nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒11‒21
eighty-two papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Impacts of agricultural value chain development in a mountainous region: evidence from Nepal By Kafle, Kashi; Songsermsawas, T.; Winters, P.
  2. Accelerating rural energy access for agricultural transformation: contribution of the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems to transforming food, land and water systems in a climate crisis By Magalhaes, M.; Ringler, C.; Verma, Shilp; Schmitter, Petra
  3. Legal recognition of customary water tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa: unpacking the land-water nexus By Troell, J.; Keene, S.
  4. Policy support for organic farming in the European Union 2010-2020 By Lampkin, Nicolas; Sanders, Jürn
  5. Can water productivity improvements save us from global water scarcity?. White paper By Yu, Winston; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; von Gnechten, Rachel; van der Bliek, Julie
  6. Participatory management and sustainable use of groundwater: a review of the Andhra Pradesh Farmer-Managed Groundwater Systems project in India By Reddy, V. R.; Reddy, M. S.; Pavelic, Paul
  7. Marketing Practices and Financial Performance of Local Food Producers: A Comparison of Beginning and Experienced Farmers By Martinez, Stephen; Park, Timothy
  8. Household Food Security in the United States in 2020 By Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P; Gregory, Christian A; Singh, Anita
  9. Improving Smallholders’ Jobs Through Agribusiness Linkages : Findings of the Mozambique Agricultural Aggregator Pilot (MAAP) By Baxter, Michael; Delgado, Christopher; Romero, Jose Manuel; Walker, Ian D.
  10. Agricultural Water Management (AWM) typologies: targeting land-water management interventions towards improved water productivity By Durga, Neha; Sikka, Alok; Verma, Shilp; Mitra, Archisman; Amarasinghe, Upali; Mahapatra, Smaranika
  11. Measuring the impact of integrated systems research: promising approaches and why CGIAR needs to care By Johnson, N.
  12. Sustainable expansion of groundwater-based solar water pumping for smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa By Pavelic, Paul; Magombeyi, Manuel; Schmitter, Petra; Jacobs-Mata, Inga
  13. Rural Employment in Africa: Trends and Challenges By Christiaensen, Luc; Maertens, Miet
  14. Can a gender-sensitive integrated poultry value chain and nutrition intervention among the rural poor increase women’s empowerment in Burkina Faso? By Heckert, Jessica; Martinez, Elena M.; Sanou, Armande; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Ganaba, Rasmané; Gelli, Aulo
  15. In It to Win It ? Self-Esteem and Income-Earning among Couples By Botea,Ioana Alexandra; Donald,Aletheia Amalia; Rouanet,Lea Marie
  16. USDA Conservation Technical Assistance and Within-Field Resource Concerns By Rosenberg, Andrew B; Wallander, Steven
  17. The Food and Nutrition Assistance Landscape: Fiscal Year 2020 Annual Report By Toossi, Saied; Jones, Jordan W; Hodges, Leslie
  18. The economic, environmental and social performance of European certified food By Valentin Bellassen; Marion Drut; Mohamed Hilal; Antonio Bodini; Michele Donati; Matthieu Duboys de Labarre; Jelena Filipović; Lisa Gauvrit; José M. Gil; Viet Hoang; Agata Malak-Rawlikowska; Konstadinos Mattas; Sylvette Monier-Dilhan; Paul Muller; Orachos Napasintuwong; Jack Peerlings; Thomas Poméon; Marina Tomić Maksan; Áron Török; Mario Veneziani; Gunnar Vittersø; Filippo Arfini
  19. Climate Change and Political Participation: Evidence from India By Amrit Amirapu; Irma Clots-Figueras; Juan Pablo Rud
  20. Small-scale producers in sustainable agrifood systems transformation By Arulingam, Indika; Brady, G.; Chaya, M.; Conti, M.; Kgomotso, P. K.; Korzenszky, A.; Njie, D.; Schroth, G.; Suhardiman, Diana
  21. Limits to Capital: Assessing the Role of Race on the Paycheck Protection Program for African American Farmers in America By Ana Claudia Sant’Anna; Kevin Kim; Iryna Demko
  22. Specialty Crop Participation in Federal Risk Management Programs By Skorbiansky, Sharon Raszap; Astill, Gregory; Rosch, Stephanie; Higgins, Elizabeth; Ifft, Jennifer; Rickard, Bradley
  23. Statistical Supplement to Household Food Security in the United States in 2020 By Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P; Gregory, Christian A; Singh, Anita
  24. The Food Retail Landscape Across Rural America By Stevens, Alexander; Cho, Clare; Cakir, Metin; Kong, Xiangwen; Boland, Michael A
  25. Statistical Supplement to Household Food Security in the United States in 2021 By Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P; Gregory, Christian A; Singh, Anita
  26. Agricultural Productivity in Burkina Faso: The Role of Gender and Risk Attitudes By Mohammad Sepahvand
  27. Modern Biotechnology Application and Regulation in the Philippines: Issues and Prospects By Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.
  28. ISLAMIC MODES OF FINANCING FOR AGRICULTURE: A SUPPLY AND DEMAND SIDES APPROACH By Jardine A Husman; Ali Sakti
  29. Absent Landlords in Agriculture – A Statistical Analysis By Bawa, Siraj G; Callahan, Scott
  30. Promoting Gender – Equitable Agricultural Value Chains: the Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Niger Delta By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  31. COVID-19 Working Paper: Food Insecurity During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Four African Countries By Bloem, Jeffrey; Michler, Jeffrey D; Josephson, Anna; Rudin-Rush, Lorin
  32. Trends in Production Practices and Costs of the U.S. Corn Sector By Saavoss, Monica; Capehart, Thomas; McBride, William D; Effland, Anne
  33. COVID-19 Working Paper: The COVID-19 Pandemic and Food Security in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Review of the Emerging Microeconomic Literature By Bloem, Jeffrey; Farris, Jarrad
  34. COVID-19 Working Paper: Single Commodity Export Dependence and the Impacts of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa By Gerval, Adam; Hansen, James
  35. Impact tracking: a practitioner-developed approach to scaling agricultural innovation in Ethiopia By Child, K.; Desta, G.; Douthwaite, B.; Haileslassie, Amare; van Rooyen, A.; Tamene, L.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan
  36. Social Networks and Access and Utilization of Weather and Climate Information: The Case of Upland Farming Communities in the Philippines By Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
  37. The Food and Nutrition Assistance Landscape: Fiscal Year 2021 Annual Report By Jones, Jordan W; Toossi, Saied; Hodges, Leslie
  38. Understanding barriers and opportunities for scaling sustainable and inclusive farmer-led irrigation development in Nepal By Khadka, Manohara; Uprety, Labisha; Shrestha, Gitta; Minh, Thai Thi; Nepal, Shambhawi; Raut, Manita; Dhungana, Shashwat; Shahrin, S.; Krupnik, T. J.; Schmitter, Petra
  39. Strategic Investment Pathways for resilient water systems By Casey Brown; Fred Boltz; Kathleen Dominique
  40. The Social Costs of Keystone Species Collapse : Evidence From The Decline of Vultures in India By Frank, Eyal G.; Sudarshan, Anant
  41. Tracking the U.S. Domestic Food Supply Chain’s Freshwater Use Over Time By Rehkamp, Sarah; Canning, Patrick; Birney, Catherine
  42. Trends in U.S. Irrigated Agriculture: Increasing Resilience Under Water Supply Scarcity By Hrozencik, Aaron; Aillery, Marcel
  43. War in Ukraine: The Rationale "Wait-and-See" Mode of Global Food Markets * By Nicolas Legrand
  44. Reforming Market Access in Agricultural Trade: Tariff Removal and the Trade Facilitation Agreement By Beckman, Jayson
  45. Food Insecurity Among Working-Age Veterans By Rabbitt, Matthew P; Smith, Michael D
  46. How agricultural research for development achieves developmental outcomes: learning lessons to inform One CGIAR science and technology policy research By Douthwaite, B.; Child, K.
  47. Promoting inclusivity and equity in information and communications technology for food, land, and water systems By Ng, Michelle; Langan, Simon; de Haan, N.; Reitemeier, M.; King, B.
