nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒01‒16
fifty-two papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. The effects of a private-sector-driven smallholder support programme on productivity, market participation and food and nutrition security: Evidence of a nucleus-outgrower scheme from Zambia By Sakketa, Tekalign Gutu; Herrmann, Raoul; Nkonde, Chewe; Lukonde, Mwelwa; Brüntrup, Michael
  2. European Demand for Plant-Based Dairy Substitutes: Hype or Hope for a Broader Transformation of the Food System By Hansen, Rebecca; Gebhardt, Beate; Hess, Sebastian
  3. Red Meat Consumption as a Benchmark for Food Security During Crises: Case Study of Meat Crisis and Covid-19 Pandemic in Iran By Ehsani, Afsaneh; Jaghdani, Tinoush Jamali; Götz, Linde
  4. Climate adaptive response of rice yield in Vietnam: new insight through panel data modeling with heterogeneous slopes By Thanh Viet Nguyen; Simioni Michel; Hung Trung Vo
  5. Attitude, Perception And Consumer Behavior Research Of Indian Consumers Towards Vertical Farming : Can Vertical Farming Offer Sustainable Solution To India’s Booming Urban Population By 2050? By Narang, Tanya
  6. Climate Change and Spatial Agricultural Development in Turkey By Burhan Can Karahasan; Mehmet Pinar
  7. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Herbicide Resistance Tests in German Agriculture By Michels, Marius; Bonke, Vanessa; Mußhoff, Oliver
  8. How – and How Much? An Analysis of Options for a Transformation of German Animal Farming towards Sustainability By von Gall, Philipp; Luy, Jörg; Köder, Moritz; von Meyer-Höfer, Marie
  9. Understanding the Food Component of Inflation By Emanuel Kohlscheen
  10. Effect of Contract Farming in a Small Open Less-developed Economy: A General Equilibrium Analysis By -Ranajoy Bhattacharyya; Gouranga Das; Sugata Marjit
  11. Toward Optimal Meat Pricing: Is It Time to Tax Meat Consumption? By Franziska Funke; Linus Mattauch; Inge van den Bijgaart; Charles Godfray; Cameron Hepburn; David Klenert; Marco Springmann; Nicolas Treich
  12. Growth and adaptation to climate change in the long run By Dietz, Simon; Lanz, Bruno
  13. Opportunities and challenges of food policy councils in pursuit of food system sustainability and food democracy–a comparative case study from the Upper-Rhine region By Sophie Michel; Arnim Wiek; Lena Bloemertz; Basil Bornemann; Laurence Granchamp; Cyril Villet; Lucía Gascón; David Sipple; Nadine Blanke; Jörg Lindenmeier; Magali Gay-Para
  14. Compensation Options for Quarantine Costs in Plant Production By Filiptseva, Anna; Filler, Günther; Odening, Martin
  15. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Food Consumption Through Price Channel: Case for Turkey By Emre Yüksel; Hüseyin Ikizler; Ali Emre Mutlu
  16. The Transboundary Effects of Climate Change and Global Adaptation: The Case of The Euphrates-Tigris Water Basin in Turkey and Iraq By Eleftherios Giovanis; Oznur Ozdamar
  17. Challenges to Iraq’s Environment: Applying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus Framework By Bassam Yousif; Omar El-Joumayle; Jehan Baban
  18. Farmers' Preferences for Satellite-based and Precipitation-based Index Insurance: Insights from Germany By Nordmeyer, Eike Florenz; Danne, Michael; Mußhoff, Oliver
  19. Effects of the African Continental Free Trade Area on Food Security By SIMOLA Antti Mikko; BOYSEN Ole; FERRARI Emanuele; NECHIFOR VOSTINARU Victor; BOULANGER Pierre
  20. The Ukraine war and its food security implications for India By SJ, Balaji; Babu, Suresh Chandra
  21. Factors Affecting the Diffusion of Digital Farming Towards More Resilient Farming Systems - Empirical Evidence from Baden-Württemberg By Paulus, Michael; Pfaff, Sara Anna
  22. Fighting climate change: international attitudes towards climate policies By Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Fabre, Adrien; Kruse, Tobias; Planterose, Bluebery; Sanchez Chico, Ana; Stantcheva, Stefanie
  23. Does Climate Change Affect Child Malnutrition in the Nile Basin? By Amira Elayouty; Hala Abou-Ali; Ronia Hawash
  24. Valuing Water Service Improvements through Revealed Preference: Averting Behaviour Method By Rajapakshe, Sisira; Termansen, Mette; Paavola, Jouni
  25. Internalizing negative environmental impacts from wind power production. Coasian bargaining, offsetting schemes and environmental taxes By Mads Greaker; Cathrine Hagem; Andreas Skulstad
  26. Covid-19 and Food Security Challenges in the MENA Region By Dina Atef Mandour
  27. Applications of Land-use Data from the Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS) in Scientific Research: A scoping Review Pilot Analysis By Leonhardt, Heidi; Hüttel, Silke; Lakes, Tobia; Wesemeyer, Maximilian; Wolff, Saskia
  28. Slow Magic: Agricultural vs Industrial R&D Lag Models By Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Serfas, Devin; Wang, Shanchao
  29. A “shared earth” approach to put biodiversity at the heart of the sustainable development in Africa By David Obura; Sébastien TREYER
  30. Could Genetic Improvement Policies Boost Milk Production in Senegal? A Synthetic Control Method By Zamani, Omid; Gunarathne, Anoma
  31. Decarbonization of Costa Rica's Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses Sectors: An Application of the IEEM ESM Approach By Banerjee, Onil; Cicowiez, Martin; Vargas, Renato; Molina-Pérez, Edmundo;
  32. Sudan’s Challenges and Opportunities:A Renaissance Project for Sudan: From Poor Agriculture to Agro-Industrial Growth and Sustainable Development By Ibrahim Elbadawi; Abdelrazig Elbashir; Abdelrahman Osman; Amir Hamid Elobaid; Elfatih Eltahir; Alzaki Alhelo
  33. Energy Poverty, Environmental Degradation and Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa By Stephen K. Dimnwobi; Kingsley I. Okere; Favour C. Onuoha; Chukwunonso Ekesiobi
  34. Coping with shocks: How Self-Help Groups impact food security and seasonal migration By Timothée Demont
  35. Predicting Agricultural Trade Flows under the EU-Japan Free Trade Agreement: A Comparison of CGE Simulations and Gravity Regressions By Berndt, Marvin; Hess, Sebastian
  36. How does Tenancy Affect Farmland Prices? Effects of Lease Status, Lease Term, and Buyer Type By Humpesch, Maximlian; Seifert, Stefan; Balman, Alfons; Hüttel, Silke
  37. Drought and Growth in Arab League Members, Iran and Turkey By Thibault Lemaire
  38. Climate Change and Fiscal Sustainability: Risks and Opportunities By Matthew Agarwala; Matt Burke; Patrycja Klusak; Kamiar Mohaddes; Ulrich Volz; Dimitri Zenghelis
  39. Livestock production, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and grassland conservation: Quasi-natural experimental evidence By Liu, Min; Xu, Wenli; Zhang, Hangyu; Chen, Huang; Bie, Qiang; Han, Guodong; Yu, Xiaohua
  40. The impact of CAP subsidies on the productivity of cereal farms in six European countries By Luigi Biagini; Federico Antonioli; Simone Severini
  41. Perceived losses urge people to pay for environmental conservation By Jin, Ruining
  42. An interregional Input-Output model with spatiotemporal hydrological variability. The case of Tuscany By Gino Sturla; Benedetto Rocchi
  43. Cash Transfers, Household Food Insecurity and the Subjective Wellbeing of Youth in Jordan By Zeina Jamaluddine; Maia Sieverding
  44. Added value of community based monitoring (CBM): lessons from the Fuatilia Maji Project By Biira Salamula, Jenipher; Guerrero Calle, Josué; Dewachter, Sara; Holvoet, Nathalie
  45. Economic Valuation of the Ecosystem Services of the Mesoamerican Reef, and the Allocation and Distribution of these Values By Ruiz de Gauna, Itziar; Markandya, Anil; Onofri, Laura; Greño, Francisco; Warman, Javier; Arce, Norma; Navarrete, Natalia; Rivera, Marisol; Kobelkowsky, Rebeca; Vargas, Mayela; Hernández, Marisol
  46. Addressing Sustainability and Equity Challenges in Managing the Environment and Natural Wealth in Sudan By Rashid Hassan; Hassan Abdelnur; Ismail Elgizouli; Yasir Khairy
  47. Liquidity or Capital?: The Impacts of Easing Credit Constraints in Rural Mexico By Aparicio, Gabriela; Bobicì, Vida; De Olloqui, Fernando; Fernández Díez, María Carmen; Gerardino, María Paula; Mitnik, Oscar A.; Vargas, Sebastián
  48. Enhancing Female Status by Improving Nutrition: the Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Oil Region By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  49. Global biodiversity scenarios: what do they tell us for Biodiversity-Related Financial Risks? By Julien CALAS; Etienne ESPAGNE; Antoine GODIN; Julie MAURIN
