukrainian grains exports to Africa By Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
  12. Protection of Geographical Indications in Trade Agreements: is it worth it? By Charlotte Emlinger; Karine Latouche
  13. Rwanda’s agrifood system: Structure and drivers of transformation By Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia; Mugabo, Serge; Pauw, Karl; Rosenbach, Gracie; Spielman, David J.; Thurlow, James
  14. Climate-dependent scenarios of land use for biodiversity and ecosystem services in the New Aquitaine region By Ny Andraina Andriamanantena; Charly Gaufreteau; Jean-Sauveur Ay; Luc Doyen
  15. Impacts of the Great Green Wall projects on children’s health: Evidence from Nigeria By Pauline Castaing; Antoine Leblois
  16. The French animal sectors faced with the Covid-19 pandemic By Vincent Chatellier; François Cadudal; Philippe Chotteau; Boris Duflot; Pascale Heydemann
  17. Horsemeat consumption in France: Determinants and sustainable market perspectives By Arnaud Lamy; Sandrine Costa; Céline Vial; Ikpidi Badji; Myriam Carrère; Pascaline Rollet; Marie-Josephe Amiot
  18. Common lands in India: Spatial distribution and overlay with socioeconomic and environmental indicators By ElDidi, Hagar; Khurana, Ritika; Zhang, Wei; Jadav, Maheshkumar Kalidas; Guha, Chiranjit; Priyadarshini, Pratiti; Guo, Zhe; Sandhu, Harpinder; Nagendra, Harini; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
  19. The internationalization of agricultural markets and the place of the EU-27 and France By Vincent Chatellier
  20. The heterogeneity of income of non-salaried workers in French agriculture By Vincent Chatellier
  21. Decoding agricultural tariffs: A practical guide on databases with preferential tariffs in agriculture By Alonso González Marentis; Annelies Deuss
  22. New evidence on the role of past human activities and edaphic factors on the fine-scale distribution of an important timber species: Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms By Romaric Ndonda Makemba; Christian Moupela; Félicien Tosso; Yves Brostaux; Thomas Drouet; Richard Oslisly; Vincent Freycon; Jean-Louis Doucet
  23. Quantifying Consumer Taste in Trade: Evidence from the Food Industry By Bee Yan Aw; Yi Lee; Hylke Vandenbussche
  24. Africa under a warming climate: The role of trade towards building resilient adaptation in agriculture By Henri Casella; Jaime de Melo
  25. The Benefits of Marine Protected Areas in Fighting Inequality and Fostering Environmental Sustainability in Indonesia By Muhammad HANRI; Andhika PRATAMA; Lili YUNITA; Atiqah SIREGAR; Chairina SIREGAR; Wildan ANKY
  26. Climate and carbon risk of tourism in Europe By Robert Steiger; O. Cenk Demiroglu; Marc Pons; Emmanuel Salim
  27. Migrant Remittances, Agriculture Investment and Cropping Patterns By Ali Ubaid; Mazhar Mughal; Lionel de Boisdeffre
  28. Valuation of Marine Ecosystems and Sustainable Development Goals By Phoebe Koundouri; Conrad Landis; Kostas Dellis; Artemis Stratopoulou
  29. Governance approaches and practices in Latin America and the Caribbean for transformative change for biodiversity By Catacora-Vargas, Georgina; Tambutti, Marcia; Alvarado, Víctor; Rankovic, Aleksandar
  30. Stress Testing the Global Economy to Climate Change-Related Shocks in Large and Interconnected Economies By Mr. Yiqun Wu; Mr. Camilo E Tovar Mora; Tianxiao Zheng
  31. Waiting for Godot? The Case for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Small Island States By Mr. Serhan Cevik

  1. By: Christian Estmann (University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: The increasing dependency on food imports for food security in the Global South implies a higher vulnerability to trade shocks. Trade barriers, such as export restrictions on stable food crops, are commonly used by developing countries in times of crisis. Surges in international food prices raise the real incomes of the farmers selling food while hurting the net food consumers. Trade restrictions may stabilise the domestic availability and price of food for net consumers in the short run. However, the question remains how liberalisation after a long period of ad-hoc export restriction influences rural producers. This working paper examines the effects of lifting a maize export ban on farmers’ food security and market behaviour in Tanzania. Using data from the National Panel Surveys over multiple waves, the study employs a difference-in-difference methodology to analyse the association at the household and district level. The results suggests that farmers who sold maize under the ban reduced their maize production and shifted to other stable crops, becoming less commercialised and disconnected from the market after liberalisation. A borderline significant negative association on household-level dietary diversity and quality is observed in regards to food security.
    Keywords: Food Security, Export Ban, Food Trade, Tanzania, Market Integration
    Date: 2023–01–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:kud:kuderg:2320&r=agr
  2. By: Kossi-Messanh Agbekponou (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Angela Cheptea (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Karine Latouche (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The present paper investigates the link between the participation of French agri-food firms to retailer-driven value chains and their integration in global value chains (GVCs). We propose an empirical methodology based on the econometric estimation of firms' extensive trade margins with multivariate models. We combine firm-level data from the AMADEUS database, French customs and the exhaustive list of firms certified with the private International Featured Standard (IFS) over the period 2006-2011. Our results show that firms that participate to retailer-driven value chains (IFS-certified firms) are by 5.83 percentage points more likely to integrate GVCs, i.e. to jointly import and export, than other firms in the sector. These results are confirmed by alternative estimations. Moreover, we show that the integration in GVCs is primarily driven by the higher probability to export of these firms.
