nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒01‒30
35 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Gender implications of agricultural commercialization in Africa: Evidence from farm households in Ethiopia and Nigeria By Berhane, Guush; Abay, Mehari Hiluf; Seymour, Greg
  2. Seed certification and maize, rice and cowpea productivity in Nigeria: An insight based on nationally representative farm household data and seed company location data By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Andam, Kwaw S.; Edeh, Hyacinth O.; Fasoranti, Adetunji; Haile, Beliyou; Kumar, P. Lava; Nwagboso, Chibuzo; Ragasa, Catherine; Spielman, David J.; Wossen, Tesfamichael
  3. Distributional heterogeneity in climate change impacts and adaptation: Evidence from Indian agriculture By Surender Kumar; Madhu Khanna
  4. A Marginal Abatement Cost Curve for Greenhouse gases attenuation by additional carbon storage in French agricultural land By L. Bamière; V. Bellassen; D. Angers; R. Cardinael; E. Ceschia; C. Chenu; J. Constantin; N. Delame; A. Diallo; A.-I. Graux; S. Houot; K. Klumpp; C. Launay; E. Letort; R. Martin; D. Mézière; C. Mosnier; O. Réchauchère; M. Schiavo; O. Thérond; S. Pellerin
  5. Comparing delivery channels to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture: A cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bangladesh By Ahmed, Akhter; Coleman, Fiona; Hoddinott, John F.; Menon, Purnima; Parvin, Aklima; Pereira, Audrey; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Roy, Shalini
  6. Two Birds with One Stone: Technology Adoption and Market Participation through Protection against Crop Failure By Wouter Zant
  7. Food Subsidy in India: A Conceptual Study By Dr.Aarti Deveshwar; Ms. Saloni
  8. Regulatory approximation under ALECA: Assessing the economic and social effects on the Tunisian agricultural sector By Raza, Werner G.; Tröster, Bernhard; Von Arnim, Rudi; Chandoul, Jihen; Ben Rouine, Chafik
  9. Public Food Policy By Hanrahan, Charles E.
  10. Private transfers, public transfers, and food insecurity during the time of COVID-19: Evidence from Bangladesh By Ahmed, Akhter; Bakhtiar, M. Mehrab; Gilligan, Daniel O.; Hoddinott, John F.; Roy, Shalini
  11. Qatar World Cup 2022: making stadiums profitable investments by transforming them into food production farms By Moustafa, Khaled
  12. Paddy and Prejudice: Evidence on the Agricultural Origins of Prejudice from China and 12 other Asian Societies By An Huang; Paulo Santos; Russell Smyth
  13. December report on progress of Ukrainian grains exports to Africa By Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
  14. On the role of farmers in seed innovations: a brief introduction By Stéphane Lemarié
  15. Land allocation and the adoption of innovative practices in agriculture: a real option modelling of the underlying hidden costs By Marc Baudry; Edouard Civel; Camille Tévenart
  16. Climate change and women’s voice and agency beyond the household: Insights from India By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Kosec, Katrina
  17. In defense of farmer saved seeds By Richard S. Gray
  18. Food and Nutrient Intake Response to Food Prices and Government Programs: Implications for the Recent Economic Shocks By Briones, Roehlano M.
  19. Gender bias in consumer perceptions: The case of agro-input dealers in Uganda By De, Anusha; Miehe, Caroline; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
  20. Household Expenditure in the Wake of Terrorism: evidence from high frequency in-home-scanner data By Daniel Mirza; Elena Stancanelli; Thierry Verdier
  21. Do Agricultural Debt Moratoriums Help or Hurt? The Heterogenous Impacts on Rural Households in Thailand By Lathaporn Ratanavararak; Sommarat Chantarat
  22. Edutainment, gender and intra-household decision-making in agriculture: A field experiment in Kenya By Aju, Stellamaris; Kramer, Berber; Waithaka, Lilian
  23. Adapting long-lived investments under climate change uncertainty By Eisenack, Klaus; Paschen, Marius
  24. Climate change and winter tourism: evidence from Italy By Gioia Maria Mariani; Diego Scalise
  25. Animal Welfare, Moral Consumers and the Optimal Regulation of Animal Food Production By Thomas Eichner; Marco Runkel
  26. Climate change increases resource-constrained international immobility By Hélène Benveniste; Michael Oppenheimer; Marc Fleurbaey
  27. Climate change heterogeneity: A new quantitative approach By Maria Dolores Gadea; Jesus Gonzalo
  28. The trilemma of innovation, logistics performance, and environmental quality in 25 topmost logistics countries: a quantile regression evidence By Magazzino, Cosimo; Alola, Andrew Adewale; Schneider, Nicolas
  29. Looking at Payments for Ecosystems Services in the Philippines By Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Ocbina, John Joseph S.
