nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2023‒01‒02
35 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Bargaining Power in the Agricultural Land Market By Marlene Kionka, Todd Kuethe, Oliver Mußhoff, Matthias Ritter, Martin Odening
  2. Characterising innovations and sustainability in wine firms. An exploratory study of French wine industry By Louis-Antoine Saïsset; Iciar Pavez; Thalia Astruc; Leïla Temri
  3. Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa By Kang, Munsu
  4. Crop Prices and Deforestation in the Tropics By Nicolas Berman; Mathieu Couttenier; Antoine Leblois; Raphaël Soubeyran
  5. Transforming food systems in Kenya for a new era of growth and prosperity: Research-based recommendations for the new government By Breisinger, Clemens; Karugia, Joseph; Keenan, Michael; Mbuthia, Juneweenex
  6. Droughts and deforestation: Does seasonality matter? By Giulia Vaglietti; Philippe Delacote; Antoine Leblois
  7. Climate Change, Comparative Advantage and the Water Capability to Produce Agricultural Goods By Fabien Candau; Charles Regnacq; Julie Schlick
  8. Developing a Sustainable and Circular Bio-Based Economy in EU: By Partnering Across Sectors, Upscaling and Using New Knowledge Faster, and For the Benefit of Climate, Environment & Biodiversity, and People & Business By Lene Lange; Kevin O Connor; Sigurjon Arason; Uffe Bundgård-Jørgensen; Antonella Canalis; Dirk Carrez; Joe Gallagher; Niels Gøtke; Christian Huyghe; Bruno Jarry; Pilar Llorente; Mariya Marinova; Ligia O Martins; Philippe Mengal; Paola Paiano; Calliope Panoutsou; Ligia Rodrigues; Dagmar B Stengel; Yvonne van der Meer; Helena Vieira
  9. Building a synthesis of economic costs of biological invasions in New Zealand By Thomas W Bodey; Zachary T Carter; Phillip J Haubrock; Ross N Cuthbert; Melissa J Welsh; Christophe Diagne; Franck Courchamp
  10. Millet, Rice, and Isolation: Origins and Persistence of the World's Most Enduring Mega-State By Kung, James Kai-sing; Özak, Ömer; Putterman, Louis; Shi, Shuang
  11. Resilience in agro-ecological landscapes: process principles and outcome indicators By Fabricius, C.; Novellie, P.; Ringler, C.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Wright, D.
  12. Horticulture policy for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa By Rana, Abdul Wajid; Raja, Sehrish; Qureshi, Tehseen
  13. Do Revisions Improve Agricultural Bias? By Ding, Kexin; Katchova, Ani L.
  14. Money (Not) to Burn: Payments for Ecosystem Services to Reduce Crop Residue Burning By B. Kelsey Jack; Seema Jayachandran; Namrata Kala; Rohini Pande
  15. Global economic costs of herpetofauna invasions By Ismael Soto; Ross N Cuthbert; Antonín Kouba; César Capinha; Anna Turbelin; Emma J Hudgins; Christophe Diagne; Franck Courchamp; Phillip J Haubrock
  16. Over-perception about Land Use Changes: Assessing Empirical Evidence and Linkage with Decisions and Motivated Beliefs By Feng, Hongli; Wang, Tong; Hennessy, David A.; Arora, Gaurav
  17. US Agriculture as a Carbon Sink: From International Agreements to Farm Incentives By Plastina, Alejandro; Wongpiyabovorn, Oranuch; Crespi, John
  18. The US Federal Crop Insurance Program: A Case Study in Rent-Seeking By Smith, Vincent
  19. Geographical Indications and Welfare: Evidence from the US Wine Market By Chandra, Raj; Moschini, Giancarlo; Lade, Gabriel E.; Moschini, GianCarlo
  20. INDIGENOUS INFORMAL LAND MARKETS, LAND BANKING AND LAND VALUES: A NATIONAL CASE OF GHANA By Alexander Sasu; Graham Squires; Arshad Javed
  21. Governance analysis for urban-wholesale-to-household’s food waste prevention and reduction in Sri Lanka By Aheeyar, Mohamed; Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Bucatariu, C.; Reitemeier, M.; Bandara, A.; Thiel, Felix; Drechsel, Pay
  22. Identifying economic costs and knowledge gaps of invasive aquatic crustaceans By Antonín Kouba; Francisco J Oficialdegui; Ross N Cuthbert; Melina Kourantidou; Josie South; Elena Tricarico; Rodolphe E Gozlan; Franck Courchamp; Phillip J Haubrock
  23. The future of the EU bioenergy sector: economic, environmental, social, and legislative challenges By Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Delsignore, Monica; Imbert, Enrica; Lombardi, Mariarosaria
  24. Distributional impacts of agricultural policies in Zambia: A microsimulation approach By Katrin Gasior; Silvia Navarro; Jukka Pirttilä; Mari Kangasniemi
  25. Urban stakeholder analysis for food waste prevention and reduction in Sri Lanka By Aheeyar, Mohamed; Jayathilake, Nilanthi; Bandara, A.; Bucatariu, C.; Reitemeier, M.; Drechsel, Pay
  26. Energy productivity and greenhouse gas emission intensity in Dutch dairy farms: A Hicks–Moorsteen by‐production approach under non‐convexity and convexity with equivalence results By Frederic Ang; Kristiaan Kerstens; Jafar Sadeghi
  27. SHAPING THE FUTURE OF CUSTOMARY LAND SECRETARIATS IN GHANA By Gad Asorwoe Akwensivie; Clarence Bosompim Coleman; Sylvia Fafa Dzradosi
  28. Practicing what we preach? Reflections on more sustainable and responsible IS research and teaching practices By Kranz, Johann; Zeiss, Roman; Beck, Roman; Gholami, Roya; Sarker, Saonee; Watson, Richard T.; Whitley, Edgar A.