    Keywords: Global value chains, Retailers, Private standards, Multivariate econometric models
    Date: 2022–12–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03941386&r=agr
  3. By: Rana, Abdul Wajid; Gill, Sitara; Akram, Iqra
    Abstract: Global agricultural production is undergoing a remarkable shift due to globalization and market liberalization (Setboonsarng et al., 2008). Food markets are transforming from a ‘non-programmed to programmed’ regime stemming from overwhelming changes in demand patterns happening concurrently with variations in production dynamics internationally (Oostendorp, 2018). This presents both the challenge and opportunity to change and adapt to this more structured world to reap benefits for both smallholder farmers and exporters (Setboonsarng et al., 2008).
    Keywords: PAKISTAN, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, policies, contract farming, markets, credit, development, supply chains, value chains, smallholders, small farms, farm income
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:pacerp:december2022&r=agr
  4. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Saroj, Sunil; Kumar, Anjani
    Abstract: Agriculture-nutrition linkages in developing countries remain complex and continue evolving as weather and market risks intensify due to climate change and other geopolitical and socioeconomic factors. Knowledge gaps remain regarding the exact interrelationship among these dimensions of agriculture-nutrition linkages. This study aimed to partly fill this knowledge gap by assessing how the associations between home production of various food groups and household/individual level nutritional outcomes are affected by weather anomalies and price risks of these food groups in the market, using panel data from India. Our results indicate that, generally, the associations between home production and nutritional outcomes are greater under more normal weather, with rainfall and temperature during the production season being closer to the historical median, potentially because of greater productivity realized and sufficient harvest that can be consumed throughout the year. The associations are also greater when households face greater market price fluctuations of food commodities conditional on the distance to the market, potentially because such price risks lead to reduced food purchases from the market. These effects generally hold not only during the average month but also during the lean month, indicating robustness against seasonality. These results also hold more consistently in remote areas than in areas closer to the market. Overall, our results suggest that efforts to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture in developing countries should also consider evolving patterns of weather risks and agrifood market price risks to improve their effectiveness.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; weather; markets; risk; agriculture; nutrition; prices; seasonality; data; panel data; agriculture-nutrition linkage
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2167&r=agr
  5. By: Kossi-Messanh Agbekponou (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Angela Cheptea (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Karine Latouche (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the extent to which the quality of the exported food products affect the firms' position in global value chains (GVCs). Extending the theoretical framework of Chor et al. (2021), we argue that the quality upgrading allows firms to span more production stages in GVCs by importing products with a lower level of processing (more upstream), and exporting a goods with higher level of processing (more downstream). Expansion along GVCs through quality upgrading is accompanied by increased input purchases, assets, profits and value added in production. These theoretical predictions are tested using firm-level data on the French agri-food industry. In line with recent work, we identify two-way traders as firms that participate in GVCs and assess their position along the chain through the level of transformation of traded goods. We link the matched French Customs-AMADEUS 2000-2018 data with the US input-output table converted to the NACE Rev.2 level, which identifies agri-food industries at a very detailed level, and compute upstreamness indicators for each industry and firm, following recent approaches in the literature. We find empirical evidence broadly supportive of our key predictions.
    Keywords: Global value chains, Production line position, Quality upgrading, Upstreamness, Agri-food industry
    Date: 2022–12–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03941494&r=agr
  6. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This conference was organized for the Maison de l'Europe in Nantes as part of a geopolitical cycle. The objective of this conference was to propose an analysis of the place of the European Union face to the global food challenge. This conference was structured in three parts: price volatility, the war in Ukraine and inflation; the dynamics of food supply and demand; world agri-food trade and the place of the EU-27.
    Abstract: Cette conférence a été réalisée pour la Maison de l'Europe de Nantes dans le cadre d'un cycle de géopolitique. Cette intervention avait pour objectif de proposer une analyse sur la place de l'Union européenne face au défi alimentaire mondial. Cette conférence a été structurée en trois parties : la volatilité des prix, la guerre en Ukraine et l'inflation ; la dynamique de l'offre et de la demande alimentaire ; le commerce agroalimentaire mondial et la place de l'UE-27.