  30. Stimuler et pérenniser les investissements des jeunes dans l’agriculture et les systèmes alimentaires By Yannick Fiedler
  31. Resolving the base of the pyramid inclusion paradox through supplier development By Carolin Brix‐asala; Stefan Seuring; Philipp C Sauer; Axel Zehendner; Lara Schilling
  32. Agent-based modelling of a small-scale fishery in Corsica By Eric Innocenti; Corinne Idda; Dominique Prunetti; Pierre-Régis Gonsolin
  33. The challenges Indonesian oil palm smallholders face when replanting becomes necessary, and how they can be supported: A review By Petri, Heinrich; Hendrawan, Dienda; Bähr, Tobias; Asnawi, Rosyani; Mußhoff, Oliver; Wollni, Meike; Faust, Heiko
  34. Cointegrating Polynomial Regressions With Power Law Trends: Environmental Kuznets Curve or Omitted Time Effects? By Yicong Lin; Hanno Reuvers
  35. Natural resource management and nutrition outcomes: an evaluation of fisheries decentralization in Laos By Benjamin Chipperfield; Paulo Santos

  1. By: Berhane, Guush; Abay, Mehari Hiluf; Seymour, Greg
    Abstract: Agricultural commercialization is often pursued as an important driver of agricultural transformation in low-income countries. However, the implications it can have on gendered outcomes are less understood. While agricultural commercialization creates opportunities to increase income, this may come at the expense of change in women’s decision-making agency and control over resources. Understanding the interactions between agricultural commercialization and gender outcomes is thus critical for policymakers aspiring to achieve agricultural transformation while promoting gender equity and the evidence on the links between the two in the context of Africa is scarce and mixed. We use three rounds of Ethiopia’s and Nigeria’s LSMS-ISA panel data to understand the implications of agricultural commercialization to gendered decision-making on crop harvest use, marketing, revenue control, asset ownership, and intrahousehold budget allocation. Results indicate commercialization is associated with decreases in women’s participation in decision-making related to use of harvest, crop marketing, and control over revenue in Ethiopia, but only on harvest use and control over revenue in Nigeria. The association with land ownership is mixed: positive in Ethiopia but negative in Nigeria. Moreover, commercialization is associated with decreases in women’s share of farm-workload but with increases in share of hired labor in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia we also find women’s control over revenue is positively associated with increases in per capita consumption expenditures and dietary diversity, but men’s control is negatively associated with increases in the share of expenditure on children’s shoes and clothes. In Nigeria, women’s control is positively associated with increases in the share of expenditure on women’s shoes and clothes, food gap, and dietary diversity. In sum, we find suggestive evidence that commercialization may further marginalize women’s decision-making agency in Ethiopia and Nigeria. However, conditional on women’s control over proceeds, commercialization tends to improve women’s as well as other members’ welfare. We provide some policy recommendations and directions for future research.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, NIGERIA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, gender, women, agriculture, commercialization, income, farmers, households, agricultural commercialization, income control
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2151&r=agr
  2. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Andam, Kwaw S.; Edeh, Hyacinth O.; Fasoranti, Adetunji; Haile, Beliyou; Kumar, P. Lava; Nwagboso, Chibuzo; Ragasa, Catherine; Spielman, David J.; Wossen, Tesfamichael
    Abstract: Despite the potential importance of seed quality to agricultural productivity growth, many governments in sub-Saharan Africa lack the capacity to expand quality assurance systems even where there is expressed interest. This study aims to evidence the value of quality assurance systems with an analysis of efforts to produce and distribute certified seed in Nigeria. We assess the associations between quantities of certified seeds produced and spatial variations in production locations proxied by headquarter locations of seed companies producing certified seeds, on the one hand, with spatial variations in the use of certified seed, yields, and output at the farm level, on the other hand. Our analysis covers three crops that are important to food security in Nigeria: maize, rice, and cowpea. Our analysis integrates information on seed quantities produced and locations of seed companies with nationally representative panel data from a survey of farm households and spatially explicit rainfall and temperature data. We find a positive relationship between certified seed production in proximity to farm households and farm-level use of certified seeds, yields, and output, although this effect is diminishing at the margin. These diminishing marginal effects may be partly due to two factors. First, the yield gains from certified seeds tend to vary considerably within each state, suggesting that either quality issues persist in the seed supply chain or farmers are not using complementary inputs or appropriate management techniques when using quality seed. Second, it may be that as certified seed becomes more available to farmers, its use spreads from higher-return farms to lower-return farms, thereby diminishing the gains on the extensive margin. Although more rigorous assessments of causal effects and cost-effectiveness are needed to validate these findings, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are diminishing returns to seed quality assurance. Policymakers, regulators, and seed providers may benefit from identifying optimal, crop-specific target quantities or rates for certified seed production rather than aiming for certification of all seed produced in a market.
    Keywords: NIGERIA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, seed quality, agriculture, agricultural products, agricultural productivity, capacity development, quality assurance, analysis, certified seed, seed, production, yields, input output analysis, inputs, maize, rice, cowpeas, quantity controls, households, rain, rainfall patterns, precipitation, temperature data, geography, marginal analysis, cost effectiveness analysis, government policy, policy innovation, seed quantities
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2147&r=agr
  3. By: Surender Kumar (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); Madhu Khanna (Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics)
    Abstract: This study estimates the distributional heterogeneity in the effects of climate change on yields of three major cereal crops: rice, maize, and wheat in India using district-level information for the period 1966-2015. We distinguish between the effects of changes in growing season weather from those due to changes in long-term climate trends and the heterogeneity in these effects across the distribution of crop yields by estimating naïve and climate penalty inclusive models using fixed-effect quantile panel models. We observe an absence of adaptation against rising temperatures for rice and wheat. However, we find a statistically significant presence of adaptation for wheat and maize for changes in precipitation, though the magnitude is small. Moreover, we find that the effects are asymmetric, and are larger at the lower tail of productivity distribution and smaller at the upper tail of the distribution. A 1 C increase in temperature lowers rice and wheat productivity by 23% and 9%, respectively at the first quantile, but the damage is only 6% and 5% at the ninth quantile. Heterogeneity in impacts and adaptation estimates over the yield distribution curve and across crops suggests the importance of customizing strategies for adaptation to changing weather and climate conditions across regions, crops, and current productivity levels. JEL Codes: Q54, C23, Q16
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cde:cdewps:332&r=agr
  4. By: L. Bamière (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); V. Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); D. Angers; R. Cardinael; E. Ceschia (CESBIO - Centre d'études spatiales de la biosphère - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - OMP - Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - CNES - Centre National d'Études Spatiales [Toulouse] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Météo-France - CNES - Centre National d'Études Spatiales [Toulouse] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); C. Chenu (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); J. Constantin (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); N. Delame (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); A. Diallo (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); A.-I. Graux (PEGASE - Physiologie, Environnement et Génétique pour l'Animal et les Systèmes d'Elevage [Rennes] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); S. Houot (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); K. Klumpp (UREP - Unité Mixte de Recherche sur l'Ecosystème Prairial - UMR - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); C. Launay (ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); E. Letort (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); R. Martin (UREP - Unité Mixte de Recherche sur l'Ecosystème Prairial - UMR - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); D. Mézière; C. Mosnier (UMRH - Unité Mixte de Recherche sur les Herbivores - UMR 1213 - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); O. Réchauchère (Agronomie - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); M. Schiavo (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); O. Thérond; S. Pellerin (UMR ISPA - Interactions Sol Plante Atmosphère - Bordeaux Sciences Agro - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques de Bordeaux-Aquitaine - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Following the Paris agreement in 2015, the European Union (EU) set a carbon neutrality objective by 2050, and so did France. The French agricultural sector can contribute as a carbon sink through carbon storage in biomass and soil, in addition to reducing GHG emissions. The objective of this study is to quantitatively assess the additional storage potential and cost of a set of eight carbon-storing practices. The impacts of these agricultural practices on soil organic carbon storage and crop production are assessed at a very fine spatial scale, using crop and grassland models. The associated area base, GHG budget, and implementation costs are assessed and aggregated at the region level. The economic model BANCO uses this information to derive the marginal abatement cost curve for France and identify the combination of carbon storing practices that minimizes the total cost of achieving a given national net GHG mitigation target. We find that a substantial amount of carbon, 36.2 to 52.9 MtCO2e yr-1, can be stored in soil and biomass for reasonable carbon prices of 55 and 250 € tCO2e-1, respectively (corresponding to current and 2030 French carbon value for climate action), mainly by developing agroforestry and hedges, generalising cover crops, and introducing or extending temporary grasslands in crop sequences. This finding questions the 3-5 times lower target of 10 MtCO2e.yr-1 retained for the agricultural carbon sink by the French climate neutrality strategy. Overall, this would decrease total French GHG emissions by 9.2 to 13.8%, respectively (reference year 2019).