  29. WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR GREEN BUILDINGS IN GHANA: WHAT ARE THE INFLUENCING FACTORS? By Yelly Kwesy Lawluvy; Olivia Kwakyewaa Ntim; Albert Agbeko Ahiadu
  30. Multi-plant Coordination in the US Beef Packing Industry By Schulz, Lee; Pudenz, Christopher C.; Schulz, Lee L.
  31. Global biodiversity scenarios: what do they tell us for biodiversity-related socioeconomic impacts? By Julien CALAS; Antoine GODIN; Julie MAURIN (AFD); Etienne ESPAGNE (World Bank)
  32. Editorial By Jean-Louis Rastoin
  33. ANALYZING THE RELATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPORTANCE OF THE TANZANIAN GREEN BUILDING ELEMENTS By Leonard Emmanuel Mwassa; Sophia Marcian Kongela
  34. Tackling the Challenges of Climate Change Adaptation in Central America: Can Korea Contribute? By Lee, Seungho
  35. Selection on functional longevity in a commercial population of dairy goats translates into significant differences in longevity in a common farm environment By M. Ithurbide; C. Huau; I. Palhière; T. Fassier; N.C. Friggens; R. Rupp

  1. By: Marlene Kionka, Todd Kuethe, Oliver Mußhoff, Matthias Ritter, Martin Odening
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:329249&r=agr
  2. By: Louis-Antoine Saïsset (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Iciar Pavez (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Thalia Astruc (Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Leïla Temri (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Objective The objective of this study is to understand how the characteristics of the different types of firms, i.e. wine estates, wine cooperatives and wine merchants, and their forms of governance, can influence innovations and sustainability decisions in the wine industry. This study has been run as part of the action plan of the Chaire Inq'Faaqt (Innovating in Agricultural and Agrifood chains, Quality and Territories), and more particularly the Axis 4 "firms and jobs". Methods Our methodology is qualitative and based on semi-structured interviews with the three main types of French wine firms: wine estates, wine cooperatives and wine merchants. A total of 16 businesses, located in Occitanie, Provence and Alsace, were interviewed. These interviews were quasi totally recorded and transcribed. These firms have very different production orientation, size and strategies. In this poster, as a first exploratory step, we analyzed in deep one of each type of firms. This will allow us to perform a subsequent analysis of the full sample. Results We observed that process-related innovations were the most frequent, followed by organizational ones, related to governance. Marketing and logistic innovations were more frequent in the biggest and more decentralized firms (wine co-op and wine merchant). Also, sustainability-related innovations were very contrasted from a firm to another, the wine estate showing a more balanced sustainability strategy on the economic, environmental and social pillars. Standards seem to be the most spread means to signal sustainability, especially for the wine co-op. The sustainability performance is not easy to measure because of its complexity. Firms preferred to implement more flexible voluntary commitment strategies (partnerships with stakeholders, returnable or recycling bottles systems, among others). Conclusion This exploratory study underlined the great diversity of the wine firms in terms of types of innovations and sustainability orientation. It is difficult to design a typology of wine firms, but it is now possible to have a more detailed idea about the main concerns, as water management, pesticides shortening or the relevance of organic wines.
    Date: 2022–10–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03869400&r=agr
  3. By: Kang, Munsu (KOREA INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC POLICY (KIEP))
    Abstract: This study investigates the climate change impacts on agriculture and conflict in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is the most vulnerable region responding to the weather shocks such as drought and flood. Furthermore, more than half of population in SSA are engaged in agricultural production that is highly affected by the rainfall pattern and temperature increases. For this reason, disruption of agriculture caused by the weather shock also can increase the probability of conflict such as demonstration and riot. This study focuses on 43 SSA countries after excluded small islands. Using scenario analysis, we find that temperature increases rather than precipitation might affect maize and sorghum production negatively while it is unclear for the rice production. We also find that increases in average temperature and maximum temperature might increase the probability of conflicts even if the effects of climate on riot and demonstration are U-shape pattern while it is reverse U-shape for battle and civilian conflicts.
    Keywords: Climate change; agriculture; conflict; sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–06–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ris:kiepwe:2022_022&r=agr
  4. By: Nicolas Berman (Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, AMSE, Marseille, France, and CEPR); Mathieu Couttenier (ENS de Lyon & CEPR); Antoine Leblois (CEE-M, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, INRAE, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France); Raphaël Soubeyran (CEE-M, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, INRAE, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France)
    Abstract: Global food demand is rising, driven by a growing world population and dietary changes in developing countries. This situation encourages farmers to increase crop production which, in turn, increases worldwide demand for agricultural land and the pressure on tropical forests. Given the probability that growth in world food demand will continue, this pressure is not likely to abate in coming decades. While the impact of food demand on deforestation has been in the headlines, rigorous evidence of the relationship between international crop prices and deforestation using large-N data remains scarce. We attempt to quantify this link during the twenty-first century using high-resolution annual forest loss data for tropical regions, combined with information on crop-specific agricultural suitability and annual global commodity prices. We find that price variation has a sizable impact on deforestation: crop price increases are estimated tobe responsible for a third of the total deforested area in the tropics (approx. 2 million km2) during the period 2001-2018. We also find that the degree of openness to international trade and level of economic development are first-order local characteristics affecting the magnitude of the impact of crop prices on deforestation.