  50. Viet Nam’s green industrial path between carbon and climate exposures By Guilherme Magacho; Etienne Espagne; Irene de Eccher; Grégoire Sempé; Michel Simioni
  51. Et si la génétique expliquait aussi les tendances sur le marché mondial du vin ? By Jean Marie Cardebat; Olivier Bargain; Raphaël Chiappini
  52. Socioeconomic Changes of Coffee Farmers in Tlogopakis Village After the Rise of Coffee Shops By Paul, De

  1. By: Sakketa, Tekalign Gutu; Herrmann, Raoul; Nkonde, Chewe; Lukonde, Mwelwa; Brüntrup, Michael
    Abstract: Nucleus-outgrower schemes (NOSs) are supposed to be a particularly effective private-sector mechanism to support smallholder farmers and contribute towards mitigating the problematic aspects of pure large-scale agricultural investments. This discussion paper uses panel household survey data collected in two rounds in Zambia to analyse some agro-ecological and socio-economic impacts of the outgrower programme of one of the largest agricultural investments in Zambia: Amatheon Agri Zambia (AAZ) Limited. The descriptive results show that the type of participation in the programme varies across participants and components, with most participating in trainings. Econometric results suggest the following key findings. First, although the overall impact of the AAZ outgrower programme on the uptake of conservation agriculture practices is robust and promising, impacts on the adoption of other agricultural technologies is less obvious and the effect depends on the type of support provided. Second, the programme has had a significant impact on maize productivity promoted in the initial phase but not on the other crops - mainly oilseeds - promoted later. Third, the initially less productive farmers seem to benefit slightly more than already better performing ones. Fourth, although the impact on overall household security was insignificant, there is some suggestive evidence (although the effect is weak) that the programme has a positive effect on improving women's uptake of micronutrients. Finally, our findings show that the three components of the programme (trainings, seed loans and output purchases) have different effects on the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices and productivity, and to some extent on food security. Overall, the results suggest that NOSs, with all their risks, can play a role in the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices, improving farm-level agricultural technologies, providing input credit, and thereby improving productivity and smallholder livelihoods. However, this is not automatically the case, as it crucially depends on the design and management of the project; the availability of good policies and institutions governing the rules of operation; the types of crops promoted; the duration of the project; and the political commitment of host countries, among others.
    Keywords: Agriculture, conservation agriculture, Nucleus-Outgrower-Schemes, large-scale agricultural investments, rural development, food security, agricultural productivity, Zambia
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Hansen, Rebecca; Gebhardt, Beate; Hess, Sebastian
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Ehsani, Afsaneh; Jaghdani, Tinoush Jamali; Götz, Linde
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Thanh Viet Nguyen (University of Akureyi); Simioni Michel (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Hung Trung Vo (Thu Dau Mot University - Partenaires INRAE)
    Abstract: Rice production is central to the Vietnamese economy, not only in terms of contribution to Vietnam's GDP, but also to the food security of its population. However, Vietnam is one of the countries most threatened by climate change in the coming decades, and its rice production in particular. This paper focuses on rice yields and investigates their evolution over time and between provinces over the period 1987-2015, depending on climatic conditions. Special attention is devoted to the impact of heat stress. This impact is measured taking into account the potential adaptation of farmers to these extreme events. To this end, a dynamic production function allowing for spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rice yield responses of to climatic conditions is estimated. Data descriptive analysis shows that the provinces with favorable conditions for rice growth are also those that face the most risk of heat stress. Estimation results show that these provinces adapt to heat stress conditions and that their adaptation eort begins to decrease when heat stress risk becomes too high. Taking adaptation into account then makes it possible to qualify the forecasts made regarding rice yields in the presence of climate change.
    Keywords: Rice yield,Climate change,Adaptation,Vietnam,Large panel data,Mean observation
    Date: 2022–11–22
  5. By: Narang, Tanya
    Abstract: By the year 2050, the world population is expected to grow to 9.8 billion people and 70% of these people will live in cities. India will become the most populous country by 2023, overtaking China and about 53% of the Indian population is expected to live in cities by 2050, up from 35% in 2021 as per World Bank. However, in India, almost all the food production happens in rural areas and small towns. Transporting food from a farmer’s place to consumer’s neighborhood store results in ‘food miles’, and carbon emissions. Not to mention, food wasted during long journeys that gets dumped into landfills and end up contributing to 10% of greenhouse gas emissions. To minimize such pollution, emissions and waste, food can be alternatively grown in urban areas via Vertical Farming(VF). VF involves new age technologies like hydroponics, aeroponics or aquaponics. It is more efficient than traditional farming, offers higher yield, is free from chemicals and pesticides. This study measures consumers perception towards VF products and concludes that 80.7% of people care about sustainability, 85% are ready to pay premium and 63% would trust such products. ‘Climate-consciousness’ and ‘buying healthy and fresh food for family’ were the perceived benefits from family and friends. However more needs to be done to drive awareness, consideration, availability and affordability of vertical farm products. Only 57% of the respondents are aware about health benefits(chemical and pesticide-free) of VF products, 57.5% were aware about VF or hydroponics and in terms of purchase behavior, only 44.3% of respondents have bought a VF product. Vertical Farming is the future of modern agriculture and can be a panacea in feeding India’s burgeoning urban population, fighting food transportation-related pollution, reduce food miles, food waste and associated greenhouse gas emissions.
    Keywords: Consumer behavior; attitudes and perception research; Indian consumers; Vertical farms; hydroponics; sustainability; eco-friendly; environmentally conscious; Climate solutions; urbanization; urban population; India; food security;
    JEL: M31 Q18 R11
    Date: 2022–11–18
  6. By: Burhan Can Karahasan (Piri Reis University, Turkey); Mehmet Pinar (Edge Hill University)
    Abstract: Global combat with climate change is central to policymaking. However, recent discussions underline the rising disparity of the impact of climate change for countries with different topographic conditions. Motivated by the rising importance of local differences in climatic developments, this paper aims to investigate the impact of climate change on the spatial distribution of the agriculture sector in Turkey. Using provincial data between 2004 and 2019, our findings show that climate change has a pervasive impact on the regional distribution of agricultural activities. We found out that the impact of climate change on agricultural outcomes is mainly visible through rising temperatures. Those regions with accelerating average temperature are realizing falling agricultural value-added and employment. Moreover, our findings show that the same areas also experience higher food and overall price increases. Our local variability analyses reveal the non-monotonic relationships and suggest that the negative impact of climate change is more observable in for the eastern regions. Our findings demonstrate that climate change is another factor that contributing to the west-east regional development disparities in Turkey. These results are robust to different model specifications and endogeneity of climate change.