    Abstract: Suite aux accords de Paris en 2015, l'Union européenne (UE) s'est fixé un objectif de neutralité carbone d'ici à 2050, tout comme la France. En plus de réduire les émissions de GES, le secteur agricole français peut contribuer à la neutralité carbone en tant que puits de carbone, par le stockage de carbone dans le sol et la biomasse. L'objectif de cette étude est de quantifier le potentiel de stockage additionnel et le coût d'un ensemble de huit pratiques stockantes. Les impacts de ces pratiques agricoles sur le stockage du carbone organique du sol et les rendements des cultures sont évalués à une échelle spatiale très fine, à l'aide de modèles de cultures et de prairies. L'assiette, le bilan GES net et le coût de mise en œuvre associés à chaque pratique sont également évalués et agrégés au niveau régional. Le modèle économique BANCO utilise ces informations pour générer la courbe de coût marginal d'abattement pour la France, et identifier la combinaison de pratiques stockantes qui minimise le coût total pour atteindre un objectif national donné d'atténuation des émissions de GES nettes. Nous montrons qu'une quantité non négligeable de carbone, de 36, 2 à 52, 9 MtCO2e an-1, peut être stockée dans le sol et la biomasse pour des prix du carbone raisonnables de 55 et 250 € tCO2e-1, respectivement (correspondant à la "valeur de l'action pour le climat" actuelle et 2030, fixée par le gouvernement français), et cela principalement par le développement de l'agroforesterie et des haies, la généralisation des cultures intermédiaires, l'introduction ou l'extension des prairies temporaires dans les séquences de culture. Ce résultat remet en cause l'objectif 3 à 5 fois inférieur retenu pour le puits de carbone agricole (10 MtCO2e.an-1) par la stratégie nationale bas carbone. Globalement, ce stockage additionnel de carbone permettrait de réduire les émissions totales de GES de la France de 9, 2 à 13, 8 %, respectivement (année de référence 2019).
    Keywords: soil organic carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation, greenhouse gas, carbon neutrality, agriculture, abatement cost
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03899905&r=agr
  5. By: Ahmed, Akhter; Coleman, Fiona; Hoddinott, John F.; Menon, Purnima; Parvin, Aklima; Pereira, Audrey; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Roy, Shalini
    Abstract: We use a randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh to compare two models of delivering nutrition content jointly to husbands and wives: deploying female nutrition workers versus mostly male agriculture extension workers. Both approaches increased nutrition knowledge of men and women, household and individual diet quality, and women’s empowerment. Intervention effects on agriculture and nutrition knowledge, agricultural production diversity, dietary diversity, women’s empowerment, and gender parity do not significantly differ between models where nutrition workers versus agriculture extension workers provide the training. The exception is in an attitudes score, where results indicate same-sex agents may affect scores differently than opposite-sex agents. Our results suggest opposite-sex agents may not necessarily be less effective in providing training. In South Asia, where agricultural extension systems and the pipeline to those systems are male-dominated, training men to deliver nutrition messages may offer a temporary solution to the shortage of female extension workers and offer opportunities to scale promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, agricultural workers, diet, dietary diversity, diet quality, households, gender, gender analysis, gender norms, gender relations, men, nutrition, nutrition knowledge, nutrition research, rural areas, women, women's empowerment, attitudes score, opposite-sex agents, agricultural production diversity
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2149&r=agr
  6. By: Wouter Zant (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Most sub-Sahara African agriculture is rainfed and the key production risk is crop failure due to drought or insufficient rains. Major strategies for households to protect against the risk of crop failure are livestock rearing and storage of home produced food. Next to drought, SSA agriculture is characterized by low productivity and limited market participation, issues commonly addressed by promoting use of fertilizer and high-yielding varieties, and cultivation of high-return crops. For several reasons it is likely that protection against crop failure supports adoption of technology and cultivation of high-return crops. Against this background we explore empirically the relationship between technology adoption and market participation on the one hand and start-of-season stocks of staple food and livestock on the other hand, on the basis of 3 rounds of LSMS-ISA household survey data for Malawi (IHS-3, 4 and 5), and a panel version of these data (IHPS). We find statistically significant positive coefficients of maize stocks and livestock on technology adoption and market participation. Data and estimations support a model of developing country agriculture with seasonality, shocks and savings. In terms of policy the results suggest that supporting livestock rearing and food storage at the household level increases labour productivity in agriculture.
    Keywords: risk, savings, technology adoption, market participation, sub-Sahara Africa
    JEL: O13 O16 O33 Q12 Q16
    Date: 2022–12–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tin:wpaper:20220091&r=agr
  7. By: Dr.Aarti Deveshwar (Associate Professor - DCRUST - Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology); Ms. Saloni (Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology - Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Food subsidy is provided by the government to poor people by the Public Distribution System (PDS).Most of developed and developing countries provide subsidies to their agriculture sector. India also provides a high subsidy to the agriculture sector and a large part of it goes to the food subsidy. Food subsidy bill of India was 3.36 trillion for the year 2020-21. As food subsidies cover a larger part of all subsidies, it is a major part of India's food management policy, the government needs to pay attention to equalised distribution to all the needy persons. This study examined the trends of food subsidy in India and reason for the growth of food subsidy. Data has been obtained from the Food Corporation of India, agriculture statistics at a glance, Demand for Grants Analysis, Economic Survey and Government of India. Mean, standard deviation and coe cient of variation have been used. The study shows that there is continuous increase in the food subsidy and expenditure also goes up over the years.