    Keywords: Deforestation, Food demand,
    JEL: F18 Q23 Q56
    Date: 2022–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fae:wpaper:2022.08&r=agr
  5. By: Breisinger, Clemens; Karugia, Joseph; Keenan, Michael; Mbuthia, Juneweenex
    Abstract: The new Kenyan government faces a complex domestic and global environment, and it is widely expected to address key food and agricultural challenges with a new set of policies and programs. This policy brief presents key recommendations from a forthcoming book, Food Systems Transformation in Kenya: Lessons from the Past and Policy Options for the Future, which provides research-based “food for thought and action†to support the Kenyan government’s efforts to improve food security.
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agriculture, food security, food access, urbanization, population growth, population distribution, urban population, fertility, workforce, food production, maize, healthy diets, climate change Bottom Up Economic Transformation Agenda 2022–2027
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:polbrf:november2022&r=agr
  6. By: Giulia Vaglietti (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Philippe Delacote (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Antoine Leblois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Extreme weather events, particularly droughts, have strong impacts on the livelihoods of populations in rural areas. In a context of low access to insurance and credit markets, households respond to such shocks by implementing different adaptation and coping strategies, which in turn are likely to have an impact on the environment, in particular through land-use changes and deforestation. This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the links between droughts and deforestation: (1) distinguishing responses to previously experienced droughts versus present droughts, and (2) disentangling the time of the agricultural season at which droughts occur. We show that deforestation is negatively related to droughts that occur during the growing season, while it is positively related to those that occur during the harvesting season. These impacts are mitigated within protected areas and are exacerbated in more accessible locations, i.e., areas within 4 hours of travel time of main/major cities. By contrast, deforestation outcomes following droughts that occur during the planting season depend on whether the crop considered is maize or cassava.
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03847500&r=agr
  7. By: Fabien Candau (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Charles Regnacq (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Julie Schlick (RITM - Réseaux Innovation Territoires et Mondialisation - Université Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: This article analyzes how climate change inuences the capabilities to export agricultural goods and the specialization of nations (e.g., comparative advantages) by altering farmers' capability to use available water. Our main contribution is methodological since we present the rst attempt to link precisely the micro-determinants of production to the macro-determinants governing the specialization of countries. We use a rich set of data both locally (at the crop level analyzing thousand elds that cover the Earth's surface) and at the global level (analyzing bilaterally the international trade of nations). At the local level, we estimate the elasticity of production to the thermal and hydrologic conditions (including blue and green water as well as groundwater storage) along with xed eects (at country-product and at the crop level) to control for omitted variables. At the global level, we use the predicted value of these elasticities to compute an indicator of the water capability to export agricultural goods, which is then used in a trade gravity equation to control for trade costs that also shape the specialization of countries. From these estimates, we nally build an indicator of comparative advantage in agricultural goods and analyze how these relative advantages are aected by climate change in 2050. We present unexpected results at rst sight, that are however in line with the Ricardian theory, such as cases where a deterioration of the local conditions to produce a good does not prevent an improvement in the comparative advantage to produce it (representing 32.51% of cases in our simulation), or the reverse, when the improvement of the local conditions happens simultaneously with a deterioration of the comparative advantages (representing 18.16% of cases in our simulation).
    Keywords: Agricultural trade,Water resources,Climate change,Revealed comparative advantage,Gravity equation
    Date: 2022–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03671521&r=agr
  8. By: Lene Lange (Bioeconomy, Research and Advisory); Kevin O Connor (UCD - University College Dublin [Dublin]); Sigurjon Arason (University of Iceland [Reykjavik]); Uffe Bundgård-Jørgensen (Gate2Growth); Antonella Canalis (BBI - Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking); Dirk Carrez (BIC - Bio-based Industries Consortium); Joe Gallagher (IBERS - Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences - BBSRC - Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - Aberystwyth University); Niels Gøtke (Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education of Denmark); Christian Huyghe (CODIR - Collège de Direction - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Bruno Jarry (Académie des Technologies); Pilar Llorente (BBI - Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking); Mariya Marinova (Royal Military College of Canada); Ligia O Martins (NOVA - Universidade Nova de Lisboa = NOVA University Lisbon); Philippe Mengal (BBI - Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking); Paola Paiano (BBI - Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking); Calliope Panoutsou (Imperial College London); Ligia Rodrigues (University of Minho [Braga]); Dagmar B Stengel (NUI Galway - National University of Ireland [Galway]); Yvonne van der Meer (Maastricht University [Maastricht]); Helena Vieira (ULISBOA - Universidade de Lisboa = University of Lisbon)
    Abstract: This paper gives an overview of development of the EU-bioeconomy, 2014–2020. The Vision of the new Circular Bio-based Economy, CBE is presented: Unlocking the full potential of all types of sustainably sourced biomass, crop residues, industrial side-streams, and wastes by transforming it into value-added products. The resulting product portfolio consists of a wide spectrum of value-added products, addressing societal and consumer needs. Food and feed, bio-based chemicals, materials, health-promoting products; and bio-based fuels. The pillars of CBE are described, including biotechnology, microbial production, enzyme technology, green chemistry, integrated physical/chemical processing, policies, conducive framework conditions and public private partnerships. Drivers of CBE are analyzed: Biomass supply, biorefineries, value chain clusters, rural development, farmers, foresters and mariners; urgent need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and stopping biodiversity loss. Improved framework conditions can be drivers but also obstacles if not updated to the era of circularity. Key figures, across the entire BBI-JU project portfolio (2014–2020) are provided, including expansion into biomass feedstocks, terrestrial and aquatic, and an impressive broadening of bio-based product portfolio, including higher-value, health-promoting products for man, animal, plants and soil. Parallel to this, diversification of industrial segments and types of funding instruments developed, reflecting industrial needs and academic research involvement. Impact assessment is highlighted. A number of specific recommendations are given; e.g., including international win/win CBE-collaborations, as e.g., expanding African EU collaboration into CBE. In contrast to fossil resources biological resources are found worldwide. In its outset, circular bio-based economy, can be implemented all over, in a just manner, not the least stimulating rural development.
