nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒11‒28
forty-five papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Is land consolidation policy a solution for rice production and agricultural transformation in Vietnam? By Manh Hung Do; Trung Thanh Nguyen; Ulrike Grote
  2. Farmers' Knowledge and Farm Productivity in Rural Thailand and Vietnam By Jaretzky, Huong; Liebenehm, Sabine; Waibel, Hermann
  3. Small-scale irrigation and water management technologies for African agricultural transformation By Oke, A.; Traore, K.; Nati-Bama, A. D.; Igbadun, H.; Ahmed, B.; Ahmed, F.; Zwart, Sander
  4. Specialty Crop Participation in Federal Risk Management Programs By Raszap Skorbiansky, Sharon; Astill, Gregory; Rosch, Stephanie; Higgins, Elizabeth; Ifft, Jennifer; Rickard, Bradley
  5. Policy options for fertilizer subsidy reforms in Rwanda: A simulation-based analysis and synthesis of prior studies By Spielman, David J.; Mugabo, Serge; Rosenbach, Gracie; Ndikumana, Sosthene; Benimana, Gilberthe; Ingabire, Chantal
  6. Impact of the Agricultural Supply Chain on Society: A Post-Covid Analysis By Zhang, Shoucheng
  7. Designing Agri-Environmental Schemes to cope with uncertainty By Margaux Lapierre; Gwenolé Le Velly; Douadia Bougherara; Raphaële Préget; Alexandre Sauquet
  8. Solar irrigation in Pakistan: a situation analysis report By Ali Shah, Muhammad Azeem; Akbar, Muhammad Zain Bin
  9. PROTOCOL: Measuring diet‐related consumer behaviours relevant to low‐ and middle‐income countries to advance food systems research: an evidence and gap map By Ilse de Jager; Megan Harrison; Renate F Wit; Anne Sonneveld; Rosil Hesen; Betül T M Uyar; Eric O. Verger; Ana Islas Ramos; Melissa Vargas; Ramani Wijesinha‐bettoni; Fatima Hachem; Inge D Brouwer
  10. Living customary water tenure in rights-based water management in Sub-Saharan Africa By van Koppen, Barbara
  11. Promoting Gender – Equitable Agricultural Value Chains: the Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Niger Delta By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  12. Promoting Gender – Equitable Agricultural Value Chains: the Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Niger Delta By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  13. Economic analysis of different dairy production systems in Ghana and Senegal: an application of typical farm approach By Gunarathne, Anoma; Almadani, Mohamad Isam; Behrendt, Lena; Chibanda, Craig; Deblitz, Claus
  14. A series of Preparatory Living Lab workshops as the enabler of a co-creation ecosystem under the IntelComp platform By Lydia Papadaki; Charalampos Stavridis; Ioanna Grypari; Madina Kazbek; Phoebe Koundouri; Haris Papageorgiou; Nicolaos Theodossiou
  15. Statistical Supplement to Household Food Security in the United States in 2021 By Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P.; Gregory, Christian A.; Singh, Anita
  16. Trends in USDA Foods Ordered for Child Nutrition Programs Before and After Updated Nutrition Standards By Ollinger, Michael; Guthrie, Joanne
  17. Market proximity, resilience, and food security: A cross-country empirical analysis By Alessandra Garbero; Tulia Gattone; Marco Letta; Pierluigi Montalbano
  18. Management Practices and Use of Finnish Forests: Conclusions and Recommendations of the FutureForest2040 Project I By Kulvik, Martti; Lintunen, Jussi; Kunttu, Janni; Orfanidou, Timokleia
  19. Analysis of Ghana’s Local Milk Value Chain: barriers to competitiveness By Boimah, M.; Gunarathne, A.; Behrendt, L.
  20. Legal recognition of customary water tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa: unpacking the land-water nexus By Troell, J.; Keene, S.
  21. China's Import Potential for Beef, Corn, Pork, and Wheat By Beckman, Jayson; Gale, Fred; Morgan, Stephen; Sabala, Ethan; Ufer, Danielle J.; Valcu-Lisman, Adriana; Zeng, Wendy; Arita, Shawn
  22. Cryptocurrency, Sanctions and Agricultural Prices: An empirical study on the negative implications of sanctions and how decentralized technologies affect the agriculture futures market in developing countries By Agni Rajinikanth
  23. Exploring dietary diversity, nutritional status of adolescents among farm households in Nigeria: do higher commercialization levels translate to better nutrition? By Otekunrin, Olutosin Ademola; Otekunrin, Oluwaseun Aramide
  24. Do heat-related health and income losses increase food insecurity? A natural experiment across 148 countries, 2014-2017 By Kroeger, Carolin
  25. The environmental certification way to access to the French eco-scheme in the CAP By Marie Lassalas; Vincent Chatellier; Cécile Détang-Dessendre; Pierre P. Dupraz; Hervé Guyomard
  26. Millet, Rice, and Isolation: Origins and Persistence of the World's Most Enduring Mega-State By Kung, James Kai-sing; Özak, Ömer; Putterman, Louis; Shi, Shuang
  27. Food consumption models and unequal access to meat: the case of Spain (1964-2018) By Pablo Delgado; Adrían Espinosa-Gracia
  28. Household Food Security in the United States in 2021 By Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P.; Gregory, Christian A.; Singh, Anita
  29. Agricultural Market Access Under Tariff-Rate Quotas By Beckman, Jayson; Gale, Fred; Lee, Tani
  30. The Intention-Behavior Gap in Climate Change Adaptation By Osberghaus, Daniel; Botzen, Wouter; Kesternich, Martin; Iurkova, Ekaterina
  31. Polluting Tanneries and Small Farmers in Kanpur, India: A Theoretical Analysis By Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter
  32. From a drought to HIV: An analysis of the effect of droughts on transactional sex and sexually transmitted infections in Malawi By Carole Treibich; Eleanor Bell; Elodie Blanc; Aurélia Lépine
  33. Keep it or Leave it - the Role of Reversible Conservation Investments in Optimal Reserve Design under Climate Change By Gerling, Charlotte; Schöttker, Oliver; Hearne, John
  34. Spatial spillovers, living environment and obesity in France: Evidence from a spatial econometric framework By Céline Bonnet; Cécile Détang-Dessendre; Valérie Orozco; Elodie Rouviere
  35. War in Ukraine: The Rationale “Wait-and-See” Mode of Global Food Markets By Nicolas Legrand
  36. Prospects for Growth in U.S. Dairy Exports to Southeast Asia By Davis, Christopher G; Cessna, Jerry
  37. The Effect of Input Price Discrimination on Retail Prices: Theory and Evidence from France By Marie-Laure Allain; Claire Chambolle; Stéphane Turolla
  38. Evaluating U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Long-Term Forecasts for U.S. Harvested Area By Boussios, David; Skorbiansky, Sharon Raszap; MacLachlan, Matthew
  39. How agricultural research for development achieves developmental outcomes: learning lessons to inform One CGIAR science and technology policy research By Douthwaite, B.; Child, K.
