nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒01‒23
34 papers chosen by

  1. COVID-19 study in rural areas of Guatemala: Long-term impacts on food security and nutrition in the Western Highlands By Hernandez, Manuel A.; Ceballos, Francisco; Paz, Cynthia; Berrospi, Maria Lucia
  2. Could domestic soybean production avoid Europe’s protein imports in 2050? By Philippe Debaeke; Agneta Forslund; Hervé Guyomard; Bertrand Schmitt; Anaïs Tibi
  3. Food, climate and biodiversity: A trilemma of mineral nitrogen use in European agriculture By Rémi Prudhomme; Raja Chakir; Anna Lungarska; Thierry Brunelle; Narayanappa Devaraju; Nathalie de Noblet; Pierre-Alain Jayet; Stéphane de Cara; Jean-Christophe Bureau
  4. Land Grabbing and Food Security in Developing Countries By Łuczyk, Iwona
  5. Assessment of the Impact of Agricultural Support on Crop Diversity By Zdenka Zakova Kroupova; Lukas Cechura; Matej Opatrny; Zuzana Hlouskova; Iveta Mlezivova
  6. Public-Private Partnerships in Agriculture Value Chains: The Case of Project ConVERGE in the Philippines By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
  7. A new green revolution or agribusiness as usual? Uncovering alignment issues and potential transition complications in agri-food system transitions By Niko Wojtynia; Jerry van Dijk; Marjolein Derks; Peter W. G. Groot Koerkamp; Marko P. Hekkert
  8. What Can We Learn from the Formal Agricultural Sector? Trends, Scale, and Governance of Agriculture and Fishery Establishments in the Philippines By Briones, Roehlano M.
  9. Determinants of Implementation of the Circular Economy in the Food Processing Sector on the Example of the Dairy Industry By Gralak, Arkadiusz; Grochowska, Renata; Szczepaniak, Iwona
  10. Changes in Purchase Prices and Efficiency vs. Production Profitability in Agriculture: Analytical and Empirical Approach By Bezat-Jarzębowska, Agnieszka; Rembisz, Włodzimierz
  11. Understanding the food component of inflation By Emanuel Kohlscheen
  12. Illegal Migration and Weather Shocks: Evidence from Rural Mexico By Danza, Facundo; Lee, Eugink
  13. Prospects for the Development of Polish Agri- -Food Exports to the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Countries By Ambroziak, Łukasz; Szczepaniak, Iwona; Pawlak, Karolina
  14. Shrimp production: Understanding the scope of the problem By Romero Waldhorn, Daniela; Autric, Elisa
  15. Structural Change, Land Use and Urban Expansion By Nicolas Coeurdacier; Florian Oswald; Marc Teignier
  16. Development of Artificial Intelligence and Potential Impact of Its Applications in Agriculture on Labor Use and Productivity By Figiel, Szczepan
  17. Key Problems of Using Subsidies Coupled with Agricultural Production By Herda-Kopańska, Justyna; Kulawik, Jacek
  18. Deforestation, Institutions, and Property Rights: Evidence from land titling to indigenous peoples and local communities in Ecuador By Tanner, Michael; Ratzke, Leonie
  19. Orienting Flood Risk Management to Disaster Risk Creation: lessons from the Water Framework Directive By Giacomo Cazzola
  20. Market Facilitation Program Payments, Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Coverage and Off-Farm Employment By Mishra, Ashok K.; Villacis, Alexis H.; Miller, Cristina D. M.
  21. Agriculture in the Peripheries – the Kingdom of Bhutan By Majewski, Edward; Sirsikar, Chaitra Girish
  22. Indebtedness: Field Notes on Farmers from Haryana, India By Jakhar, Babloo; Siwach, Manoj; Kait Rohtas
  23. Governance for Greenhouse Gas Abatement in Norwegian Agriculture By Kokemohr, Lennart; Mittenzwei, Klaus
  24. Consumer Ethnocentrism on the Market for Local Products: Determinants of Consumer Behaviors By Wojciechowska-Solis, Julia
  25. Social incentives, delivery agents, and the effectiveness of development interventions By Bandiera, Oriana; Burgess, Robin; Deserranno, Erika; Morel, Ricardo; Sulaiman, Munshi; Rasul, Imran
  26. Impact of Biofuels on U.S. Retail Gasoline Prices: A Systematic Literature Review By Karel Janda; Eva Michalikova; Luiz Célio Souza Rocha; Paulo Rotella Junior; Barbora Schererova; Jan Sila; David Zilberman
  27. Social Sustainability of German Dairy Farmers: Development of a Concept for Measuring Social Sustainability and First Results from 8,677 Farms By Lindena, Tomke
  28. A dynamic theory of spatial externalities By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  29. Global and European Climate Policy By Prandecki, Konrad
  30. How can “tragedies of the commons” be resolved? Social dilemmas and legislation By Berge, Erling
  31. Comparing Protection Types in The Peruvian Amazon: Multiple-Use Protected Areas Did No Worse for Forests By Rico-Straffon, Jimena; Wang, Zhenhua; Pfaff, Alexander
  33. Transformative Climate Actions By Novy, Andreas; Barlow, Nathaniel
  34. Enhancing Female Status by Improving Nutrition: the Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Oil Region By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi

  1. By: Hernandez, Manuel A.; Ceballos, Francisco; Paz, Cynthia; Berrospi, Maria Lucia
    Abstract: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, Guatemalan farmers have endured multiple challenges brough about by national and local restrictions to movement as well as disruptions in agricultural value chains. Similarly, farmers have been exposed to several external shocks such as ETA and IOTA tropical storms that hit the country in late 2020 and the recent conflict in East Europe and price crisis. This study examines the long-term effects of the COVID-19 environment on the food security and nutrition of rural households in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The analysis is based on information from a panel of 1, 262 smallholder households in the departments of Huehuetenango, Quiche, and San Marcos, collected during four survey rounds during November-December 2019 (face-to-face), May-June 2020 (by phone), May-June 2021 (by phone), and May-June 2022 (by phone). The study places special emphasis on evaluating changes in agricultural and non-agricultural income sources —including remittances—, and changes in dietary diversity —including consumption of animal-sourced foods (ASF) and fruits and vegetables (F&V)— at the household level, as well as among women between 15 and 49 years and children between 6 and 23 months. The results show some improvements in 2022 in income, food security and household dietary patterns in relation to previous years, but the levels are still lower than those reported before the pandemic (in 2019). The study also explores the effect of recent changes in the availability and prices of agricultural inputs faced by the smallholders as a result of the war between Ukraine and Russia, among other factors.