    Date: 2021–12–20
  7. By: Michels, Marius; Bonke, Vanessa; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Keywords: Marketing, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022
  8. By: von Gall, Philipp; Luy, Jörg; Köder, Moritz; von Meyer-Höfer, Marie
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Emanuel Kohlscheen
    Abstract: This article presents evidence based on a panel of 35 countries over the past 30 years that the Phillips curve relation holds for food inflation. That is, broader economic overheating does push up the food component of the CPI in a systematic way. Further, general inflation expectations from professional forecasters clearly impact food price inflation. The analysis also quantifies the extent to which higher food production and imports, or lower food exports, reduce food inflation. Importantly, the link between domestic and global food prices is typically weak, with pass throughs within a year ranging from 0.07 to 0.16, after exchange rate variations are taken into account.
    Keywords: crop, expectations, energy, food export, food prices, food import, food production, forecast, inflation, output gap, Phillips curve
    JEL: E30 E31 E32 E50 F14 Q00
    Date: 2022–12
  10. By: -Ranajoy Bhattacharyya (Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), Kolkata, India.); Gouranga Das (Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea); Sugata Marjit (Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Kolkata, India)
    Abstract: : In this paper, we analyse the entry of a cash crop producing foreign Contract Farming (CF) subsector within the agricultural sector of a country. Entry requires a cash crop price that is substantially above the price of the food crop already being produced within the country. CF (a) increases GDP; (b) may make income distribution more skewed; (c) reduces domestic production of food and hence, (d) increases food import and hence food insecurity. Thus, CF might imply a trade-off between food insecurity, inequality and growth. We employ a variant of 3×3 mixed Specific Factor-Heckscher Ohlin general equilibrium model of production and trade where introduction of a new policy may lead to the emergence of a new sector resulting in finite changes where we show the possibilities of sectoral diversification with combinations of contract farming vis-à-vis traditional agriculture under some plausible conditions. However, either zero CF and extremely high CF are suboptimal and hence, CF cannot be substitute of non-CF agricultural sector producing Food crops. Our results seem to be consistent when compared to some empirically robust conclusions found in the literature and some secondary data available in the FAO website.
    Keywords: Contract Farming, Food crops, Cash-crops, Food Insufficiency, Finite Change, General Equilibrium.
    JEL: F11 F16 F60 J43 O13 Q17
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Franziska Funke (Technical University of Berlin, University of Oxford [Oxford], PIK - Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung); Linus Mattauch (Technical University of Berlin, University of Oxford [Oxford], PIK - Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung); Inge van den Bijgaart (Utrecht University [Utrecht]); Charles Godfray (University of Oxford [Oxford]); Cameron Hepburn (University of Oxford [Oxford]); David Klenert (SAI - Space Applications Institute [Ispra] - JRC - European Commission - Joint Research Centre [Ispra]); Marco Springmann (University of Oxford [Oxford]); Nicolas Treich (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Livestock is known to contribute significantly to climate change and to negatively impact global nitrogen cycles and biodiversity. However, there has been little research on economically efficient policies for regulating meat production and consumption. In the absence of first-best policy instruments for the livestock sector, second-best consumption taxes on meat can address multiple environmental externalities simultaneously as well as improve diet-related public health. In this article, we review the empirical evidence on the social costs of meat and examine the rationales for taxing meat consumption in high-income countries. We approach these issues from the perspective of public, behavioral, and welfare economics, focusing in particular on (1) the interaction of multiple environmental externalities of meat production and consumption, (2) "alternative protein" technologies, (3) adverse effects on human health, (4) animal welfare, and (5) distributional effects of meat taxation. We present preliminary estimates of the environmental social costs associated with meat consumption and find that meat is significantly underpriced. We conclude by identifying several directions for future research on optimal meat taxation.
    Date: 2022–06
  12. By: Dietz, Simon; Lanz, Bruno
    Abstract: As the climate is changing, the global economy is adapting. We provide a novel method of estimating how much adaptation has taken place historically, how much it has cost, and how much it has reduced the impacts of climate change. The method is based on a structurally estimated, globally aggregated model of long-run growth, which identifies how household consumption and fertility preferences, innovation, and land use allow the economy to adapt to climate change. We identify the key role of agriculture, because it is especially vulnerable to climate change and food cannot be perfectly substituted. To compensate for declining crop yields, the world economy has shifted resources into agriculture and this has slowed down structural change. We also use the model to estimate optimal future carbon taxation. Adaptation is costly, so radically reducing future greenhouse gas emissions could improve welfare substantially. Uncertainty about climate damages remains substantial, particularly in agriculture, and this strongly affects optimal policy.
    Keywords: agriculture; climate change; directed technical change; economic growth; energy; population growth; structural change; structural estimation; uncertainty
    JEL: C51 O13 Q54
    Date: 2022–12–06
  13. By: Sophie Michel (Humanis - Hommes et management en société / Humans and management in society - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg); Arnim Wiek (ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF SUSTAINABILITY TEMPE USA - Partenaires IRSTEA - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources - University of Freiburg [Freiburg]); Lena Bloemertz (Department of Environmental Sciences [Basel] - Unibas - University of Basel); Basil Bornemann (Unibas - University of Basel); Laurence Granchamp (LINCS - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire en études culturelles - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UR ETTIS - Environnement, territoires en transition, infrastructures, sociétés - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Cyril Villet (CREGO - Centre de Recherche en Gestion des Organisations - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UB - Université de Bourgogne - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE] - UFC - Université de Franche-Comté - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE]); Lucía Gascón (Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources - University of Freiburg [Freiburg]); David Sipple (Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources - University of Freiburg [Freiburg]); Nadine Blanke; Jörg Lindenmeier (University of Freiburg [Freiburg]); Magali Gay-Para (Eurométropole de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: Conventional food systems continue to jeopardize the health and well-being of people and the environment, with a number of related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) still far from being reached. Food Policy Councils (FPCs)—since several decades in North America, and more recently in Europe—have begun to facilitate sustainable food system governance activities among various stakeholders as an explicit alternative to the shaping of food systems by multinational food corporations and their governmental allies. In contrast to the former, FPCs pursue the goals of food system sustainability through broad democratic processes. Yet, at least in Europe, the agenda of FPCs is more an open promise than a firm reality (yet); and thus, it is widely unknown to what extent FPCs actually contribute to food system sustainability and do so with democratic processes. At this early stage, we offer a comparative case study across four FPCs from the Upper-Rhine Region (Freiburg, Basel, Mulhouse, Strasbourg)—all formed and founded within the past 5 years—to explore how successful different types of FPCs are in terms of contributing to food system sustainability and adhering to democratic and good governance principles. Our findings indicate mixed results, with the FPCs mostly preparing the ground for more significant efforts at later stages and struggling with a number of challenges in adhering to principles of democracy and good governance. Our study contributes to the theory of sustainable food systems and food democracy with the focus on the role of FPCs, and offers procedural insights on how to evaluate them regarding sustainable outcomes and democratic processes. The study also offers practical insights relevant to these four and other FPCs in Europe, supporting their efforts to achieve food system sustainability with democratic processes.
    Keywords: Food policy council,Sustainable food system,Food democracy,Good governance,Evaluation,food policy council,sustainable food system,food democracy,good governance,evaluation
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Filiptseva, Anna; Filler, Günther; Odening, Martin
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Agribusiness
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Emre Yüksel; Hüseyin Ikizler (OSTIM Technical University); Ali Emre Mutlu (RT Presidency of Strategy and Budget)
    Abstract: Like many MENA countries, the factors leading to climate change in Turkey have drastically escalated in the last two decades. This paper mainly focuses on the issue of ensuring food security. We aim to examine the significance of climate shocks in Turkey's food prices. The unique structures of this paper are threefold: First, we define climate shocks as persistent deviations from the long-term mean in a region regarding temperature and precipitation due to climate change; second, controlling for possible shocks, we examine the role of climate change in food price processes; and third, we examine the causal effect of food price on per capita food expenditure based on the demand equation. We find the most prominent climate change effect on prices of bread and cereals, and other food products. The estimates of the second phase of the analysis suggest that both price and the wealth effects on food consumption increase more in regions where climate change exists than in regions with no significant change in climate figures. However, we do not observe significant differences in the wealth effect on non-food consumption among the regions.