  40. Agricultural and urban land use policies to manage human–wildlife conflicts By Yoshida, Jun; Imoto, Tomoko; Kono, Tatsuhito
  41. Household Food Insecurity and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Federal Housing Assistance By Helms, Veronica E; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Gray, Regina; Brucker, Debra L
  42. The portfolio of economic policies needed to fight climate change By Olivier J Blanchard; Christian Gollier; Jean Tirole
  43. Shaping inequality? Property rights, landed elites and public lands in Colombia By Juan David Torres
  44. Gains from Trade and the Food Engel Curve By Farrokhi, Farid; Jinkins, David; Xiang, Chong
  45. Collective Model of Firewood Consumption, Production, and Labour Supply: Evidence from Malawi By Aggarwal, Raavi; Steckel, Jan

  1. By: Manh Hung Do; Trung Thanh Nguyen; Ulrike Grote
    Abstract: Since the global food price crisis between 2007 and 2008, governments in developing countries such as Vietnam have paid more attention to food security issues. The government of Vietnam has issued policies to sustain rice land and imposed restrictions upon the transformation of rice land to ensure food security. Land consolidation is important to increase the economies of scale in farming, and understanding its determinants and effects is useful for policy-makers to support agricultural transformation. In this study, we investigate factors affecting the voluntary participation of rice growers in land consolidation and examine the impacts of this participation on crop production costs, poverty, and rural transformation. Our results show that land consolidation is driven by farming efficiency. It significantly decreases land preparation and harvest costs, increases farm income, and reduces poverty. We conclude that land consolidation should be promoted to facilitate the redistribution of farm land from farmers who want to leave agriculture to those who continue to work in agriculture. The redistribution of farmland promotes agricultural transformation by reallocating labor from farm to non-farm sectors.
    Keywords: Rural transformation, Land fragmentation, Non-farm income, Poverty reduction, Simultaneous regression
    JEL: D01 O12 Q12
    Date: 2022–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tvs:wpaper:wp-028&r=agr
  2. By: Jaretzky, Huong; Liebenehm, Sabine; Waibel, Hermann
    Abstract: With the increasing complexity of farming in the developing countries in Asia and the growing challenge arising from climate change, management, technical knowledge, and skills become more and more important for smallholder farmers. So far, little is known about how knowledge, skills, and cognitive abilities of farm decision-makers affect agricultural productivity. Most empirical studies lack the necessary parameters to adequately measure knowledge and skills and often rely on simple parameters like educational attainment and years of formal schooling. However, to generate a better understanding of how knowledge and skills enable farmers to meet the challenges of increasingly obstacle farming environments, more direct measures of education are needed. This paper investigates the impact of farmers’ knowledge on agricultural productivity by making use of specific agricultural knowledge questions and management tests conducted with 1,290 small-scale farmers in two provinces in Thailand and Vietnam, carried out in 2014. Applying OLS and 2SLS approaches and combining the knowledge and skills test results with productivity data of later waves allows for identifying the effect of agricultural knowledge and skills on agricultural productivity. Results show that farmers’ specific agriculture knowledge is significantly and positively associated with profits but significantly negative with yields and total input costs. Hence, better farmers may strive for optimal instead of maximum yields, are more judicious in the use of inputs, and as a result, make more money in rice production.
    Keywords: Education; Knowledge; Skills; Human Capital; Agricultural Productivity
    JEL: D83 O15 I25
    Date: 2022–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:han:dpaper:dp-702&r=agr
  3. By: Oke, A.; Traore, K.; Nati-Bama, A. D.; Igbadun, H.; Ahmed, B.; Ahmed, F.; Zwart, Sander
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Public Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–10–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iwmiwp:329172&r=agr
  4. By: Raszap Skorbiansky, Sharon; Astill, Gregory; Rosch, Stephanie; Higgins, Elizabeth; Ifft, Jennifer; Rickard, Bradley
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers various risk management products to farmers through the Federal Crop Insurance Program (FCIP), and for crops in counties where FCIP is not available, through the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP). All FCIP insurance products are actuarially sound (total premiums paid are calculated to equal or exceed total claims paid), requiring a substantial amount of data to price. Only some counties generate sufficient data to create products for specialty crops like fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, horticulture, and nursery crops. This study characterizes recent changes in FCIP and NAP use by specialty crop farmers, compares differences among conventional and organic farms, and investigates the reasons some farmers choose whether to participate in these programs. Specialty crop growers increased the value of their crops insured by FCIP products from about $12 billion in 2011 to about $21 billion in 2020 (not adjusted for inflation). In 2017, FCIP or NAP covered a significant portion of acreage for many crops.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Production Economics, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–09–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:329075&r=agr
  5. By: Spielman, David J.; Mugabo, Serge; Rosenbach, Gracie; Ndikumana, Sosthene; Benimana, Gilberthe; Ingabire, Chantal
    Abstract: Agricultural input subsidies are a prominent feature in the 2018-2024 Strategic Plan for Agricultural Transformation (PSTA 4), which is designed and implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI). By reducing the cost of improved seed and inorganic fertilizers, subsidies are designed to accelerate the use of these productivity-enhancing inputs, thereby increasing agricultural yields and output, increasing rural incomes while reducing food prices, and improving food security in line with PSTA 4’s targets. However, questions arise about whether the current input subsidy rates and levels are sufficient to increase crop production and meet the PSTA 4 targets, and whether the subsidy system can be expanded in the current economic climate and fiscal situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and spike in global fertilizer prices. This paper examines the impact of an increase in the price of fertilizer in Rwanda using seasonal production data from National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR) in a microsimulation model aimed at three priority crops—maize, rice, and Irish potato—and the three main fertilizers in use—diammonium phosphate (DAP), urea, and NPK.
    Keywords: RWANDA; CENTRAL AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; fertilizers; seed; subsidies; yields; food prices; food security; rural communities; crop production; economics; poverty alleviation; maize; rice; potatoes; nitrogen fertilizers; urea; NPK fertilizers; data analysis; diammonium phosphate (DAP); value-cost ratios (VCR); National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR)
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:rsspwp:5&r=agr
  6. By: Zhang, Shoucheng
    Abstract: Over the past few years, the global agricultural supply chain has been shown to be extremely vulnerable to disruptions as a result of the Covid pandemic that has occurred over the last few years. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, companies around the world have faced unprecedented challenges as well as the cross-border flow of components and materials in the agriculture industry as a result of the outbreak. Due to the ongoing challenges of climate change as well as the changing geopolitical landscape, such disruptions seem to be more frequent and intense than ever before. By leveraging digital technologies to find new ways to protect supply chains in an uncertain climate, farming is able to flourish in this dynamic environment of constant change and find new ways to secure their supply chains in an uncertain climate by leveraging digital technologies. In the context of the agriculture sector, the recent pandemic has had an impact on every aspect of the value chain, from the raw material sourcing in the farming sector to the final customer. Many small and marginal farmers around the globe are being tested in terms of their commercial, operational, financial, and organizational resilience, and this has highlighted the risks and resiliency gaps for many of these farms. It is impossible for any of us to predict what will happen in the future, but what we can do is learn from the past and prepare for the uncertain future. In spite of the fact it is clear now that many supply chains had become complacent in recent years, the urgency to create a supply chain which is able to adapt to the future is greater than ever. It is important to note that one silver lining of this situation is that we have the experience, the intelligence, and the technology at our disposal to resolve supply chain disruptions. Farmers should be able to use those pieces to create a solid strategy and execute on a supply chain transformation plan that makes the most sense for the farming community as a whole to be able to put the pieces together, come up with a solid strategy, and execute on it.