    Keywords: biorefinery technologies,bio-based products,microbial production,upgrading,side-streams & wastes,Bio-Based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI-JU),Biobased Industries Consortium (BIC),Circular Bio-based Economy (CBE)
    Date: 2021–01–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03843321&r=agr
  9. By: Thomas W Bodey (University of Auckland [Auckland], University of Aberdeen); Zachary T Carter (University of Auckland [Auckland]); Phillip J Haubrock (SGN - Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, University of South Bohemia); Ross N Cuthbert (GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research [Kiel], QUB - Queen's University [Belfast]); Melissa J Welsh; Christophe Diagne (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Franck Courchamp (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Biological invasions are a major component of anthropogenic environmental change, incurring substantial economic costs across all sectors of society and ecosystems. There have been recent syntheses of costs for a number of countries using the newly compiled InvaCost database, but New Zealand-a country renowned for its approach to invasive species management-has so far not been examined. Here we analyse reported economic damage and management costs incurred by biological invasions in New Zealand from 1968 to 2020. In total, US$69 billion (NZ$97 billion) is currently reported over this ∼50-year period, with approximately US$9 billion of this considered highly reliable, observed (c.f. projected) costs. Most (82%) of these observed economic costs are associated with damage, with comparatively little invested in management (18%). Reported costs are increasing over time, with damage averaging US$120 million per year and exceeding management expenditure in all decades. Where specified, most reported costs are from terrestrial plants and animals, with damages principally borne by primary industries such as agriculture and forestry. Management costs are more often associated with interventions by authorities and stakeholders. Relative to other countries present in the InvaCost database, New Zealand was found to spend considerably more than expected from its Gross Domestic Product on pre-and post-invasion management costs. However, some known ecologically (c.f. economically) impactful invasive species are notably absent from estimated damage costs, and management costs are not reported for a number of game animals and agricultural pathogens. Given these gaps for known and potentially damaging invaders, we urge improved cost reporting at the national scale, including improving public accessibility through increased access and digitisation of records, particularly in overlooked socioeconomic sectors and habitats. This also further highlights the importance of investment in management to curtail future damages across all sectors.
    Keywords: Biosecurity,Eradication,Invasive alien species,InvaCost,Island,Monetary impacts,Resource damages and losses,Socioeconomic sectors
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03860523&r=agr
  10. By: Kung, James Kai-sing; Özak, Ömer (Southern Methodist University); Putterman, Louis; Shi, Shuang
    Abstract: We propose and test empirically a theory describing the endogenous formation and persistence of mega-states, using China as an example. We suggest that the relative timing of the emergence of agricultural societies, and their distance from each other, set off a race between their autochthonous state-building projects, which determines their extent and persistence. Using a novel dataset describing the historical presence of Chinese states, prehistoric development, the diffusion of agriculture, and migratory distance across 1-degree x 1-degree grid cells in eastern Asia, we find that cells that adopted agriculture earlier and were close to Erlitou -- the earliest political center in eastern Asia -- remained under Chinese control for longer and continue to be a part of China today. By contrast, cells that adopted agriculture early and were located further from Erlitou developed into independent states, as agriculture provided the fertile ground for state-formation, while isolation provided time for them to develop and confront the expanding Chinese empire. Our study sheds important light on why eastern Asia kept reproducing a mega-state in the area that became China and on the determinants of its borders with other states.
    Date: 2022–06–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:dbkfh&r=agr
  11. By: Fabricius, C.; Novellie, P.; Ringler, C.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Wright, D.
    Abstract: This paper explores outcome indicators and process principles to evaluate landscape resilience in agro-ecosystems, drawing on outcome indicator case studies of the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Four questions are addressed: (1) which outcome indicators and process principles feature most prominently in the seminal literature on resilient agro-ecological landscapes? (2) to what extent are these principles represented in CGIAR Outcome Impact Case Reports (OICRs) and selected peer-reviewed studies? (3) how does the use of process principles in the case studies compare to their occurrence in the theoretical literature? and (4) which process principles co-occur with related outcome indicators in the OICRs? The findings enable researchers and practitioners to be more specific about the outcomes and processes that drive resilience in agro-ecosystems, thereby informing adaptive program management. Seven novel research themes are proposed.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–03–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iwmirp:329157&r=agr
  12. By: Rana, Abdul Wajid; Raja, Sehrish; Qureshi, Tehseen
    Abstract: Pakistan’s rich soil and four seasons are favorable for horticulture. The country’s horticultural sector: (a) benefits from favourable and diversified agroecological conditions; (b) geographically and strategically well placed to enhance its exports to highly competitive but lucrative markets like Middle East, Afghanistan, Iran, China, Central Asian Republics, Europe and Far East; and (c) plays a major socioeconomic role in Pakistan, in particular for women’s economic empowerment. While Pakistan is a major producer of horticultural products, its tremendous export potential remains largely untapped. The sector’s structure, the characteristics and varieties of the Fruits and Vegetables (F&V) grown locally, and the way in which F&V are being cultivated, aggregated, and transported have a huge bearing on the sector’s trade performance and have a tremendous impact on its competitiveness. The production base is highly fragmented, with approximately 85% of the orchards having an area of less than 12.5 acres.