  48. Measuring diversity in the Leadership of Farm Credit Institutions By Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia
  49. Viability, efficiency, resilience and equity: using very diverse indicators to deal with uncertainties of future events By Sophie Martin; Katrin Erdlenbruch; Isabelle Alvarez; Sylvie Huet; Charline Smadi
  50. Cost Implications of Participant Product Selection in USDA’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) By Saitone, Tina L; Li, Xuemei; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Sexton, Richard J
  51. Structural Change, Land Use and Urban Expansion By Nicolas Coeurdacier; Florian Oswald; Marc Teignier
  52. More and Better Jobs from Crops and Trees in Mozambique By Delgado, Christopher L.; Costa, Carlos G.; Ricaldi, Federica
  53. Exposure to trade disruptions in case of the Russia-Ukraine conflict: a product network approach By Erik Braun; Emese Braun; András Gyimesi; Zita Iloskics; Tamás Sebestyén
  54. The Role of Storage in Commodity Markets: Indirect Inference Based on Grains Data By Nicolas Legrand; Christophe Gouel
  55. Value components in equestrian self-organization By Camille Eslan; Sandrine Costa; Céline Vial; Vu Hoang Ha Pham
  56. Trends in USDA Foods Ordered for Child Nutrition Programs Before and After Updated Nutrition Standards By Ollinger, Michael; Guthrie, Joanne
  57. Persistent Agricultural Shocks and Child Poverty: Evidence from Ethiopia By Ashish K. Sedai; Lackson D. Mudenda; Ray Miller
  58. Cover Practice Definitions and Incentives in the Conservation Reserve Program By Pratt, Bryan; Wallander, Steven
  59. Food Taxes and Their Impacts on Food Spending By Dong, Diansheng; Stewart, Hayden
  60. A Tale of Two Countries: Labor Market Profiles of Youth in Urban and Rural Cameroon By Botea, Ioana Alexandra; Del Bono, Mitja
  61. Economic Crises and U.S. Agricultural Exports By Liefert, William M; Mitchell, Lorraine; Seeley, Ralph
  62. Measuring and explaining rural inequality in a pre-industrial setting: income inequality in sixteenth-century Ottoman Manisa By Ceylan, Pinar
  63. Impact of Grain Trade Policies on Prices and Welfare : Evidence from Malawi By Fuje,Habtamu Neda; Pullabhotla,Hemant Kumar
  64. Vulnerability to Poverty Following Extreme Weather Events in Malawi By Baquie,Sandra; Fuje,Habtamu Neda
  65. China's Refusals of Food Imports By Gale, Fred
  66. America's Diverse Family Farms: 2021 Edition By Whitt, Christine; Todd, Jessica E; Keller, Andrew
  67. COVID-19 Working Paper: The Effects of COVID-19 on Food Sales By Dong, Xiao; Zeballos, Eliana
  68. EFFECTS OF FORMS OF CREDIT ON RICE INCOME IN THE COMMUNE OF DIORO By Samake Oumar; Lassana Toure; Diamoutene Abdou Karim
  69. COVID-19 Working Paper: U.S.-Mexico Agricultural Trade in 2020 By Zahniser, Steven
  70. Returning to a Land of Opportunity? Effects of Land Restitution in Colombia By Margaryta Klymak
  71. The Impact of Public Information on Commodity Market Performance: The Response of Corn Futures to USDA Corn Production Forecasts By Arnade, Carlos; Hoffman, Linwood; Effland, Anne
  72. Cost Containment and Participant Access in USDA's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): Evidence from the Greater Los Angeles, CA, Area By McLaughlin, Patrick W; Saksena, Michelle; Saitone, Tina L; Ma, Meilin; Volpe, Richard; Wu, Qi; Sexton, Richard J
  73. Socioeconomic Impacts of COVID-19 in Four African Countries By Josephson,Anna Leigh; Kilic,Talip; Michler,Jeffrey David
  74. Estimating the Magnitude of Water Supply and Sanitation Subsidies By Andres,Luis Alberto; Espineira,Gonzalo; Joseph,George; Sember,German Eduardo; Thibert,Michael David
  75. Agricultural Income and Finance Situation and Outlook: 2021 Edition By Dubman, Robert; Key, Nigel; Law, Jonathan; Litkowski, Carrie; Mandalay, Okkar; Subedi, Dipak; Todd, Jessica E; Whitt, Christine
  76. Ambiguity, value of information and forest rotation decision under storm risk By Patrice Loisel; Marielle Brunette; Stéphane Couture
  77. Low-Income and Low-Foodstore-Access Census Tracts, 2015–19 By Rhone, Alana; Williams, Ryan; Dicken, Christopher
  78. COVID-19 Working Paper: Financial Assistance for Farm Operations and Farm Households in the Face of COVID-19 By Giri, Anil K; McDonald, Tia; Subedi, Dipak; Whitt, Christine
  79. The impact of natural disasters on banks' impairment flow: Evidence from Germany By Shala, Iliriana; Schumacher, Benno
  80. COVID-19 Working Paper: COVID-19 and the U.S. Meat and Poultry Supply Chains By Vaiknoras, Kate; Hahn, William; Padilla, Samantha; Valcu-Lisman, Adriana; Grossen, Grace
  81. Estimating Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emissions from the application of N fertilizers to soils at higher resolution in Ireland By Francisco-Cruz, Carlos Alberto; Buckley, Cathal; Breen, James; Lanigan, Gary
  82. The Market for Chicken Raised Without Antibiotics, 2012–17 By Page, Elina T; Short, Gianna; Sneeringer, Stacy; Bowman, Maria

  1. By: Kafle, Kashi (International Water Management Institute); Songsermsawas, T.; Winters, P.
    Keywords: Agricultural value chains; Farm income; Small scale systems; Smallholders; Market access; Household income; Food security; Dietary diversity; Resilience; Rural poverty; Commodities; Agricultural prices; Price indices; Food insecurity; Livestock; Highlands; Villages; Minority groups; Women; Econometric models
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050432&r=agr
  2. By: Magalhaes, M.; Ringler, C.; Verma, Shilp (International Water Management Institute); Schmitter, Petra (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Agriculture; Transformation; Energy policies; Rural areas; CGIAR; Research programmes; Agrifood systems; Land use; Water systems; Climate change; Energy consumption; Solar energy; Irrigation systems; Groundwater; Electricity; Pumps; Technology; Investment; Innovation; Pilot projects; Environmental sustainability; Emission reduction; Resource recovery; Reuse; Income generation; Business models; Capacity development; Smallholders; Farmers; Women; Food security
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050910&r=agr
  3. By: Troell, J.; Keene, S.
    Keywords: Water tenure; Customary tenure; Legislation; Water law; Customary law; Land tenure; Water resources; Nexus approaches; Freshwater; Indigenous peoples' tenure rights; Local communities; Rural areas; Water rights; Land rights; Forests; Legal frameworks; Water governance; Human rights; Gender; Women; Livelihoods; Food security; Sustainable development; Government; Regional organizations; Constitution; Policies; Water user associations; Participation; Transboundary waters; International law
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051374&r=agr
  4. By: Lampkin, Nicolas; Sanders, Jürn
    Abstract: Since 1994, and in some individual cases earlier, the European Union (EU) and its Member States have provided financial support to organic farming and food businesses, primarily through the agri-environmental and other rural development measures of the 2nd Pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). This report builds on a series of similar earlier reports and updates the policy support data and descriptions for the decade 2010-2020, covering the two CAP programming periods 2007-2013 (represented by 2011 data) and, in more detail, the 2014-2020 period. A major focus is the support for conversion to and continuation (maintenance) of organic farming, implemented in all but one of the EU Member States. Comprehensive data has been compiled on payment rates, supported activities, eligibility conditions, uptake and public expenditure for these measures. In 2018, the then EU28 Member States supported organic farming on almost 5% of EU utilisable agricultural area (UAA), at an average cost of €207 per ha UAA, totalling over 1.8 billion €. The area supported represented 64% of the total certified organic land area in the EU. Support was also provided in various forms for training, advice, education, research, investments in farms and processing activities, consumer promotion and the development and implementation of EU regulations defining organic food and farming. In many countries, organic action plans have been implemented to enable better integration of these policy measures to meet defined national or regional needs, priorities and targets. As part of its Farm to Fork and Biodiversity Strategies from 2020, the EU has set a target of 25% of UAA to be organic by 2030, with the expectation of enhanced policy support in the 2023-2027 CAP programming period and beyond.
    Keywords: organic,agriculture,conversion,maintenance,agri-environment,policy,action plan,European Union
    JEL: Q15 Q18
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:jhtiwp:200&r=agr
  5. By: Yu, Winston (International Water Management Institute); Uhlenbrook, Stefan (International Water Management Institute); von Gnechten, Rachel (International Water Management Institute); van der Bliek, Julie (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Water productivity; Water scarcity; Agricultural water use; Water allocation; Water accounting; Sustainable Development Goals; Water resources; Water management; Groundwater; Climate change; Food security; Water policies; Policy making; Stakeholders; Farmers
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050553&r=agr
  6. By: Reddy, V. R.; Reddy, M. S.; Pavelic, Paul (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Groundwater management; Participatory management; Water use efficiency; Sustainable use; Farmer-led irrigation; Water systems; Project evaluation; Capacity development; Awareness-raising; Technology transfer; Behavioural changes; Groundwater extraction; PumpingKeywords: Wells; Groundwater level; Hydrological factors; Water policies; Regulations; Equity; Crop production; Water budget; Institutions; Funding; Non-governmental organizations; Water user associations; Livelihoods; Food security; Socioeconomic aspects; Rural communities; Villages
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050839&r=agr
  7. By: Martinez, Stephen; Park, Timothy
    Abstract: Local food sold directly to consumers, retailers, and institutions may provide financial benefits to beginning and other farmers compared to farmers who market through traditional channels. This report evaluates the characteristics, production, and marketing practices, and financial performance of local food producers with varying levels of farming and direct marketing experience.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327367&r=agr
  8. By: Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P; Gregory, Christian A; Singh, Anita
    Abstract: Most U.S. households have consistent, dependable access to enough food for active, healthy living—they are food secure. However, some households experience food insecurity at times during the year, meaning their access to adequate food is limited by a lack of money and other resources. USDA’s food and nutrition assistance programs aim to increase food security by providing low-income households access to food for a healthful diet, as well as nutrition education. USDA monitors the extent and severity of food insecurity in U.S. households through an annual, nationally representative survey sponsored and analyzed by USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS). This report presents statistics from the survey that cover household food security, food expenditures, and use of Federal nutrition assistance programs in 2020.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327186&r=agr