    Keywords: Covid impact on society, post covid impact on agriculture, covid impact on supply chain, rural supply chain, post covid analysis on agriculture
    JEL: J43 O1 O13 Q13 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2022–08–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:115355&r=agr
  7. By: Margaux Lapierre (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Gwenolé Le Velly (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Douadia Bougherara (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Raphaële Préget (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Alexandre Sauquet (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Agri-environmental schemes (AES) are part of the main tools used by decision makers to trigger a transition in agricultural practices but one of the factors that discourages farmers from enrolling is the uncertainty of the costs and benefits associated with the adoption of the new practices. In this study, we distinguish between the "internal uncertainty" that is related to the characteristics of the farmer and his/her parcels and "external uncertainty", which is related to the occurrence of external events. We propose three innovations to better account for uncertainty in AES design: the possibility to suspend the conditions of the contract for one year, an opt-out option after three years and the opportunity for farmers to share their experience in peer-groups. We test their attractiveness through a choice experiment and analyze our results using a mixed logit model. We find that proposing AES that allow suspending the conditions of the contract for one year enhances participation.
    Keywords: Agri-environmental Measures,Uncertainty,Flexibility,Choice Experiment,Pesticides
    Date: 2023
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03811624&r=agr
  8. By: Ali Shah, Muhammad Azeem (International Water Management Institute); Akbar, Muhammad Zain Bin (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Solar energy; Irrigation systems; Groundwater; Water extraction; Pumps; Water use; Tube wells; Water quality; Policies; Sustainability; Farmers
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050621&r=agr
  9. By: Ilse de Jager (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Megan Harrison (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Rome, Italie]); Renate F Wit (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Anne Sonneveld (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Rosil Hesen (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Betül T M Uyar (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Eric O. Verger (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Ana Islas Ramos (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Rome, Italie]); Melissa Vargas (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Rome, Italie]); Ramani Wijesinha‐bettoni (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Rome, Italie]); Fatima Hachem (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [Rome, Italie]); Inge D Brouwer (WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen])
    Abstract: This is the protocol for a evidence and gap map. The main objective of this evidence and gap map is to provide access to a systematic overview of available indicators for diet-related consumer behaviours relevant to LMICs, to support policy makers and researchers to develop, monitor and revise food policies and programmes to leverage food systems transformations for healthier and more sustainable diets.
    Date: 2022–10–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03821923&r=agr
  10. By: van Koppen, Barbara
    Abstract: Living customary water tenure is the most accepted socio-legal system among the large majority of rural people in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on literature, this report seeks to develop a grounded understanding of the ways in which rural people meet their domestic and productive water needs on homesteads, distant fields or other sites of use, largely outside the ambits of the state. Taking the rural farming or pastoralist community as the unit of analysis, three components are distinguished. The first component deals with the fundamental perceptions of the links between humankind and naturally available water resources as a commons to be shared by all, partially linked to communities’ collective land rights. The second component deals with the sharing of these finite and contested naturally available water resources, especially during dry seasons and droughts. Customary arrangements shape both the ‘sharing in’ of water resources within communities and the ‘sharing out’ with other customary communities or powerful third parties. Since colonial times, communities have been vulnerable to those third parties grabbing water resources and overriding customary uses and governance. The third component deals with infrastructure to store and convey water resources. Since time immemorial, communities have invested in infrastructure for self supply, ranging from micro-scale soil moisture retention techniques to large-scale collective deep wells. As increasingly recognized in both the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and irrigation sectors, this component of self supply is rapidly expanding. In all three components, local diversity is high, with gender, class and other social hierarchies intertwining with social safety nets, neighborliness and moral economies. The study derives two sets of implications for state and non-state policies, laws and interventions. First, state legislation about the sharing of water resources should recognize and protect living customary water tenure, especially through due process in ‘sharing out’ water with powerful third parties. Remarkably, water law, which is dominated by permit systems in sub-Saharan Africa, lags behind other legislation in recognizing customary water tenure (see IWMI Research Report 182). Second, by taking communities’ self supply for multiple uses as a starting point for further water infrastructure development, the WASH, irrigation and other sectors can follow the priorities of communities, including the most vulnerable; identify cost-effective multi-purpose infrastructure; develop local skills; and, hence, contribute more sustainably to achieving more United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular SDGs 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 13. Further historical and interdisciplinary research to achieve these benefits is recommended.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Financial Economics, Livestock Production/Industries, Public Economics
    Date: 2022–08–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iwmirr:329165&r=agr
  11. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the multinational oil companies’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on promoting gender-equitable agricultural value chains in the Niger Delta region. Design/ methodology/approach – This paper adopts a quasi-experimental design that used survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 760 rural women (380 from the treatment group and another 380 from the control group) were sampled across the Niger Delta region. Findings – The results from the use of a combination of a logit model and propensity score matching indicate a significant relationship between GMoU model and gender-equitable agricultural value chains in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Practical implications – This implies that CSR of a multinational oil companies is a critical factor in the need to integrating gender into agricultural value chains, and achieving the goal of increasing agricultural growth and expanding the stable food supply. Social implications - It suggests that creating and sustaining competitive and equitably-oriented value chains that help small-scale farmers, especially women will require examining gender issues and proactively integrating gender components into GMoU policies and action plans of MOCs for value chain analysis and development strategies in the Niger Delta. Originality/value – This research contributes to gender debate in agricultural value chains from a CSR perspective in developing countries and rationale for demands for social projects by host communities. It concludes that business has an obligation to help in solving problems of public concern.
    Keywords: Gender, Agriculture, Value chains, Corporate social responsibility, Multinational oil companies, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:agd:wpaper:22/087&r=agr
  12. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the multinational oil companies’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on promoting gender-equitable agricultural value chains in the Niger Delta region. Design/ methodology/approach – This paper adopts a quasi-experimental design that used survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 760 rural women (380 from the treatment group and another 380 from the control group) were sampled across the Niger Delta region. Findings – The results from the use of a combination of a logit model and propensity score matching indicate a significant relationship between GMoU model and gender-equitable agricultural value chains in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Practical implications – This implies that CSR of a multinational oil companies is a critical factor in the need to integrating gender into agricultural value chains, and achieving the goal of increasing agricultural growth and expanding the stable food supply. Social implications - It suggests that creating and sustaining competitive and equitably-oriented value chains that help small-scale farmers, especially women will require examining gender issues and proactively integrating gender components into GMoU policies and action plans of MOCs for value chain analysis and development strategies in the Niger Delta. Originality/value – This research contributes to gender debate in agricultural value chains from a CSR perspective in developing countries and rationale for demands for social projects by host communities. It concludes that business has an obligation to help in solving problems of public concern.