    Keywords: GUATEMALA, LATIN AMERICA, CENTRAL AMERICA, NORTH AMERICA, agricultural value chains, armed conflicts, children, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19, diet, dietary diversity, dietary protein, farm inputs, farmers, farms, food security, fruits, households, household food security, hurricanes, hurricane surges, income, income transfers, nutrition, oceanography, phenomena, remittances, shock, smallholders, surveying, survey methods, tropical oceanography, vegetables, war, women, animal-sourced foods (ASF)
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Philippe Debaeke (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Agneta Forslund (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Hervé Guyomard (SDAR Bretagne Normandie - Services déconcentrés d'appui à la recherche Bretagne-Normandie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Bertrand Schmitt (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Anaïs Tibi (Direction de l'Expertise scientifique collective, de la Prospective et des Etudes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The European Union has a high demand for plant proteins for food and feed. Its self-sufficiency rate is about 5% for soya crude proteins. The European Union and its Member States have launched initiatives for reducing soya imports that come mainly from South America and promoting domestic production of protein-rich crops. In the future, climate suitability for soybean cultivation is likely to increase in oceanic and continental Europe. The recent AE2050 study (INRAE. 2020. Role of European agriculture in world trade by 2050: Balancing climate change and global food security issues. Summary report of the study. INRAE (France), 12 p; Tibi A, Forslund A, Debaeke P, et al. 2020. Place des agricultures européennes dans le monde à l'horizon 2050 : entre enjeux climatiques et défis de la sécurité alimentaire. Rapport de synthèse de l'étude. INRAE (France), 159 p þ Annexes) concluded that, in some parts of Europe (defined here as the European Union-27 plus other Balkan countries, Switzerland, Norway and the United Kingdom), cropland requirements in 2050 may be lower than "2010" cropland areas given possible changes in European food demand (related to glooming demographic growth and under the assumption of healthy diets) and in crop yields (influenced by technological developments and climate change). In this study, we examine to what extent this "cropland surplus" could be used to increase soybean production in Europe and reduce the dependency ratio on protein imports. Only in the case of a Healthy Diets scenario (less meat consumption, inducing less animals fed with cakes), substantial soybean acreages could be envisaged to reduce the European reliance on imports. In addition to the surplus allowed by increasing yields, land surplus was also made available by the reduction of livestock production and its grain feed requirements. The best-case scenario, combining healthy diets and trend-based yield growth, would reduce European imports to only 15% of its total domestic requirements versus 45% for the Trend-based Diets scenario. This can be compared to a dependency rate of 51% in our base year "2010", and of 53%-54% for the two 2050 scenarios without growing soybean on cropland surplus. If the range of these quite optimistic estimations of surplus land dedicated to soybean was reduced to more plausible levels (limited to 10% of annual field cropland in 2050) and considering current soybean yield levels ("2019" instead of "2010"), the decrease in Europe's oil cake imports levels would be lower. However, its dependency rate could still be reduced from 54% to 46% in the Trend-based Diets scenario, and from 53% to 38% in the Healthy Diets scenario. One important conclusion is that adopting healthy diets would allow a significant reduction of imports of soybean cakes from abroad with expected environmental benefits in Europe and overseas. On the supply side, challenges for a higher self-sufficiency rate of proteins in Europe resulting from the development of soybean domestic production will come from both available and suitable crop areas, attainable yields and relative profitability.
    Keywords: protein self-sufficiency,Europe,climate change,yield projection,cropland surplus
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Rémi Prudhomme (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Raja Chakir (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Anna Lungarska (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Thierry Brunelle (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Narayanappa Devaraju (LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nathalie de Noblet (LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pierre-Alain Jayet (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stéphane de Cara (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jean-Christophe Bureau (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Mineral nitrogen (N) application in agriculture has significantly increased food production over the past century. However, the intensive use of N-fertilizers also impacts negatively the environment, notably through greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity loss and remains a major challenge for policymakers. In this paper, we explore the effects of a public policy aiming at halving agricultural mineral nitrogen use across the European Union (EU). We investigate the impacts on food security, climate mitigation, and biodiversity conservation and we analyse the potential trade-offs and synergies between them. Despite the uncertainties associated with monetary valuation and the choice of modeling approach, our results show that climate-and-biodiversity-related benefits of halving N use in EU agriculture more than offset the decrease in agricultural benefits.