  9. By: Baxter, Michael; Delgado, Christopher; Romero, Jose Manuel; Walker, Ian D.
    Abstract: The Mozambique Agricultural Aggregator Pilot (MAAP) research program investigated how jobs and earnings changed when seven different commercial aggregators worked with contracted growers in farm-based value chains in Mozambique in the period 2017-2020. The study covered a range of crops and animal products including: cotton, sugar, maize, chickens, sesame and goats. MAAP aims to improve our understanding of the viability of agricultural aggregation schemes involving agribusinesses working with smallholder farm suppliers in Mozambique and similar African countries. It investigates the incremental costs and returns to firms and growers of expanding the number of growers in existing aggregation schemes.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Food Security,Common Carriers Industry,Food & Beverage Industry,Plastics & Rubber Industry,Agribusiness,Textiles, Apparel & Leather Industry,Pulp & Paper Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Governance Diagnostic Capacity Building,Macroeconomic Management,Economic Forecasting,Climate Change and Agriculture,Crops and Crop Management Systems
    Date: 2020–12–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:jbsgrp:33123060&r=agr
  10. By: Durga, Neha (International Water Management Institute); Sikka, Alok (International Water Management Institute); Verma, Shilp (International Water Management Institute); Mitra, Archisman (International Water Management Institute); Amarasinghe, Upali (International Water Management Institute); Mahapatra, Smaranika (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Agriculture; Water management; Land; Water productivity; Yield gap; Water availability; Water security; Groundwater; Aquifers; Water conservation; Watershed management
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051383&r=agr
  11. By: Johnson, N.
    Keywords: Agricultural research for development; Integrated systems; Systems research; Impact assessment; CGIAR; Research programmes; Monitoring and evaluation; Natural resources management; Investment; Funding; Organizational learning; Food systems; Land use; Water systems; Remote sensing
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050911&r=agr
  12. By: Pavelic, Paul (International Water Management Institute); Magombeyi, Manuel (International Water Management Institute); Schmitter, Petra (International Water Management Institute); Jacobs-Mata, Inga (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Groundwater irrigation; Solar energy; Pumping; Smallholders; Farmer-led irrigation; Water resources; Water availability; Water use; Risk management; Markets; Sustainable Development Goals; Case studies
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050613&r=agr
  13. By: Christiaensen, Luc; Maertens, Miet
    Abstract: Africa’s rural population continues to expand rapidly and labor productivity in agriculture and many rural off farm activities remains low. This paper uses the lens of a dual economy and the associated patterns of agricultural, rural, and structural transformation to review the evolution of Africa’s rural employment and its inclusiveness. Many African countries still find themselves in an early stage of the agricultural and rural transformation. Given smaller sectoral productivity gaps than commonly assumed, greater size effects and larger spillovers, investment in agriculture and the rural off-farm economy remains warranted to broker the transition to more and more productive rural employment. The key policy questions thus become how best to invest in the agri-food system (on and increasingly also off the farm) and how best to generate demand for nonagricultural goods and services which rural households can competitively produce. Informing these choices continues to present a major research agenda, with digitization, the imperative of greening and intra-African liberalization raising many unarticulated and undocumented opportunities and challenges.
    Keywords: rural employment; Agriculture; rural transformation; labor productivity; rural area; international food policy research institute; productivity gap; productive employment; agricultural self-employment; account advance rate; corporate code of conduct; Drivers of Economic Growth; agricultural employment; food system; surplus labor; Agricultural Research and Development; research and development policy; rural labor market; employment in agriculture; informal sector employment; number of workers; rural labor force; agricultural labor; Agricultural Value Chain; off-farm employment; investments in agriculture; wage employment; high population density; gender wage gap; agricultural labor force; agricultural wage labor; Job Quality; rural youth; global value chain; employment condition; working condition; minimum wage; agricultural transformation; dual economy
    Date: 2022–02–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:jbsgrp:33740439&r=agr
  14. By: Heckert, Jessica; Martinez, Elena M.; Sanou, Armande; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Ganaba, Rasmané; Gelli, Aulo
    Abstract: Understanding the types of food systems interventions that foster women’s empowerment and the types of women that are able to benefit from different interventions is important for development policy. SELEVER was a gender- and nutrition-sensitive poultry production intervention implemented in western Burkina Faso from 2017 to 2020 that aimed to empower women. We evaluated SELEVER using a mixed-methods cluster-randomized controlled trial, which included survey data from 1763 households at baseline and endline and a sub-sample for two interim lean season surveys. We used the multidimensional project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI), which consists of 12 binary indicators, underlying count versions of 10 of these, an aggregate empowerment score (continuous) and a binary aggregate empowerment indicator, all for women and men. Women’s and men’s scores were compared to assess gender parity. We also assessed impacts on health and nutrition agency using the pro-WEAI health and nutrition module. We estimated program impact using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models and examined whether there were differential impacts by flock size or among those who participated in program activities. Program impacts on empowerment and gender parity were null, despite the program’s careful approach to developing a gender-sensitive intervention. Meanwhile, results of the in-depth gender-focused qualitative work conducted near the project mid-point found there was greater awareness in the community of women’s time burden and their economic contributions, but it did not seem that awareness led to increased empowerment of women. We reflect on possible explanations for the null findings. One notable explanation may be the lack of a productive asset transfer, which have previously been shown to be essential, but not sufficient, for the empowerment of women in agricultural development programs. We consider these findings in light of current debates on asset transfers. Unfortunately, null impacts on women’s empowerment are not uncommon, and it is important to learn from such findings to strengthen future program design and delivery.
    Keywords: BURKINA FASO; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; agricultural development; agricultural policies; agricultural value chains; food systems; value chains; health; nutrition; women; gender; training; market access; mixed-methods research; Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI)
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:44&r=agr
  15. By: Botea,Ioana Alexandra; Donald,Aletheia Amalia; Rouanet,Lea Marie
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether the relative self-esteem level of spouses can lead to within- household competition for inputs and affect economic gender inequality in the home. Using data on smallholder farmer couples in Cote d'Ivoire, the paper examines the relationship between spouses' self-esteem and income-earning in agriculture. Although the link between own self-esteem and crop income earning is positive, there is a "battle of the sexes" in which one spouse's self-esteem is negatively related to the other's income earning, particularly income earning in higher-value, export-oriented agriculture. Women's outcomes are more sensitive to their own self-esteem (positively) and to their partners' (negatively) than men's. This negative relationship is driven by individuals during middle age, when self-esteem is considered most stable. A key channel through which self-esteem appears to matter is by increasing control over household land, which is a scarce but crucial input to agricultural production. In addition to confirming the importance of noncognitive skills for poverty reduction in rural settings, the findings highlight the importance of their impact on intra- and inter-household inequality, especially in the presence of interlocking market failures constraining the supply of inputs to production.
    Keywords: Food Security,Agricultural Producer Organizations,Agricultural Industry,Agribusiness&Markets,Gender and Development,Climate Change and Agriculture,Crops and Crop Management Systems
    Date: 2020–10–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:9431&r=agr
  16. By: Rosenberg, Andrew B; Wallander, Steven
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) provides conservation planning and field-level assessments of conservation strategies, and serves as one of multiple sources from which agricultural producers can receive conservation technical assistance. This bulletin looks at how many fields in oats, cotton, wheat, and soybeans have farmer-reported, on-field resource concerns and whether farmers received technical assistance to address these concerns from USDA or other sources. Farmers report that 49 percent of these fields have at least one resource concern and 26 percent have multiple resource concerns. Of the fields represented with at least one resource concern, 24 percent received technical assistance. Sixty-seven percent of assisted fields received assistance from USDA, NRCS.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327357&r=agr
  17. By: Toossi, Saied; Jones, Jordan W; Hodges, Leslie
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) typically administers 15 domestic food and nutrition assistance programs that affect the lives of millions of people and account for roughly two-thirds of USDA’s annual budget. In response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, USDA launched two new programs, Pandemic Electronic Benefit Transfer (P-EBT) and the Farmers to Families Food Box Program (Food Box Program). This report uses preliminary data from USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service and Agricultural Marketing Service to examine program trends in the largest U.S. food and nutrition assistance programs through fiscal year 2020 (October 1, 2019 to September 30, 2020) and documents the many policy changes that came into effect since March 2020.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327366&r=agr
  18. By: Valentin Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marion Drut (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Mohamed Hilal (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Antonio Bodini (University of Parma = Università degli studi di Parma [Parme, Italie]); Michele Donati (University of Parma = Università degli studi di Parma [Parme, Italie]); Matthieu Duboys de Labarre (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jelena Filipović (University of Belgrade [Belgrade]); Lisa Gauvrit (ECOZEPT, Montpellier, France); José M. Gil (CREDA -UPC - IRTA - Centre de Recerca en Economia i Desenvolupament Agroalimentaris - IRTA - Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology); Viet Hoang (UEH, University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam); Agata Malak-Rawlikowska (Institute of Economics and Finance, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Warsaw, Poland); Konstadinos Mattas (Department of Agricultural Economics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece); Sylvette Monier-Dilhan (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Paul Muller (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Orachos Napasintuwong (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Economics, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.); Jack Peerlings (Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands); Thomas Poméon (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marina Tomić Maksan (Department of Agricultural Marketing, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia); Áron Török (Department of Agribusiness, Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary); Mario Veneziani (University of Parma = Università degli studi di Parma [Parme, Italie]); Gunnar Vittersø (SIFO Consumption Research Norway, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway); Filippo Arfini (University of Parma = Università degli studi di Parma [Parme, Italie])
    Abstract: To identify whether EU certified food – here organic and geographical indications – is more sustainable than a conventional reference, we developed 25 indicators covering the three sustainability pillars. Original data was collected on 52 products at farm, processing and retail levels, allowing the estimation of circa 2000 indicator values. Most strikingly, we show that, in our sample, certified food outperforms its non-certified reference on most economic and social indicators. On major environmental indicators – carbon and water footprint – their performance is similar. Although certified food is 61% more expensive, the extra-performance per euro is similar to classical policy interventions to improve diet sustainability such as subsidies or taxes. Cumulatively, our findings legitimate the recent initiatives by standards to cover broader sustainability aspects.