    Keywords: Gender, Agriculture, Value chains, Corporate social responsibility, Multinational oil companies, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aak:wpaper:22/021&r=agr
  13. By: Gunarathne, Anoma; Almadani, Mohamad Isam; Behrendt, Lena; Chibanda, Craig; Deblitz, Claus
    Abstract: Ghana has been experiencing a significant increase in the demand for dairy products due to rising incomes, population growth, urbanization, and changes in dietary choices. However, due to the low domestic milk production capacity, Ghana relies heavily on imports to meet local demand. This study aimed to identify and characterize prevailing dairy production systems in Ghana; and measure and compare their costs and returns using the TIPI-CAL model (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculation model). Three typical farms were selected from each production system: confined-cut and carry (GH-03), agro-pastoral (GH-35), and pastoral production systems (GH-27). The cost of milk production for GH-03, GH-35, and GH-27 was €58.48/100kg Energy Corrected Milk (ECM), €49.05/100kg ECM, and €39.51/100kg ECM, respectively. All three farms had a positive entrepreneur's profit and covered their full economic cost from dairying in the short, medium, and long terms. However, the GH-27 was economically unviable in the long term for finished cattle because of the high opportunity cost of labor. Nonetheless, the market had a low absorption capacity for surplus milk mainly due to the lack of infrastructure and cooling facilities. Other issues such as low milk yield, shortage of forage, lack of artificial insemination, and the lack of organized marketing facilities were the major constraints faced by dairy farmers in Ghana.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa185:329290&r=agr
  14. By: Lydia Papadaki; Charalampos Stavridis; Ioanna Grypari; Madina Kazbek; Phoebe Koundouri; Haris Papageorgiou; Nicolaos Theodossiou
    Abstract: The phenomena of climate change transcend all national and regional boundaries. Human health, agriculture and food production, forest fires, changes in ocean salinity, and other human and environmental phenomena are only a few examples of how it affects both. To address this complex challenge, we must determine the areas of the country of interest, in this case, Greece, that have been most adversely affected by climate. Greece is surrounded by water, and a significant part of its GDP is derived from the marine and maritime industries, including tourism. These industries are particularly vulnerable to the effects of the climate crisis, from rising sea levels and water acidification to declining fish stocks and biodiversity loss. Since the start of the IntelComp project, a Preparatory Living Lab (PLL) has been planned and delivered, feeding into the development of the IntelComp platform and the Living Lab on Climate Change Adaptation. The PLL led to the identification of the needs and gaps in the four seas (Mediterranean, Black, Caspian, Aral) and the selection of the Energy Sector as the primary focus sector for the Climate Change case study of the IntelComp project.
    Keywords: Living Lab, Climate Change, IntelComp project, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Aral Sea, Energy
    Date: 2022–11–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aue:wpaper:2229&r=agr
  15. By: Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P.; Gregory, Christian A.; Singh, Anita
    Abstract: This supplement provides statistics that complement those in Household Food Security in the United States in 2021. That research report provides the primary national statistics on household food security, food spending, and use of Federal food and nutrition assistance programs by food-insecure households. Additional statistics here cover component items of the household food security measure, the frequency of occurrence of food-insecure conditions, and selected statistics on household food security, food spending, and use of Federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:329071&r=agr
  16. By: Ollinger, Michael; Guthrie, Joanne
    Abstract: Nutrition standards for the USDA’s National School Lunch program were updated in 2012, with changes requiring more fruit and vegetables. Most of the foods served in school meals come from commercial sources, but USDA also offers foods to schools in a program called USDA Foods. In this program, schools acquire foods procured by USDA using entitlement funds assigned to each State. USDA Foods assists schools financially and may help schools meet nutrition standards. This report examines changes in food choices in the USDA Foods program during 2006–17 in response to revised nutrition standards. The report finds that (nationally) the value of fresh fruits and vegetables ordered from USDA Foods and distributed by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) (under the USDA DoD Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (DoD Fresh)) rose from 5 to 15 percent of the value of all USDA Foods orders. The value of fruits ordered through USDA Foods—mainly canned and frozen—rose from 9 to 15 percent of the value of USDA Foods orders during 2012–17—while the value of cheese, meat, and poultry as a percent of entitlement funds—dropped 10 percent. There were also other changes in food choice supportive of revised nutrition standards.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:329069&r=agr
  17. By: Alessandra Garbero (International Fund for Agricultural Development); Tulia Gattone (Department of Social Sciences and Economics, Sapienza University of Rome); Marco Letta (Department of Social Sciences and Economics, Sapienza University of Rome); Pierluigi Montalbano (Department of Social Sciences and Economics, Sapienza University of Rome)
    Abstract: Scholars advocate that proximity to final markets increases food security, but empirical evidence is scarce. We shed light on this issue by applying a hybrid empirical approach – which combines machine learning algorithms, vulnerability models and mediation analysis – to a new cross-country household dataset made available by the International Fund for Agricultural Development in 2017-2018. Specifically, we find positive and statistically significant associations among proximity to markets, resilience and food security. We tested the plausibility of the exclusion restriction that market proximity does not affect food security fluctuations other than through its impact on resilience capacity by implementing an instrumental variable approach and a mediation analysis. The latter method reveals that market proximity accounts for a significant share of the positive correlation between household resilience and food security outcomes. The dampening role played by market proximity in decreasing welfare fluctuations is also confirmed when replacing food security outcomes with income ones. Overall, these findings suggest that policymakers should prioritize interventions to improve infrastructure and access to markets as a means to boost household resilience and, in turn, decrease welfare fluctuations and vulnerability to food insecurity.
    Keywords: rural development, market chain, vulnerability, resilience, food security
    JEL: Q12 O12 C31 C3
    Date: 2022–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:saq:wpaper:9/22&r=agr
  18. By: Kulvik, Martti; Lintunen, Jussi; Kunttu, Janni; Orfanidou, Timokleia
    Abstract: Abstract Forests can be seen as a source of wood raw material and bioenergy, a recreational area with health benefits, a carbon sink, and a source of biodiversity. This brief examines how different shifts in perceptions and the forest sector’s operating environment affect Finland’s forest-based production, wood use, and labor skills needs. The analysis of the future is based on a forecast up to 2026 and scenario work up to 2040. Combined with today’s views on changes in forest ownership and management practices, technological developments, and policy measures already agreed and planned, the foresight work creates a vision for the future of the forest sector. In this brief we present scenario implications for the management and use of Finnish forests, and in Etla Brief 115 we look at the future of forest-based production in Finland. Although the outlook for the forest-based industries is relatively stable for the coming years, significant changes are foreseen by 2040. Changes in forestry will be driven by changes in forest management practices and forest ownership, climate and biodiversity targets for land use, and changes in the risk of natural disturbances due to the climate change. Forest management practices are expected to diversify. The multiplicity of forest uses will be further emphasized in education. Forest-related services are expected to increase, which will also increase the importance of customer contact skills. Interactive digitalization will enable the value chain to be integrated into an increasingly cohesive whole. Finally, the sufficiency of wood raw material is put to the test when the conservation, production, environmental and ownership expectations and rights of Finland’s forests are combined.