    Keywords: PAKISTAN, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, horticulture, food access, food security, food production, fruit growing, vegetable growing, crop yield,
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:pacerp:october2022&r=agr
  13. By: Ding, Kexin; Katchova, Ani L.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:329255&r=agr
  14. By: B. Kelsey Jack; Seema Jayachandran; Namrata Kala; Rohini Pande
    Abstract: Particulate matter significantly reduces life expectancy in India. We use a randomized controlled trial in the Indian state of Punjab to evaluate the effectiveness of conditional cash transfers (also known as payments for ecosystem services, or PES) in reducing crop residue burning, which is a major contributor to the region’s poor air quality. Credit constraints and distrust may make farmers less likely to comply with standard PES contracts, which only pay the participant after verification of compliance. We randomize paying a portion of the money upfront and unconditionally. Despite receiving a lower reward for compliance, farmers offered partial upfront payment are 8-12 percentage points more likely to comply than are farmers offered the standard contract. Burning measures derived from satellite imagery indicate that PES with upfront payments significantly reduced burning, while standard PES payments were inframarginal. We also show that PES with an upfront component is a cost-effective way to improve India’s air quality.
    JEL: O13 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2022–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30690&r=agr
  15. By: Ismael Soto (University of South Bohemia); Ross N Cuthbert (QUB - Queen's University [Belfast]); Antonín Kouba (University of South Bohemia); César Capinha (ULISBOA - Universidade de Lisboa = University of Lisbon); Anna Turbelin (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Emma J Hudgins (Carleton University); Christophe Diagne (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Franck Courchamp (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Phillip J Haubrock (University of South Bohemia)
    Abstract: Biological invasions by amphibian and reptile species (i.e. herpetofauna) are numerous and widespread, having caused severe impacts on ecosystems, the economy and human health. However, there remains no synthesised assessment of the economic costs of these invasions. Therefore, using the most comprehensive database on the economic costs of invasive alien species worldwide (InvaCost), we analyse the costs caused by invasive alien herpetofauna according to taxonomic, geographic, sectoral and temporal dimensions, as well as the types of these costs. The cost of invasive herpetofauna totaled at 17.0 billion US$ between 1986 and 2020, divided split into 6.3 billion US$ for amphibians, 10.4 billion US$ for reptiles and 334 million US$ for mixed classes. However, these costs were associated predominantly with only two species (brown tree snake Boiga irregularis and American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus), with 10.3 and 6.0 billion US$ in costs, respectively. Costs for the remaining 19 reported species were relatively minor ( 99%), while for reptiles, impacts were reported mostly through damages to mixed sectors (65%). Geographically, Oceania and Pacific Islands recorded 63% of total costs, followed by Europe (35%) and North America (2%). Cost reports have generally increased over time but peaked between 2011 and 2015 for amphibians and 2006 to 2010 for reptiles. A greater effort in studying the costs of invasive herpetofauna is necessary for a more complete understanding of invasion impacts of these species. We emphasise the need for greater control and prevention policies concerning the spread of current and future invasive herpetofauna.
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03860530&r=agr
  16. By: Feng, Hongli; Wang, Tong; Hennessy, David A.; Arora, Gaurav
    Abstract: Perception biases documented in the literature often pertain to subject matters that are difficult to observe or measure such as one’s ability. We study perception biases with respect to a concrete indicator that can be objectively measured: land use changes in a local area. We examine four hypotheses about land use change perceptions and test them with farm survey data complemented by satellite data. We discover systematic biases in farmers' perceptions about local land use changes that are consistent with motivated beliefs, and also evidence that links perceptions with intended future land conversions. Alternative explanations and policy implications are discussed.
    Date: 2022–02–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202202231829010000&r=agr
  17. By: Plastina, Alejandro; Wongpiyabovorn, Oranuch; Crespi, John
    Abstract: This article examines voluntary agricultural carbon programs in the United States, the policy of international agreements to prevent further global warming, and reviews literature related to that policy and its impact on U.S. carbon programs. We discuss international, national, and regional carbon pricing mechanisms that provide the market signals to consumers and suppliers of carbon credits in detail in order to compare and contrast different programs that impact agricultural carbon markets. Economic descriptions of the programs are derived. This article is useful for those who wish to know how U.S. policy currently influences agricultural carbon markets as well as how proposals may need to be structured in order to avoid potential market obstacles.
    Date: 2022–02–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202202161950500000&r=agr
  18. By: Smith, Vincent (Mercury Publication)
    Abstract: This study examines how, in the context of three major crop insurance legislative initatives by the US government in 1989, 1994, and 2000, regulatory and other innovations to the federal crop insurance program have been designed to jointly benefit farm in
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ajw:wpaper:06899&r=agr
  19. By: Chandra, Raj; Moschini, Giancarlo; Lade, Gabriel E.; Moschini, GianCarlo
    Abstract: A systematic component of wine quality is believed to depend on the geo-climatic factors of its production conditions. This belief has long been a motivation for the development of geographical indications for wines. In the United States, American Viticulture Areas (AVAs) represent the most common geographic factor firms use to differentiate their products. In this paper, we estimate a discrete choice model of US wine demand to study the market and welfare impact of AVAs. Specifically, we develop a two-level nested logit choice model, featuring many wine products and characteristics--including wine type, brands, and varietals, in addition to AVAs--and estimate it using Nielsen Consumer Panel data over the 2007-2019 period. We find significant welfare gains from AVA information on wine labels. Over the period of interest, the welfare gain attributable to AVAs is estimated at about $2.37 billion, with wine producers and retailers capturing approximately 80% of this surplus. Approximately 90% of consumer welfare gains are due to product differentiation and increased variety, with the remaining gains due to price decreases resulting from increased product competition.