    Keywords: Certified Food,Sustainability,Performance,Organic,Farming,Geographical Indications
    Date: 2022–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03376106&r=agr
  19. By: Amrit Amirapu; Irma Clots-Figueras; Juan Pablo Rud
    Abstract: Can democratic politics provide a means for responding to climate change? We explore this question by studying the effects of extreme temperatures on Indian elections between 2009 and 2017. We find that areas exposed to extreme temperatures experience an increase in voter turnout and a change in the composition of the pool of candidates who stand for election. As a consequence, electoral outcomes are affected. We provide evidence that the negative effect of climate change on agricultural productivity is the most important driver of our results. In particular, we show that the positive relationship between temperatures and turnout mirrors the negative effect on agricultural productivity and we find that winning candidates are more likely to have an agricultural background. Politicians with an agricultural background invest more on irrigation, which mitigates the effects of high temperatures, both on agricultural production and on turnout. Our paper provides new evidence about the ways in which agents in developing countries (including both voters and candidates) may respond to climate change via political channels.
    Keywords: climate change; political economy; voter turnout
    JEL: O13 P48 Q54
    Date: 2022–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ukc:ukcedp:2204&r=agr
  20. By: Arulingam, Indika (International Water Management Institute); Brady, G.; Chaya, M.; Conti, M.; Kgomotso, P. K.; Korzenszky, A.; Njie, D.; Schroth, G.; Suhardiman, Diana (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Agricultural production; Smallholders; Participation; Governance; Information exchange; Sustainable livelihoods; Food security
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h051435&r=agr
  21. By: Ana Claudia Sant’Anna; Kevin Kim; Iryna Demko
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:329080&r=agr
  22. By: Skorbiansky, Sharon Raszap; Astill, Gregory; Rosch, Stephanie; Higgins, Elizabeth; Ifft, Jennifer; Rickard, Bradley
    Abstract: This study characterizes recent changes in Federal Crop Insurance Program (FCIP) and Noninsured Crop Disaster Program (NAP) use by specialty crop farmers, compares differences among conventional and organic farms, and investigates the reasons some farmers choose whether to participate in these programs. Specialty crop growers increased the value of their crops insured by FCIP products from about $12 billion in 2011 to about $21 billion in 2020 (not adjusted for inflation). A case study of nine specialty crop growers in New York State explores reasons they choose whether to participate in these Federal programs.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327351&r=agr
  23. By: Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P; Gregory, Christian A; Singh, Anita
    Abstract: This supplement provides statistics that complement those in Household Food Security in the United States in 2020. That research report provides the primary national statistics on household food security, food spending, and use of Federal food and nutrition assistance programs by food-insecure households. Additional statistics here cover component items of the household food security measure, the frequency of occurrence of food-insecure conditions, and selected statistics on household food security, food spending, and use of Federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327344&r=agr
  24. By: Stevens, Alexander; Cho, Clare; Cakir, Metin; Kong, Xiangwen; Boland, Michael A
    Abstract: An examination of the landscape of food retailers across the contiguous United Stated focusing on rural America and food stores.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327368&r=agr
  25. By: Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P; Gregory, Christian A; Singh, Anita
    Abstract: This supplement provides statistics that complement those in Household Food Security in the United States in 2021. That research report provides the primary national statistics on household food security, food spending, and use of Federal food and nutrition assistance programs by food-insecure households. Additional statistics here cover component items of the household food security measure, the frequency of occurrence of food-insecure conditions, and selected statistics on household food security, food spending, and use of Federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327331&r=agr
  26. By: Mohammad Sepahvand
    Abstract: This study analyzes how risk attitudes influence the agricultural productivity of men and women in a sub-Saharan African country, Burkina Faso. By using a large representative panel survey of farmers, the results show that as female farmers increase risk taking, the productivity of female-owned plots goes down. The study controls for various socio-economic factors and explores how the diversity of the regions of the country affects gender differences. Findings show that agricultural policy interventions in Burkina Faso need to be gender sensitized when addressing issues related to credit constraints, improved inputs, and policies that support increase in productivity.
    Keywords: risk attitudes, gender differences, agriculture, productivity, sub-Saharan Africa, Burkina Faso
    Date: 2022–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eca:wpaper:2013/350821&r=agr
  27. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.
    Abstract: Modern crop biotechnology is being considered as a novel solution to the long-standing problems of food insecurity, low crop productivity, pest and disease prevalence, and micronutrient deficiency, particularly in developing and climate-vulnerable economies. Empirical evidence of its benefits encouraged the development and adoption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and related products, fostering global market dynamism. The Philippines' early adoption of technology and its inclusion among countries with the highest GMO corn hectarage in the early 2000s motivated the creation of regulatory guidelines and biosafety policies which informed development and commercialization timelines. The study reviewed the enabling regulatory structures to determine entry points for augmentation while an economic surplus analysis of GMO eggplant was carried out as a case study to estimate welfare benefits and potential opportunity costs for both consumers and local growers. Results showed that across simulations, even with the most conservative adoption delays due to regulatory lags, viable figures were still obtained with the lowest IRR at 20 percent. Notwithstanding contrary sentiments from interest groups, the government's priority must be to make available the modern biotechnology option, in both farm and household tables, in the most prudent but expedient way possible. The huge opportunity losses attached to suboptimal bureaucratic regulatory functioning have to be stemmed. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email publications@pids.gov.ph.
    Keywords: biotechnology; GMOs; modified crops; regulatory process
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2021-45&r=agr
  28. By: Jardine A Husman (Bank Indonesia); Ali Sakti (Bank Indonesia)
    Abstract: Agriculture has not yet impressed the formal financial institutions as the focal distribution of funds. In the meantime, agriculture has survived the pandemic and has become one of the sectors contributing to positive national economic growth. Unlike its conventional counterparty, who merely acts as a lender or creditor, the Islamic financial institutions presumably grab the opportunity to be farmers' partners, beyond being simply the creditor, due to regulation advantage. Therefore, this research attempts to propose practical models of Islamic modes of financing for the agricultural sector. We conduct qualitative and quantitative approaches from both supply and demand sides. We gathered data from the literature, focus group discussions, questionnaires through surveys and in-depth interviews. A total of 51 works of literature, ten experts from the supply side, seven experts from the demand side, 463 microscale farmer respondents, and six experts for in-depth judgment have been studied, interviewed, and surveyed for being analyzed using content analysis, cross-tabulation, and regression per agricultural subsector of food crops, horticulture, plantation (estate crops), fisheries, livestock, and forestry. The result emphasizes that the off-takers take a strategic role as the market guarantor. Each sector is proven to have a significantly different nature of Islamic institution selection, including social and commercial institutions, the nature of Islamic financing modes, and the financial need-stage in production. Salam, or forward transaction, is expected to prom Islamic financial institutions distributing their funds to farmers. We recommend further supportive regulation to attract the financial institution.
    Keywords: agriculture, Islamic financing, off-taker, salam, supply-demand side
    JEL: D64 G21 G23 O13 Q14
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idn:wpaper:wp112021&r=agr
  29. By: Bawa, Siraj G; Callahan, Scott
    Abstract: The majority of rented farmland is owned by landlords who do not operate farms, and a subset of these landlords, known as absent landlords, do not reside in the local farming area. This report explores associations between landlord absenteeism and measures of long-term economic and agricultural health.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327199&r=agr
  30. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the multinational oil companies’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on promoting gender-equitable agricultural value chains in the Niger Delta region. Design/ methodology/approach – This paper adopts a quasi-experimental design that used survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 760 rural women (380 from the treatment group and another 380 from the control group) were sampled across the Niger Delta region. Findings – The results from the use of a combination of a logit model and propensity score matching indicate a significant relationship between GMoU model and gender-equitable agricultural value chains in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Practical implications – This implies that CSR of a multinational oil companies is a critical factor in the need to integrating gender into agricultural value chains, and achieving the goal of increasing agricultural growth and expanding the stable food supply. Social implications - It suggests that creating and sustaining competitive and equitably-oriented value chains that help small-scale farmers, especially women will require examining gender issues and proactively integrating gender components into GMoU policies and action plans of MOCs for value chain analysis and development strategies in the Niger Delta. Originality/value – This research contributes to gender debate in agricultural value chains from a CSR perspective in developing countries and rationale for demands for social projects by host communities. It concludes that business has an obligation to help in solving problems of public concern.