    Keywords: Scenarios, Foresight, Forest sector, Wood uses, Forest management practices, Education
    JEL: L73 C53 P18
    Date: 2022–11–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rif:briefs:114&r=agr
  19. By: Boimah, M.; Gunarathne, A.; Behrendt, L.
    Abstract: Ghana imports more milk and other dairy products yearly than it produces. Even for what is processed domestically, almost all are exclusively made from imported milk powder. It is in this regard that this study was initiated to analyze the barriers to the local dairy sector’s competitiveness employing both primary and secondary data sources. For the collection of primary data, in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. A total of 34 actors along the local fresh milk and milk powder value chains were sampled and interviewed and the data descriptively analyzed. Results show that the local milk value chain of Ghana is informal, not developed and with minimal value addition to fresh milk compared to the value chain of imported milk powder. Moreover, local products sold on the Ghanaian markets do not undergo any form of safety tests and have not been approved by the regulatory and standard authorities. Further, a host of challenges along the local milk value chain are identified as factors limiting its competitiveness. Nevertheless, a window of opportunity for developing the local milk value chain is presented considering the growing demand for fresh milk-based dairy products in Ghana as well as increasing international trade to integrate into the Global Value Chain.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aiea21:329291&r=agr
  20. By: Troell, J.; Keene, S.
    Abstract: Despite the progress made in conceptualizing and advocating for secure community-based land and forest tenure rights, there is a critical lacuna in advocacy and policymaking processes pertaining to community-based freshwater tenure rights. Moreover, water tenure as a concept has only recently gained significant traction in global policy circles. This report analyzes national and international legal pathways for recognizing customary forms of community-based freshwater tenure rights held by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLCs) in sub-Saharan Africa. It employs a methodological framework and builds on an analysis of community-based water tenure systems that was developed and applied by the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) and the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) in the publication Whose Water? A Comparative Analysis of National Laws and Regulations Recognizing Indigenous Peoples’, Afro-Descendants’, and Local Communities’ Water Tenure. Based on the key findings of this analysis, in particular the frequent dependence of IPLCs’ legally recognized customary water tenure rights on their legally recognized land and/or forest rights, this report further analyzes national constitutions, national legislation governing water, land, forests, environmental protection and other related matters, international and national case law, and international and regional human rights laws, to explore how legal frameworks are recognizing and protecting customary water tenure rights across sub-Saharan Africa. The findings and recommendations provide a basis for analyzing the comparative effectiveness and potential drawbacks of these legal pathways for the recognition and protection of customary water tenure and ultimately for future work refining and improving legislation and assessing progress in its implementation and enforcement.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iwmirr:329166&r=agr
  21. By: Beckman, Jayson; Gale, Fred; Morgan, Stephen; Sabala, Ethan; Ufer, Danielle J.; Valcu-Lisman, Adriana; Zeng, Wendy; Arita, Shawn
    Abstract: China is one of the top importers of agricultural products, but it has nontariff measures that prevent its imports from growing even larger. In this report, the authors develop a quantitative framework to examine China’s import market potential using a price wedge approach—the difference between domestic and imported prices—for commodities that are imported by China. The report estimates the impact of removing these barriers for the four highest wedges using a global economic model. Domestic prices in China exceeded foreign prices (using the United States as an example) by large margins for the four commodities we considered, as follows: beef (58 percent), corn (64 percent), pork (213 percent), and wheat (42 percent). Estimates reveal that removing these price wedges could lead to more imports into China. Benefits would be widespread, increasing sales for producers in the United States and other exporting countries and yielding lower food prices for China’s consumers.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Financial Economics, International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries, Political Economy
    Date: 2022–08–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:329067&r=agr
  22. By: Agni Rajinikanth
    Abstract: The 2022 Russia Ukraine War has led to many sanctions being placed on Russia and Ukraine. The paper will discuss the impact the 2022 Russian Sanctions have on agricultural food prices and hunger. The paper also uses Instrumental Variable Analysis to find how Cryptocurrency and Bitcoin can be used to hedge against the impact of sanctions. The 6 different countries analyzed in this study including Bangladesh, El Salvador, Iran, Nigeria, Philippines, and South Africa, all of which are heavy importers of wheat and corn. The paper shows that although Bitcoin may be volatile compared to other local currencies, it might be a good investment to safeguard assets since it is not correlated with commodity prices.Furthermore, the study demonstrates that transaction volume has a strong relationship with prices.
    Date: 2022–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2210.10087&r=agr
  23. By: Otekunrin, Olutosin Ademola; Otekunrin, Oluwaseun Aramide
    Abstract: Purpose: This study explored dietary diversity and nutritional status of adolescents among rural farm households in Southwestern Nigeria. It analyses if higher commercialization levels of farm households translate to better nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in Ogun and Oyo States of Southwestern Nigeria, utilizing primary data from 352 farm households with a total of 160 adolescent members. The individual version of dietary diversity score (DDS) of nine (9) food groups was used to calculate adolescent DDS over a 24-h recall period, World Health Organization (WHO) AnthroPlus software was used in analyzing adolescents’ anthropometric data (height-for-age z-score and BMI-for-age z-score) while household crop commercialization index (CCI) was estimated for each farm household. Separate logit models were used to examine the drivers of adolescents’ dietary diversity and malnutrition. Findings: The study findings indicated that 100% of the adolescents consumed starchy staples while 0%, 3.1% and 12.5% consumed organ meat, milk/milk poducts, and eggs respectively. Results revealed that 74.1% and 21.2% of boys were stunted and thin while the prevalence in adolescent girls was 50.7% and 9.3% respectively. Prevalence of stunting was found to be very high (60-83%) in all the four CCI levels’ households indicating that belonging to highly commercialized households (CCI 3-4) may not necessarily translate to better nutrition of adolescent members. Food expenditure (p
    Keywords: Farm households; Crop Commercialization Index (CCI); malnutrition; stunting; WHO AnthroPlus; dietary diversity score.