    Keywords: Agricultural sectors, Agri-food trade, Food challenge, Filières agricoles, Commerce agroalimentaire, Défi alimentaire, UE-27
    Date: 2022–10–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03944456&r=agr
  7. By: Berhane, Guush; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Wolle, Abdulazize
    Abstract: Ethiopia has made substantial efforts in the last three decades to increase agricultural productivity through modern input intensification and stimulate overall economic growth. Despite the high growth rates in recent decade, Ethiopia’s overall intensification and yield levels remained below what is considered optimal. This study examines the patterns, trends, and drivers of agricultural intensification and productivity growth during the recent decade (2012 - 2019) using three rounds of representative household data collected from the four main agriculturally important regions of the country. The descriptive results indicate a positive trend in both the adoption rate and intensity of inputs and output, albeit from a low base compared to other contexts and with considerable heterogeneity by access to information, rainfall levels and variability, labor, soil quality, remoteness, among others. The econometric results show significant association between intensification, yield growth, household dietary diversity (a proxy measure for food and nutrition security), and consumer durables. However, the results on the association between current yield levels and per capita consumption expenditures are mixed (i.e., while an increase in cereal yield only improve food consumption expenditures, an increase in cash crops yield mainly improve non-food consumption expenditures). In sum, while the increasing input intensification and the resulting yield gains are associated with improvement in household diets and consumer durables, it falls short to have strong impact on incomes (as measured by total consumption expenditures), indicating that more efforts have to be made to see meaningful impacts on higher order outcomes. Additional welfare improving productivity gains through increased input intensifications may require investments to put in place appropriate fertilizer blends linked with localized soil nutrient requirements, investments to generate locally suited improved seeds and appropriate mechanisms to reach farmers, ways to mitigate production (rainfall) risk, and investments to remodel Ethiopia’s extension system to provided much needed technical support to farmers on production methods.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; agricultural productivity; agricultural transformation; cash crops; cereal crops; consumption patterns; dietary diversity; econometrics; farmers; fertilizers; fertilizer formulations; food security; growth; households; income; input output analysis; labour; nutrition; nutrition security; productivity; production methods; rain; rainfall patterns; seeds; soil; soil quality; statistical methods; variance; welfare; welfare economics; yield factors; yield potential; agricultural intensification; modern input intensification
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2150&r=agr
  8. By: Nenci, Silvia; Pietrobelli, Carlo; De Angelis, Marina; Manson, Hernan
    Abstract: In this paper, we exploit the new evidence derived from two original farm-level surveys in Jamaica and Guyana, to deepen our understanding of coconut production in the Caribbean region. We innovate on more traditional studies as we include into the analysis not only farm-level variables, but also some characteristics of the communities where farmers operate, the support they obtain from local and foreign organizations, and the organization of the value chain, in particular the relationships they develop with agents and buyers. Our analysis shows that the type of workforce, whether occasional or permanent, and the existence of an irrigation scheme influence coconut productivity in Guyana and Jamaica. Primary education contributes to productivity to a larger extent than higher education. Support from organizations, both international and the Coconut Industry Board is also positively associated to productivity. In addition, selling to agents offers a positive productivity premium, probably due to the opportunity agents offer to get relevant information and technology. Thus, traces of a simple "relational" value chain, with a positive and useful role for interactions and exchange of tacit knowledge from buyers and agents, emerge from our study.
    Keywords: Coconut, productivity, Relational value chains, Caribbean countries
    JEL: D24 O13 Q12 O54
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:esprep:268398&r=agr
  9. By: Helo Sarmiento, Juliana; Pirelo-Ríos, Ana; Muñoz-Mora, Juan Carlos
    Abstract: Climate change is a major threat to agricultural productivity in developing countries. In this paper, we explore the unintended environmental effects of an adaptation policy that conditioned credit programs for the renewal of coffee crops on the use of pest-resistant varieties. We use the case of the Colombian coffee sector, which was severely affected by extreme rainfall events and pest proliferation from 2010–2011. In response, the National Federation of Coffee Growers (NFCG) changed its policy to protect farmers from future weather shocks by conditioning renewal credits to the use of pest-resistant seeds. We exploit the timing of the policy and a novel data set that includes coffee farms’ productive characteristics matched with satellite tree cover data to analyze its environmental effect. We find that conditioning renewal credits on a seed change decrease tree cover in treated coffee growers by 390 m2. If we extend this result to all treated farms in our sample, the total loss increases to 1, 031 (10.31 million m2). We calculate that this average loss in tree coverage on treated farms translates into a release of 61, 912 tons of carbon.
    Keywords: Agricultura, Cambio climático, Desarrollo rural,
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dbl:dblwop:2004&r=agr
  10. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This hearing by the Senate's Economic Affairs Committee was part of the production of a report entitled "The Competitiveness of the French Farm" (https://www.senat.fr/rap/r21-905/r21-9051.pdf). At the request of the senators who drafted this report (Laurent Duplomb, Pierre Louault and Serge Mérillou), the purpose of this intervention was to propose an analysis of France's foreign trade in the agri-food sector, with a particular focus on five products: cow's milk, chicken, wheat, tomatoes and apples.
    Abstract: Cette audition par la Commission des Affaires économiques du Sénat s'inscrit dans le cadre de la production d'un rapport ayant pour titre « La compétitivité de la ferme France » (https://www.senat.fr/rap/r21-905/r21-9051.pdf). A la demande des sénateurs, rédacteurs de ce rapport (Laurent Duplomb, Pierre Louault et Serge Mérillou), cette intervention avait pour objectif de proposer une analyse sur le commerce extérieur de la France dans le domaine agroalimentaire, en ciblant plus particulièrement 5 produits : le lait de vache, le poulet, le blé, les tomates et les pommes.
    Keywords: Agricultural sectors, Competitiveness, Trade, Milk, Wheat, Chicken, Tomatoes, Apples, Filières agricoles, Compétitivité, Echanges, Lait, Blé, Poulet, Tomates, Pommes
    Date: 2022–06–29
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03942473&r=agr
  11. By: Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
    Abstract: We publish today the January 2023 report on the outcome of the project "Repairing Broken Food Trade Routes Ukraine – Africa”. It covers: Threats which are imposed by Russia to Global Food Security (by means of wheat weaponisation) Impact of war on Ukrainian agribusiness EU-Ukraine agri-shipments cooperation and challenges Report also recaptures the January 2023 developments of grain export shipments from Ukraine. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme “Making Agricultural Trade Sustainable” (MATS) programme (https://sustainable-agri-trade.eu/). The role of MATS/WTI in this programme is to identify and explore “broken” Ukrainian - African food trade routes due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Starting with a food trade flow chart pre- and post-24 February 2022, it will assess, first, whether Ukrainian (or African) traders can again supply these products (Output 1). Failing that, whether the new EU-financed “Crisis Management” (or another) programme can possibly make up for lost Ukrainian agrifood exports (Output 2). It will also identify alternative exporters (if any) which might already have filled in agrifood demand in Africa (Output 3). Importantly, the Project also looks at the potential effect of these developments on competing farm production in Africa (Output 4). For further information and/or offer to assist in project implementation, please write to Christian Häberli (Christian.Haeberli@wti.org) or to Bogdan Kostetsky (bogdan.kostetsky@gmail.com).