    Abstract: L'application d'azote minéral (N) dans l'agriculture a considérablement augmenté la production alimentaire au cours du siècle dernier et a joué un rôle important dans la sécurité alimentaire mondiale. Cependant, l'utilisation intensive des engrais azotés a également un impact négatif sur l'environnement, notamment à travers les émissions de gaz à effet de serre et la perte de biodiversité, et reste un défi majeur pour les décideurs. Dans cet article, nous explorons les effets d'une politique publique visant à réduire de moitié l'utilisation d'azote minéral agricole dans l'Union européenne (UE). Nous étudions les impacts sur la sécurité alimentaire, l'atténuation du changement climatique et la conservation de la biodiversité et nous analysons les compromis potentiels et les synergies entre eux. Malgré les incertitudes associées à l'évaluation monétaire et au choix de l'approche de modélisation, nos résultats montrent que les avantages de la réduction de moitié de l'utilisation de N dans l'agriculture de l'UE, liés l'atténuation du changement climatique et à la conservation de la biodiversité, compensent largement la baisse des bénéfices agricoles.
    Keywords: mineral nitrogen pollution
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Łuczyk, Iwona
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to present the phenomenon of land grabbing and its impact on ensuring food security in Africa between 2000 and 2020. The analysis used data on large-scale land acquisitions from the Land Matrix database and legal acts from the online contracts repository, i.e., the Open Land Contracts (OLC) kept at Columbia University. In the article non-reactive research methods were used, i.e., the analysis of the literature on the subject as well as statistical and descriptive methods. Between 2000 and 2020, Africa recorded the highest number of large-scale land acquisitions on a global scale. Transactions were concluded throughout the period, although most of them were concluded from 2007 to 2011, i.e., during the periods of higher prices of agricultural products. In terms of specific objectives, agricultural transactions were dominated by food crops (182 transactions and over 1 million ha of contracted land) and crop production for biofuels (55 transactions and almost 1.5 million ha of land). 64.3% of agricultural land purchase transactions were in the operational phase, i.e., in production. The conducted research allowed for drawing the following conclusions: some of the agreements omitted the issue of food security of local communities altogether, which contradicts the declarations of national governments, whose aim was to guarantee it as a result of the defectiveness of the contracts (vide the methods of their conclusion and enforcement), they are unilaterally invalidated by the national courts in the host country or are sued by investors; land grabbing contributes to the loss or reduction of food security in developing countries that seek to obtain investments in arable land.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022–12–22
  5. By: Zdenka Zakova Kroupova (Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management); Lukas Cechura (Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management); Matej Opatrny (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic & Charles University, The Environment Centre); Zuzana Hlouskova (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic); Iveta Mlezivova (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: Our results indicate that there is limited effect of agricultural subsidies on the agricultural biodiversity. By using unique farm-level data, we show that subsidies support rather income of farmers than agricultural biodiversity. The results are robust to size, practice management and altitude of operating of agricultural holdings and to various measures of agricultural biodiversity. However, when interpreting the results, the limitations of biodiversity indices should be considered.
    Keywords: biodiversity index; subsidies; panel data regression; Czech Republic
    JEL: Q12 Q15 Q57
    Date: 2022–12
  6. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
    Abstract: This study examines the public-private-producers partnership (4Ps) model for agriculture value chain development implemented through Project ConVERGE of the Department of Agrarian reform. The model adopted a cluster approach whereby farmer groups are organized into clusters to coordinate their production methods to produce good uniform products and other business activities. The interventions or assistance from government agencies and the private sector are coordinated through the Project Management Office of ConVERGE at the central, regional, and provincial levels. The study notes that the 4Ps is a form of a facilitator-driven agriculture value chain that is a suitable strategy given the level of agriculture development in the country. The 4Ps value chain interventions have addressed some of the constraints small farmers face to participate in the value chain. Farmer cooperatives that received the interventions on farm equipment and processing facilities reported increased production, expansion of production area, improved mobility, and less dependence on traders. However, markets remain limited, and the cooperatives still lack the volume and quality of production that major buyers, including exporters, require. The key challenges include the lack of adequate extension services, including organizational training; inadequate capital and credit access of farmer cooperatives; limited subsidy for infrastructure development and other value chain interventions; weak cooperatives or farmers organizations; and poor geographic conditions. Government plays a major role in addressing these challenges. It needs a coordinated plan among partner agencies for extension and capacity building. Given bureaucratic problems and other institutional constraints, there is also a need to have a good selection of private sector partners both as service providers and financing partners. Market access can be improved through links with financial institutions and agro-input dealers and through the development of brands and certifications. In the case of farmer organizations, they need to strengthen their savings and insurance programs to enhance credit access and hedge against climate shocks. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agriculture;public-private partnership;agribusiness;supply chain;agrarian reform
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Niko Wojtynia (Utrecht University [Utrecht]); Jerry van Dijk (Utrecht University [Utrecht]); Marjolein Derks (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Peter W. G. Groot Koerkamp (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Marko P. Hekkert (Utrecht University [Utrecht])
    Abstract: Agri-food system transitions are a considerable challenge requiring stakeholder alignment on what changes need to be made and how. When stakeholders do not agree on the goals or methods of a transition, this can be a serious obstacle to success. This paper analyzes 42 vision documents for the future of Dutch agriculture from a broad range of stakeholders to determine stakeholder alignment using an inductive coding approach. We identified 23 issues as the main challenges for the transition in these documents. We are the first to categorize them according to a recently proposed problem-solution space for wicked problems. Stakeholders were fully aligned in recognizing the problem for the majority of issues, but showed agreement on solutions for less than a quarter. For the issues of international orientation, sector size, and farm business models, we found a lack of consensus on the problem, indicating fundamental disagreement about the type of agricultural sector desired by stakeholders. The apparent consensus on environmental and social issues provides clear societal expectations for agronomic development and innovation, while the divergence on economic issues highlights the rift between growth-oriented paradigms and more holistic paradigms like agroecology. The crucial empirical novelty of this paper is that progress on environmental and social matters is restricted by divergent views on the economic characteristics of a future agri-food system, adding further complexity to mission-oriented transition and innovation policies.