    JEL: D1 D6
    Date: 2022–07–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:114779&r=agr
  24. By: Kroeger, Carolin
    Abstract: Background Climate change is expected to cause a substantial rise in food insecurity with serious consequences for human health globally1–3. Existing evidence links hot periods to food insecurity through a decline in agricultural yields in the medium- to long-term, but heat-related health impacts may influence food insecurity immediately by limiting workers’ ability to earn income1,4–6. This paper explores whether extreme heat causes immediate food insecurity through heat-related health and income reductions, and how this relationship differs across 148 countries. Methods The research design exploits a natural experiment based on the day in which people report food insecurity to survey questionnaires, matching this to weather conditions experienced by the individuals in that week. The analysis combines representative socio-demographic data at the individual level (n=497,816) from 148 countries in 2014-2017 with thermal stress data in a multi-level linear probability model. The model estimates the association between moderate-severe food insecurity and the number of hot days in the seven days leading up to the survey, accounting for age, gender, partner status, children in the household, as well as precipitation and fixed effects for the year. Findings After a hot week, on average, an additional 0.42% [95%-CI: 0.1117 to 0.7317, p=0.0077] or 34 million people worldwide are likely to experience moderate-severe food insecurity mediated by reductions in income and health. The effects are stronger in countries with lower incomes, higher agricultural employment, and more informal labour markets. Interpretation Heat increases food insecurity in the short-term by reducing people’s capability to buy food with particularly strong effects among those living in countries with more heat-exposed and informal labour markets. To prepare for a world with more frequent and intense periods of extreme heat, policymakers and researchers should carefully consider the immediate knock-on effects of climate shocks and integrate these into heat action and food security plans.
    Date: 2022–11–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:gbtaj&r=agr
  25. By: Marie Lassalas (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Cécile Détang-Dessendre (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Pierre P. Dupraz (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Hervé Guyomard (SDAR Bretagne Normandie - Services déconcentrés d'appui à la recherche Bretagne-Normandie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: The future CAP displays a greater climate and environmental ambition sought notably through the new first-pillar instrument of the eco-scheme. This article analyses the access conditions of farmers to the French eco-scheme through the so-called environmental certification way. Our results highlight the low level of climate and environmental ambition of this access way since almost all farms would have access to the first level and more than a third to the upper level without any change in their current practices.
    Abstract: La future PAC affiche une plus grande ambition climatique et environnementale recherchée via notamment le nouvel instrument de l'éco-régime du premier pilier. Cet article analyse les conditions d'accès des agriculteurs à l'éco-régime français par la voie dite de la certification environnementale. Nos résultats mettent en lumière le faible niveau d'ambition climatique et environnementale de la voie puisque la quasi-totalité des exploitations auraient accès au premier niveau, et plus d'un tiers au niveau supérieur, sans aucune modification de leurs pratiques actuelles.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy,National Strategic Plan,Eco-scheme,High Environmental Value,French FADN,Politique Agricole Commune,Plan Stratégique National,Éco-régime,Haute Valeur Environnementale,RICA français
    Date: 2022–10–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03826442&r=agr
  26. By: Kung, James Kai-sing; Özak, Ömer (Southern Methodist University); Putterman, Louis; Shi, Shuang
    Abstract: We propose and test empirically a theory describing the endogenous formation and persistence of mega-states, using China as an example. We suggest that the relative timing of the emergence of agricultural societies, and their distance from each other, set off a race between their autochthonous state-building projects, which determines their extent and persistence. Using a novel dataset describing the historical presence of Chinese states, prehistoric development, the diffusion of agriculture, and migratory distance across 1-degree x 1-degree grid cells in eastern Asia, we find that cells that adopted agriculture earlier and were close to Erlitou -- the earliest political center in eastern Asia -- remained under Chinese control for longer and continue to be a part of China today. By contrast, cells that adopted agriculture early and were located further from Erlitou developed into independent states, as agriculture provided the fertile ground for state-formation, while isolation provided time for them to develop and confront the expanding Chinese empire. Our study sheds important light on why eastern Asia kept reproducing a mega-state in the area that became China and on the determinants of its borders with other states.
    Date: 2022–06–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:ecoevo:z4krh&r=agr
  27. By: Pablo Delgado (Department of Applied Economics, University of Zaragoza (Spain) and Agri-Food Institute of Aragon (IA2)); Adrían Espinosa-Gracia (Department of Economic Analysis, University of Zaragoza)
    Abstract: Since the second half of the twentieth Century, two phenomena have characterized western societies from a nutritional perspective. On the one hand, the culmination of the modern nutritional transition. On the other hand, high-income countries have presented two kinds of food consumption models. The first model is featured by an increasing mass agro-industrial food intake, while the second one consisted of a decrease in caloric intakes jointly with rising consumption of transformed and differentiated products. Focusing on Spain as our case study, the objective of this paper is to unveil to what extent the diffusion of these two consumption patterns have affected inequalities by levels of income and by regions.
    Keywords: nutritional transition, inequality, meat consumption, food consumption models.
    JEL: N34 N54 O13 E21
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zar:wpaper:dt2022-05&r=agr
  28. By: Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P.; Gregory, Christian A.; Singh, Anita
    Abstract: This report provides statistics on food security in U.S. households throughout 2021 based on the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement data collected in December 2021. An estimated 89.8 percent of U.S. households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2021, with access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households (10.2 percent, not significantly different from the 10.5 percent in 2020 and 2019) were food insecure at least some time during the year, including 3.8 percent with very low food security (not significantly different from the 3.9 percent in 2020 or 4.1 percent in 2019). Very low food security is the more severe range of food insecurity where one or more household members experienced reduced food intake and disrupted eating patterns at times during the year because of limited money and other resources for obtaining food. Although the prevalence of food insecurity for all households was not significantly different from 2020, some subgroups experienced statistically significant changes in food insecurity. Food insecurity increased significantly from 2020 for households with no children, especially for women living alone, and increased for elderly people living alone. Food insecurity declined from 2020 for households with children and with children under age 6, married couples with children, and single mothers with children, for households with Black, non-Hispanic reference persons (an adult household member in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented), for all low-income households (with incomes below 185 percent of the Federal poverty threshold), and for house-holds in the South. Among children, food insecurity declined from 2020. Children and adults were food insecure at times during 2021 in 6.2 percent of U.S. households with children, down from 7.6 percent in 2020 and not significantly different from the 6.5 percent in 2019. In 2021, very low food security among children was 0.7 percent (not significantly different from the 0.8 percent in 2020). In 2021, the typical food-secure household spent 16 percent more on food than the typical food-insecure household of the same size and household composition. About 56 percent of food-insecure households participated in one or more of the three largest Federal nutrition assistance programs: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP); the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); and the National School Lunch Program during the month prior to the 2021 survey.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Public Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:329072&r=agr
  29. By: Beckman, Jayson; Gale, Fred; Lee, Tani
    Abstract: ERS surveys the first 20 years of World Trade Organization members’ tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for agricultural products, providing data for an analysis of how TRQ market access for agricultural products has evolved from 1995 to 2015 and the extent to which TRQs are fulfilling their goal of increasing that access.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327203&r=agr
  30. By: Osberghaus, Daniel; Botzen, Wouter; Kesternich, Martin; Iurkova, Ekaterina
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:vfsc22:264073&r=agr
  31. By: Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter
    Abstract: We focus on the interaction between a representative polluting tannery and a negatively impacted small farmer in Kanpur, India. The tannery produces leather and toxic chemical waste that ends up in wastewater used by the small farmer to irrigate agricultural land and grow vegetables. The waste generated by the tannery is functionally related to its output of leather. The small farmer faces a capacity constraint that describes the maximum amount of vegetables he can grow. In this setting, we perform three tasks. First, we determine the optimal production of leather when the tannery does not account for the negative effect it has on the small farmer. Second, on the assumption that the tannery compensates the small farmer per unit of waste it generates, we ascertain the optimal compensation amount, the optimal output of leather, and the profit levels of the tannery and the small farmer. Finally, we compare the solutions in the preceding two cases and explain what accounts for the differences between them.