    Date: 2023–02–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wti:papers:1387&r=agr
  12. By: Charlotte Emlinger (CEPII - Centre d'études prospectives et d'informations internationales); Karine Latouche (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Geographical indications (GI) aim at promoting and protecting the names of agricultural products and foodstuffs according to their origin. The European GI system has been a contentious issue in European trade relationships for a long time, as shown by the different complaints submitted to the WTO dispute settlement body (by the US in 1999 and by Australia in 2003). The inclusion of GI in bilateral agreements has thus a non-negligible negotiation cost for the EU. The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of the inclusion of GIs in bilateral agreements on French exports of foodstuffs. Results show that GIs foster exports of French agri-food firms. The recognition of GIs in trade agreements increases both the intensive and extensive margins of trade, as well as unit values for these products. This outcome is mainly driven by the PDO denomination, the oldest and most renowned geographical indication.
    Keywords: Bilateral trade agreements, Firm level data, Export performance, Trade margins
    Date: 2022–12–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03941460&r=agr
  13. By: Diao, Xinshen; Ellis, Mia; Mugabo, Serge; Pauw, Karl; Rosenbach, Gracie; Spielman, David J.; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: This paper assesses the structure of Rwanda’s current and evolving agrifood system and its contribu-tion to national development. The paper reiterates the point that Rwanda’s agrifood system stretches well beyond primary agriculture and creates jobs and income opportunities throughout the economy. While off-farm components of Rwanda’s agrifood system have generally grown more rapidly than pri-mary agriculture in recent years, growth varies across value chains of the agrifood system in the stud-ied period. The growth diagnostic in this paper reveals that it is domestic markets that have driven the recent growth in Rwanda’s AFS other than exports. The paper’s forward-looking analysis assesses potentially differential impacts of value-chain develop-ment efforts on broad development outcomes. The analysis measures the synergies and trade-offs of value-chain development in the context of an inclusive agricultural transformation. Such analysis is conducted using the Rwanda Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model – an adaption of IFPRI’s Rural Investment and Policy Analysis (RIAPA) model to the Rwandan context. The modeling results indicate that value chains differ considerably in their effectiveness in achieving development goals and there are significant trade-offs among different development goals from pro-moting a specific value chain. The value chains that make a larger contribution to growth or job crea-tion are not necessarily effective in reducing poverty or improving dietary quality – for example, value chains for coffee and tea – while value chains that play an important role in improving dietary quality may contribute less to job creation – such as vegetables or fruits. While there is no single value chain that can achieve all development goals effectively, it is possible to select a diversified set of value chains that complement each other in achieving different development goals. This latter strategy is a more realistic approach to growth and development.
    Keywords: RWANDA; CENTRAL AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; agricultural transformation; agrifood systems; analysis; development; development economics; development plans; domestic markets; employment; agricultural value chains; urbanization; Rwanda Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:rsspwp:6&r=agr
  14. By: Ny Andraina Andriamanantena; Charly Gaufreteau; Jean-Sauveur Ay (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Luc Doyen (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-03913031&r=agr
  15. By: Pauline Castaing (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Antoine Leblois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The Great Green Wall is a crosscountry initiative to improve the environment of desertification areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper refers to the implementation of Great Green Wall projects in Nigeria to document the local impact of environmental restoration on children's food security and health. Our identification strategy uses two types of variation to capture these effects. The spatial variation comes from the heterogeneous exposure of the children to these new environmental restoration programs. The temporal variation comes from sudden changes between 2013 and 2016. Taking the height-to-age z-score as main outcome of interest, we find a significant and robust health improvement for children living next to community-based orchards whereas proximity to shelterbelts generates mixed impacts. Gains in health (+0.5 standard deviation in the height index) coexist with higher dietary diversity score for children living near orchards.
    Keywords: Environmental Restoration, Food security, Nigeria, Nutrition, Impact evaluation
    Date: 2023–01–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03958274&r=agr
  16. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); François Cadudal (ITAVI); Philippe Chotteau (IDELE - Institut de l'élevage); Boris Duflot (IFIP - Institut du Porc); Pascale Heydemann (IFCE POMPADOUR FRA - Partenaires IRSTEA - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture)
    Abstract: This article presents an analysis of the economic situation of several animal sectors (cow???s milk, beef, pork, poultry and horses) in France, two years after the start of the Covid-19 pandemic. Using the latest statistical data available for the period 2020 to 2021 and considering the historical trajectories followed, it seeks to highlight how this health crisis has had implications for production, prices, consumption, foreign trade and, in the case of the equine sector, various activities (horse betting, attendance at riding schools...). The production of agricultural goods was generally little affected by the health crisis, as farmers continued to produce, sometimes despite certain difficulties such as lack of manpower, temporary loss of outlets, etc. Faced with a significant change in the structure of demand (increase in products purchased by households to the detriment of those favoured in out-of-home catering), sudden measures imposed by the State and the difficulties sometimes encountered in maintaining the number of employees, processing actors were able to adapt quickly to enable them to supply consumers with the goods they demanded. Trade flows were also disrupted in 2020, before picking up again in 2021, following trends that are ultimately quite consistent with those seen before the crisis. Under the influence, on the one hand, of higher energy prices (even before the war in Ukraine which started on February 24, 2022) and, on the other hand, of fluctuating imports from China on the world markets, producer prices increased at the end of 2021, but this increase is counterbalanced by an increase in production costs. In the equine sector, turnover losses have been temporarily significant due to the strong interaction of this sector with the public. After the shock of 2020, and thanks to a strong adaptation of the actors, the activities are gradually resuming.