    Date: 2022–02–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202202221402290000&r=agr
  20. By: Alexander Sasu; Graham Squires; Arshad Javed
    Abstract: Land banking practices can fail in efficiently controlling the value of land. These failures stem from the difficulty in reducing speculative holdings to levels exceeding the size of the banked lands. Such underlining traits of the practice have been drawn from public land banking practices in formal land market settings. Public practices are markedly different to private and quasi-public land banking practices in an indigenous informal land market. Consequently, this paper explores how indigenous informal land markets are influenced by private land banking practices and land values under new land tenure regimes post-Ghana's land reforms. Semi-structured interviews with thirty-three participants made up of experts and stakeholders were drawn from four case studies within the Ghanaian indigenous informal land market. We find that land bankers are banking large tracts of indigenous informal lands as capital investments for profits through land dispositions. This is different from the possession of land banks as a production factor for their housing development moves suggested to indigenous heads. The paper recommends a revisit of discussions on the enforcement and monitoring of the processes required under the lands commission guidelines for large-scale land transactions.
    Keywords: Ghana; indigenous informal land market; Land banking; Land Values; new customary land tenure
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:afr:wpaper:2022-021&r=agr
  21. By: Aheeyar, Mohamed (International Water Management Institute); Jayathilake, Nilanthi (International Water Management Institute); Bucatariu, C.; Reitemeier, M.; Bandara, A.; Thiel, Felix (International Water Management Institute); Drechsel, Pay (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Food wastes; Waste reduction; Governance; Frameworks; Urban areas; Household wastes; Wholesale markets; Waste management; Guidelines; Legislation; Policies; Food safety; Nutrition; Climate change; Institutions
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050834&r=agr
  22. By: Antonín Kouba (University of South Bohemia); Francisco J Oficialdegui (EBD - Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas [Madrid]); Ross N Cuthbert (GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research [Kiel], QUB - Queen's University [Belfast]); Melina Kourantidou (SDU - University of Southern Denmark); Josie South; Elena Tricarico (UniFI - Università degli Studi di Firenze = University of Florence); Rodolphe E Gozlan (UMR ISEM - Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EPHE - École pratique des hautes études - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] : UR226 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier); Franck Courchamp (ESE - Ecologie Systématique et Evolution - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Phillip J Haubrock (University of South Bohemia)
    Abstract: Despite voluminous literature identifying the impacts of invasive species, summaries of monetary costs for some taxonomic groups remain limited. Invasive alien crustaceans often have profound impacts on recipient ecosystems, but there may be great unknowns related to their economic costs. Using the InvaCost database, we quantify and analyse reported costs associated with invasive crustaceans globally across taxonomic, spatial, and temporal descriptors. Specifically, we quantify the costs of prominent aquatic crustaceanscrayfish, crabs, amphipods, and lobsters. Between 2000 and 2020, crayfish caused US$ 120.5 million in reported costs; the vast majority (99%) being attributed to representatives of Astacidae and Cambaridae. Crayfish-related costs were unevenly distributed across countries, with a strong bias towards European economies (US$ 116.4 million; mainly due to the signal crayfish in Sweden), followed
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03860579&r=agr
  23. By: Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Delsignore, Monica; Imbert, Enrica; Lombardi, Mariarosaria
    Abstract: The bioenergy sector is becoming of increasing interest: the European Union (EU) is not an exception, as, indeed, is in need of solutions to face one of the worst energy crises of the last century. The sector’s growth faces numerous challenges. The main use of energy crops, as feedstock, generates stiff competition on the use of land for food and energy purposes. The production of bioenergy has relevant environmental implications in terms greenhouse gas emissions. The social aspects related to the bioenergy sector are also potential obstacles to its development. These pressing issues for policymakers call for a better understanding on how national and international laws should regulate the growth of the bioenergy sector. Flying over the economic, environmental, social, and legislative aspects faced by the bioenergy sector, we conclude on threads, opportunities and priorities that should be considered for its development and propose directions for future studies.
    Keywords: Bioenergy, European Union, Impact, Land use, Law, Sustainability
    JEL: K32 Q18 Q42
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:115454&r=agr
  24. By: Katrin Gasior; Silvia Navarro; Jukka Pirttilä; Mari Kangasniemi
    Abstract: This paper examines the distributional impacts of agricultural policies versus those of cash transfers using a tax-benefit microsimulation model for Zambia for the policy year 2020. The analysis also considers the behavioural impacts of input subsidies and social cash transfers. The results indicate that Zambian agricultural policies reduce headcount poverty by 3-5 percentage points, depending on whether only their direct impacts or also behavioural impacts that lead to changes in agricultural production are taken into account.