    Keywords: Chemical Waste, Irrigation, Leather, Small Farmer, Tannery
    JEL: Q15 Q53
    Date: 2022–05–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:115216&r=agr
  32. By: Carole Treibich (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Eleanor Bell (Office of Health Economics); Elodie Blanc (MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Aurélia Lépine (Institute for Global Health, University College London)
    Abstract: Each year there are over 300 natural disasters globally with millions of victims that cost economic losses near USD$100 billion. In the context of climate change, an emerging literature linking extreme weather events to HIV infections suggests that efforts to control the HIV epidemic could be under threat. We used Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected during the 2015-2016 harsh drought that affected several areas of Malawi to provide new evidence on the effect of an unanticipated economic shock on sexual behaviours of young women and men. We find that amongst women employed in agriculture, a six-months drought doubles their likelihood of engaging in transactional sex compared to women who were not affected by the drought and increases their likelihood of having a sexually transmitted infections (STI) by 48% in the past twelve months. Amongst men employed outside of agriculture, drought increases by 50% the likelihood of having a relationship with a woman engaged in transactional sex. These results suggest that women in agriculture experiencing economic shocks as a result of drought use transactional sex with unaffected men, i.e. men employed outside agriculture, as a coping mechanism, exposing themselves to the risk of contracting HIV. The effect was especially observed among noneducated women. A single drought in the last five years increases HIV prevalence in Malawi by around 15% amongst men and women. Overall, the results confirm that weather shocks are important drivers of risky sexual behaviours of young women relying on agriculture in Africa. Further research is needed to investigate the most adequate formal shock-coping strategies to be implemented in order to limit the negative consequences of natural disasters on HIV acquisition and transmission.
    Keywords: Malawi,HIV/AIDS,Transactional sex,Sexually transmitted infections,Climate change,Drought
    Date: 2022–09–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03818619&r=agr
  33. By: Gerling, Charlotte; Schöttker, Oliver; Hearne, John
    JEL: Q57
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:vfsc22:264058&r=agr
  34. By: Céline Bonnet (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Cécile Détang-Dessendre (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Dijon - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Valérie Orozco (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Elodie Rouviere (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In 2019, obesity affected 17% of French adults. In this article, we use a unique data set that combines individual-level health and consumption data with living environment data (food, sports and health amenities). We develop a spatial econometric framework to address French health disparities in obesity prevalence across space. We find that regulations on fast food restaurant locations could be a policy instrument to counter the prevalence of obesity. We also establish the existence of spatial spillovers of sports and medical amenities on obesity. This new evidence points to the need to consider a wider context than just the immediate local environment in the fight against the obesity pandemic.
    Keywords: Health inequalities,Spatial patterns,Living environment
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03672491&r=agr
  35. By: Nicolas Legrand (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Russia's invasion of Ukraine is a major shock at the heart of the breadbasket of Europe at a time when global stocks are running short. With inelastic supply and demand for such basic goods and lack of inventories to cushion the shock, the basic economics of storage arbitrage explain the commodity price spikes needed to ration the war-related supply shortage. In this paper, I show that to make sense of the chaotic price fluctuations requires a consistent empirical tool, such as the storage model with rational expectations. Empirical analysis of the unfolding commodity shock using a storage model lens suggests that the global food market is currently in a "wait-and-see" mode, with price movements reflecting a loss in the size of the global share of caloric production from Ukraine. I show also that the supply and demand outlook for the next two years is aligned to the price expectations of market participants and send the signal that the world should prepare for a period of scarcer supply and high and volatile food prices, for as long as the conflict lasts. Sound policymaking in this context could rely on this normative device to ease the suffering of the most vulnerable populations who are at risk of hunger and malnourishment.
    Abstract: L'invasion de l'Ukraine par la Russie est un choc majeur au cœur du grenier de l'Europe à un moment où les stocks mondiaux sont faibles. Avec une offre et une demande inélastique pour ce type de biens de première nécessité et l'absence de stocks pour amortir les chocs, le modèle standard d'arbitrage économique lié au stockage explique l'envolée des prix permettant d'ajuster la demande à la réduction de l'offre associée à la guerre. Dans ce papier, je montre que pour comprendre les fluctuations chaotiques il faut un outil empirique cohérent tel que le modèle de stockage à anticipations rationnelles. L'analyse empirique du choc en cours sur les marchés des matières premières à travers cet outil révèle que le marché mondial de produits agricoles est actuellement en position d'attente, avec des fluctuations de prix reflétant une perte équivalente à la part de la production Ukrainienne dans la production mondiale de calories. Je montre aussi que les prévisions d'offre et de demande sur les deux prochaines années sont bien alignées avec les anticipations des prix des acteurs des marchés agricoles et envoient le signal que le monde doit se préparer à une période d'offre réduite et de prix plus élevés et volatiles tant que le conflit perdure. Dans ce contexte, des décisions politiques reposant sur cet outil normatif peuvent diminuer l'impact sur les populations les plus vulnérables au risque de malnutrition et de famine.
    Keywords: Storage,Volatility,Food security,Commodity price dynamics,Stockage,Volatilité,Sécurité alimentaire,Dynamique des prix des matières premières
    Date: 2022–10–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03826719&r=agr
  36. By: Davis, Christopher G; Cessna, Jerry
    Abstract: Food demand in Southeast Asia (SEA) is expected to grow in the coming decades, creating opportunities for exporters of dairy products. This study examines the prospects for growth of U.S. dairy exports to the SEA region, and how the U.S. potential to gain or lose market share varies from one Southeast Asian country to another and among products.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Industrial Organization
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327204&r=agr
  37. By: Marie-Laure Allain (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Claire Chambolle (Université Paris-Saclay, CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Stéphane Turolla (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: We develop a model of vertical relations between national brand and private label producers and competing multi-product retailers to derive new predictions on the impact of input price discrimination on retail prices. A reform that lifted a ban on input price discrimination in France provides a natural experiment to test these predictions. Using household scanner data on food prices, we run a difference-in-differences analysis and show that the reform caused a significant decrease of the relative prices of national brand products. These results suggest a pro-competitive effect of authorizing input price discrimination.
    Abstract: Nous développons un modèle de relations verticales entre les producteurs de marques nationales et de marques de distributeur et des distributeurs multi-produits concurrents pour dériver de nouvelles prédictions sur l'impact de la discrimination des prix sur le marché amont sur les prix de détail. En France, une réforme a levé l'interdiction de la discrimination des prix sur le marché amont et fournit une expérience naturelle pour tester ces prédictions. A partir de données des scanners des ménages sur les prix des denrées alimentaires, nous effectuons une analyse des différences de différence et montrons que la réforme a généré une baisse significative des prix relatifs des produits de marque nationale. Ces résultats suggèrent un effet pro-concurrentiel de l'autorisation de la discrimination des prix sur le marché amont.