    Abstract: Cet article propose une analyse de la situation économique de plusieurs filières animales (lait de vache, viande bovine, viande porcine, viande de volailles et secteur équin) en France, deux années après le début de la pandémie de Covid-19. En partant des dernières données statistiques disponibles sur la période 2020 à 2021 et tout en tenant compte des trajectoires historiques, il cherche à mettre en évidence en quoi cette crise a eu des implications sur la production, les prix, la consommation, les échanges extérieurs et, dans le cas du secteur équin, les différentes activités (paris hippiques, centres équestres…). La production de biens agricoles a été globalement peu impactée par la crise sanitaire car les agriculteurs ont continué à produire, en dépit parfois de certaines difficultés, telles que le manque de main d'œuvre, les pertes temporaires de débouchés, etc. Face à une modification importante de la structure de la demande (augmentation des produits achetés par les ménages au détriment de ceux privilégiés dans la restauration hors domicile), aux mesures soudaines imposées par l'État et aux difficultés parfois rencontrées pour maintenir les effectifs de salariés, les acteurs de la transformation ont été capables de s'adapter rapidement pour permettre de fournir aux consommateurs les biens demandés. Les flux d'échanges ont, eux aussi, été perturbés en 2020, avant de repartir à la hausse en 2021, selon des tendances finalement assez conformes à celles précédant la crise. Sous l'influence, d'une part, de la hausse du prix de l'énergie (avant même la guerre en Ukraine qui a débuté le 24 février 2022) et, d'autre part, de la fluctuation des importations de la Chine sur les marchés mondiaux de produits animaux, les prix à la production ont augmenté fin 2021 et début 2022, mais cette hausse est contrebalancée par une forte augmentation des coûts de production. Dans le secteur équin, les pertes de chiffre d'affaires ont été temporairement importantes en raison de l'interaction de ce secteur avec le public. Après le choc de 2020, et moyennant une adaptation des acteurs de la filière, les activités reprennent progressivement.
    Keywords: Animal production, Trade, Food consumption, Productions animales, Agriculture, Covid-19, Echanges, Consommation alimentaire
    Date: 2022–05–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03722839&r=agr
  17. By: Arnaud Lamy (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Center for Food and Hospitality Research, Paul Bocuse Institute, Ecully, France); Sandrine Costa (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Céline Vial (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur], Pôle développement innovation et recherche - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation); Ikpidi Badji (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Myriam Carrère (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Pascaline Rollet (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Marie-Josephe Amiot (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: In France, the horsemeat market has been declining for about 50 years and has become a specialized market. Our study aims to understand this decline with regard to the drivers and practices of consumers and non-consumers of this meat, in order to estimate the potential for this market development. To study horsemeat consumption, we analyze two sets of data: two large-scale surveys carried out on the French general population, and one ad-hoc survey focusing more specifically on the representations of horses and horsemeat. Our results underline the potential for increasing horsemeat consumption from a sustainability perspective. The question of moral acceptance remains a determining factor in the consumption of this meat. Once this factor is taken into account, horsemeat appears relevant in the diversification of animal protein consumption because of its particular nutritional and environmental properties and similar culinary use to that of other red meats. Horsemeat can thus lay claim to becoming a sustainable alternative to beef consumption.
    Keywords: Horse meat, Meat acceptance, Sustainability, Consumer surveys, Nutritional values
    Date: 2023–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03920150&r=agr
  18. By: ElDidi, Hagar; Khurana, Ritika; Zhang, Wei; Jadav, Maheshkumar Kalidas; Guha, Chiranjit; Priyadarshini, Pratiti; Guo, Zhe; Sandhu, Harpinder; Nagendra, Harini; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
    Abstract: Common pool resources provide important socioeconomic and ecological benefits for local communities and beyond, with around 2.5-3 billion people depending on commons for their livelihoods and other needs globally. In India, common lands constitute around a quarter of the country’s landmass, help meet the subsistence and livelihood needs of at least 350 million people and are of social and cultural significance to rural communities, as well as providing ecosystem services that benefit wider society. Despite these vital contributions, India’s commons have been facing widespread degradation, and policymakers tend to perceive some commons as “wastelands†because their true extent and value is not known. This study contributes to improved understanding of the magnitude and vitality of commons for rural communities, focusing on land-based commons in India. We provide a national assessment of the spatial extent and usage of common lands across districts, using publicly available spatial datasets and 2011 Census of India data and Household Census data. We further examine the spatial overlap between common lands and officially recognized protected areas to shine light on the possible locations where sustainable management or restoration of commons can potentially add value to conservation, in addition to benefiting local communities. Our results show that common lands are spread out spatially across the country and are intertwined, with more than one type of commons often present within the same district. Further, communities, especially poor, marginalized and indigenous communities such as Scheduled Tribe rely on forest commons, barren lands, pastures and culturable wastelands for their livelihoods, including for extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for housing and cooking, grazing livestock, among others. Common lands and the communities that depend on them also often live in proximity to or are surrounded by officially recognized protected areas. Our study points to the need to drill down to more disaggregated level for commons mapping, which, in conjunction with information on the values of ecosystem services provide by commons, could inform land use policies and conservation and development planning.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; common lands; communities; data; data analysis; degradation; ecosystem services; forests; land use; land-use planning; land conservation; livelihoods; pastures; policy innovation; protected areas; restoration; rural communities; tribal peoples
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2166&r=agr