    Keywords: Gender, Agriculture, Value chains, Corporate social responsibility, Multinational oil companies, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exs:wpaper:22/087&r=agr
  31. By: Bloem, Jeffrey; Michler, Jeffrey D; Josephson, Anna; Rudin-Rush, Lorin
    Abstract: This report analyzes food security in the year after the onset of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in four African countries. Using household-level data collected by the World Bank, this report describes differences in food security over time during the pandemic between rural and urban areas as well as between female- and male-headed households in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. A sharp increase in food insecurity is observed during the early months of the pandemic before a gradual decline. Additionally, findings show a larger increase in food insecurity in rural areas relative to urban areas within each of these countries. Finally, no systemic difference in food insecurity is found between female-headed and male-headed households.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, International Development
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327334&r=agr
  32. By: Saavoss, Monica; Capehart, Thomas; McBride, William D; Effland, Anne
    Abstract: Corn for grain is a major field crop in the United States, with wide-ranging uses including animal feed, ethanol, food, beverages, industrial products, and exports. This report describes the technological and structural changes in U.S. corn production over 1996-2018, and describes how these changes have affected farm expenditures, net returns, productivity, yields, and production costs.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327190&r=agr
  33. By: Bloem, Jeffrey; Farris, Jarrad
    Abstract: This paper reviews preliminary findings from the emerging microeconomic literature on observed changes in food insecurity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The review complements existing macroeconomic projections of food insecurity, based on expected changes in income and prices, by providing discussions of local-level, microeconomic differences in food insecurity in low- and middle-income countries.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327341&r=agr
  34. By: Gerval, Adam; Hansen, James
    Abstract: This working paper illuminates the impact that volatility in international commodity prices has on U.S. agricultural product export volumes to sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The current Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis has created such a period of intense price volatility, offering a unique opportunity for modeling potential effects of a global shock on trade with these nations. By simulating the effects of declining oil prices in 2020 and subsequent years through a shock to gross domestic product (GDP) in oil-dependent nations—i.e., Angola and Nigeria—we can evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on agricultural trade for key U.S. export commodities to SSA.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327336&r=agr
  35. By: Child, K.; Desta, G.; Douthwaite, B.; Haileslassie, Amare (International Water Management Institute); van Rooyen, A.; Tamene, L.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Agricultural innovation; Scaling; Impact assessment; Agricultural research for development; Project evaluation; Policies; Research programmes; Funding; Partnerships; Community involvement; Watershed management; Irrigation equipment; Taxes; Landscape; Data management; Stakeholders; Collaboration; Case studies
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050789&r=agr
  36. By: Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
    Abstract: Social norms and structures are vital factors that shape people’s behavior and attitudes. It is, therefore, useful to analyze such underlying forces in the creation of strategies that are meant to influence behavior and activities. Agricultural extension services such as information dissemination and farmers’ training are some of the interventions that can benefit from such analyses especially within a context of limited human and financial resources. The idea is to use the lessons learned from the analysis of social networks and norms in identifying potential local knowledge and information disseminators, thereby aiding the extension services. It also helps in the formulation of more contextualized approaches for reaching the underserved and hard-to-reach areas. Applying this approach, this study used the case of a remote upland area in Atok, Benguet, a major vegetable producer. This study used social network analysis to develop insights for designing more effective extension strategies. The results show that interventions like information and education campaigns can be improved by acknowledging the nuances in social relation structures. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email publications@mail.pids.gov.ph
    Keywords: agriculture; Philippines; upland farming;Social network analysis; information and education campaign; Benguet farming
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2021-18&r=agr
  37. By: Jones, Jordan W; Toossi, Saied; Hodges, Leslie
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers 15 domestic food and nutrition assistance programs that together affect the lives of millions of people and account for roughly two-thirds of USDA’s annual budget. In response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, USDA launched additional temporary programs and implemented numerous policy changes that expanded the scope and coverage of existing programs. Together, these initiatives contributed to higher spending on food and nutrition assistance programs in fiscal year (FY) 2021 (October 1, 2020, to September 30, 2021), which amounted to a historical high of $182.5 billion. This report uses preliminary data from USDA, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) and USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) to examine program trends and policy changes in USDA’s largest U.S. food and nutrition assistance programs through FY 2021.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327356&r=agr
  38. By: Khadka, Manohara (International Water Management Institute); Uprety, Labisha (International Water Management Institute); Shrestha, Gitta (International Water Management Institute); Minh, Thai Thi (International Water Management Institute); Nepal, Shambhawi (International Water Management Institute); Raut, Manita (International Water Management Institute); Dhungana, Shashwat (International Water Management Institute); Shahrin, S.; Krupnik, T. J.; Schmitter, Petra (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Farmer-led irrigation; Sustainability; Smallholders; Small scale systems; Agricultural value chains; Gender equality; Inclusion; Livelihoods; Irrigation equipment; Supply chains; Water management; Multiple use water services; Public-private partnerships; COVID-19; Policies
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050731&r=agr
  39. By: Casey Brown; Fred Boltz; Kathleen Dominique
    Abstract: Water infrastructure investments are typically capital-intensive and long-lived, involving significant costs and benefits. Their performance over operational lifetimes is highly dependent on the vagaries of the hydrological cycle and subject to the risks and uncertainties associated with climate change. The challenge is to make the best use of scarce financial resources to deliver desired water services in the context of these complicating factors. Ideally, planning for water-related investments should be robust to known hazards and flexible to adapt to an uncertain future. This paper presents a conceptual and analytical framework to sequence water-related investments along “Strategic Investment Pathways”. This approach considers a range of diverse investments over multiple scenarios and evaluates options relative to stakeholder-defined goals. It explicitly considers key dynamic processes, interdependencies and feedbacks within the water system. The aim is to inform investment decisions that contribute to water system resilience through effective and adaptive management over time.
    Keywords: flood protection, infrastructure finance, investment, irrigation, sanitation, wastewater, water security, water supply
    JEL: H41 H54 L95 L98 Q25 Q53 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022–11–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:envaaa:202-en&r=agr
  40. By: Frank, Eyal G. (Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago.); Sudarshan, Anant (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)
    Abstract: The loss of a keystone species can theoretically lead to large social costs because their complex ecosystem interactions may be important for environmental quality. We quantify these effects for the case of vultures in India where they play an important public health role by removing livestock carrion from the environment. The expiration of a patent for a common chemical painkiller led to its increased use in cattle, unexpectedly rendering carcasses fatal to vultures, leading to a catastrophic and near-total population collapse. Using habitat range maps for the affected species, we compare high to low vulture suitability districts before and after the patent for the painkiller expired. We find that, on average, all-cause death rates increased by more than 4% in vulture-suitable districts after the vultures nearly went extinct. We find suggestive evidence that feral dog populations and rabies increased, and that water quality deteriorated in the affected regions. These mechanisms are consistent with the loss of the scavenging function of the vultures. Quantifying the costs of biodiversity losses has critical implications for optimal investments into species conservation and rehabilitation.
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wrk:warwec:1433&r=agr
  41. By: Rehkamp, Sarah; Canning, Patrick; Birney, Catherine
    Abstract: Freshwater is a resource that plays a key role in food production. This study evaluates the use of freshwater, known as blue water, used in U.S. food and beverage production for domestic consumption.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327191&r=agr
  42. By: Hrozencik, Aaron; Aillery, Marcel
    Abstract: Irrigated agriculture is a critically important component of the U.S. farm economy. Irrigated production expanded significantly over the last century, as public reclamation policy and technological innovations opened new lands to irrigated production.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327359&r=agr
  43. By: Nicolas Legrand (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Russia's invasion of Ukraine is a major shock at the heart of the breadbasket of Europe at a time when global stocks are running short. With inelastic supply and demand for such basic goods and lack of inventories to cushion the shock, the basic economics of storage arbitrage explain the commodity price spikes needed to ration the war-related supply shortage. In this paper, I show that to make sense of the chaotic price fluctuations requires a consistent empirical tool such as the storage model with rational expectations. Empirical analysis of the unfolding commodity shock using a storage model lens suggests that the global food market is currently in a "wait-and-see" mode, with price movements reflecting a loss in the size of the global share of caloric production from Ukraine. I show also that the supply and demand outlook for the next two years is aligned to the price expectations of market participants and send the signal that the world should prepare for a period of scarcer supply and high and volatile food prices, for as long as the conflict lasts. Sound policymaking in this context could rely on this normative device to ease the suffering of the most vulnerable populations who are at risk of hunger and malnourishment.
    Keywords: Storage,Volatility,Food security,Commodity price dynamics
    Date: 2022–10–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03809794&r=agr
  44. By: Beckman, Jayson
    Abstract: ERS analyzes two potential scenarios for reforming global agricultural trade—removing all tariffs or eliminating trade costs through the Trade Facilitation Agreement—and compares their effects on trade, production, prices, and social welfare.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327196&r=agr
  45. By: Rabbitt, Matthew P; Smith, Michael D
    Abstract: This report documents the extent and severity of food insecurity among working-age veterans, ages 18–64, who made up 76 percent of the veteran population in 2019. Examining working-age veteran subpopulations, this report compares food insecurity among working-age veterans and nonveterans, and examines the association between military service and food insecurity.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327194&r=agr
  46. By: Douthwaite, B.; Child, K.
    Keywords: Agricultural research for development; CGIAR; Research programmes; Impact assessment; Monitoring and evaluation; Agricultural innovation; Technology; Policy innovation; Agronomy; Capacity development; Advisory services; Soil quality; Cassava; Seed certification; Fertilizers; Phytosanitary measures; Solar energy; Irrigation systems; Electricity supplies; Donors; Funding; State intervention; Farmers; Databases; Models; Case studies
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050909&r=agr
  47. By: Ng, Michelle (International Water Management Institute); Langan, Simon (International Water Management Institute); de Haan, N.; Reitemeier, M.; King, B.
    Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies; Equity; Inclusion; Water systems; Social change; Digital divide; Innovation; Models; Gender; Sustainable Development Goals
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:bosers:h050850&r=agr
  48. By: Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:329081&r=agr
  49. By: Sophie Martin (AD2M - Adaptation et diversité en milieu marin - SBR - Station biologique de Roscoff [Roscoff] - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UR LISC - Laboratoire d'ingénierie pour les systèmes complexes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Katrin Erdlenbruch (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier); Isabelle Alvarez (AD2M - Adaptation et diversité en milieu marin - SBR - Station biologique de Roscoff [Roscoff] - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UR LISC - Laboratoire d'ingénierie pour les systèmes complexes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sylvie Huet (AD2M - Adaptation et diversité en milieu marin - SBR - Station biologique de Roscoff [Roscoff] - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UR LISC - Laboratoire d'ingénierie pour les systèmes complexes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Charline Smadi (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UR LESSEM - Laboratoire des EcoSystèmes et des Sociétés en Montagne - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Dynamic models can help adapt to climate change since they inform on the impacts of decisions and future events on sustainability. They make it possible to follow the evolution of variables over time, to model exogenous events and adaptive policies and to compute sustainability indicators. Various model types based on dierent worldviews exist, and they give rise to dierent indicators. Modellers generally choose only one type of model, limiting the variety of indicators. However, decision-makers, who have to be creative to face global change, need a wider diversity of indicators. The objective of this paper is to show the diversity of insights one can get by using alternative system indicators and their decision implications. We test our very diverse indicators approach and illustrate its results for a population at risk of ooding and a water-basin manager who can help the population implement protection measures. We test many variations, including e.g. viability theory and agent-based modelling, and dierent indicators of viability, resilience, eciency and equity, based on comparable data sets. We show possible synergies of the obtained diversity of insights: for example, one indicator says that it is urgent to act and another which is the best policy to use. We discuss the diculties of implementation and the benets of our approach for the decision-maker.
    Keywords: Uncertainty,decision-making,optimization,viability,indicators,floods
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03807806&r=agr
  50. By: Saitone, Tina L; Li, Xuemei; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Sexton, Richard J
    Abstract: Potential cost savings from requiring selection of least expensive brands of WIC-approved food items.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327184&r=agr
  51. By: Nicolas Coeurdacier (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Florian Oswald (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marc Teignier (University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: We develop a multi-sector spatial equilibrium model with endogenous land use: land is used either for agriculture or housing. Urban land, densely populated due to commuting frictions, expands out of agricultural land. With rising productivity, the reallocation of workers away from agriculture frees up land for cities to expand, limiting the increase in land values despite higher income and increasing urban population. Due to the reallocation of land use, the area of cities expands at a fast rate and urban density persistently declines, as in the data over a long period. As structural change slows down, cities sprawl less and land values start increasing at a faster rate, as in the last decades. Quantitative predictions of the joint evolution of density and land values across time and space are confronted with historical data assembled for France over 180 years.
    Keywords: Structural Change,Land Use,Productivity Growth,Urban Density
    Date: 2021–12–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03812819&r=agr
  52. By: Delgado, Christopher L.; Costa, Carlos G.; Ricaldi, Federica
    Abstract: This book focuses on entry points for creation of better jobs through agricultural value chains and lays out the policy implications, using cassava, cashew, and plantation forestry as examples. It is based on case studies carried out in 2018-2020 by the World Bank Jobs Group as part of the multi-stakeholder Let’s Work Program in Mozambique. Let’s Work is a global partnership encompassing over 25 private sector organizations, international financial institutions, multilateral development banks, and bilateral donors focused on supporting private sector-led job growth. The study documents opportunities for creating more and better jobs, often in formal employment, linked to the cassava, cashew and plantation forestry value chains. Cassava in Mozambique is currently a traditional subsistence food crop; cashew is a struggling traditional export crop; and plantation forestry is a relatively new sector. However, the study also argues that to realize these opportunities Mozambique requires proactive public policy and investments to overcome significant challenges such as: climate change; over-concentration in current export market destinations; and the unintended side effects of some public policies. The study is focused on promoting an enabling environment for private sector growth in these value chains. It aims to inform ongoing debates about how agriculture and improved natural resource management can contribute more to economic transformation in Mozambique.
    Keywords: Agricultural markets, commercialization and agri-business,Housing Construction,Workforce Development/Skills,Oil and Gas,Other Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry
    Date: 2021–11–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:jbsgrp:33555938&r=agr
  53. By: Erik Braun (UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS-FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS); Emese Braun (UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS-FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS); András Gyimesi (UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS-FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS); Zita Iloskics (UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS-FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS); Tamás Sebestyén (UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS-FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS)
    Abstract: The recent outbreak of the Russia-Ukraine military conflict is expected to affect the world economy through global value chains due to sanctions imposed on the Russian economy and a severe decline in Ukrainian production. This study provides a first-cut analysis of the possible economic impact of this war on third countries. Using product-level export data from international trade statistics, we first identify the most important products exported by Ukraine and Russia. Then, applying a comprehensive indicator of exposure, we measure the dependence of third countries on products imported from Ukraine or Russia, taking into consideration indirect trade connections and the substitutability of imports with domestic production. The results show that Ukraine is dominant in global trade through exporting iron products and agricultural products, while Russia is important through exporting energy sources, raw materials, and iron products. Analysing countries’ total exposures, we found that the post-Soviet and European countries have high exposure to Russian imports, confirming the energy dependence of these countries. The Middle East and African countries heavily depend on Ukraine, especially for grain imports, possibly causing food security problems. Finally, the results explain why some European countries hesitate to apply sanctions on Russia in the field of energy sources.
    Keywords: International trade, Global value chains, Russia-Ukraine war, Network analysis, Exposure.
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pec:wpaper:2022_1&r=agr
  54. By: Nicolas Legrand (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Christophe Gouel (AgroParisTech, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique)
    Abstract: Understanding the drivers of commodity prices dynamics is crucial. Unfortunately the central economic model for representing commodity prices, the competitive storage model, is not yet empirically validated. In this work, we develop a rich storage model with four demand and supply shocks, elastic supply, and longrun trends and estimate it structurally on a caloric aggregate of the four most important grains. Our estimated model is consistent with most of the moments in the data, validating the empirical relevance of the storage model. The estimated model shows that speculative storage while crucial cannot explain alone the persistence of grain price. It explains 42% of the price autocorrelation, the rest being accounted for by the price trend, the persistence of demand shocks, and the presence of news shocks about production.
    Keywords: Commodity Price Dynamics,Indirect Inference,Monte Carlo Analysis,Storage
    Date: 2022–10–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03809825&r=agr
  55. By: Camille Eslan (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur], Pôle développement innovation et recherche - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation, FFE - Fédération Française d'Equitation); Sandrine Costa (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Céline Vial (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur], Pôle développement innovation et recherche - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation); Vu Hoang Ha Pham (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Keywords: Self-organized equestrian
    Date: 2022–09–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03810006&r=agr
  56. By: Ollinger, Michael; Guthrie, Joanne
    Abstract: Nutrition standards for the USDA’s National School Lunch program were updated in 2012, with changes requiring more fruit and vegetables. Most of the foods served in school meals come from commercial sources, but USDA also offers foods to schools in a program called USDA Foods. This report examines changes in food choices in the USDA Foods program during 2006–17 in response to revised nutrition standards. The report finds that the value of fresh fruits and vegetables ordered from USDA Foods and distributed by the U.S. Department of Defense DoD Fresh program rose from 5 to 15 percent of the value of all USDA Foods orders.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327352&r=agr
  57. By: Ashish K. Sedai; Lackson D. Mudenda; Ray Miller
    Abstract: This study shows how persistent agricultural shocks in Ethiopia affect education, health and labour outcomes through a time-use study of young people, aged 0-22. Leveraging five rounds of the Young Lives Study from 2002-2016, we use dynamic panel instrumental variable regressions to account for the unobserved heterogeneity and serial correlation in the estimation of persistent shocks. Agricultural shocks significantly reduce schooling participation and time spent in schooling, deteriorate health, and increase both labour force participation and labour time. Household wealth acts as a buffer and mitigates the adverse effects of shocks on schooling. Interestingly, children from wealthier households have a higher likelihood of joining agricultural labour during shocks, but their intensity of child labour is significantly lower compared to the poorer households. The study recommends agricultural insurance for the poor and incentives for school participation in areas susceptible to agricultural shocks.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Shocks, Labour, Education, Wealth, Time Use
    JEL: D13 I20 I25 I31
    Date: 2022–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:een:camaaa:2022-66&r=agr
  58. By: Pratt, Bryan; Wallander, Steven
    Abstract: This study examines data on the costs of cover practices to demonstrate how USDA Conservation Reserve Program's (CRP) use of ranking points in the Environmental Benefits Index (EBI) and cost-share payments combine to incentivize some participants to adopt higher public-benefit practices. This analysis also provides predictions for how policy alternatives might impact the program.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327358&r=agr
  59. By: Dong, Diansheng; Stewart, Hayden
    Abstract: County-level sales tax data are combined with USDA’s National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) to examine the relationship between taxing groceries, taxing restaurant foods, and U.S. households' food spending patterns. Results are separately provided for SNAP participants, eligible non-participants, and other households.