    Keywords: Agricultural policy, Tax, Cash transfers, Poverty, Inequality, Zambia
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp-2022-143&r=agr
  25. By: Aheeyar, Mohamed (International Water Management Institute); Jayathilake, Nilanthi (International Water Management Institute); Bandara, A.; Bucatariu, C.; Reitemeier, M.; Drechsel, Pay (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Food wastes; Waste reduction; Stakeholder analysis; Waste management; Urban areas; Municipal authorities; Local authorities; Solid wastes; Food production; Policies; Institutions
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050833&r=agr
  26. By: Frederic Ang (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Kristiaan Kerstens (LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jafar Sadeghi (UWO - University of Western Ontario)
    Abstract: The agricultural sector is currently confronted with the challenge to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, whilst maintaining or increasing production. Energy-saving technologies are often proposed as a partial solution, but the evidence on their ability to reduce GHG emissions remains mixed. Production economics provides methodological tools to analyse the nexus of agricultural production, energy use and GHG emissions. Convexity is predominantly maintained in agricultural production economics, despite various theoretical and empirical reasons to question it. Employing non-convex and convex frontier frameworks, this contribution evaluates energy productivity change (the ratio of aggregate output change to energy use change) and GHG emission intensity change (the ratio of GHG emission change to polluting input change) using Hicks-Moorsteen productivity formulations. We consider GHG emissions as by-products of the production process by using a multi-equation model. Given our empirical specification, non-convex and convex Hicks-Moorsteen indices can coincide under certain circumstances, which leads to a series of theoretical equivalence results. The empirical application focuses on 1,510 observations of Dutch dairy farms for the period of 2010–2019. The results show a positive association between energy productivity change and GHG emission intensity change, which calls into question the potential of on-farm, energy-efficiency-increasing measures to reduce GHG emission intensity
    Keywords: productivity analysis,energy,greenhouse gas emissions,dairy,nonconvexity
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03833513&r=agr
  27. By: Gad Asorwoe Akwensivie; Clarence Bosompim Coleman; Sylvia Fafa Dzradosi
    Abstract: Customary Land Secretariats in Ghana have been in operation for close to two decades. They were introduced as part of the implementation of the Ghana Land Administration Project to help improve upon customary land management and administration at the customary level, bearing in mind their potential to aid the public land sector agencies particularly the Lands Commission, the Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands and the Land Use and Spatial Planning Authority achieve their respective mandates. This work reviewed the operations of existing Customary Land Secretariats vis-a-vis their mandates as prescribed and outlined in the Land Act 2020 (Act 1036) in terms of dispute resolution, recording of customary land grants, coordination and collaboration with stakeholders. The work assessed their overall impact on customary land management. The work lays out the implementation successes and challenges and makes recommendations towards improving their effectiveness. Overall, the work concludes that Customary land Secretariats if well-resourced have the potential to install discipline in the local land market by regulating abuse of authority by some customary land authorises particularly chiefs, clan and family heads and tendons. The work also reviewed progress on the resolution of land-related disputes via Alternative Dispute Resolution. Finally, the work makes recommendations with far-reaching implications for the existing, new and yet-to-be-established Customary land Secretariats.
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:afr:wpaper:2022-014&r=agr
  28. By: Kranz, Johann; Zeiss, Roman; Beck, Roman; Gholami, Roya; Sarker, Saonee; Watson, Richard T.; Whitley, Edgar A.
    Abstract: Research on IS solutions for environmental sustainability have evolved to a modest, but firm body of knowledge. Despite this progressive understanding about the potential of IS in enabling environmental sustainability, our academic practices seem widely unaffected by these insights. The way we do research or conduct teaching is rarely influenced by sustainability considerations. For example, before the pandemic many of us belonged to a hypermobile group that travelled 5-6 times more than the average employee. Our research is also often not aligned with environmental goals. We research digital technologies without sufficiently acknowledging the significant amounts of resources they consume. Similarly, our teaching often focuses on the effective development and use of information systems; however, rebound, second order, or spillover effects are barely covered. Based on these observations we raise the question: Are we practicing enough of what we preach? While recognizing several efforts of IS researchers, we can no longer ignore the ‘environmental elephant in the room’. In our panel report, we discuss the status-quo and ideas to improve the environmental and societal impact of our academic practices and present three ideas to move forward: Leverage virtualization and limit air travel, overhaul teaching curricula, and recalibrate incentives and evaluation regimes.
    Keywords: environmental sustainability; sustainable development goals; business ethics; management teaching
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:116677&r=agr
  29. By: Yelly Kwesy Lawluvy; Olivia Kwakyewaa Ntim; Albert Agbeko Ahiadu
    Abstract: Although green buildings have been found to be more life-cycle cost-effective than conventional buildings, the capital cost of building green remains greater than that of traditional alternatives, especially in the Ghanaian market. As such, for green buildings to gain proliferation in Ghana, adopters must be willing to bear a cost premium. This study tests Ghana's green building proliferation readiness by investigating Ghanaians' willingness to pay a green building cost premium. An online survey was administered and responded to by 1,227 participants, upon which statistical analysis, including ANOVA and correlation analyses, were conducted. 70.1% of respondents showed a willingness to pay a cost premium for green buildings, with 33.4% of respondents indicating a willingness to pay a premium of up to 5% of the cost of a conventional alternative. Further analyses revealed statistically significant differences in willingness to pay for green buildings across Education levels, Income levels, Environmental Concern levels, and Green Building Awareness levels. However, no significant differences were found between different ages and genders.
    Keywords: sustainability; Willingness to pay; Ghana; Green building; Influencing Factors
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:afr:wpaper:2022-052&r=agr
  30. By: Schulz, Lee; Pudenz, Christopher C.; Schulz, Lee L.
    Abstract: U.S. beef packers openly began employing multi-plant coordination during the lastdecade. Using the Salop Circular City framework, we demonstrate that this leads to wider spreads between downstream beef prices and upstream fed cattle prices. Taken together with market concentration, geography and transportation costs, alternative marketing arrangements, and cattle cycles and related beef packer capacity utilization, multi-plant coordination helps explain farm-to-wholesale beef price spreads that have remained wide absent any obvious market shocks. We find that, as cattle inventories decline, a multi-plant coordinator will permanently shut down a plant before a plant run as an individual profit center will shut down, which is consistent with packer behavior over the last 20 years. We further demonstrate that adding a strategically-locatedpacking plant, owned by a different firm, can narrow the price spread. Our results add new underpinnings to discussions that have often bordered on being repetitive in scope and in policy prescriptions.
    Date: 2022–02–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202202141403110000&r=agr
  31. By: Julien CALAS; Antoine GODIN; Julie MAURIN (AFD); Etienne ESPAGNE (World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper aims to review and compare existing global and quantitative biodiversity scenarios that could help to build a forward-looking assessment of the consequences of biodiversity loss. More broadly, it provides a literature review of existing biodiversity scenarios and models as well as an assessment of the path forward for research to developing scenarios for biodiversity related socio-economic impacts at each step of the process: from building narratives, quantifying the impacts and dependencies, assessing the uncertainty range on the results all the way from the ecosystem to the economic and financial asset.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–11–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:avg:wpaper:en14790&r=agr
  32. By: Jean-Louis Rastoin (Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals and the "one health" concept led to recommending a profound change in the consumption and agroindustrial production model. This presupposes a new form of governance of food systems whose pillars are based on complete and transparent information, a strengthening of regulation by the States, a balance between the actors, a redeployment of research and training institutions and new enterprise's statutes.