    Date: 2021–12–20
  16. By: Eleftherios Giovanis (Aydin Adnan Menderes University); Oznur Ozdamar (Izmir Bakircay University)
    Abstract: Drought has erupted across the Middle-East, as a result of climate change and global warming, leading to a considerable reduction in rainfall and snowfall, as well as a substantial drop in water resources. Climate change is, without a doubt, one of Iraq’s most pressing issues, with considerable negative consequences for the environment, water resources, and the economy, particularly in the agricultural sector. With a growing global population and other factors, the effects of climate change, water ownership and distribution will certainly become more critical. The EuphratesTigris water basin is a major source of water supply for Turkey and Iraq, where the latter is a downstream riparian country and the former is an upstream country. Turkey is most vulnerable to climate change as the country will experience a substantial decline in the annual surface runoff. However, Turkey will suffer less than Iraq, which as a downstream country, relies primarily on the water released by Turkey as the upstream country. The empirical analysis relies on data from the Iraqi Household Socio-Economic Survey (IHSES) conducted in 2012 and the 2017 Rapid Welfare Monitoring Survey. We apply simultaneous unrelated regressions equations (SURE) with Probit models. We further extend the analysis by incorporating an instrument variables (IV) approach considering the population of the nearest Turkish city to where the dam is located, the water capacity, and the distance between this dam and the respondent’s governorate in Iraq. Similarly, we construct other two instruments considering the distance between the dams in Iraq and in Syria and the nearest governorate along with the dams’ water capacity and the population of the governorate in Iraq. The findings show a significant impact of climate change-related shocks on income, assets, food production and stock, and the overall economic situation of households in Iraq.
    Date: 2021–12–20
  17. By: Bassam Yousif (Indiana State University); Omar El-Joumayle; Jehan Baban
    Abstract: This paper utilizes research on Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus to study the relationships between Iraq’s water (requirement and supply), energy (the oil and gas sector), and food production. We survey environmental conditions and note that the quality and availability of water have declined over the last decades, which have posed threats to public health, environmental sustainability, and food security. We next use a variety of data sources to study the interlinkages between these three sectors, including water-energy-food indexes, and explore the state of the agriculture and oil sectors. We point out that water is a key input into both agricultural production and oil extraction, mediating the energy and food sectors and acting to constrain and make rival food and energy outputs. We offer policy recommendations classified into those that seek to overcome internal barriers and others geared towards external constraints.
    Date: 2022–08–20
  18. By: Nordmeyer, Eike Florenz; Danne, Michael; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022
  19. By: SIMOLA Antti Mikko (European Commission - JRC); BOYSEN Ole (European Commission - JRC); FERRARI Emanuele (European Commission - JRC); NECHIFOR VOSTINARU Victor (European Commission - JRC); BOULANGER Pierre
    Abstract: The African countries are deepening their economic integration by launching the world’s largest free trade area, the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). This Policy Insight presents scientific evidence on the impacts of the AfCFTA on agri-food industries and food security in Africa. The AfCFTA deepens African economic integration by boosting intra-African trade throughout the continent. It potentially generates vibrant growth and transformation at scale. Output of agricultural and processed food products concentrates in African countries driven by comparative advantages, while some of the countries increase their imports. Incomes of the African households in most regions rise, although moderately, increasing average food consumption throughout the continent. Food prices increase in several regions, but are outbalanced by higher wages, ultimately resulting in increased purchasing power for food. By 2035, the AfCFTA could reduce undernourishment in Africa by 1 million people.
    Keywords: food security, Africa, African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA)
    Date: 2022–10
  20. By: SJ, Balaji; Babu, Suresh Chandra
    Abstract: Russia’s war on Ukraine shows no signs of subsidence. Its economic and societal adversities have already been felt worldwide but keep evolving, with food and energy being the most affected. Low-income, food-deficit nations importing from these two countries – many of which are in Northern Africa and Western and Central Asia – face critical challenges. The South Asian region, which has grappled with surging commodity prices and supply constraints even before the war, is likely to witness further inflation with rising food and oil prices. India is home to around 18% of the world’s population and accounts for 74% of the South Asian population. It is predicted to be the fastest-growing big economy this year. The country’s central bank (RBI) predicts that GDP will grow by 7.5% in FY 2022-23 (RBI, 2022), while many international organizations forecast growth between 6.4% and 8.2% (ADB, 2022; IMF, 2022; United Nations, 2022; World Bank, 2022). Still, in the wake of the ill effects of COVID-19, the country’s dependence on imports such as oil, fertilizers, and edible oils, and given surging domestic food and nonfood inflation in recent months, raises concerns about economic stability and possible interventions that might curtail fragility. The country consumes around 5 million barrels of crude oil daily but imports over 89% of its requirement from overseas. Crude oil prices have increased by 27% in just four months since the start of the war (February- June 2022). Edible oils have similarly increased, with palm and soybean oil prices rising by around 14% and 18%, respectively. The price of sunflower seed oil has increased by 42%, of which 86% originates from Ukraine and Russia. Fertilizer import dependency from the conflict regions is also sizeable. Russia was the 5th largest supplier of fertilizers to India in 2021-22, and Ukraine and Belarus were the 9th and 10th largest suppliers. The rise in prices of both finished fertilizers and fertilizer inputs has prompted the Government to double the fertilizer subsidy budgeted earlier this year. This policy brief investigates India's susceptibility to the war's disruptions and higher prices for commodities where import dependence is high. It then discusses potential income, food, and nutritional impacts on farmers, the poor, and the vulnerable. It also evaluates the Government’s policy measures such as subsidization, social safety nets, and trade diversification to reduce the impact of the war. Finally, it explores the market opportunities the conflict has created and the required structural reforms that would equip the country to handle such shocks in the future
    Keywords: AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, CENTRAL AFRICA, EAST AFRICA, NORTH AFRICA, SOUTHERN AFRICA, WEST AFRICA, food security, war, agriculture, agricultural sector, agricultural products, fertilizers, oil and gas industries, shock,
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Paulus, Michael; Pfaff, Sara Anna
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Fabre, Adrien; Kruse, Tobias; Planterose, Bluebery; Sanchez Chico, Ana; Stantcheva, Stefanie
    Abstract: Using new surveys on more than 40,000 respondents in twenty countries that account for 72% of global CO2 emissions, we study the understanding of and attitudes toward climate change and climate policies. We show that, across countries, support for climate policies hinges on three key perceptions centered around the effectiveness o f the policies in reducing emissions (effectiveness c concerns), t heir distributional impacts on lower-income households (inequality concerns), and their impact on the respondents’ household (self-interest). We show experimentally that information specifically addressing these key concerns can substantially increase the support for climate policies in many countries. Explaining how policies work and who can benefit f rom t hem is critical to foster policy support, whereas simply informing people about the impacts of climate change is not effective. Furthermore, we identify several socioeconomic and lifestyle factors – most notably education, political leanings, and availability of public transportation – that are significantly correlated with both policy views and overall reasoning and beliefs about climate policies. However, it is difficult to predict beliefs or policy views based on these characteristics only.