    Keywords: Food Subsidy India Public Distribution System, Food Subsidy, India, Public Distribution System
    Date: 2022–12–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03916069&r=agr
  8. By: Raza, Werner G.; Tröster, Bernhard; Von Arnim, Rudi; Chandoul, Jihen; Ben Rouine, Chafik
    Abstract: The negotiations on a deep and comprehensive free trade area (DCFTA) between Tunisia and the European Union (EU) have been ongoing since 2015. Better known by its French acronym - Projet d'accord de libre-échange complet et approfondi' (ALECA) - the agreement aims for an ambitious liberalisation of trade and investment in order to integrate Tunisia's economy further into the EU single market. In this study, the authors explicitly consider the costs that Tunisian producers have to incur in the process of regulatory approximation of agricultural standards to EU regulations through ALECA. Based on estimations of compliance costs from interviews with Tunisian exporters to the EU, the effects of regulatory adjustment to EU regulations and private standards in agricultural and food sectors are simulated in the ÖFSE Global Trade model. Moreover, the effects of bilateral reductions in tariffs and quotas and potential changes in productivity and NTM trade costs are taken up in interrelated scenarios. With this approach, the authors are able to provide a more comprehensive picture than previous studies of the multiple implications of ALECA for the agricultural sector in Tunisia. Our assessment concludes that ALECA has significant downside risks, as value-added in Tunisian agriculture might decline by up to 8.3 %. These effects need to be considered in the negotiations and in the broader context for sustainable agricultural development in Tunisia.
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:oefser:152022&r=agr
  9. By: Hanrahan, Charles E.
    Abstract: Excerpts from the Introduction: Public agricultural policy in the United States has historically been concerned with (a) maintaining reasonable and stable farm incomes (b) increasing efficiency through research and education and (c) coping with the increasing agricultural output of a highly productive food and fiber sector. The policies which affect food supplies are numerous and complex. This paper is an attempt to provide a background on public agricultural, food, and research policies as they affect the capacity of the United States to meet its own and world food needs.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersmp:330010&r=agr
  10. By: Ahmed, Akhter; Bakhtiar, M. Mehrab; Gilligan, Daniel O.; Hoddinott, John F.; Roy, Shalini
    Abstract: In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, interest has grown in what kinds of assistance protect household food security during shocks. We study rural and urban Bangladesh from 2018-19 to late 2021, assessing how pre-pandemic access to social safety net programs and private remittances relate to household food insecurity during the pandemic. Using longitudinal data and estimating differences-in-differences models with household fixed effects, we find that pre-pandemic access to social protection is associated with significant reductions in food insecurity in all rounds collected during the pandemic, particularly in our urban sample. However, pre-pandemic access to remittances shows no similar protective effect.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, food insecurity, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19, rural areas, urban areas, social safety nets, social protection, remittances, private transfers, public transfers
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2152&r=agr
  11. By: Moustafa, Khaled (Founder & Editor of ArabiXiv)
    Abstract: The FIFA World Cup 2022, organized in Qatar from 20 November 2022 to 18 December 2022, is the most controversial sporting event since its inception in 1930. When Qatar was selected in 2010 to host the competition, it was lacking the infrastructure necessary for the tournament. To build stadiums, hotels, accommodations, subways, highways, tourist attractions, etc., Qatar spent up to $229 billion , making it more expensive than all its previous editions altogether. Upon selection, Qatar was, and still, severely criticized rightly or excessively on a number of questions related to environment, human rights and work conditions. Historically, Qatar is not a nation of football or sport more generally. Once the game is over, the stadiums will most likely have no or little uses. A dereliction of stadiums will mean that huge investments would have been wasted fruitlessly. Seven of the eight stadiums built for the occasion will be dismantled and the construction materials will be donated to other countries†. Hotels, shopping centers, cafés, schools and sporting accommodations are expected to build in place. To recalibrate the investments in more Qatar-environmentally adapted and economically viable investments than cement buildings, particularly under arid conditions and lack of natural resources, as is the case in Qatar, I’d suggest to transform the stadiums into research centers, universities or better into plant and/or animal farms such as crop or vegetable greenhouses, poultry, fishery, cow or camel farms. Plant or animal farms of such kinds will help produce food products that Qatar needs and imports mostly from abroad. Some stadiums can be adapted to produce fodder and others to produce animal products, taking advantage of the already existing air-conditioning to reduce the impacts of high temperature on plants and animals. A mix of fodder production and animal breeding stations can also be set up in the same stadium (same farm), depending on the size and species of crops and animals to breed. Seven stadiums transformed into seven large crop greenhouses and/or animal farms to produce thousands of tons of food products would undoubtedly be more economically viable than to erect cement constructions which, in turn, will entail increased needs of food resources that Qatar lacks basically. By transforming large stadiums into food production farms, Qatar can auto-satisfy of some food products locally, and save money spent on food importation from the overseas while reducing environmental impacts of food importation from long distances. The stadium-farms can be irrigated with seawater and solar energy as previously suggested [1] [2] or using traditional greenhouses irrigation systems.
    Date: 2022–12–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:xr6gm&r=agr
  12. By: An Huang (Monash University); Paulo Santos (Monash University); Russell Smyth (Monash University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of agricultural technology, in the form of paddy rice cultivation, on contemporary levels of prejudice. Using environmental suitability for paddy as an instrumental variable, we find that people living in areas where paddy rice farming has been long practiced exhibit lower prejudice towards outgroup members. This relationship is mediated by greater exposure to markets and trade, itself derived from paddy’s higher land productivity, likely reflecting the opportunities for interpersonal contact created by markets. In contrast, the irrigation needs and high labour demands of paddy galvanize local cooperation, likely fostering prejudice directed to outsiders.