    Keywords: Agri-food system, Sustainability transition, Vision, Mission-oriented innovation, Stakeholder alignment, Normative contestation
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: The Philippines’ Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) identifies one of the modernization objectives as “to encourage horizontal and vertical integration, consolidation, and expansion of agriculture and fisheries activities, group functions and other services through the organization of cooperatives, farmers’ and fisherfolk’s associations, corporations, nucleus estates, and consolidated farms” (Section 3.d). Consolidation is an issue in developing countries, including the Philippines, where agriculture is dominated by small family farms. Consolidation will also entail formal recognition of farm enterprises, in any of the possible modalities of landholding, from sole proprietorships to partnerships, corporations, cooperatives, and other private institutions. Organizing and registering smallholders offers access to capital, government programs, business services, and markets. Based on official Census of Philippine Business and Industry data for 2006, 2012, and 2018, the study finds the following: Over time, the size of the formal agricultural sector has been increasing, as well as that of Crops and Animal raising. Likewise, formal establishments have been showing increasing output per worker but not profitability nor innovation. Government support for privately-owned establishments is insignificant, with no clear trend over time nor preference for a legal organization. Based on production function analysis, economies of scale exist in the operation of agricultural establishments. However, there is insufficient evidence to show that cooperatives exhibit larger size, greater inclusiveness, and similar economic performance, such as profitability. The study concludes with some implications for policy. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: formal economy;family farm;economies of scale;increasing returns;economic organization;agricultural development;agriculture
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Gralak, Arkadiusz; Grochowska, Renata; Szczepaniak, Iwona
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to present the determinants of the potential application of the circular economy model in the food processing sector on the example the dairy industry. The first part of the article analyzes various factors that stimulate and limit the transformation of the dairy industry towards the circular economy. The second part presents the examples of solutions corresponding to the idea of a circular economy that have been implemented or are planned to be implemented in dairy enterprises. This paper is an overview. It uses strategic EU and national documents, literature on the circular economy in agri- -food systems, as well as reports from the trade press presenting specific examples of the implementation of circular economy solutions in dairies. The analysis shows that in the dairy industry there are great opportunities to implement the circular economy model, but it is a complex process under the influence of stimulating and limiting factors. It requires systemic changes at various levels of the economy, significant financial resources, and above all, adaptation investments in the field of innovative technologies, energy systems, and water and wastewater management. Successful activities supporting the transformation towards the circular economy implemented in dairy enterprises include in particular solutions consisting in: reducing the amount of waste produced and reusing it, direct use of by-products, using renewable energy sources (in heating and cooling systems), reducing consumption of water and reusing it, using eco-friendly packaging and sustainable transportation. In conclusion, it should be stated that the actions taken by the food processing sector, including the dairy industry, aimed at transformation towards the circular economy are necessary, especially in the context of the challenges related to the European Green Deal and the Farm to Fork Strategy.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–09–29
  10. By: Bezat-Jarzębowska, Agnieszka; Rembisz, Włodzimierz
    Abstract: The article discusses the issue of the impact of changes in purchase prices of an agricultural product on production profitability in agriculture, and more precisely with respect to agricultural producers on a given agricultural product market (in a given sector) in an analytical and model approach. The logic of formal deductive reasoning is then illustrated and verified empirically. The authors’ own analytical description of the relationship determining changes in the level of production profitability for agricultural producers, with a particular emphasis on the change in the purchase price, is in fact the goal and added value of the article. It enables the identification of dependencies resulting from market laws that affect changes in production profitability. In particular, the authors present the influence of mutual relationships between changes in the purchase price level and the purchase volume on revenue, and thus production profitability. The article has a theoretical and cognitive and, to some extent, methodological message. The reasoning in the article is carried out in terms and at the level of generality appropriate for microeconomics and the theory of agricultural economics as well as a given product market for agricultural producers.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–09–29
  11. By: Emanuel Kohlscheen
    Abstract: This article presents evidence based on a panel of 35 countries over the past 30 years that the Phillips curve relation holds for food inflation. That is, broader economic overheating does push up the food component of the CPI in a systematic way. Further, general inflation expectations from professional forecasters clearly impact food price inflation. The analysis also quantifies the extent to which higher food production and imports, or lower food exports, reduce food inflation. Importantly, the link between domestic and global food prices is typically weak, with passthroughs within a year ranging from 0.07 to 0.16, after exchange rate variations are taken into account.
    Date: 2022–12
  12. By: Danza, Facundo; Lee, Eugink
    Abstract: We study the effect of weather shocks on legal and illegal migration from rural Mexico to the US. First, we find that shocks in the wet season on precipitation and temperature increase migration. The increment is entirely driven by illegal migrants. Second, we propose a mechanism to explain this result: the effect of weather on agricultural production. We find that shocks on precipitation and temperature decrease total harvested land and corn production. Third, we show that young and unwealthy workers are more sensitive to weather shocks. Lastly, we use climate projections to have a first glance on the impact that climate change will have on migration. We find that a shift of the size of climate change would double the number of illegal migrants. Since climate change will increase the frequency and intensity of weather shocks, our findings are increasingly relevant.