    Keywords: climate change; climate policies; carbon tax; perceptions; survey; experiment; French Ministry of Foreign Affairs; French Conseil d’Analyse Economique; Spanish Ministry for the Ecological Transition and Demographic Challenge
    JEL: Q54 Q58 D78 H23 P48
    Date: 2022–12–02
  23. By: Amira Elayouty (Cairo University); Hala Abou-Ali (Cairo University); Ronia Hawash (Butler University)
    Abstract: Children’s nutritional status is expected to be negatively impacted by global climate change given their relative vulnerability to food insecurity shocks. The developing countries in Africa are relatively even more vulnerable to these negative impacts. This study investigates the impact of climate change on the geographical variation of the prevalence of stunting among children under the age of five in the Nile basin region using the Demographic and Health Surveys of the three countries Egypt, Ethiopia and Uganda. Survey data is spatially and temporally merged with high resolution climate change datasets to investigate whether and how the change in temperatures and precipitation has an influence on children’s malnutrition. The prevalence of stunting among children under five years of age and its socioeconomic determinants are modelled using Bayesian geospatial regression model. The prevalence and determinants of stunting varied across Egypt, Ethiopia, and Uganda. The result of this paper highlights the fact that social policies and public health interventions targeted to reduce the burden of childhood stunting should consider geographical heterogeneity and adaptable risk factors.
    Date: 2022–11–20
  24. By: Rajapakshe, Sisira; Termansen, Mette; Paavola, Jouni
    Abstract: Access to quality and adequate water supply is a basic need to sustain human life. Health risk of unsafe drinking water is a serious issue in many poor and underserved communities in developing countries. Therefore, the improvements of the health status of the people are considered as one of the main justifications of promoting investment in water infrastructure. People take a number of coping strategies for water service improvement and the expenditures on such measures implicitly reflect their preferences for water service improvements. This paper leads to estimation of the benefits of water service improvements using the Averting Expenditure Method. This study examines the determinants of averting actions and the prevailing health impacts using the Probit models aiming to examine why some households practice averting measures and have experienced with health impacts while others not. Study found that the respondent’s socio-economic attributes significantly determine the choice of averting behaviours. Then this study calculates the monitory values of number of averting measures and it was found that the mean averting expenditures of the household are Rs. 577 and Rs,. 740 per month respectively the households connected to the system and un-connected to the system. piped households spending an average about Rs. 500 per month as a damage cost of water related health impacts which is unseen but part of the real cost of lack of access to good quality water supply. Study conclude that the WTP estimates are much higher than the payments for existing piped schemes hence cost of clean and consistent water supply could be finance through a user payment scheme.
    Keywords: Water quality, health impacts, averting behaviors, averting expenditures, willingness to pay.
    JEL: Q51
    Date: 2022–12–11
  25. By: Mads Greaker; Cathrine Hagem (Statistics Norway); Andreas Skulstad
    Abstract: On the one hand, wind power production is necessary for decarbonizing the electricity sector. On the other hand, we risk replacing one environmental problem with other environmental problems, that is, stopping climate change in exchange with increased loss of pristine land and biodiversity. The present paper provides a novel contribution to the literature on how to regulate the development of wind power plants (WPPs). Current regulation is largely based on a concession system, where both environmental taxes and offset schemes are left unexplored. We develop a theoretical model of WPP development with offsets and environmental taxes. We show that if additional loss of pristine nature and biodiversity is acceptable at some monetary price, establishing an offset market for WPP development and combining it with an environmental tax will be socially desirable. In fact, this solution is preferable to both only having an environmental tax or only having a compulsory offset market. However, if no more loss of pristine land and biodiversity can be tolerated, compulsory and complete offsetting should be the norm. We look at two restoration projects in Norway and evaluate to what extent they could have been used as offsets for a recent WPP development in Norway. We conclude that they can, but an offset scheme demands good measurement methods and regulations to ensure equivalence in the values of ecosystem services lost and gained.
    Keywords: Wind power; Offsetting schemes; Environmental taxes; Resource Equivalency; Analysis; Habitat Equivalency Analysis
    JEL: D62 Q24 Q26 Q42 Q48 Q51 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2022–12
  26. By: Dina Atef Mandour (Cairo University)
    Abstract: Apart from being a health crisis in the first place, COVID-19 at its core is an economic as well as a food security potential crises. This paper assesses the link between the pandemic and food security status with special focus on the MENA region. It highlights the different channels through which the pandemic could impact the status of food security, with its different pillars including affordability, availability, and utilization. Globally as well as in the MENA region, COVID has mainly affected the affordability and utilization pillars of FS, and had negligible effects on the availability pillar, at least in the interim. To understand the link between food insecurity and the pandemic, the study employs two types of datasets and correspondingly two equations were estimated using two different indicators for measuring food security and two indicators to proxy the effect of the pandemic. The two approaches confirmed that the variability in food security status across all countries is significantly negatively related to the pandemic stringency on global and MENA region levels. The empirical assessment has drawn vivid attention to the relative importance of the role of institutional and demographic prerequisites, consecutively, needed to handle the pandemic in explaining the food insecurity variability across all countries, compared to the effect of the stringency of the pandemic as measured by the number of confirmed cases. Regression results have put the MENA region at a disadvantaged situation, compared to the rest of the world, regarding its coping capacity limitations as represented by the weak governance, high prevalence of corruption and fragile health systems in explaining countries’ variability in food security levels. COVID has thus the potential of being the catalyst that would intensify the urgency to undertake radical reforms in food systems and to revisit several directly and indirectly related structural and institutional rigidities that have affected accessibility and utilization pillars in MENA region.
    Date: 2021–11–20
  27. By: Leonhardt, Heidi; Hüttel, Silke; Lakes, Tobia; Wesemeyer, Maximilian; Wolff, Saskia
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Serfas, Devin; Wang, Shanchao
    Abstract: R&D is slow magic. It takes many years before research investments begin to affect productivity, but then they can affect productivity for a long time. Many economists get this wrong. Here we revisit the conceptual foundations for R&D lag models used to represent the temporal links between research investments and impact, review prevalent practice, and document and discuss a range of evidence on R&D lags in agriculture and other industries. Our theory and evidence consistently support the use of longer lags with a different overall lag profile than is typically imposed in studies of industrial R&D and government compilations of R&D knowledge stocks. Many studies systematically fail to recognize the many years of investment and effort typically required to create a new technology and bring it to market, and the subsequent years as the technology is diffused and adopted. Consequential distortions in the measures and economic understanding are implied.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Industrial Organization, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–12
  29. By: David Obura; Sébastien TREYER
    Abstract: Biodiversity is a classic example of a global commons. As we enter the coming decades of a rapidly changing climate, declining biodiversity, growing human populations and economic growth, sub-Saharan Africa countries are facing an existential challenge to their security and welfare. We blend commons approaches with a new ‘shared earth’ approach to local planning, focusing on the health and benefits of nature where people live and earn their livelihoods. The approach combines conservation with livelihoods, local cultures and local institutions to generate local solutions that meet peoples needs at the same time securing biodiversity and its benefits into the future. Done right, this approach can facilitate equitable participation of local actors in larger scale and transboundary supply chains, through shared principles of equity of access to and use of nature. This approach can help African and partner countries balance their obligations globally under the Sustainable Development Goals (to 2030) and the new global biodiversity framework (to 2050), while meeting local needs for a good quality of life.
    Keywords: Afrique
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–11–30
  30. By: Zamani, Omid; Gunarathne, Anoma
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2022
  31. By: Banerjee, Onil; Cicowiez, Martin; Vargas, Renato; Molina-Pérez, Edmundo;
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of implementing Costa Ricas Decarbonization Plan, focusing specifically on the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (AFOLU) sectors. To do so, we apply the Integrated Economic-Environmental Modeling (IEEM) framework for Costa Rica, linked with high resolution spatial land use land cover and ecosystem services modeling (IEEMESM). This is the first economy-wide analysis of Costa Ricas Decarbonization Plan that integrates both economic and ecosystem services impacts. Such an integrated approach is critical for understanding cross-sectoral implications of decarbonization despite the sector-specific focus of AFOLU, while considering the impacts on future ecosystem services flows and wealth. Our results indicate that the positive cumulative wealth impacts of the full decarbonization of Costa Ricas AFOLU sectors are on the order of US$8,747 million by 2050 and generally enhances the future flow of ecosystem services. Decarbonization of AFOLU is pro-poor, lifting 4,530 out of poverty by 2050. From a public investment perspective, decarbonization generates economic returns of US$1,114 million when natural capital and environmental quality are considered. The IEEMESM Platform developed in this paper provides a strong foundation for future analysis and refinement of proposed decarbonization strategies for the country, while weighing the relative costs and benefits of the economic, environmental and social dimensions in an integrated way.