    Keywords: Public Economics
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327187&r=agr
  60. By: Botea, Ioana Alexandra; Del Bono, Mitja
    Abstract: Cameroon’s high employment levels mask widespread precariousness and rural-urban inequality. Labor market vulnerability-either detachment or weak attachment-is particularly acute among youth (ages 15 to 35), who are often uninterested in agriculture yet unable to access better opportunities in urban areas. Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA), a non-parametric method that segments a heterogeneous population into groups sharing similar characteristics, we identify distinct profiles of youth experiencing labor market vulnerability. The largest groups in urban and rural areas consist of mostly men with some education who work full time in the informal sector, either as own-account workers or subsistence farmers. In addition, we identify five groups as priorities for policy intervention. First, two groups making up 9 percent of out-of-school youth, predominantly married women, are involuntarily inactive and present an opportunity for improved human capital utilization. Second, a third group (14 percent) includes women in rural areas employed as contributing family workers, while two other groups (12 percent) comprise women facing multifold vulnerabilities (i.e., a combination of unpaid, temporary, and part-time work). Tailored interventions for these three groups would most impact poverty reduction
    Keywords: rural employment; Agriculture; rural transformation; labor productivity; rural area; international food policy research institute; productivity gap; productive employment; agricultural self-employment; account advance rate; corporate code of conduct; Drivers of Economic Growth; agricultural employment; food system; surplus labor; Agricultural Research and Development; research and development policy; rural labor market; employment in agriculture; informal sector employment; number of workers; rural labor force; agricultural labor; Agricultural Value Chain; off-farm employment; investments in agriculture; wage employment; high population density; gender wage gap; agricultural labor force; agricultural wage labor; Job Quality; rural youth; global value chain; employment condition; working condition; minimum wage; agricultural transformation; dual economy
    Date: 2022–08–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:jbsgrp:33886148&r=agr
  61. By: Liefert, William M; Mitchell, Lorraine; Seeley, Ralph
    Abstract: An examination of past economic crises and a simulation exercise of the effects of possible future crises show that such shocks can reduce U.S. agricultural exports considerably, especially if a crisis hits a number of countries simultaneously.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327195&r=agr
  62. By: Ceylan, Pinar
    Keywords: pre-industrial inequality; agricultural incomes; property rights institutions; Ottoman tax surveys; Ottoman rural history
    JEL: N01 N30 N35 N45 N50 N55
    Date: 2022–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:wpaper:117250&r=agr
  63. By: Fuje,Habtamu Neda; Pullabhotla,Hemant Kumar
    Abstract: Restricting cross-border trade through export bans in an attempt to stabilize domesticprices has been a particularly popular policy tool used by many sub-Saharan countries in recent years. However, littleis known about how the variability in harvests and seasonality -- two critical dimensions of smallholderagriculture in Africa -- mediate the effects of export bans on household welfare. This study assesses the short-termimpact of export bans on prices and welfare of households in Malawi, accounting for these heterogeneities. It usesmonthly panel data on maize prices from 152 markets in Malawi and neighboring countries. To identify the impacts ofthe bans, the study compares the change in price dispersion between a domestic market in Malawi and another market in aneighboring country, relative to the price dispersion between the domestic market and other markets within Malawithat are at a similar distance as the domestic-foreign market pair. The findings show that export bans, in theshort run, are associated with lower domestic prices, lower relative prices, and less seasonality in prices in Malawi.This is after accounting for harvest levels and the existence of trade restrictions in neighboring countries.The short-run effects of the export bans help explain why policymakers are likely to engage in the use of suchpolicies. However, the welfare analysis shows that the welfare gains and poverty reduction effects are small inmagnitude and likely to be offset by the long-run distortionary effects of restrictive trade policies.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Food Security,Rules of Origin,Trade Policy,Trade and Multilateral Issues,Inequality
    Date: 2020–10–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:9436&r=agr
  64. By: Baquie,Sandra; Fuje,Habtamu Neda
    Abstract: Severe weather shocks recurrently hit Malawi, and they adversely affect the incomes of many farmhouseholds as well as small businesses. With climate change, the frequency of extreme weather events is expected toincrease further. A clear understanding of households’ vulnerability to shock-induced poverty is critical fordisaster risk management and the design of scalable social safety net programs. Standard poverty measures rely onstatic snapshots that are suitable for quantifying structural poverty but not for assessing the vulnerabilityof non-poor households to fall below the poverty line when they experience shocks. This study uses a nationallyrepresentative household survey and exogenously measured weather shocks to assess households' vulnerability topoverty in Malawi. To accurately estimate the impacts of shocks on consumption and vulnerability, the study excludesany kind of assistance (aid and food or cash transfers) that households might have received after major disasters. Thekey findings of the study are as follows: (1) drought during the growing season decreases non-assistance consumption percapita by 5–12 percent, depending on its intensity; (2) excess rainfall at the onset of the growing season reducesfood consumption by 1.8 percent, while excess rainfall later in the growing season appears to increase consumption; (3)vulnerability to poverty is generally higher than static poverty, especially compared to static poverty measuredduring a good weather year; and (4) in years of extreme droughts, such as 2016, recorded poverty rates are higherthan vulnerability, which indicates that the magnitude of drought in 2016 was so large that the chance of fallingbelow the poverty line as a result of an even higher magnitude shock was low. These results suggest thatidentifying vulnerable households is key in designing adaptive social safety net programs that can be scaled up tocover those who become eligible for such programs after experiencing shocks.
    Keywords: Inequality,Natural Disasters,Disability,Services & Transfers to Poor,Access of Poor to Social Services,Economic Assistance,Educational Sciences
    Date: 2020–10–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:9435&r=agr
  65. By: Gale, Fred
    Abstract: Compliance with China’s food standards and regulations can be a challenge for exporters aspiring to sell to that country’s growing market. Refusals of imports fluctuate from year to year, peaking in 2007 and 2017 and dropping to their lowest-ever totals in 2018-19.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327198&r=agr
  66. By: Whitt, Christine; Todd, Jessica E; Keller, Andrew
    Abstract: This report provides the latest statistics on U.S. farms, including production, financial performance, pandemic assistance, and farm household characteristics by farm size. New sections of this edition explore changes in direct sales, pandemic-related off-farm job loss and furloughs, farm operating expenses, and the distribution of USDA and non-USDA pandemic assistance received in 2020.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2021–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327361&r=agr
  67. By: Dong, Xiao; Zeballos, Eliana
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected food-at-home (FAH) and food-away-from-home (FAFH) sales in the United States. Monthly sales for retail and food services show that food and beverage store sales for the first 8 months of 2020 were up 12.2 percent compared with 2019, but sales for food service and drinking places sales during the same time were down 20.9 percent compared with 2019.
    Keywords: Marketing, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327347&r=agr
  68. By: Samake Oumar (Université de Ségou); Lassana Toure; Diamoutene Abdou Karim (Université des sciences sociales et de gestion de Bamako)
    Abstract: his study analyzes the effect of agricultural credit on rice income using data collected from 140 rice farmers in the commune of Dioro, Office Rice Segou area, during the period 2018- 2019. The propensity score method was used to achieve the objectives. It made it possible to correct the endogeneity and the simultaneity linked to agricultural credit. The results show that access to global credit has a significant and positive effect on rice income (t=1.67). However, rice farmers with access to credit in general have an average rice income of 614,986.111 FCFA more than those without access to credit. For credit beneficiaries, they ndicate that compared to informal credit in kind, formal cash credit is very significant and positive on rice income (t=5.49), showing that this form of credit increases rice income by 537,116.667 FCFA. Financial institutions provide operators with the means necessary to ensure their production in order to improve their income. From this study we identified the level of education, functional literacy, age and cultivated area as major factors influencing rice farmers' access to agricultural credit.
    Abstract: Cette étude analyse l'effet du crédit agricole sur le revenu rizicole à l'aide de données collectées auprès de 140 exploitants rizicoles dans la commune de Dioro, zone Office Riz Ségou, durant la période 2018-2019. La méthode des scores de propension a été utilisée pour atteindre les objectifs. Elle a permis de corriger l'endogénéité et la simultanéité liées au crédit agricole. Les résultats montrent que l'accès au crédit global a un effet significatif et positif sur le revenu rizicole (t=1,67). Toutefois les riziculteurs ayant accès au crédit d'une manière globale ont un revenu rizicole moyen de 614 986,111 FCFA de plus que ceux n'ayant pas accès au crédit. Pour les bénéficiaires du crédit, ils indiquent que comparativement au crédit informel en nature, le crédit formel en espèce est très significatif et positif sur le revenu rizicole (t=5,49), montrant que cette forme de crédit augmente le revenu rizicole de 537 116,667 FCFA. Les institutions financières octroient aux exploitants les moyens nécessaires pour assurer leurs productions afin d'améliorer leurs revenus. De cette étude nous avons identifié le niveau d'éducation, l'alphabétisation fonctionnelle, l'âge et l'espace cultivé comme des facteurs majeurs influençant l'accès des riziculteurs au crédit agricole.
    Keywords: Crédit agricole,Revenu rizicole,PSM Agricultural credit,Rice income,PSM
    Date: 2022–06–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03787120&r=agr
  69. By: Zahniser, Steven
    Abstract: This paper uses detailed trade statistics to explore how and why U.S.-Mexico agricultural trade changed during 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327339&r=agr
  70. By: Margaryta Klymak
    Abstract: Millions of people are internally displaced by wars and conflicts with wide-ranging adverse social and economic consequences. Yet, we still know very little about how they fare upon return to their homes. Colombia’s 50-year internal armed conflict resulted in the world’s highest number of internally displaced people. In this paper, we study the effects of a recently implemented law allowing displaced Colombians to apply to receive land restitution. Although everyone could apply for restitution immediately, the implementation of claims happened in a phased manner. Using agricultural census data coupled with geospatial location of formal land restitution, and individual level information on applications, we shed light on the effect of land restitution on three sets of outcomes: social integration, labour investments and market integration. Our results suggest restituted households are integrating into the community - they are more likely to be a member of an association, more likely to partake in reciprocal farm work and sell their produce. We also find evidence that in the short run, unlike the findings in the literature relating to land formalisation, restituted households are not more likely to hire permanent workers but instead increase the use of day workers and household members on their land.