    Keywords: Agricultura, Cambio climático, Evaluación de impacto,
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Ambroziak, Łukasz; Szczepaniak, Iwona; Pawlak, Karolina
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to describe Polish agri-food exports to countries that are members of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and to assess the possibilities of developing exports of Polish food producers to the markets of these countries. The study was conducted, among others, with the use of a synthetic perspective index based on the data from Statistics Poland and the WITSComtrade database. The study shows that RCEP countries have a relatively low share in Polish agrifood exports (2.7% in 2021) and the trade is characterized by a permanently negative balance of food turnover. In the context of the growth prospects for Polish exports, it is difficult to speak of the same product groups in all markets. On the contrary, the choice of a given market determines which products can be regarded as prospective in Polish exports to this market. The products include not only processed, but also agricultural and low-processed ones. There is a risk that the agreement, which has been in force since the beginning of 2022, will cause the diversion effect, consisting in reducing the trade of RCEP countries with non-RCEP countries. This may make it necessary to adapt the trade strategy implemented on the Asian market by EU countries, including Poland, to the new conditions.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–12–22
  14. By: Romero Waldhorn, Daniela; Autric, Elisa
    Abstract: Decapods represent a major food source for humans across the globe. If these animals are sentient, the growing decapod production industry likely poses serious welfare concerns for these animals. Information about the number of decapods used for food is needed to better assess the scale of this problem and the expected value of helping these animals. In this work, we estimated the number of shrimp and prawns farmed and killed in a year, given that they seem to be the vast majority of decapods used in the food system. We estimated that around: - 440 billion farmed shrimp are killed per year, which vastly exceeds the figure of the most numerous vertebrate species used in the food system–namely, fishes and chickens. - 230 billion shrimp are alive in farms at any moment, which surpasses any farmed animal estimate known to date, including farmed insect numbers. - 25 trillion wild shrimp are directly slaughtered annually, a figure that represents the vast majority of all animals directly killed by humans for food. At this moment, the problem of shrimp production is greater in scale–i.e., number of individuals affected–than the problem of insect farming, fish captures, or the farming of any vertebrate for human consumption. Thus, while the case for shrimp sentience is weaker than that for other vertebrates and decapods, the expected value of helping shrimp and prawns might be higher than the expected value of helping other animals.
    Date: 2022–12–21
  15. By: Nicolas Coeurdacier (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Florian Oswald (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marc Teignier (University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: We develop a multi-sector spatial equilibrium model with endogenous land use: land is used either for agriculture or housing. Urban land, densely populated due to commuting frictions, expands out of agricultural land. With rising productivity, the reallocation of workers away from agriculture frees up land for cities to expand, limiting the increase in land values despite higher income and increasing urban population. Due to the reallocation of land use, the area of cities expands at a fast rate and urban density persistently declines, as in the data over a long period. As structural change slows down, cities sprawl less and land values start increasing at a faster rate, as in the last decades. Quantitative predictions of the joint evolution of density and land values across time and space are confronted with historical data assembled for France over 180 years.
    Keywords: Structural Change, Land Use, Productivity Growth, Urban Density
    Date: 2021–12–03
  16. By: Figiel, Szczepan
    Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the most striking recent technology developments. Potentially, it can significantly affect all areas of economic activities including agriculture. The paper addresses two issues such as the actual essence of AI and its most important current and expected future applications in agriculture and their potential impact on labor use and productivity of this sector. The research methods applied in the paper are critical analysis of selected literature sources and deductive reasoning regarding the likely influence of AI applications on labor use in agriculture and its total factor productivity. It was found out that applications of AI in agriculture are numerous and very diverse both in terms of technological solutions and managed processes. Moreover, the market for AI applications in agriculture is expected to grow quite rapidly due to an increasing tendency to automatize agricultural production and marketing processes. This inevitably leads to substitution of physical labor with sophisticated machinery and robots. Also, it generates demand for new labor competencies needed to manage increasingly capital intensive agricultural production and related processes driven by the use of AI. Based on mainly theoretical considerations, it can be surmised that widespread use of AI in agriculture should positively contribute to the growth in the total factor productivity (TFP) of the sector. Consequently, countries where agricultural producers adopt AI solutions faster can gain competitive advantage in food production.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–12–22
  17. By: Herda-Kopańska, Justyna; Kulawik, Jacek
    Abstract: Subsidies based on agricultural production are a common form of subsidies in many countries, both less developed (due to their economic difficulties in achieving a satisfactory level of food self-sufficiency) and highly developed. However, at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, this support was not so popular. It was only in the second decade that it began to be restored, which is sometimes referred to as recoupling. The COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukrainian–Russian war are undoubtedly two important circumstances that have increased interest in these subsidies. Therefore, it is important to identify theoretical and socio-political justifications for using these subsidies and the problems related to preparing schemes for determining their unit rates. After conducting the analysis, it turned out that the microeconomic theory rather provides arguments against the wide use of agricultural production subsidies. The justifications for pursuing a policy which refers to the difficulties in particular sectors of agriculture are also unconvincing. The calculation of unit payment rates is a challenge due to the lack of a solid methodology and sufficiently reliable source data.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–09–29
  18. By: Tanner, Michael; Ratzke, Leonie
    Abstract: Deforestation is a matter of pressing global concern, contributing to declining ecosystem services, biodiversity loss, and ultimately climate change through growing emissions. We evaluate the effect of assigning property rights to indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) in coastal Ecuador on deforestation and the role polycentric institutions play in policy effectiveness. Informed by a theoretical model, we employ causal methods to 1) evaluate changes in forest coverage for the first 12 years of policy adoption, and 2) evaluate the effect of the presence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on policy permanence. We find that assigning property rights to IPLCs significantly decreases mangrove deforestation and that the presence of NGOs funded by foreign aid significantly increases the probability of policy adoption and permanence. We assess the positive development implications of the policy concerning local fisheries provisioning and the role of international aid in achieving environmental outcomes. Our work highlights the importance of IPLCs and civil society as actors for sustainable land stewardship in future climate policy.