    Keywords: paddy rice, prejudice, market, contact hypothesis, group identity
    JEL: J15 N55 Z1
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mos:moswps:2023-02&r=agr
  13. By: Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
    Abstract: We publish today the December report on the outcome of the project "Repairing Broken Food Trade Routes Ukraine – Africa”. It covers development of Ukrainian grain exports (including Africa and Middle East destinations) under the Grain Initiative and change of Ukrainian origin’ market share at main African importing markets. Report recaptures the December 2022 developments of grain export shipments from Ukraine and touches on competitive standing of Ukrainian production in context of subsidies practiced by competitive origins. We also shed more light on sea freight insurance changes and impact on increased costs born in supply chain. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme “Making Agricultural Trade Sustainable” (MATS) programme (https://sustainable-agri-trade.eu/). The role of MATS/WTI in this programme is to identify and explore “broken” Ukrainian - African food trade routes due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Starting with a food trade flow chart pre- and post-24 February 2022, it will assess, first, whether Ukrainian (or African) traders can again supply these products (Output 1). Failing that, whether the new EU-financed “Crisis Management” (or another) programme can possibly make up for lost Ukrainian agrifood exports (Output 2). It will also identify alternative exporters (if any) which might already have filled in agrifood demand in Africa (Output 3). Importantly, the Project also looks at the potential effect of these developments on competing farm production in Africa (Output 4). For further information and/or offer to assist in project implementation, please write to Christian Häberli (Christian.Haeberli@wti.org) or to Bogdan Kostetsky (bogdan.kostetsky@gmail.com).
    Date: 2023–01–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wti:papers:1384&r=agr
  14. By: Stéphane Lemarié (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03893996&r=agr
  15. By: Marc Baudry; Edouard Civel; Camille Tévenart
    Abstract: The agricultural sector is faced with barriers to the adoption and dissemination of innovative practices that cannot be properly captured by the standard financial analysis of their profitability. These barriers can be particularly detrimental to the shift towards practices favorable to environmental protection and mitigation or adaptation to climate change. This article focuses on how different "hidden" costs of adoption can combine, including risk aversion, uncertainty and irreversibility. It emphasizes the particular context of agriculture, in particular the role of land allocation choices which make it possible to modulate the uncertain and potentially irreversible consequences of adoption by a particular type of hedging. It is highlighted from a numerical simulation on the case of Myscanthus in France that "hidden" costs of prima facie low magnitude can strongly curb the adoption and diffusion of an innovative practice.
    Keywords: Technology diffusion; Uncertainty, Irreversibility, Land allocation
    JEL: D83 Q16 O33
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:drm:wpaper:2023-1&r=agr
  16. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Kosec, Katrina
    Abstract: Women’s Voice & Agency beyond the household (VABH) has increasingly been recognized as critical to strengthening resilience, increasing women’s access to important resources, improving women’s decision-making power, and facilitating broader social networks (Njuki et al. 2022). Despite rapidly intensifying climate change in recent years, a knowledge gap persists as to how climate change may affect women’s VABH in developing countries. This has been particularly challenging in countries like India, which host one of the largest numbers of the poor and has been increasingly plagued by droughts, floods, cyclones, rising temperatures, and increasing rainfall fluctuations. This study provides a conceptual discussion on the linkages between climate change and VABH and analyzes their empirical relationship using multiple rounds of nationwide household data from India (India Human Development Survey 2005, 2012; World Values Survey 2001, 2006, 2012); climate data; and data on women’s political representation at the district level. Our results suggest that in rural parts of India, adverse climate change and natural disasters, such as cyclones and/or floods, have consistently negative associations with a broad range of VABH-related outcomes. Moreover, in rural areas, greater political representation by women in district assemblies broadly mitigates the potential effects of adverse climate change on VABH-related outcomes. These patterns generally hold across various populations, differentiated by marriage status and age groups, and are more robust in rural compared to urban areas. There are also generally consistent gender differences in these associations. Specifically, results indicate that women’s VABH are disproportionately more negatively affected by adverse CC than men’s VABH, while greater female representation at local district assemblies has greater effects in mitigating adverse CC on VABH among women than men. The results underscore the importance of enhancing women’s political representation as a means to improve women’s VABH.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, climate change, climatic data, cyclones, data analysis, decision making, developing countries, drought, extreme weather events, gender, gender analysis, gender equality, gender equity in access to land, global warming, household, economic resources, flooding, men, natural disasters, politics, political systems, poverty alleviation, rain, resilience, role of women, rural areas, social networks, social protection, social structure, storms, women's empowerment, voice, weather hazards, women, Women’s Voice & Agency beyond the household (VABH)
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:48&r=agr
  17. By: Richard S. Gray (U of S - University of Saskatchewan [Saskatoon])
    Abstract: In many countries, farmer saved seed (FSS) competes directly with a highly regulated commercial seed industry that sells certified seed. Opponents to the use FSS argue that it reduces the royalty income for plant breeders and is inferior in quality, which reduces farm profitability. We argue that because farmers have knowledge about field history and the quality of saved seed, they can make profit enhancing decisions to use, or not to use, FSS. We also show that payment of royalties is a matter of intellectual property rights and not directly a function of the use of FSS. Notably, Australia actively promotes the use of FSS for wheat and has some of the highest levels of rates of royalty revenue collection in the world.
    Keywords: Farmer saved seed, Profitability, Revenue
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03893995&r=agr
  18. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: This study aims to estimate the short-term impact of the recent rounds of food price inflation and the COVID-19 crisis by estimating a household food demand system converted to energy and nutrient intakes. It demonstrates that recent food and nutrition surveys conducted by the Philippine government are a valuable source of information about household behavior and the impact of economic shocks. It offers a novel methodology for incorporating computing selection effects in determinants in estimating price and income elasticities. The study was nevertheless able to determine that the COVID-19 social protection programs played a significant role in preventing further deterioration in nutrient intakes and worsening of malnutrition. Notwithstanding rapid economic growth, the recent inflation episodes pose a major threat to nutrient intakes and nutrition security. Income policies in the form of targeted cash transfers are an important, albeit expensive, way to counter adverse nutrition impacts of economic contraction. Ameliorating the impact of price increases during inflation episodes should assume priority in policy research and response. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email publications@pids.gov.ph.
    Keywords: food demand;economic contraction;price inflation;price and income elasticity;nutrient intake;food policy
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2022-44&r=agr
  19. By: De, Anusha; Miehe, Caroline; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
    Abstract: Faced with incomplete and imperfect information, economic actors rely predominantly on perceptions and often base decisions on heuristics prone to bias. Gender bias in perceptions favoring men has been found in a wide variety of settings and may be an important reason why some sectors remain dominated by men and gender gaps persist. Using ratings of agro-input dealers provided by smallholder farmers in their vicinity, we test if farmers perceive male-managed agro-input shops differently than agro-input shops managed by women. After controlling for observable characteristics at the input dealer level and including fixed effects to account for farmer-level heterogeneity, we find that farmers rate male-managed agro-input outlets higher on a range of attributes related to the dealership in general, as well as when farmers are asked to consider the quality of inputs sold by the dealer. Our results suggest that consumers' biased perceptions continue to be an important entry barrier for women in the subsector, and we conclude that policies and interventions designed to challenge gender norms and customs are needed to correct bias in perceptions.