    Abstract: Les objectifs de développement durable et le concept « une seule santé » conduisent à recommander un changement en profondeur du modèle de consommation et de production agro-industriel. Ceci suppose une nouvelle forme de gouvernance des systèmes alimentaires dont les piliers reposent sur une information complète et transparente, un renforcement de la régulation par les États, un équilibre entre les acteurs, un redéploiement des institutions de recherche et de formation et de nouveaux statuts d'entreprise.
    Keywords: governance,food system,foresight,sustainable development,initiative,gouvernance,Système alimentaire,prospective,Développement durable,Initiative
    Date: 2022–11–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03856108&r=agr
  33. By: Leonard Emmanuel Mwassa; Sophia Marcian Kongela
    Abstract: The environmental pollution contributed to by the building construction sub-sector in Tanzania is significantly soaring by the day, making it difficult for the country to align to the expectations of the Global Development Agenda, 2015. This article focuses on the establishment of environmental importance weightings for local green building standard elements in Tanzanian, to be able to match the pace at which the global green building sector is moving. Emanating from the use of a Relative Importance Index (RII) analysis, the study found that, similar to the global practice of green building cornichons, which assign more environmental weighing to energy efficiency in green buildings, the same way have the RIIs of the examined Tanzanian Green Building Assessment criteria identified energy efficiency (with the highest environmental importance weighing given by RII = 0.78039216) as the most important ingredient of green building. Although it is not the case in other global green building certifications, for the case of Tanzanian Green Building Standard elements, Water Efficiency and rainwater harvesting, as well as on-site waste management and environmental conservation emerged as the twin-second best elements (receiving the same environmental weighng given by RII = 0.76470588. On the other hand, the study revealed that Building Automation and the Internet of things (in other words referred to as innovation in buildings) as the least environmentally important element with the lowest environmental weight given by the RII = 0.61568627, which in some ways confirms and questions the environmental weighings allocated to 'innovation' green element by the most prominent global green building certifications such as LEED, BREEAM, Green Star Australia, Green Star SA, and Green Mark.
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:afr:wpaper:2022-015&r=agr
  34. By: Lee, Seungho (KOREA INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC POLICY (KIEP))
    Abstract: Climate change adaptation has long been established as a regional and national priority in Central American countries. Korea, as a responsible middle power in global governance, should not hesitate to play a more active role in tackling their adaptation challenges. This brief summarizes a number of findings and policy suggestions from Lee et al. (2021), which identifies promising cooperation areas in the field of climate change adaptation between Korea and four Central American countries and proposes cooperation schemes in each area.
    Keywords: Climate Change Adaptation; Korea; Central America
    Date: 2022–05–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ris:kiepwe:2022_021&r=agr
  35. By: M. Ithurbide (GenPhySE - Génétique Physiologie et Systèmes d'Elevage - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - École nationale supérieure agronomique de Toulouse [ENSAT] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); C. Huau (GenPhySE - Génétique Physiologie et Systèmes d'Elevage - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - École nationale supérieure agronomique de Toulouse [ENSAT] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); I. Palhière (GenPhySE - Génétique Physiologie et Systèmes d'Elevage - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - École nationale supérieure agronomique de Toulouse [ENSAT] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); T. Fassier (BOURGES - Domaine expérimental Bourges-La Sapinière - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); N.C. Friggens (MoSAR - Modélisation Systémique Appliquée aux Ruminants - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); R. Rupp (GenPhySE - Génétique Physiologie et Systèmes d'Elevage - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - École nationale supérieure agronomique de Toulouse [ENSAT] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Resilience is the ability of an animal to cope with environmental disturbances, such as pathogens or negative energy balance. To improve resilience through breeding, we need resilience indicators. Functional longevity might be a good indicator of a dairy goat's lifetime resilience as it results from the ability to cope with and recover from all the challenges faced throughout its life-time. The aim of this study was to validate the use of functional longevity as an indicator of resilience for selection. To address this question, we created 2 genetic lines of Alpine goats using hyperselected artificial insemination bucks with the most extreme estimated breeding values for functional longevity arid the same milk yield performance. A total of 440 goats, 228 in the high longevity (high_LGV) and 221 in the low longevity (low_LGV) lines, were bred and monitored for 4 yr. Health treatments, serum IgG concentration as a proxy of passive immune transfer in early life, kidding, age, and reason of culling were systematically noted. Weight and body morphology were monitored. Weight arid growth during the first year of life were similar in both goat lines. In contrast, the low_LGV goats had a lower weight during the beginning of first lactation than high_LGV goats. The milk fat-to-protein ratio was also significantly higher in low_LGV goats during first lactation. A multivariable Cox regression was fitted to the data to decipher survival at different stages of life in the 2 lines. The overall survival of high_LGV goats was significantly better than low_LGV goats (hazard ratio = 0.63, confidence interval = 0.47; 0.86) even after we included treatment, growth, serum IgG concentration at birth, and year effects in the model. The line effect was riot constant over time; no significant effect was found during the first year, and the difference was observed after first kidding. This result suggested that survival at an early stage of life and during later productive life are under different genetic regulation. Altogether, this monitoring of the goat lines indicated that functional longevity-based selection helps to improve resilience by improving survival and mitigating some indicators of fat mobilization during early lactation.
    Keywords: functional longevity,hyper,selection,survival analysis,dairy goat
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03845766&r=agr

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