    Keywords: Ambiente, Políticas públicas, Pueblos nativos,
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Giacomo Cazzola (EPiC Earth and Polis Research Centre, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Università Iuav di Venezia)
    Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the analytical path assembled within my PhD research on Disaster Risk Creation (DRC) in humanitarian contexts, to Flood Risk Management (FRM) planning in Italy. The investigation concerns some key challenges, for spatial planning and disaster risk management, in understanding, evaluating, and addressing Disaster Risk (DR) drivers and pressures, those processes and land uses enhancing exposure, vulnerability and flood hazard itself. The reference methodological approach benefits from well-established theoretical models of causal analysis of Disaster Risk Creation processes as bridging analytical construct for reordering and coordinating flood risk management interventions. These theoretical and analytical reflections are build upon a gap between the European Water Framework and the Flood Directives that, despite their many interconnections and commonalities, differ in the focus (or lack of) on underlying causal factors. Thus, the Water Framework Directive provides a valuable operational reference for orienting flood risk management planning to the reduction of disaster risk creation components.
    Keywords: Flood Risk Management, European Flood Directive, Risk Driver, Spatial Planning
    JEL: Q54 R58
    Date: 2022–12
  20. By: Mishra, Ashok K. (Arizona State University); Villacis, Alexis H. (Arizona State University); Miller, Cristina D. M. (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
    Abstract: About two-thirds of U.S. farm households are employed off the farm. Off-farm sources represent 85 percent of the income earned by the average farm household and have turned into their main source of health insurance coverage. Farmers receive various government farm program payments, including the recently added Market Facilitation Program (MFP) payments. These payments have an unintended consequence on labor supply by farm operator households. Using farm household-level data from the 2019 Agricultural Resource Management Survey, this study investigates the impact of employer-sponsored health insurance coverage and participation in MFP on off-farm labor allocation decisions of U.S. farm families. Results from our empirical model show that farm families are 52% more likely to work off the farm if off-farm jobs provide employer-sponsored health insurance coverage. More importantly, results show that MFP payments have a significant and negative effect on the off-farm employment of U.S. farm-operator households.
    Keywords: Agricultural Resource Management Survey, government subsidies, employer-sponsored health insurance coverage, off-farm employment
    JEL: C34 I13 J22 J38 J43 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2022–12
  21. By: Majewski, Edward; Sirsikar, Chaitra Girish
    Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to familiarize the readers with the economy, and above all the agricultural sector of the Kingdom of Bhutan. The direct inspiration for this paper was the ban on cage breeding of laying hens introduced in this country in 2012, which brings to mind an important event, which happened in 1972, when the King of Bhutan announced the concept of the Gross National Happiness Index (GNH). Figures and graphics presented in the article were prepared on the basis of Bhutan’s national statistics and available publications. The structure of Bhutan’s economy is dominated by the industrial and services sectors. The share of agriculture in generating GDP has ranged from 14 to 22% in the last twenty years, with employment in agriculture reaching almost 60% of the total workforce. The agricultural sector is highly fragmented, and at the same time vulnerable to threats resulting from difficult natural conditions and climate change. Bhutan is not achieving food self-sufficiency, despite strong support from Bhutanese authorities for the sector and increasing productivity. The changes taking place in agriculture and the entire economy of Bhutan are strongly oriented towards the implementation of the sustainable development paradigm.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–12–29
  22. By: Jakhar, Babloo; Siwach, Manoj; Kait Rohtas
    Abstract: The aim of the paper was to assess the debt burden on farmers and suggest policy solutions. The study is based on a field survey of six hundred indebted farmers. It showed that the average amount of debt per sampled farmer was INR 563, 960 (USD 6, 945.24).1 The study found a skewed debt access to semi- -medium and medium farmers. The largest debt share is mostly observed among semi-medium, medium, and large farmers, as the top 33% of farmers account for 71.8% of the debt share. By contrast, the bottom 48% (marginal farmers) are left to struggle with only 14.8% of the debt share. The source- -wise distribution shows that one-third of debt share is still acquired from non-institutional sources. It depicts that non-institutional sources are also engaged in the disbursement of loans to agriculture sector at higher and compound interest rates. Furthermore, commission agents’ or arhtiyas’ 2 role is dominant among the farmers. Nearly half of the debt amount is still used for non-productive activities. This is one of the major challenges for policymakers to resolve the problem of indebtedness.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2022–12–29
  23. By: Kokemohr, Lennart; Mittenzwei, Klaus
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Wojciechowska-Solis, Julia
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the attitudes and ethnocentric behaviors of consumers on the local food market. The survey also included consumers’ purchasing channels, which helped determine the specifics of local product distribution. The criterion for classifying the respondent into the research sample was to indicate the economic motives of consumer ethnocentrism as a factor in the purchase decision. 1, 009 correctly completed questionnaires were accepted for analysis. Descriptive statistics and the U Mann–Whitney test were used in the analyses. The results made it possible to determine the products appreciated by respondents, such as eggs, dairy products, and groats. Local alcoholic beverages in the categories “local wines” and “craft beers” were appreciated more by men. The respondents had the lowest interest in oils produced locally. Among the features with which consumers associate local food are producer identification, freshness, good taste, and affordability. Consumers take advantage of short supply chains such as direct sales by the producer or take the opportunity to buy products at local events or thematic trips such as the culinary trail. Consumers are able to accept a price increase of 10–15%, with larger increases they start looking for cheaper substitutes. In conclusion it was stated that the market for local products is a source of support for the local economy, therefore the authorities should create conditions for its development through undertaking appropriate measures promoting local products.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–12–22
  25. By: Bandiera, Oriana; Burgess, Robin; Deserranno, Erika; Morel, Ricardo; Sulaiman, Munshi; Rasul, Imran
    Abstract: There has been a rise in the use of the local delivery model for development interventions, where local agents are hired as intermediaries to target benefits to potential beneficiaries. We study this model in the context of a standard agricultural extension intervention in Uganda. We document a trade-off between coverage and targeting: delivery agents treat more farmers when they have a greater number of social ties, but they are significantly more likely to target their nonpoor ties. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for the design of the local delivery model for antipoverty interventions.