    Keywords: UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; gender; consumer attitudes; farmers; gender norms; discrimination; agro-inputs; agro-input dealer; perceptions
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2132&r=agr
  20. By: Daniel Mirza (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans [2022-...] - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique); Elena Stancanelli (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Thierry Verdier (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This paper adds to the scant literature on the impact of terrorism on consumer behavior, focusing on household spending on goods that are sensitive to brain-stress neurocircuitry. These include sweet- and fat-rich foods but also home necessities and female-personal-hygiene products, the only female-targeted good in our data. We examine unique continuous in-home-scanner expenditure data for a representative sample of about 15, 000 French households, observed in the days before and after the terrorist attack at the Bataclan concert-hall. We find that the attack increased expenditure on sugar-rich food by over 5% but not that on salty food or soda drinks. Spending on home maintenance products went up by almost 9%. We detect an increase of 23.5% in expenditure on women's personal hygiene products. We conclude that these effects are short-lived and driven by the responses of households with children, youths, and those residing within a few-hours ride of the place of the attack.
    Keywords: Conflict economics, Household economics, Food consumption, Stress
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-03673160&r=agr
  21. By: Lathaporn Ratanavararak; Sommarat Chantarat
    Abstract: Majority of Thai agricultural households have been at risk of trapping in persistent debt problems, which could in turn impede their development prospects. Over the past decade, debt moratoriums have been one of the most extensive policies aiming to help Thai agricultural households – resulting in 44.1% of households being in debt moratoriums for more than 4 years. This paper estimates the impacts of agricultural debt moratoriums on households’ debt, saving and agricultural investment dynamics using a unique panel data of 1 million representative households nationwide. We found that while the debt moratoriums could decrease delinquency propensity in the short run, they significantly resulted in higher debt accumulation, especially among those with larger debt and those with higher program intensity. The moratoriums had no significant impact on saving, while could increase agricultural investment especially among those with smaller debt. The findings imply that design of Thailand’s popular debt moratoriums should be revisited, especially they should be more targeted and limited to short-term relief.
    Keywords: Farmer debt; Debt moratorium; Debt relief; Debt accumulation; Agriculture; Thailand
    JEL: G28 G51 Q12 Q14 O16
    Date: 2022–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pui:dpaper:195&r=agr
  22. By: Aju, Stellamaris; Kramer, Berber; Waithaka, Lilian
    Abstract: Oftentimes, a man’s opinion is valued over a woman’s, with women expected to take a back seat when decisions are made in their households and in society (Kawarazuka et al., 2019). Such social norms create unequal participation between female and male smallholder farmers in African agriculture. Additionally, it puts women in positions where they can be abused (and tolerate abuse), especially by their spouses. This is a threat to women’s empowerment, increasing gender gaps in society and within families. It is therefore imperative to address societal norms that do not allow a level playing ground for both sexes in agriculture.
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, education, gender, women, decision making, agriculture, households, edutainment
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:december2022&r=agr
  23. By: Eisenack, Klaus; Paschen, Marius
    Abstract: Does climate change adaptation require that investments are designed to be more robust? What about when climate change is more uncertain? What if the climate changes faster? This decision problem is difficult if the design of the investments is irreversible for their lifetime, for instance, in the construction industry. We study an irreversible design decision when the investment starts, combined with an irreversible option to abandon. The design determines the investment's robustness to sustain detrimental conditions. We find that for short-lived investments, optimal robustness decreases if the climate changes faster, and increases if uncertainty is higher. For long-lived investments, these effects reverse. This has implications for decision makers who plan infrastructure adaptation, for instance, that adverse climate change does not require more robust investments under the identified circumstances.
    Keywords: Irreversibility, Lifetime, Optimal stopping, Robustness, Stochastic dynamic control
    JEL: C61 D25 D81 Q54
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ifwkie:267892&r=agr
  24. By: Gioia Maria Mariani (Banca d'Italia); Diego Scalise (Banca d'Italia)
    Abstract: Increasing temperatures and snow-scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry, one of the most weather-sensitive economic sectors. In this paper we assemble a novel dataset matching weather conditions and tourism flows in a sample of 39 Italian ski resorts in the last 20 years. We study the relationship between snow conditions, ski passes and overnight stays at ski resort level by means of a panel estimator with double fixed effects to quantify the risk of tourism losses due to climate change. We estimate a positive and significant relationship between snowfall conditions and winter tourism flows in Italian Alpine resorts. According to our estimates and to consensus projections on climate variables, in the coming years the impacts of climate change on ski passes and overnight stays could be significant, especially at lower altitudes. We also find evidence that providing artificial snow only has a weak effect on winter tourism flows, pointing toward the need for a more comprehensive approach to adaptation strategies.
    Keywords: Climate change, winter tourism
    JEL: Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdi:opques:qef_743_22&r=agr
  25. By: Thomas Eichner; Marco Runkel
    Abstract: Within a general equilibrium model, this paper identifies a novel animal welfare externality that occurs if the private animal friendliness in a market economy falls short of the social animal friendliness used by the social planner when determining the efficient allocation. The animal welfare externality causes an inefficiently high quantity and an inefficiently low quality of animal food. Correction of this market failure is attained by taxing animal food output and subsidizing animal food quality. With consumer and producer heterogeneity, regulation is the same but sector-specific, with a more intense regulation in the sector with the worse living conditions of animals.
    Keywords: animal welfare, altruism, morality, non-anthropocentrism, meat tax, subsidy on animal food quality
    JEL: D62 H20 Q18
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_10149&r=agr
  26. By: Hélène Benveniste (Harvard University [Cambridge]); Michael Oppenheimer (Princeton University); Marc Fleurbaey (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Migration is a widely used adaptation strategy to climate change impacts. Yet resource constraints caused by such impacts may limit the ability to migrate, thereby leading to immobility. Here we provide a quantitative, global analysis of reduced international mobility due to resource deprivation caused by climate change. We incorporate both migration dynamics and within-region income distributions in an integrated assessment model. We show that climate change induces decreases in emigration of lowest-income levels by over 10% in 2100 for medium development and climate scenarios compared with no climate change and by up to 35% for more pessimistic scenarios including catastrophic damages. This effect would leave resource-constrained populations extremely vulnerable to both subsequent climate change impacts and increased poverty.