    Keywords: climate change;Agriculture;decarbonization;ecosystem services modeling;Integrated Economic-Environmental Modeling (IEEM) Platform;dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model
    JEL: O13 Q54 C68
    Date: 2021–03
  32. By: Ibrahim Elbadawi; Abdelrazig Elbashir; Abdelrahman Osman; Amir Hamid Elobaid; Elfatih Eltahir; Alzaki Alhelo
    Abstract: The initial conditions of the Sudanese agricultural sector are quite dire. Despite more than half a century of several economic development plans and public policy initiatives all centered on transforming the sector, the country’s vast agricultural potential is far from realized. Notwithstanding sad past experiences, modernizing agriculture remains critical for promoting win-win solutions, and it must be the focal point of any serious transformational project for the Sudanese economy. The modern growth literature focusing on the process of catch-up growth contrasts between the growth processes of industry and agriculture. The overall evidence shows that poor countries with initially low productivity could grow faster and catch up with richer countries if they adopt growth-promoting policies and build the right institutions to allow them to absorb knowledge and learn from the technological frontier. Therefore, poorer economies can only grow faster than richer economies, conditional on their endowments, policies, and institutions (Rodrik, 2011). However, more recent evidence suggests that productivity in manufacturing tends to converge unconditionally regardless of the prevailing institutions or policy environment (Rodrik 2013). In the light of this evidence, it is natural to question whether the unconditional convergence property also extends to the agricultural sector (Ishac et al., 2013).
    Date: 2022–07–20
  33. By: Stephen K. Dimnwobi (NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria); Kingsley I. Okere (Gregory University, Uturu, Nigeria); Favour C. Onuoha (Evangel University Akaeze, Nigeria); Chukwunonso Ekesiobi (Igbariam, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Agricultural productivity remains pivotal to the sustenance of the economies and livelihoods of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. Given the emerging threat of energy and environmental uncertainties globally, this study makes a foray into understanding the link among energy poverty, environmental degradation and agricultural productivity in 35 SSA nations in particular, and the nature of their impacts across the sub-region constituents namely; the Central, Eastern, Western and Southern sub-regional blocs in general. To begin, our identified variables comprised of the following: Energy Poverty Index, derived using the principal component analysis, agricultural value added as a share of GDP served as a measure of agricultural productivity and ecological footprint to represent environmental degradation. Subsequently, the instrumental variable generalized method of moment (IV†GMM) technique was implemented for the aggregate SSA model, while the IV-two stage least square technique was adopted for the sub-regional estimations for the Central, East, West and South African blocs respectively. Major findings from the SSA model revealed that whereas the index of energy poverty has a significant positive influence, ecological footprint exhibited an inverse and significant impact on agricultural productivity, while the Central, East, West and South African models yielded mixed results given regional disparities in economic development, regional variations in agricultural productivity and an imbalance of available resources. Policy recommendations were suggested to, among other things, transform the energy, environmental and agricultural fortunes of the region.
    Keywords: Agricultural Productivity, SSA; Energy Poverty, Environmental Degradation, Africa’s sub-region
    Date: 2022–01
  34. By: Timothée Demont (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Combining seven years of household data from an original eld experiment in villages of Jharkand, East India, with meteorological data, this paper investigates how Indian Self-Help Groups (SHGs) enable households to withstand rainfall shocks. I show that SHGs operate remarkably well under large covariate shocks. While credit access dries up in control villages one year after a bad monsoon, reecting strong credit rationing from informal lenders, credit ows are counter-cyclical in treated villages. Treated households experience substantially higher food security during the lean season following a drought and increase their seasonal migration to mitigate expected income shocks. Credit access plays an important role, together with other SHG aspects such as peer networks. These ndings indicate that local self-help and nancial associations can help poor farmers to cope with climatic shocks and to implement risk management strategies.
    Keywords: Micronance,credit,climatic shocks,risk management,resilience,seasonal migration,food security
    Date: 2022–07
  35. By: Berndt, Marvin; Hess, Sebastian
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022
  36. By: Humpesch, Maximlian; Seifert, Stefan; Balman, Alfons; Hüttel, Silke
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2022
  37. By: Thibault Lemaire (1Banque de France & Université Paris 1 Panthéon - Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Water scarcity and droughts have long characterized the Middle East and North Africa, and climate change represents an additional challenge to this region’s development prospects. Using macroeconomic and climate panel data for Arab League members, Iran and Turkey during the period 1960-–2018, this paper assesses the effects of sustained drought deviations from their historical norms on output growth in the region and shows that droughts decrease output growth in oil importing countries, with no or statistically weakly significant positive effects in oil exporting countries. These effects do not strengthen as the horizon increases and vanish after one year but do not revert in subsequent periods, leading to lasting losses in output level in oil importing countries. The agricultural sector and civil violence appear to be two of the transmission channels. The results advocate for carefully planned economic diversification in the region and shed light to associated risks.
    Date: 2022–09–20
  38. By: Matthew Agarwala (Bennett Institute for Public Policy, University of Cambridge); Matt Burke (Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, UK); Patrycja Klusak (Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, UK); Kamiar Mohaddes (Judge Business School & King’s College, University of Cambridge, UK); Ulrich Volz (German Development Institute, Germany); Dimitri Zenghelis (Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, UK)
    Abstract: Both the physical and transition-related impacts of climate change pose substantial macroeconomic risks. Yet, markets still lack credible estimates of how climate change will affect debt sustainability, sovereign creditworthiness, and the public finances of major economies. We present a taxonomy for tracing the physical and transition impacts of climate change through to impacts on sovereign risk. We then apply the taxonomy to the UK's potential transition to net zero. Meeting internationally agreed climate targets will require an unprecedented structural transformation of the global economy over the next two or three decades. The changing landscape of risks warrants new risk management and hedging strategies to contain climate risk and minimise the impact of asset stranding and asset devaluation. Yet, conditional on action being taken early, the opportunities from managing a net zero transition would substantially outweigh the costs.
    Date: 2021–11–20
  39. By: Liu, Min; Xu, Wenli; Zhang, Hangyu; Chen, Huang; Bie, Qiang; Han, Guodong; Yu, Xiaohua
    Abstract: Serious climate challenges and environmental concerns have led to calls to mitigate greenhouse effects and pollution by controlling livestock production. In this study, we performed a cross-boundary quasi-natural experimental analysis of the Mongolian Plateau to examine the causal effects of livestock reduction on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollutants. Aimed at grassland conservation by controlling overgrazing, China’s grassland ecological compensation policy (GECP) unintendedly offered the opportunity to estimate the causal effects of livestock reduction. To this end, we used official statistical data, remote sensing data, reanalysis data, and household survey data. Empirical findings based on the synthetic difference-in-differences (SDID) approach showed that with the implementation of the GECP, livestock reduction reduced atmospheric GHG and air pollutant concentrations and increased grassland quality and carbon sequestration in grasslands. We extended the basic SDID to the dynamic SDID and used it to estimate the causal effects in each policy year, which presented that the policy effects were more pronounced after several years of continuous implementation. The pathway analysis revealed that atmospheric CH4 concentrations decreased with the reduction in animal CH4 emissions and that the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations decreased with grassland restoration. These findings provided empirical references for reforming the global food system to ensure both food security and environmental protection.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gases Air pollutants Livestock Synthetic difference-in-differences Grassland
    JEL: H43 Q1 R1
    Date: 2022–11
  40. By: Luigi Biagini; Federico Antonioli; Simone Severini
    Abstract: Total factor productivity (TFP) is a key determinant of farm development, a sector that receives substantial public support. The issue has taken on great importance today, where the conflict in Ukraine has led to repercussions on the cereal markets. This paper investigates the effects of different subsidies on the productivity of cereal farms, accounting that farms differ according to the level of TFP. We relied on a three-step estimation strategy: i) estimation of production functions, ii) evaluation of TFP, and iii) assessment of the relationship between CAP subsidies and TFP. To overcome multiple endogeneity problems, the System-GMM estimator is adopted. The investigation embraces farms in France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom using the FADN samples from 2008 to 2018. Adding to previous analyses, we compare results from different countries and investigate three subsets of farms with varying levels of TFP. The outcomes confirm how CAP negatively impacts farm TFP, but the extent differs according to the type of subsidies, the six countries and, within these, among farms with different productivity groups. Therefore there is room for policy improvements in order to foster the productivity of cereal farms.