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–12–23
  26. By: Karel Janda (Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies & Prague University of Economics and Business, Faculty of Finance and Accounting); Eva Michalikova (Faculty of Business and Management, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic); Luiz Célio Souza Rocha (Management Department - Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology - North of Minas Gerais, Almenara, Brazil); Paulo Rotella Junior (Faculty of Finance and Accounting, Prague University of Economics and Business, Prague, Czech Republic & Department of Production Engineering - Federal University of Paraíba, Joao Pessoa, Brazil & Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic); Barbora Schererova (Faculty of Finance and Accounting, Prague University of Economics and Business, Prague, Czech Republic); Jan Sila (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic & Institute of Information Theory and Automation, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic); David Zilberman (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the main findings of the results in the literature on the role of ethanol in reducing retail gasoline prices in the United States. We provide a comprehensive overview of the key results and methodologies used to obtain them. The paper documents the growing research interest in the assessment of the impacts of biofuels on agricultural commodity prices and overall price dynamics; presents the research trends, thematic map and the conceptual structure map; and identifes the main directions of the corn-ethanol focused biofuels literature through the analysis of predominant clusters. The last key contribution is the proposed research agenda.
    Keywords: biofuels, corn, ethanol, gasoline, U.S. retail prices, systematic literature review
    JEL: C38 Q16 Q42
    Date: 2022–12
  27. By: Lindena, Tomke
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Raouf Boucekkine (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UCL IRES - Institut de recherches économiques et sociales - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain = Catholic University of Louvain); Giorgio Fabbri (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Salvatore Federico (DEPS - Dipartimento di Economia Politica e Statistica - UNISI - Università degli Studi di Siena = University of Siena); Fausto Gozzi (Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza [Roma] - LUISS - Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli [Roma])
    Abstract: In this paper, we revisit the theory of spatial externalities. In particular, we depart in several respects from the important literature studying the fundamental pollution free riding problem uncovered in the associated empirical works. First, instead of assuming ad hoc pollution diffusion schemes across space, we consider a realistic spatiotemporal law of motion for air and water pollution (diffusion and advection). Second, we tackle spatiotemporal non-cooperative (and cooperative) differential games. Precisely, we consider a circle partitioned into several states where a local authority decides autonomously about its investment, production and depollution strategies over time knowing that investment/production generates pollution, and pollution is transboundary. The time horizon is infinite. Third, we allow for a rich set of geographic heterogeneities across states while the literature assumes identical states. We solve analytically the induced non-cooperative differential game under decentralization and fully characterize the resulting long-term spatial distributions. We further provide with full exploration of the free riding problem, reflected in the so-called border effects. In particular, net pollution flows diffuse at an increasing rate as we approach the borders, with strong asymmetries under advection, and structural breaks show up at the borders. We also build a formal case in which a larger number of states goes with the exacerbation of pollution externalities. Finally, we explore how geographic discrepancies affect the shape of the border effects.
    Keywords: Spatial externalities,Environmental federalism,Transboundary pollution,Differential games in continuous time and space,Infinite dimensional optimal control problems
    Date: 2022–03
  29. By: Prandecki, Konrad
    Abstract: In 2022, thirty years have passed since the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This period is long enough to evaluate the effectiveness of this policy. The aim of this paper is to determine the achievements of climate policy so far and the most likely directions for further actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Particular attention was paid to agricultural emissions, which results from the significant share of agriculture in global emissions and the specific structure of emissions, i.e., the significant role of the sector in methane and nitrous oxide emissions. The paper uses statistical analysis based on the World Bank data. It was supplemented by a critical analysis of the literature on climate policy. The presented results show that the current policy does not bring the expected results. There are, however, some examples (the European Union), where the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is visible. As a result, the share of Community emissions in global emissions tends to decrease. This applies to both total and agricultural emissions, i.e., methane and nitrous oxide. Based on the presented data and global trends, it seems most likely that the current direction of changes will be continued, i.e., poor care for climate on a global scale and increasing emission restrictions in selected regions of the world. Nevertheless, this solution will be ineffective, since climate change is a global problem and must be solved globally.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–09–29
  30. By: Berge, Erling (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: Humanity’s problem with climate change has been likened to a “tragedy of the commons”. If the atmosphere is seen as an open access dump for gasses like CO2 or methane, Garret Hardin’s conclusion from 1968: “Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all” is obviously correct. But how do we create a regime where access to the atmosphere is controlled? The problem of cleaning up the atmosphere has also been likened to a “public good” problem. Stopping the emissions and cleaning up the atmosphere will cost. Each nation may reason that this cost might be postponed a year or two. The immediate problems of the society have to be solved first. And – if the rest of the world manages to retard the emissions sufficiently we might not have to pay that much. In the provision of public goods there is this free rider problem. This is the background for a closer look at Norway from our earliest legislation: Did we experience collective action problems involving social dilemmas like the tragedy of the commons or the provision of public goods? If we did, did we solve the problems by developing institutions? Problems were identified in our earliest cattle farming communities and in our medieval urban settlements. The problems could be resolved through legislation.