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:pseptp:halshs-03907684&r=agr
  27. By: Maria Dolores Gadea; Jesus Gonzalo
    Abstract: Climate change is a non-uniform phenomenon. This paper proposes a new quantitative methodology to characterize, measure, and test the existence of climate change heterogeneity. It consists of three steps. First, we introduce a new testable warming typology based on the evolution of the trend of the whole temperature distribution and not only on the average. Second, we define the concepts of warming acceleration and warming amplification in a testable format. And third, we introduce the new testable concept of warming dominance to determine whether region A is suffering a worse warming process than region B. Applying this three-step methodology, we find that Spain and the Globe experience a clear distributional warming process (beyond the standard average) but of different types. In both cases, this process is accelerating over time and asymmetrically amplified. Overall, warming in Spain dominates the Globe in all the quantiles except the lower tail of the global temperature distribution that corresponds to the Arctic region. Our climate change heterogeneity results open the door to the need for a non-uniform causal-effect climate analysis that goes beyond the standard causality in mean as well as for a more efficient design of the mitigation-adaptation policies. In particular, the heterogeneity we find suggests that these policies should contain a common global component and a clear local-regional element. Future climate agreements should take the whole temperature distribution into account.
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2301.02648&r=agr
  28. By: Magazzino, Cosimo; Alola, Andrew Adewale; Schneider, Nicolas
    Abstract: While the deployment of technological innovation was able to avert a devastating global supply chain fallout arising from the impact of ravaging COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, little is known about potential environmental cost of such achievement. The aim of this paper is to identify the determinants of logistics performance and investigate its empirical linkages with economic and environmental indicators. We built a macro-level dataset for the top 25 ranked logistics countries from 2007 to 2018, conducting a set of panel data tests on cross-sectional dependence, stationarity and cointegration, to provide preliminary insights. Empirical estimates from Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS), Generalized Method of Moments (GMM), and Quantile Regression (QR) model suggest that technological innovation, Human Development Index (HDI), urbanization, and trade openness significantly boost logistic performance, whereas employment and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) fail to respond in such a desirable path. In turn, an increase in the Logistic Performance Index (LPI) is found to worsen economic growth. Finally, LPI exhibits a large positive effect on carbon emissions, which is congruent with a strand of the literature highlighting that the modern supply chain is far from being decarbonized. Thus, this evidence further suggest that more global efforts should be geared to attain a sustainable logistics.
    Keywords: CO emissions; Economic growth; Green supply chain management; Logistics performance; Panel data; Quantile regression
    JEL: L91 L92 N70
    Date: 2021–11–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:117654&r=agr
  29. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Ocbina, John Joseph S.
    Abstract: The payment for ecosystem services (PES) emerges as part of an arsenal of tools for innovative domestic financing for otherwise absent markets relating to natural resource management. Its traditional framework aspects of conditionality, voluntary transaction, at least one buyer and seller, and an identified ecosystem service. However, most domestic cases in the Philippines do not meet the first two criteria. Further to this, existing templates remain dispersed and not harmonized. Common barriers that contribute to these are negotiation bottlenecks, missing policies, and institutions, weak sustainability measures, and data unavailability. Stronger integration with sector-specific initiatives involves pursuing in the long run a legal platform for PES at NGA and subnational levels alongside natural capital management, framing sustainable mechanisms, capitalizing on evolving definition, and riding on ongoing efforts at the national level. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email publications@pids.gov.ph.
    Keywords: payments for ecosystem services;environment;ecological integrity;ecosystem services
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2022-49&r=agr
  30. By: Yannick Fiedler (CERI - Centre de recherches internationales (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Empowering young agri-entrepreneurs to invest in agriculture and food systems. Policy recommendations based on lessons learned from eleven African countries -- Measures that empower young agri-entrepreneurs should be a key component of a sustainable development-centred investment promotion strategy. The very realization of future generations' food security, the sustainable transformation of food systems and the combat against unemployment and distress migration all depend upon the successful implementation of strategies that make the agri-food sector more attractive for the youth. This, in turn, requires smart policy responses that will help young investors overcome the numerous barriers they face – access to finance, land, information and technical services, to name but the most crucial ones. Since 2017, FAO has provided support to African and South-East Asian countries in identifying key challenges for young agri-entrepreneurs and good practices through participatory capacity analyses and strategic planning processes which were carried out with, and for the youth. This report summarizes the main findings and lessons learned from FAO's work with eleven African countries – Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea Conakry, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Tunisia and Uganda. It identifies key challenges and policy recommendations regarding youth's access to finance; land; technical services and information; as well as the engagement of youth in policy-making processes. The report also contains a set of five overall key policy recommendations for the empowerment of young agri-entrepreneurs.
    Abstract: Les mesures qui donnent des moyens d'action aux jeunes agroentrepreneurs devraient être un élément clé d'une stratégie de promotion des investissements axée sur le développement durable. La réalisation même de la sécurité alimentaire des générations futures, la transformation durable des systèmes alimentaires et la lutte contre le chômage et les migrations de détresse dépendent toutes de la mise en œuvre réussie de stratégies qui rendent le secteur agroalimentaire plus attrayant pour les jeunes. Cela nécessite à son tour des réponses politiques intelligentes qui aideront les jeunes investisseurs à surmonter les nombreux obstacles auxquels ils sont confrontés - accès au financement, aux terres, à l'information et aux services techniques, pour ne citer que les plus cruciaux. Depuis 2017, la FAO aide les pays d'Afrique et d'Asie du Sud-Est à identifier les principaux défis auxquels sont confrontés les jeunes entrepreneurs agricoles et les bonnes pratiques grâce à des analyses participatives des capacités et des processus de planification stratégique réalisés avec et pour les jeunes. Ce rapport résume les principales conclusions et leçons tirées du travail de la FAO avec onze pays africains - Afrique du Sud, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinée Conakry, Malawi, Mali, Mauritanie, Mozambique, Namibie, Ouganda, Sénégal et Tunisie. Il identifie les principaux défis et recommandations politiques concernant l'accès des jeunes au financement, à la terre, aux services techniques et à l'information, ainsi que l'engagement des jeunes dans les processus d'élaboration des politiques. Le rapport contient également une série de cinq recommandations politiques clés pour l'autonomisation des jeunes entrepreneurs agricoles.