    Keywords: forced displacement; land restitution; conflict; Colombia
    JEL: D13 Q15 O12
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:csa:wpaper:2022-13&r=agr
  71. By: Arnade, Carlos; Hoffman, Linwood; Effland, Anne
    Abstract: USDA’s corn-output projections have a significant impact on corn futures. This report shows how the release of USDA’s WASDE report influences daily futures prices.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327189&r=agr
  72. By: McLaughlin, Patrick W; Saksena, Michelle; Saitone, Tina L; Ma, Meilin; Volpe, Richard; Wu, Qi; Sexton, Richard J
    Abstract: This report provides an in-depth look at the tradeoff between participant access and program costs in USDA's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), synthesizing several studies of WIC in Greater Los Angeles, CA, from 2009 to 2013.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersrr:327202&r=agr
  73. By: Josephson,Anna Leigh; Kilic,Talip; Michler,Jeffrey David
    Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the attempts to limit its spread have resulted in profound economic impacts, and a significant contraction in the global economy is expected. This paper provides some of the first evidence on the socioeconomic impacts of and responses to the pandemic among households and individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa. To do so, reduced-form econometric methods are applied to longitudinal household survey data from Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Uganda -- originating from the pre-COVID-19 face-to-face household surveys and from the novel phone surveys that are being implemented during the pandemic. The headline findings are fourfold. First, although false beliefs about COVID-19 remain prevalent, government action to limit the spread of the disease is associated with greater individual knowledge of the disease and increased uptake of precautionary measures. Second, 256 million individuals -- 77 percent of the population in the four countries -- are estimated to live in households that have lost income due to the pandemic. Third, attempts to cope with this loss are exacerbated by the inability to access medicine and staple foods among 20 to 25 percent of the households in each country, and food insecurity is disproportionately borne by households that were already impoverished prior to the pandemic. Fourth, student-teacher contact has dropped from a pre-COVID-19 rate of 96 percent to just 17 percent among households with school-age children. These findings can help inform decisions by governments and international organizations on measures to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and reveal the need for continued monitoring.
    Keywords: Health Care Services Industry,Gender and Development,Educational Sciences,Nutrition,Food Security
    Date: 2020–11–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:9466&r=agr
  74. By: Andres,Luis Alberto; Espineira,Gonzalo; Joseph,George; Sember,German Eduardo; Thibert,Michael David
    Abstract: The water supply and sanitation sector remains heavily subsidized around the world. Yet, theaccounting of water supply and sanitation subsidies globally has proved challenging due to utility-level data limitationsand their often implicit nature. This paper develops a methodology to estimate water supply and sanitationsubsidies that is adaptable to data scarce environments, while accounting for differences among service providerssuch as population served (to account for economies of scale), coverage of water and sanitation servicesindividually, and their level of operational efficiency in terms of water losses and staffing. This methodology isbased on Chile’s empresa modelo (model firm) approach to cost-reflective tariff estimation and uses utility-leveldata from the World Bank's International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities database. Theresults suggest that the cost of subsidies associated with the operations, maintenance, and major repair andreplacement of existing water supply and sanitation infrastructure in much of the world (excluding, notably,China and India) is an estimated $289 billion to $353 billion per year, or 0.46 to 0.56 percent of thecountries' combined gross domestic product. This figure rises, shockingly, to 1.59 to 1.95 percent if only low- andmiddle-income economies are considered, an amount largely due to the capital subsidies captured in the estimation.Subsidies of operating costs account for approximately 22 percent of the total subsidy amount in the full sample andfor low-income economies separately. Annual subsidy amounts by region range from 0.05 to 2.40 percent of gross domesticproduct, and low-income economies are generally at the high end of this range. The estimations do not include capitalexpenditure for infrastructure expansion -- which tends to be fully subsidized -- or environmental costs. Therefore,the actual global magnitude of networked water supply and sanitation subsidies is much greater than the estimation.
    Keywords: Hydrology,Engineering,Sanitation and Sewerage,Town Water Supply and Sanitation,Water and Human Health,Sanitary Environmental Engineering,Health and Sanitation,Environmental Engineering,Water Supply and Sanitation Economics,Small Private Water Supply Providers
    Date: 2020–10–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:9448&r=agr
  75. By: Dubman, Robert; Key, Nigel; Law, Jonathan; Litkowski, Carrie; Mandalay, Okkar; Subedi, Dipak; Todd, Jessica E; Whitt, Christine
    Abstract: The agricultural economy experienced pronounced volatility over 2009–19, including strong periods of expansions in the first part of the decade followed by several years of contraction. This report presents and assesses recent trends in three major areas of farm finance: farm income, Government payment programs, and Chapter 12 bankruptcy eligibility and rates.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2021–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327362&r=agr
  76. By: Patrice Loisel (MISTEA - Mathématiques, Informatique et STatistique pour l'Environnement et l'Agronomie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Marielle Brunette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stéphane Couture (MIAT INRAE - Unité de Mathématiques et Informatique Appliquées de Toulouse - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Storm is a major risk in forestry. However, due to the more or less pessimistic scenarios of future climate change, storm frequency is now ambiguous and only partially known (i.e., scenario ambiguity). Furthermore, within each scenario, the quantification of storm frequency is also ambiguous due to the differences in risk quantification by experts, creating a second level of ambiguity (i.e., frequency ambiguity). In such an ambiguous context, knowledge of the future climate through accurate information about this risk is fundamental and can be of significant value. In this paper, we question how ambiguity and ambiguity aversion affect forest management, in particular, optimal cutting age. Using a classical Faustmann framework of forest rotation decisions, we compare three different situations: risk, scenario ambiguity and frequency ambiguity. We show that risk and risk aversion significantly reduce the optimal cutting age. We also show that both scenario and frequency ambiguities reinforce the effect of risk. Inversely, ambiguity aversion has no effect. The value of information that resolves scenario ambiguity is high, whereas it is null for frequency ambiguity.
    Keywords: Rotation decision,Risk,Ambiguity,Ambiguity Aversion,Risk Aversion,Value of Information,Forests,Faustmann criterion
    Date: 2022–10–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03796414&r=agr
  77. By: Rhone, Alana; Williams, Ryan; Dicken, Christopher
    Abstract: This report updates estimates of low-income and low-foodstore-access census tracts, listed in the USDA, Economic Research Service’s Food Access Research Atlas, using a 2019 directory of foodstores and 2014–18 American Community Survey data on household vehicle access and family income.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327355&r=agr
  78. By: Giri, Anil K; McDonald, Tia; Subedi, Dipak; Whitt, Christine
    Abstract: This report estimates COVID-19-related Government assistance to farm operations and households in 2020 from COVID-19-related and existing Farm Bill programs. The underlying research documents methodologies relevant to updating similar assistance payments in the future.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2021–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327345&r=agr
  79. By: Shala, Iliriana; Schumacher, Benno
    Abstract: Climate change causes natural disasters to occur at higher frequency and increased severity. Using a unique dataset on German banks, this paper explores how regionally less diversified banks in Germany adjusted their loan loss provisioning following the severe summer flood of 2013, which affected widespread regions mostly in Eastern Germany. The analysis uses a difference-in-differences estimation with banks being allocated to the treatment and control group based on the region of their primary operational activities. This paper yields various results: German savings and cooperative banks located in the affected regions experienced a significantly higher, but ephemeral, impairment flow in the years following the flood. Impairments were mostly driven by corporate loans concentrated in specific sectors, such as agriculture and manufacturing, and to some extent by retail mortgage loans. While results suggest that the profitability of banks is impacted by additional factors, we do not find evidence that banks suffered from damages to their own property. The results are robust to various model specifications.
    Keywords: Natural disaster,climate change,credit risk,profitability,difference-in-differences
    JEL: C12 C21 C23 G21 Q54
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:bubdps:362022&r=agr
  80. By: Vaiknoras, Kate; Hahn, William; Padilla, Samantha; Valcu-Lisman, Adriana; Grossen, Grace
    Abstract: This working paper outlines the impacts of COVID-19 on U.S. meat and poultry supply chains in 2020, describing how the industry reacted to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and adapted during the ongoing crisis.
    Keywords: Industrial Organization
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersap:327338&r=agr
  81. By: Francisco-Cruz, Carlos Alberto; Buckley, Cathal; Breen, James; Lanigan, Gary
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–11–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa181:329126&r=agr
  82. By: Page, Elina T; Short, Gianna; Sneeringer, Stacy; Bowman, Maria
    Abstract: Scanner data were used to analyze expenditure shares, national average prices, and demographics for chicken products labeled raised without antibiotics (RWA). The results showed a rise in household expenditures for RWA-labeled products across market segments. Further, the analysis found demographic differences for those who bought RWA-labeled chicken products.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uersib:327364&r=agr

This nep-agr issue is ©2022 by Angelo Zago. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at http://nep.repec.org. For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <director@nep.repec.org>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.