  19. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This hearing by the Senate's Economic Affairs Committee was part of a roundtable discussion on the impact of the war in Ukraine on agricultural markets and food sovereignty. Chaired by Sophie Primas, this round table also gave the floor to Sébastien Windsor (President of the Permanent Assembly of Chambers of Agriculture) and Thierry Pouch (Head of the Studies, References and Prospects Department of the APCA). The purpose of this intervention was to propose an analysis of the external trade of the EU-27 and France in the agri-food sector, with particular emphasis on trade relations with Russia and Ukraine. The minutes of this hearing are available here: https://www.senat.fr/compte-rendu-commissions/20220314/ecos.html#toc3 ; the video of the hearing is available here: https://videos.senat.fr/video.2870723_62 3095a921464.table-ronde-sur-l-impact-de- la-guerre-en-ukraine-sur-les-marches-agr icoles-et-la-souverainete-alimen
    Abstract: Cette audition par la Commission des Affaires économiques du Sénat s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une table-ronde portant sur l'impact de la guerre en Ukraine sur les marchés agricoles et la souveraineté alimentaire. Placée sous la Présidence de Sophie Primas, cette table-ronde a également donné la parole à Sébastien Windsor (Président de l'Assemblée permanente des chambres d'agriculture) et à Thierry Pouch (Chef du service Études, références et prospective de l'APCA). Cette intervention avait pour objectif de proposer une analyse sur le commerce extérieur de l'UE-27 et da France dans le domaine agroalimentaire, en insistant notamment sur les relations commerciales entretenues avec la Russie et l'Ukraine. Le compte rendu de cette audition est disponible ici : https://www.senat.fr/compte-rendu-commissions/20220314/ecos.html#toc3 ; la vidéo de l'audition est disponible ici : https://videos.senat.fr/video.2870723_62 3095a921464.table-ronde-sur-l-impact-de- la-guerre-en-ukraine-sur-les-marches-agr icoles-et-la-souverainete-alimen
    Keywords: Agricultural sectors, Agri-food trade, Competitiveness, Russia, Filières agricoles, Commerce agroalimentaire, Compétitivité, UE-27, France, Russie, Ukraine
    Date: 2022–03–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03942532&r=agr
  20. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The French Society of Rural Economics (SFER) wished to share, through these meetings co-organized with the students of the specialization of Agroeconomics of the Institute Agro Rennes-Angers, the results of several research works relating to the income of French farmers. This meeting was a follow-up to a report produced by INRAE on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture and a special issue of the journal Économie Rurale on "farm income" published at the end of 2021. In addition to a presentation of some of these works, a round table with experts and professionals of the sector was organized to discuss this topic, which is methodologically complex, sensitive, and subject to debate.
    Abstract: La Société Française d'Économie Rurale (SFER) a souhaité partager, au travers de ces rencontres co-organisées avec les étudiants de la spécialisation d'Agroéconomie de l'Institut Agro Rennes-Angers, les résultats de plusieurs travaux de recherche portant sur le revenu des agriculteurs français. Cette rencontre s'est inscrit dans la continuité d'un rapport produit par INRAE pour le compte du Ministère de l'Agriculture et d'un numéro spécial « revenus agricoles » de la revue Économie Rurale publié fin 2021. Outre une présentation de certains de ces travaux, une table-ronde réunissant des experts et professionnels du secteur a été organisée pour échanger sur ce thème, à la fois complexe au plan méthodologique, sensible, et sujet à débats.
    Keywords: Farm income, Farms, Heterogeneity, FADN, Economic performance, Revenu Agricole, Exploitations agricoles, Hétérogénéité, RICA, Performance économique
    Date: 2022–02–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03942825&r=agr
  21. By: Alonso González Marentis; Annelies Deuss
    Abstract: Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have become the major route for countries to reduce trade barriers and open new markets. To fully assess the current state of market opening for agricultural products and examine the potential impacts of RTAs, access to up-to-date and consistent information on preferential tariffs is crucial. There are multiple databases that collect information on preferential tariffs; however, it is not always easy to identify how these databases differ in terms of their data collection, treatment and representation, nor which database is the most appropriate for a specific type of analysis. This practical guide aims to help trade negotiators, policy makers, researchers, and private sector actors to identify which international or national database to use for their analysis of preferential tariffs on agricultural products.
    Keywords: International organisations, Preferential market access, Regional Trade Agreements, Trade liberalisation, Trade policy
    JEL: F13 F53 Q17
    Date: 2023–02–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:agraaa:191-en&r=agr
  22. By: Romaric Ndonda Makemba; Christian Moupela; Félicien Tosso; Yves Brostaux; Thomas Drouet; Richard Oslisly; Vincent Freycon; Jean-Louis Doucet
    Abstract: Despite the implementation of management plans, commercial tree species densities are declining in the forests of Central Africa. In the region, Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae; common name ‘okan’), is one such species most exploited, but its ecology remains poorly understood. The rarity of its regeneration in evergreen forest suggests that, like other commercial light-demanding species, the conditions that allowed populations to become established are no longer present. Using a combined archaeobotanical and pedological approach, the aim of this study is to identify the factors explaining the current distribution of C. gabunensis individuals at local scale. Within a plot of 1050 ha in a forest concession in south-eastern Gabon, we installed 40 archaeological pits equally divided between sites with and without C. gabunensis. The artefacts encountered were collected and analysed. Charcoal masses were quantified and 18 charcoals were dated. These ages were compared with the average age of the tree population, using growth data from 50 individuals and heartwood dating from 4 individuals. An analysis of the physico-chemical properties of the soil was carried out on composite samples from each archaeological pit. Pottery sherds were found in two pits while charcoal was present in all pits, suggesting widespread human occupation and fire throughout the study area. Human occupation occurred in two phases: between 2480 and 1010 BP and from 590 to 80 BP. The abandonment of agricultural land at the end of this second phase could coincide with the establishment of the C. gabunensis cohort whose average age has been estimated at between 90 and 148 years. Soil analyses showed that C. gabunensis individuals were located on soils that were comparatively richer in element potentially toxic (Fe) and in some plant nutrients (K, P) and total nitrogen. The current scarcity of young trees argues for the implementation of a silviculture that integrates the light requirements of the species as well as the chemical fertility of the soil.