    Date: 2022–12
  41. By: Jin, Ruining
    Abstract: The current state of biodiversity loss on Earth is a serious headache for many scientists and policymakers. While there have been immense efforts in both natural and social science fields, the psychology of the willingness to support conservation endeavors is still unclear. Minh-Hoang Nguyen provides some interesting insights regarding this issue from a sociopsychological perspective.
    Date: 2022–12–03
  42. By: Gino Sturla; Benedetto Rocchi
    Abstract: The work of Rocchi and Sturla (2021) presents an analysis of the pressure of the economic system on water resources in Tuscany at the regional level; in a following development Sturla and Rocchi (2022) incorporate temporal the hydrological variability to the regional model, with endogenous effects on agricultural and water for dilution demand. In this study, spatiotemporal variability is incorporated through i) a spatial disaggregation of the economic system based on an interregional input-output model (IRIO model) of Tuscan economy, ii) a spatial disaggregation of the hydrological components based on subregional data, and iii) a spatiotemporal model for the hydrological components based on a spatial stochastic model of precipitation. The spatial analysis scale corresponds to the Local Labor System (LLS), groups of contiguous municipalities classified based on economic criteria. Using the model developed, it is estimated the extended water exploitation index (EWEI), considering the extended demand (ED) and the feasible supply (FS) of water for each LLS; 100 hydrological years are simulated using a Montecarlo procedure. A novel endogenous scarcity threshold (ST) is proposed based on the results of the model and the intra-annual economic and hydrological characteristics of each LLS. With the EWEI and the ST, the hydro-economic equilibrium (HEE) for average hydrological conditions is characterised and the opportunity cost of the HEE is estimated. The latter corresponds to the minimum reduction of regional gross output compatible with the existence HEE in all LLS. Finally, the analysis is replicated considering a hydrology scenario under climate change.
    Keywords: interregional input-output, hydrological variability, local economies, water stress, hydro-economic equilibrium, climate change.
    JEL: C67 Q25 Q50
    Date: 2022
  43. By: Zeina Jamaluddine (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine); Maia Sieverding (American University of Beirut)
    Abstract: Cash transfers have become an increasingly common feature of social protection systems in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, including in humanitarian settings. Globally, there is strong evidence that cash transfers are effective in improving basic needs outcomes such as food insecurity. However, attention to the potential psychosocial effects of cash transfers, including improved mental health or subjective wellbeing, has been more recent and there is very little literature from the MENA region. In this paper we examine the associations between household receipt of cash transfers, food insecurity and the subjective wellbeing of youth in Jordan. Youth in Jordan, as elsewhere in the region, face numerous health and socioeconomic challenges during the transition to adulthood. The potential of cash transfers to improve psychosocial wellbeing during this period of life could therefore have long-term positive consequences. Our analysis relies on the 2020-21 Survey of Young People in Jordan, which is nationally representative of Jordanian and Syrian youth aged 16-30. We use ordinary least squares regression models to examine the predictors of household food insecurity and youth subjective wellbeing. Through step-wise model building we examine the potential role of food insecurity as a mediator in the relationship between receipt of cash transfers and youth subjective wellbeing. Twenty percent of Jordanian-headed households and 90% of Syrian-headed households with youth received at least one cash transfer. Nevertheless, household-level food insecurity was high, at 45% of Jordanian and 74% of Syrian households. There was also a substantial burden of poor subjective wellbeing among Jordanian (39%) and Syrian (52%) youth. Household receipt of social assistance was not predictive of subjective wellbeing among Jordanian youth. Only receipt of all three major United Nations agency cash transfers for refugees was a significant predictor of better subjective wellbeing among Syrian youth. While household food insecurity was a significant predictor of worse subjective wellbeing among youth of both nationalities, we do not find strong support for the hypothesis that food security is an important mediator of the association between cash transfers and subjective wellbeing for this population.
    Date: 2022–08–20
  44. By: Biira Salamula, Jenipher; Guerrero Calle, Josué; Dewachter, Sara; Holvoet, Nathalie
    Abstract: The Fuatilia Maji project has registered significant contributions to the stakeholders involved. These benefits range from skills acquisition and knowledge improvement, to empowerment of the student and community monitors, and to palpable changes in local community life, especially in relation to the use, treatment and management of water resources in the Morogoro region of Tanzania.
    Keywords: Tanzania, water, citizen science, community based monitoring
    Date: 2022–03
  45. By: Ruiz de Gauna, Itziar; Markandya, Anil; Onofri, Laura; Greño, Francisco; Warman, Javier; Arce, Norma; Navarrete, Natalia; Rivera, Marisol; Kobelkowsky, Rebeca; Vargas, Mayela; Hernández, Marisol
    Abstract: Coral reefs are one of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems on Earth. The Mesoamerican Reef contains the largest barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere. However, its health is threatened, so there is a need for a management and sustainable conservation. Key to this is knowing the economic value of the ecosystem. “Mainstreaming the value of natural capital into policy decision-making is vital” The value of environmental and natural resources reflects what society is willing to pay for a good or service or to conserve natural resources. Conventional economic approaches tended to view value only in terms of the willingness to pay for raw materials and physical products generated for human production and consumption (e.g. fish, mining materials, pharmaceutical products, etc.). As recognition of the potential negative impacts of human activity on the environment became more widespread, economists began to understand that people might also be willing to pay for other reasons beyond the own current use of the service (e.g. to protect coral reefs from degradation or to know that coral reefs will remain intact in the future). As a result of this debate, Total Economic Value (TEV) became the most widely used and commonly accepted framework for classifying economic benefits of ecosystems and for trying to integrate them into decision-making. This report estimates the economic value of the following goods and services provided by the MAR's coral reefs: USE VALUES Tourism & Recreation, Fisheries, Shoreline protection NON-USE VALUES To our knowledge, the inclusion of non-use values in the economic valuation of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System is novel, which makes the study more comprehensive.