    Keywords: agrifood sector, youth employment, entrepreneurs, support measures, empowerment, investment promotion, Africa
    Date: 2021–01–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:spmain:hal-03386055&r=agr
  31. By: Carolin Brix‐asala (Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg); Stefan Seuring (Universität Kassel [Kassel]); Philipp C Sauer (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano); Axel Zehendner; Lara Schilling (Universität Kassel [Kassel])
    Abstract: Resulting from divergent business environments between actors, the integration of the base of the pyramid (BoP) into formal supply chain (SC) structures is often hampered by institutional voids, which can result in the emergence of paradoxical situations. This paper analyzes the potential of supplier development (SD) for addressing the BoP inclusion paradox. The study develops a framework based on the assumption that SD enables the development of capabilities and supplier performance, which is especially relevant when operating in BoP contexts. Seventy-two semi-structured interviews stemming from two case studies of (a) a local dairy and (b) an international certified pineapple SCs with BoP involvement provide empirical insights into the theoretical framework. Paradox resolution strategies (temporal separation, spatial separation, and synthesis) are related to (direct and indirect) SD practices. The proposed framework and results show that indirect SD can be used as temporal and spatial separation, but not as synthesis strategy. Contrastingly, direct SD can be used as temporal separation and synthesis. The BoP context needs direct SD to address two sustainability goals simultaneously: the social dimension of BoP inclusion and the economic dimension of formal and efficient SCs. This research extends the discussion on paradoxes in sustainability management to SCs, especially to BoP SCs. It is relevant to show that BoP inclusion is neither a sole win-win nor trade-off scenario. Resulting paradoxical situations can be addressed by SD, thereby moving to sustainable supply chain management (SSCM).
    Keywords: bottom of the pyramid, fair trade, institutional voids, paradox theory, supplier development, sustainability tensions
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03891218&r=agr
  32. By: Eric Innocenti (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Corinne Idda (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Dominique Prunetti (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pierre-Régis Gonsolin
    Abstract: In this work we introduce a new multi-stock, multi-fleet, multi-species and bioeconomic model for the complex system of a small-scale fishery. The objective is to study fisheries in order to ensure the renewal of the stock of biomass. This stock represents both a means of subsistence for fishermen but also contributes to food security. We model the system as a Multi-Agent System using both Cellular Automata Model (CAM) and Agent-Based Model (ABM) computational modelling approaches. CAM are used to describe the environment and the dynamics of resources. ABM are used to describe the behaviour of fishing activities. The main interest of the conceptual model lies in the proposed laws and in its capacity to organize hierarchically all the local interactions and transition rules within the simulated entities. We report preliminary results showing that our modelling approach facilitates software parameterization for the specific requirements implied by the context of a small-scale fishery. The main results of this work consist in the creation of a computer modelling structure CAM and ABM, which constitutes a preliminary for an optimized resources management. In a future development, we will improve the behavior of economic agents in order to consider the complexity of their decision making.
    Keywords: Fishery modelling, Multi-Agent System, NetLogo pattern
    Date: 2022–09–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03886619&r=agr
  33. By: Petri, Heinrich; Hendrawan, Dienda; Bähr, Tobias; Asnawi, Rosyani; Mußhoff, Oliver; Wollni, Meike; Faust, Heiko
    Abstract: Three decades after the establishment of many smallholder oil palm plantations, large areas of oil palm will require replanting soon or are already overmatured. The process of replanting offers a unique opportunity to redesign plantations, close yield gaps, boost productivity and therefore secure income and livelihoods, but requires knowledge, inputs and financing. If postponed or done incorrectly, replanting could further exacerbate existing challenges in smallholder oil palm cultivation, both socioeconomic and environmental. In this review, we collect relevant literature on replanting of oil palm, especially in the realm of smallholder cultivation, to highlight the challenges smallholders will face when replanting. We find that access to inputs, finances and know-how differ greatly between groups of smallholders. This will likely affect smallholder's decisions when, how and what to replant. Information on replanting, proper training, access to high-quality seedlings as well as eligibility for public replanting funds will determine the success of smallholder replanting efforts in Indonesia but are distributed unevenly currently. We finish the review with recommendations for both policy-makers and researchers on how to overcome the challenges replanting holds and capitalize on the opportunity replanting offers rather than exacerbating existing issues.
    Keywords: oil palm, replanting, smallholder, livelihood, Indonesia, Sumatera
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:crc990:36&r=agr
  34. By: Yicong Lin (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Hanno Reuvers (Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: The environmental Kuznets curve predicts an inverted U-shaped relationship between air pollution and economic growth. Current analyses frequently employ models that restrict nonlinearities in the data to be explained by economic growth only. We propose a Global Trend Augmented Cointegrating Polynomial Regression (GTACPR) to allow for nonlinearities in time and economic growth. The theoretical properties of the GTACPR are established. Empirically, a single global trend accurately captures all nonlinearities for all the countries studied, leading to a linear relationship between GDP and CO2. This suggests that the environmental improvement of the last years is due to factors different from GDP.
    JEL: C12 C13 C32 Q56
    Date: 2022–12–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tin:wpaper:20220092&r=agr
  35. By: Benjamin Chipperfield (Monash University); Paulo Santos (Monash University)
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of Lao PDR’s 2009 policy of fisheries decentralization on the nutritional status of children under 2 years old, using a double robust estimator that combines propensity score and OLS regression. Fisheries decentralization led to important gains in height-for-age in young children living in environments that, due to seasonal absence of local markets, are highly dependent on local natural resources. The analysis of the impact of this policy on older children and on health behaviors that are unlikely to be influenced by natural resource management (vaccination) supports the causal interpretation of these estimates. We identify higher consumption of fish as one mechanism that explains these gains. This change is not accompanied by greater allocation of time to fishing or investment in fishing assets, suggesting that decentralization of fisheries management likely led to better management of the resource, rather than its over-exploitation.
    Keywords: Fisheries decentralization , height-for-age z-score , propensity score, placebo
    JEL: Q22 Q28
    Date: 2023–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mos:moswps:2023-01&r=agr

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