    Keywords: Cylicodiscus gabunensis; Light-demanding species; Natural regeneration; Past human disturbances; Population structure; Soil fertility
    Date: 2022–10–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/349574&r=agr
  23. By: Bee Yan Aw; Yi Lee; Hylke Vandenbussche
    Abstract: This paper develops an empirical model of consumer taste in twenty-nine Belgium food industries for the period from 1998-2005 to generate a “taste distance” measure of over 1, 800 firm-product exports to 53 country destinations. We estimate consumer taste using a control function approach and perform a decomposition of export revenues of firm-products to establish the importance of representative consumer taste relative to quality and marginal cost in export success. We find substantial taste heterogeneity in food exports across destination countries. Overall, in the large majority of food exports, consumer taste is an important and separate demand determinant to explain export revenues. Depending on the product, taste for a product explains between 4-30% of export revenues. Thus, any taste shock due to events such as pandemics or climate change, may induce substantial changes in export profitability of firms.
    Keywords: consumer taste, quality, productivity, exports, firm-product, food
    JEL: F12 F14
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_10234&r=agr
  24. By: Henri Casella (Auteur indépendant); Jaime de Melo (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International, UNIGE - Université de Genève = University of Geneva)
    Abstract: The paper reports on evidence on how trade can help Africa adapt to Climate Change (CC) along three dimensions: (i) fast-onset events from short-lived extreme occurrences (floods, extreme temperatures); (ii) slow-onset events (rise in average temperatures and sea-level rise); (iii) trade facilitation policies. • Fast onset events: Trade reduces the amplitude of extreme events like a drought. But policy reactions to large shocks can increase the amplitude of the shock. During the South African drought of 2015-6, policies had spillovers in neighboring countries. Following the 2008-09 financial crisis, export restrictions by major crop exporters and reduction in tariffs by importers amplified the shock. Policy coordination is needed to control spillover effects.
    Keywords: Climate change, adaptation, Africa, Environmental goods
    Date: 2022–12–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03937172&r=agr
  25. By: Muhammad HANRI; Andhika PRATAMA; Lili YUNITA; Atiqah SIREGAR; Chairina SIREGAR; Wildan ANKY
    Abstract: Climate change is deteriorating Indonesia’s marine and coastal ecosystems, consequently worsening the economic condition of people living in coastal areas. The concept of marine protected area (MPA) was introduced to conserve marine ecosystems, with various potential benefits both for environmental sustainability and the fight against inequality. By assessing government documents and relevant literatures, this paper aims to explore the potential benefits of MPAs and assess their impact on environmental sustainability and inequality in Indonesia. We find that various studies have documented that MPAs do contribute to poverty alleviation to some extent. We identify several challenges for future implementation of MPAs, particularly related to awareness, human resources, short-term trade-off between programs and opportunity costs, and program sustainability.
    Keywords: Indonésie
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2023–01–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:avg:wpaper:en14995&r=agr
  26. By: Robert Steiger (Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck - University of Innsbruck); O. Cenk Demiroglu (Umeå University); Marc Pons (UPC - Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya [Barcelona]); Emmanuel Salim (EDYTEM - Environnements, Dynamiques et Territoires de la Montagne - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Europe accounts for 51% of international tourist arrivals and the tourism industry provides about 10% of workplaces in Europe. Tourism will be impacted by climate change in a diverse number of ways. At the same time, tourism is also a significant contributor of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this article is, therefore, to provide an assessment of climate and carbon risks for the European tourism industry based on a systematic literature review. Climate risk is the dominant category with 313 papers (74%), while 110 papers (26%) were on carbon risks. The following gaps were identified: geographical gaps, especially in countries of the former Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia; a lack of coherent studies on national tourism's and its sub-sectors' emissions; research addressing how climate policies might affect tourism demand; assessments of the integrated carbon and climate risks; lack of evidence on the link between tourism climate indicators and tourism demand; lack of climate change and tourism studies addressing policy and institutional tools for adaptation and implementation of adaptation measures in destinations; and research on rising sea levels and coastal erosion and its impacts on tourism destinations and demand.