    Keywords: Climate; social dilemma; Norway; legislation
    JEL: P48 Q30 Q54
    Date: 2023–01–10
  31. By: Rico-Straffon, Jimena; Wang, Zhenhua; Pfaff, Alexander
    Abstract: Protected areas (PAs), which restrict economic activities, are the leading land and marine policy for ecosystem conservation. Most contexts feature different types of protection that vary in their stringency of management. Using spatially detailed panel data for 1986-2018, we estimate PAs’ impacts upon forests in the Peruvian Amazon. Which type of protection has greater impacts on the forest is ambiguous, theoretically, given potential for significant differences by type in siting and enforcement. We find that the less strict multiple-use PAs, that allow local livelihoods, do no worse for forests than strict PAs: each PA type holds off small loss spikes seen in unprotected forests; and multipleuse, if anything, do a bit better. This adds to evidence on the coexistence of private activities with conservation objectives.
    Keywords: Ambiente, Evaluación de impacto,
    Date: 2022
  32. By: Olivier Ardouin (LEGO - Laboratoire d'Economie et de Gestion de l'Ouest - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - UBO - Université de Brest - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IBSHS - Institut Brestois des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société - UBO - Université de Brest - UBL - Université Bretagne Loire - IMT Atlantique - IMT Atlantique - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris])
    Abstract: Abstract : This communication aims to show how the sacrifices perceived to consume local food products can be made more or less salient to consumers according to their orientation to pursue eudemonic well-being as well as by the presence or absence of perceived hedonic benefits. Our research is based on an analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with 17 consumers of local products aimed at highlighting the quest for eudemonic well-being through their perceptions of benefits and sacrifices. The results show that the perception of hedonic benefits provided by the purchase and consumption of local food products increases the perception of the sacrifices to be made by consumers in search of eudemonic well-being. The construal level theory (Trope and Liberman, 2003) can explain this result.
    Abstract: Cette communication vise à montrer comment les sacrifices perçus pour consommer des produits alimentaires locaux peuvent être rendus plus ou moins saillants auprès des consommateurs, selon leur orientation à poursuivre un bien-être eudémonique et selon la présence ou l'absence de perception de bénéfices hédoniques. Notre recherche se fonde sur une analyse d'entretiens semi-directifs, réalisés auprès de 17 consommateurs, et vise à mettre en évidence la quête d'un bien-être eudémonique au travers leurs perceptions des bénéfices et des sacrifices associés à la consommation de produits locaux. Les résultats montrent que la perception de bénéfices hédoniques augmente la perception des sacrifices à consentir chez le consommateur en quête de bien-être eudémonique. La théorie des niveaux de représentation (Trope et Liberman, 2003) permet d'expliquer ce résultat..
    Keywords: bien-être alimentaire, eudémonie, produits alimentaires locaux, valeur de consommation, théorie des niveaux de représentation
    Date: 2021–05–19
  33. By: Novy, Andreas; Barlow, Nathaniel
    Abstract: This article scrutinizes the potential of transformative climate actions (TCAs) to contribute to social-ecological transformations. It considers the limitations of past climate actions and distinguishes transformative climate actions from the broad array of climate actions that have so far been insufficient to address the multiple crises. We define TCAs as having three key elements: desirable, effective, and feasible. This builds on the IPCC AR6 definition of ‘solutions’ and our past work on transformative innovation. Furthermore, we describe six characteristics that transformative climate actions are likely to have, they include: broadening climate targets to include social-ecological goals, shaping framework conditions, linking pragmatic and radical actions, ensuring basic provisioning while limiting over- consumption, prioritizing avoiding harm, be it emissions or excessive resource use, and lastly acting on multiple levels. We elaborate on each of these characteristics with an example and support from climate literature.
    Keywords: transformation; post-growth; degrowth; climate change
    Date: 2022–12–30
  34. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the multinational oil companies' (MOCs) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on improving female status by improving nutrition in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 768 women respondents were sampled across the rural areas of the Niger Delta region. The results from the use of a combine propensity score matching and logit model indicate that GMoU model has made significant impact in the key areas of assessment - gender-sensitive nutrition education, food security at household level, reduction on food taboos and female access to education. This suggests that CSR interventions targeting to improve the nutrition status of girls and adolescents will help to ensure that female’s status improves throughout the life circle in the region. This implies that MOCs’ investment in the nutrition of female is an important short-term barometer in assessing expected returns to improving household nutrition and overall human development capacity for sub-Saharan Africa. This research contributes to the inequality debate in the women’s nutrition and inclusive growth literature from the CSR perspective. It concludes that business has an obligation to help in solving problems of public concern.
    Keywords: Female status, female nutrition, corporate social responsibility, multinational oil companies, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–01

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.