    Keywords: Input price discrimination,Policy evaluation,Food retail sector,Discrimination des prix sur le marché amont,Evaluation des politiques,Grande distribution alimentaire
    Date: 2022–10–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03826554&r=agr
  38. By: Boussios, David; Skorbiansky, Sharon Raszap; MacLachlan, Matthew
    Abstract: This report analyzes the accuracy of the historical baseline projections for U.S. corn, soybean, and wheat harvested area for the period from 1997 to 2017. The report finds that statistical modeling approaches have the potential to improve the performance of USDA’s baseline projections.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327201&r=agr
  39. By: Douthwaite, B.; Child, K.
    Abstract: At the end of 2021, CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs) will be replaced by Initiatives housed within One CGIAR. This new modality is intended to achieve higher levels of impact at a faster rate and at reduced cost compared to the CRPs. As One CGIAR begins, there is a unique opportunity to reflect on what has worked in different contexts. In this paper, we provide findings that relate to One CGIAR’s overarching view of how it will achieve positive and measurable impacts, and for agricultural research for development (AR4D) more generally. Specifically, we draw from three related CRP evaluations to identify how different types of AR4D approaches have contributed to successful outcomes. In the final section of the paper, we present our conclusions and provide a list of recommendations for the science and technology policy of One CGIAR and possibly other integrated research for development programs.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–02–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iwmirr:329153&r=agr
  40. By: Yoshida, Jun; Imoto, Tomoko; Kono, Tatsuhito
    Abstract: Human–wildlife conflicts occur in residential areas, causing human injuries and outbreaks of zoonotic diseases. Governments have implemented policies, such as extermination, and construction of animal deterrent fences. When wildlife has a high biological value, we face a trade-off between the benefits of wildlife conservation and human safety. This study proposes a new policy of growing crops preferred by wildlife, rather than crops for human consumption, in part of the farmland, thereby attracting wildlife to the converted field and preventing them from entering residential areas. Using an ecosystem-urban economics model, we compare multiple policies including the conversion policy in terms of social welfare, and show that, regardless of the wildlife value, the crop conversion policy can be the most efficient, and fences with land use regulation is the second most efficient policy. On the other hand, the commonly-used policy of extermination is not so effective because exterminating wildlife with a high biological value significantly reduces social welfare.Human–wildlife conflicts occur in residential areas, causing human injuries and outbreaks of zoonotic diseases. Governments have implemented policies, such as extermination, and construction of animal deterrent fences. When wildlife has a high biological value, we face a trade-off between the benefits of wildlife conservation and human safety. This study proposes a new policy of growing crops preferred by wildlife, rather than crops for human consumption, in part of the farmland, thereby attracting wildlife to the converted field and preventing them from entering residential areas. Using an ecosystem-urban economics model, we compare multiple policies including the conversion policy in terms of social welfare, and show that, regardless of the wildlife value, the crop conversion policy can be the most efficient, and fences with land use regulation is the second most efficient policy. On the other hand, the commonly-used policy of extermination is not so effective because exterminating wildlife with a high biological value significantly reduces social welfare.
    Keywords: Human–wildlife conflict; land use regulation; extermination; animal deterrent fence; ecosystem conservation; urban economics model
    JEL: Q28 R11 R14
    Date: 2022–11–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:115375&r=agr
  41. By: Helms, Veronica E; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Gray, Regina; Brucker, Debra L
    Abstract: Using health survey data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) linked to Federal housing administrative data, household food insecurity was assessed among adults receiving housing assistance at the time of their NHIS interview during 2011 and 2012.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2020–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327205&r=agr
  42. By: Olivier J Blanchard (Peterson Institute for International Economics); Christian Gollier (Toulouse School of Economics); Jean Tirole (Toulouse School of Economics)
    Abstract: Climate change poses an existential threat. The authors argue that carbon pricing and green research and development (R&D) support are good economics, but their implementation can be improved. Even if carbon prices are generalized and given more substance, green R&D is still likely to be smaller than needed. Much more money must be spent on it than is now the case, and this money must be properly allocated in order to have an impact. Moreover, done well, other policies, such as standards, bans, and targeted subsidies, can be good economics. But they have often been incoherent and their implementation is delicate. The authors also argue that domestic and international compensation is key to the acceptability of efficient policies. Finally, although a country’s emissions will not materially alter the course of climate change, individual countries can still show the way ahead: They can develop technologies that can be used by other, poorer, countries. They can provide leadership/momentum on global agreements and on the need to fund climate change policies in developing economies.
    Keywords: Climate change, carbon price, green R&D, carbon border adjustment, climate finance
    JEL: D61 F18 H23 Q37 Q54
    Date: 2022–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iie:wpaper:wp22-18&r=agr
  43. By: Juan David Torres
    Abstract: How does the enforcement of property rights affects land accumulation by landed elites? Using a unique classification of the local agricultural workforce and a differencein- difference framework I show how landed elites, relative to landless peasants, benefited from Colombian land reform during the late 1930s through the appropriation of large land allocations. This is explained by a feature of the reform: lower enforcement of property rights, which reduced the costs of further accumulation. I provide evidence on the elite investments in de facto political power that drive this empowerment: competition for resources in local elections and collective action embodied in landowner associations. This, in a context of tension between good-intended progressive policies and a general process of collective action pushed forward by landowners toward the defense of property, in which commitments for targeted democratization of land were hardly accomplished. My findings shed light on a possible equilibrium between democracy and high inequality in which economic elites exploit institutional features empowering themselves to preserve certainty regarding their own property rights.
    Keywords: Land reform, property rights, public land allocations, landed elites, collective action
    JEL: P48 N56 D72
    Date: 2022–10–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000089:020514&r=agr
  44. By: Farrokhi, Farid (Purdue University); Jinkins, David (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Xiang, Chong (Purdue University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which gains-from-trade predictions from commonly-used trade theories are consistent with observed household consumption decisions. Our approach is based on inference from household-level estimation of food Engel curves in the US and in a few other countries. For a given price index as the deflator of income, deviations from food Engel curves indicate how biased that price index is relative to the true household price index. We construct open-economy price indices based on trade theory and data, evaluate their biases according to our approach, and compare them with the bias of official CPI statistics. We find that theory-consistent open-economy price indices that account for industry-level heterogeneity and input-output linkages tend to eliminate a large fraction of the bias of CPI.
    Keywords: Food Engel Curves; Price Indices; Household-level Consumption; Gains from Trade
    JEL: D12 E31 F14
    Date: 2022–10–29
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:cbsnow:2022_015&r=agr
  45. By: Aggarwal, Raavi; Steckel, Jan
    JEL: D13
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:vfsc22:264077&r=agr

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