    Keywords: Biodiversity;Coral Ecosystems;Mesoamerican Region;Coral Reef
    JEL: Q56 Q57
    Date: 2021–06
  46. By: Rashid Hassan (University of Pretoria); Hassan Abdelnur; Ismail Elgizouli; Yasir Khairy
    Abstract: Ensuring sustainability is about protecting the rights of future generations in natural wealth endowments, which include in addition to stocks of resource assets (minerals, land, water, forests, wildlife, etc.), a healthy environment and functional ecosystems. Prudent use of the proceeds from liquidation of natural assets and protection of environmental quality and ecosystems health, are therefore necessary for inter-generational equity. At the same time, consequences of depletion of natural assets and environmental degradation are not equally shared among different regions and social groups, with the least fortunate and more vulnerable bearing the largest burden. Such intragenerational inequities, in turn threaten sustainability. This illustrates how equity and sustainability are interlinked in the dynamics of natural and human systems’ interactions. This paper is an attempt to contribute to an improved understanding of how human and natural systems interact in shaping livelihoods and environmental conditions in Sudan. The paper analyzed the natural, institutional, and socioeconomic contexts and policy environments within which the transitional period administration in Sudan is to design its reform strategies and implement programs for prudent environmental management and equitable distribution of the benefits from exploiting the country’s natural wealth. Our analysis focused on identifying major challenges to pursuing the goals of inclusive and sustainable development and propose intervention measures necessary to address them
    Date: 2022–05–20
  47. By: Aparicio, Gabriela; Bobicì, Vida; De Olloqui, Fernando; Fernández Díez, María Carmen; Gerardino, María Paula; Mitnik, Oscar A.; Vargas, Sebastián
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effectiveness of easing credit constraints for rural producers in Mexico through loans provided by a national public development finance institution. In contrast to most of the existing literature, the study focuses on the effect of medium-sized loans over a two- to four-year time horizon. This paper looks at the effects of such loans on production and investment decisions, input use, and yields. Using a multiple treatment methodology, it explores the differential impacts of providing liquidity for working capital versus providing credit for investments in fixed assets. It finds that loans increased the likelihood that producers grow and sell certain key annual crops, in particular among recipients of working capital loans. It also finds significant effects on production value and sales (per hectare), with similar impacts for recipients of both types of loans, with gains in yields driven by changes in labor quality and more intensive use of key inputs. There is no evidence of significant effects on the purchase of large machinery, but there are impacts on the acquisition of cattle. Overall, the results reported in this paper suggest that lack of liquidity is at least as important as lack of funding for new investment in capital for rural producers in Mexico. Producers benefit from easing their credit constraints, regardless of the type of loan used for that purpose.
    Keywords: agricultural finance;credit constraints;development finance institutions;investmentcapital;working capital
    JEL: O13 G21 O16 Q14
    Date: 2021–06
  48. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the multinational oil companies' (MOCs) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on improving female status by improving nutrition in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 768 women respondents were sampled across the rural areas of the Niger Delta region. The results from the use of a combine propensity score matching and logit model indicate that GMoU model has made significant impact in the key areas of assessment - gender-sensitive nutrition education, food security at household level, reduction on food taboos and female access to education. This suggests that CSR interventions targeting to improve the nutrition status of girls and adolescents will help to ensure that female’s status improves throughout the life circle in the region. This implies that MOCs’ investment in the nutrition of female is an important short-term barometer in assessing expected returns to improving household nutrition and overall human development capacity for sub-Saharan Africa. This research contributes to the inequality debate in the women’s nutrition and inclusive growth literature from the CSR perspective. It concludes that business has an obligation to help in solving problems of public concern.
    Keywords: Female status, female nutrition, corporate social responsibility, multinational oil companies, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–01
  49. By: Julien CALAS; Etienne ESPAGNE; Antoine GODIN; Julie MAURIN
    Abstract: The risks associated with biodiversity loss could have severe socio-economic and financial consequences, at least as large as those imposed by climate change, in addition to interacting with them. Because of the potential threat, they pose to financial stability, Biodiversity-Related Financial Risks (BRFRs) have recently captured the attention of the financial community. As with climate risks, central banks and financial authorities might have to conduct biodiversity risk stress tests and adjust their daily operations and regulatory tools to this new normal.However, unless appropriate biodiversity scenarios are found to build a forward-looking assessment of the consequences of physical and transition shocks on industries and sectors, meaningful inclusion of Nature-Related Financial Risks (NRFRs) cannot see the light of day. This paper aims to review and compare existing quantitative biodiversity scenarios and models on a global scale that could help fulfill this role. It also offers an assessment of the path forward for research to developing scenarios for BRFRs at each step of the process: from building narratives, quantifying the impacts and dependencies, assessing the uncertainty range on the results all the way from the ecosystem to the economic and financial asset. The paper has several key findings. First, global and quantitative physical risk scenarios are almost absent; this is why it concentrates on transition scenarios of biodiversity. Second, most ecological transition scenarios are built in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) goals, even if future land allocation varies across studies. Third, Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) do not assess the biophysical consequences of their economic growth hypothesis. Fourth, the paper highlights the need for central banks and supervisors to take into account the uncertainties inherent in both integrated models and biodiversity indicators. For the latter, the uncertainty results from measuring only a tiny fraction of global biodiversity. Finally, the study offers recommendations for central banks and financial authorities to improve their scenario selection in the shorter-term.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–12–07
  50. By: Guilherme Magacho (AFD - Agence française de développement); Etienne Espagne (AFD - Agence française de développement); Irene de Eccher (IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Grégoire Sempé (IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Michel Simioni (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Lors de la COP26, le Viet Nam s'est positionné à l'avant-garde de la course mondiale vers le «net zéro», ouvrant ainsi une ère de changement structurel rapide pour le pays. Le Viet Nam entame ce voyage en partant d'une position de forte intensité d'émissions par rapport au reste du monde. Dans le secteur de l'électricité, du gaz et de l'eau, alors que le monde émet moins de 2, 5 kg de CO2 par dollar américain, le Viet Nam émet près de 15 kg de CO2 par dollar américain. Le même schéma se vérifie dans d'autres secteurs. Dans le secteur du textile et de l'habillement, ainsi que dans celui des produits métalliques, le Viet Nam émet environ 2, 5 kg de CO2 par dollar américain, alors que la médiane mondiale est inférieure à 1, 0 kg par dollar américain. Le pays est également relativement exposé aux industries en déclin en termes de contraintes externes, fiscales et socio-économiques. Une faible couverture de protection sociale ajoute à l'impact social potentiel d'une transition rapide. En même temps, le Viet Nam fait partie des pays les plus exposés aux impacts climatiques, ce qui confirme son intérêt spécifique à mener cette «course verte» mondiale. Une analyse transsectorielle de l'exposition montre certains impacts potentiels importants d'un monde à 2°C en termes d'effets externes, fiscaux et socio-économiques. Mais le Viet Nam présente également des opportunités industrielles et technologiques très prometteuses dans un scénario de «course verte» globale. Comparé à d'autres nations d'Asie du Sud-Est, ou même à des économies développées asiatiques comme la Corée, le Viet Nam présente des opportunités industrielles très importantes dans les produits verts moins complexes, mais aussi des opportunités prometteuses dans les produits plus complexes, qui apportent généralement les meilleures opportunités d'emploi et les meilleures capacités techniques. Au cours de la dernière décennie, le Viet Nam a connu la croissance la plus rapide de l'indice de complexité verte parmi les économies d'Asie du Sud-Est, et l'un des potentiels de complexité verte les plus élevés. L'élaboration d'une solide stratégie de développement et d'industrie verte face au changement climatique nécessite de déployer le bon dosage de politiques pour soutenir la diversification dans ces secteurs prioritaires.
    Date: 2022–11–02
  51. By: Jean Marie Cardebat (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Olivier Bargain (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Raphaël Chiappini (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2022–09–29
  52. By: Paul, De
    Abstract: This writing is motivated by the fact that the rise of coffee shops has caused major changes to the socio-economic aspects of work as coffee farmers. The purpose of this paper is to examine the socio-economic changes that have occurred in farming communities, especially in terms of education, lifestyle, and distribution of people's income since the emergence of coffee shops. This work uses Thomas Kuhn's paradigm theory, this work uses qualitative methods with descriptive research. The data collection method was carried out through observation and interviews with coffee farmers. Then for data techniques using the Miles and Haberman mode, namely data reduction, data presentation, and concluding the data presented. The results of this study indicate that there are socio-economic changes in coffee farming communities. Changes in the educational aspect, namely the education level of some of the farmer's children to the tertiary level, for those who wish to continue their education, some of the farmer's children choose farming after graduating from high school because of the promising potential of coffee. In the way of life there is a change in people's habits and way of thinking in everyday life, finally in the distribution of people's income, in the distribution of income for development, education, building side businesses, and raising livestock.
    Date: 2022–12–14

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