    Keywords: Climate risk, carbon risk, tourism, Europe, systematic review, adaptation, mitigation
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-03932019&r=agr
  27. By: Ali Ubaid (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Mazhar Mughal (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ESC PAU - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce, Pau Business School); Lionel de Boisdeffre (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE))
    Abstract: This study investigates how the receipt and amount of domestic or international transfers influences household decisions regarding farm investment and the selection of capital and labor-intensive crops. We develop a conceptual framework to postulate that even though recipient households may have the possibility to employ the additional income to raise their agricultural investment, the investment falls in the short run if labor constraints arising from the migrant member's absence are binding and capital accumulation is suboptimal. Employing a set of endogenous treatment estimations, we empirically test this hypothesis on data on 5, 636 rural households from Pakistan. Our findings show a substantial difference between recipient and nonrecipient households in terms of their economic behavior. Recipient households make 99.64% less agricultural investment and obtain 82% less production compared to non-recipient households. The estimates are found to be robust when tested with alternate empirical techniques Heckman Selection and matching. The impact is stronger in case of households which receive domestic transfers, with 99.87% less farm investment and 77% less production than non-recipient households. Remittances result in a decrease in production of both capitaland labor-intensive crops, reflecting a decline in overall farm activity. Similar farm investment and cropping patterns are observed relative to the amount of remittances received. The results are robust to different model specifications and estimation procedures.
    Keywords: Migration Remittances Agriculture Investment Cropping Patterns Instrumental Variable PSM., Migration, Remittances, Agriculture Investment, Cropping Patterns, Instrumental Variable
    Date: 2023–01–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03930637&r=agr
  28. By: Phoebe Koundouri; Conrad Landis; Kostas Dellis; Artemis Stratopoulou
    Abstract: This paper refers to the valuation of European, Marine and Fresh Water Ecosystem Services. Using a meta-regression approach, we estimate the Annual Willingness to Pay (WTP) for several classifications of the ecosystem services and various biogeographical and marine regions across all twenty-seven EU markets. Moreover, we explore the correlation between WTP and the national level of achievement of the 17 SDGs, with particular focus on SDG 14 - Life Below Water. Results indicate that regulating services of marine and freshwater ecosystems are ranked high and that in almost 63% of the European countries, the WTP for the improvement of the marine & freshwater ecosystem is high and exceeds estimates for terrestrial ecosystems. Valuing ecosystem services and link them to the Sustainable Development Goals, we find that marine ecosystems are mainly positively correlated to SDGs 2, 12, 13, 14 and 17, while a high MWTP value is assigned to specific SDG14 individual indicators like fish caught from overexploited or collapsed stocks and fish caught that are then discarded. Overall, results indicate that societies attributing greater value to ecosystem services mark greater progress towards the implementation of SDGs and SDG 14 in particular.
    Keywords: Valuation, Sustainable Development Goals, Ecosystem Services, Meta-Regression, Marine, Freshwater
    Date: 2023–01–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aue:wpaper:2304&r=agr
  29. By: Catacora-Vargas, Georgina; Tambutti, Marcia; Alvarado, Víctor; Rankovic, Aleksandar
    Abstract: The relevance of biodiversity to global climate, health and social stability has been widely documented; its present state of deterioration and loss is an urgent call to change the way in which we live with species and ecosystems. This leads to a recognition of the importance of reformulating the institutions and various processes associated with biodiversity governance at the subnational, national and global levels that have a negative impact on its conservation and sustainable use. In other words, there is a need to design and implement new forms of governance that facilitate positive transformative changes in the state of the biodiversity and human groups in Socioecologically vulnerable positions.
    Keywords: DIVERSIDAD BIOLOGICA, MEDIO AMBIENTE, POLITICA AMBIENTAL, PROTECCION AMBIENTAL, CONSERVACION DE LA NATURALEZA, PARTICIPACION POPULAR, DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE, BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, ENVIRONMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, NATURE CONSERVATION, POPULAR PARTICIPATION, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
    Date: 2022–12–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecr:col022:48542&r=agr
  30. By: Mr. Yiqun Wu; Mr. Camilo E Tovar Mora; Tianxiao Zheng
    Abstract: We stress test the global economy to extreme climate change-related shocks on large and interconnected economies. Our analysis (i) identifies large and interconnected economies vulnerable to climate change-related shocks; (ii) estimates these economies’ external financing needs-at-risk due to these shocks, and (iii) quantifies the spillovers to the global economy using a global network model. We show that large and interconnected economies vulnerable to climate change could trigger a drain of $1.8 trillion in international reserves (2 percent of 2019’s global GDP). Domestic and multilateral macroeconomic policies can help reduce these global lossess to about $0.8 trillion. The scenario highlights the importance of considering global spillovers when assessing the impact of climate change-related shocks.
    Keywords: Climate change; external financing-needs-at-risk; multilayered networks; climate change vulnerability; vulnerability to climate change; climate vulnerability; climate change risk; CDS spread; Natural disasters; Stress testing; Climate policy; Global
    Date: 2022–09–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2022/189&r=agr
  31. By: Mr. Serhan Cevik
    Abstract: Global warming is the most significant threat to ecosystems and people’s health and living standards, especially in small island states in the Caribbean and elsewhere. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing different options to scale up climate change mitigation and adaptation. In particular, the empirical analysis indicates that increasing energy efficiency and reducing the use of fossil fuel in electricity generation could lead to a significant reduction in carbon emissions, while investing in physical and financial resilience would yield long-run benefits. From a risk-reward perspective, the advantages of reducing the risks associated with climate change and the health benefits from higher environmental quality clearly outweigh the potential cost of climate change mitigation and adaptation in the short run. The additional revenue generated by environmental taxes could be used to compensate the most vulnerable households, building a multilayered safety net, and strengthening structural resilience.
    Keywords: Climate change; decarbanization; energy efficiency; mitigation; adaptation; carbon tax; green financing; climate change mitigation; risk-reward perspective; Island state; adaptation strategy; climate change adaptation; Greenhouse gas emissions; Natural disasters; Caribbean; Global
    Date: 2022–09–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2022/179&r=agr

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