nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒10‒24
27 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Realizing Scale in Smallholder-Based Agriculture By World Bank
  2. Zambia's Farmer Input Support Program and Recommendations for Re-designing the Program By World Bank
  3. Strengthening Regional Water Security for Greater Resilience in the G5 Sahel By World Bank
  4. Assessment of Farmer-Led Irrigation Development in Niger By Amadou Soumaila
  5. Assessment of Farmer-Led Irrigation Development in Rwanda By Innocent Nzeyimana
  6. Soil Organic Carbon MRV Sourcebook for Agricultural Landscapes By World Bank
  7. Climate Change and Agricultural Productivity in West Africa By Chimere O. Iheonu; Simplice A. Asongu; Ekene T. Emeka; Ebuka C. Orjiakor
  8. Nigeria Transforming Agribusiness for Inclusive Recovery, Jobs Creation, and Poverty Reduction By Elliot W. Mghenyi; Cora Dankers; James Thurlow; Chidozie Anyiro
  9. Opportunities for Climate Finance in the Livestock Sector By World Bank
  10. Gender Implications of Rural Land Use Fee and Agricultural Income Tax in Ethiopia By Hitomi Komatsu; Alemayehu A. Ambel; Gayatri Koolwal; Manex Bule Yonis
  11. Land Rental Markets: Experimental Evidence from Kenya By Michelle Acampora; Lorenzo Casaburi; Jack Willis
  12. RICH Food, Smart City By Gayatri Acharya; Emilie Cassou; Steven Jaffee; Elyssa Kaur Ludher
  13. The Role of Strategic Grain Reserves in Enhancing Food Security in Zambia and Zimbabwe By World Bank
  14. Spatial Procurement of Farm products and the Supply of Processed Foods: Application to the Tomato Processing Industry By Hamilton, Stephen; Ligon, Ethan; Shafran, Aric
  15. Effect of Lockdown on Food Security during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Philippines : Two Months after Implementation By Jessica Denila Villanueva; Jonathan D. Austria; Kendrick Mico Faronilo; Aywin Rosette Sunga-Lim; Enrico L. Replan; Janice B. Sevilla-Nastor; Renante Abuyan; Nicolas Peyraube
  16. Environmental Challenges for Green Growth and Poverty Reduction By Ernesto Sánchez-Triana
  17. Climate Change and Migration: The Case of Africa By Bruno Conte
  18. Designing the Future of Agri-Food Chains: Comparison of Prospective Analysis Built 40 Years Ago and Today By Romy Lynn Chaib; Catherine Macombe; Rallou Thomopoulos
  19. Monitoring exposure to climate-related hazards: Indicator methodology and key results By Mikaël J.A. Maes; Abel Gonzales-Hishinuma; Ivan Haščič; Claire Hoffmann; Alexandre Banquet; Paolo Veneri; Alexandre Bizeul; Arnau Risquez Martin; Roberta Quadrelli
  20. Yield Effects of Agricultural Cooperative Membership in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis By Wanglin Ma; Sanghyun Hong; W. Robert Reed; Jianhua Duan; Phong Quoc Luu
  21. Integrating Climate Change and Natural Disasters in the Economic Analysis of Projects By Stephane Hallegatte; Rubaina Anjum; Paolo Avner; Ammara Shariq; Michelle Winglee; Camilla Knudsen
  22. What’s the damage? Monetizing the environmental externalities of the Dutch economy and its supply chain By Bas Smeets; Guan Schellekens; Thomas Bauwens; Harry Wilting
  23. Structural Changes in the Finnish Forest-based Sector, and Market and Employment Impacts in 2040 By Berg-Andersson, Birgitta; Kulvik, Martti; Lintunen, Jussi; Kunttu, Janni; Orfanidou, Timokleia
  24. Climate change and economic prosperity: Evidence from a flexible damage function By Rodolphe Desbordes; Markus Eberhardt
  25. Women in Agriculture Using Digital Financial Services By Panos Varangis; Juan Buchenau; Toshiaki Ono; Rachel Sberro-Kessler; Asuka Okumura
  26. Greening Trade? Environmental Provisions in Trade Agreements By Bettina Meinhart
  27. Nautical Patrol and Illegal Fishing Practices By Kastoryano, Stephen; Vollaard, Ben

  1. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Food Markets Agriculture - Food Security
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35982&r=
  2. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Agriculture & Farming Systems Agriculture - Fertilizers Agriculture - Food Markets Agriculture - Food Security Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Taxation & Subsidies
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35801&r=
  3. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Agriculture - Livestock & Animal Husbandry Environment - Water Resources Management Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Water Economics Water Resources - Water Policy & Governance
    Date: 2021–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35994&r=
  4. By: Amadou Soumaila
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35797&r=
  5. By: Innocent Nzeyimana
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35798&r=
  6. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Forestry Management Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Environment - Sustainable Land Management
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35923&r=
  7. By: Chimere O. Iheonu (Research Analyst, Kwakol, Abuja, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Ekene T. Emeka (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Ebuka C. Orjiakor (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Agriculture remains one of the major sources of livelihood in West Africa. The sector accounts for a significant share of output and employment in the sub-region. However, extreme weather events have been signaled to affect the sector’s productivity in recent times. In this study, we investigate the heterogeneous long-run relationship between climate change and agricultural productivity in West Africa from 1990 to 2020. Using the Augmented Mean Group (AMG) and the Common Correlated Effect Mean Group (CCEMG) estimators, we show that rising temperatures significantly reduce agricultural productivity in Gambia, Mali, Niger, and Togo. However, after accounting for endogeneity, we find that the negative relationship between temperature and agricultural productivity becomes insignificant for Niger while the positive relationship between rising temperature and agricultural productivity becomes significant for Ghana. Also, the results show that temperature Granger cause agricultural productivity in West Africa. We discussed some policy implications based on these findings.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Temperature, Agricultural Productivity, West Africa, Augmented Mean Group, Common Correlated Effect Mean Group
    Date: 2022–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:agd:wpaper:22/065&r=
  8. By: Elliot W. Mghenyi; Cora Dankers; James Thurlow; Chidozie Anyiro
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agribusiness Agriculture - Crops & Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Food Security Poverty Reduction - Employment and Shared Growth Rural Development - Rural Labor Markets
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35589&r=
  9. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Livestock & Animal Husbandry Environment - Carbon Policy and Trading Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Industry - Agricultural Industry
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35495&r=
  10. By: Hitomi Komatsu; Alemayehu A. Ambel; Gayatri Koolwal; Manex Bule Yonis
    Keywords: Public Sector Development - Tax Policy Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Gender - Gender and Economic Policy Gender - Gender and Rural Development Law and Development - Tax Law Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Taxation & Subsidies Rural Development - Rural Land Policies for Poverty Reduction
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:36029&r=
  11. By: Michelle Acampora; Lorenzo Casaburi; Jack Willis
    Abstract: Land market incompleteness is argued to have pervasive effects in Sub-Saharan Africa, including on agricultural efficiency, equity, and structural transformation. Yet experimental evidence on land market participation is virtually non-existent. We randomly allocate subsidies for agricultural rentals in Kenya and study who selects into land markets, what renters do differently from owners, and the resulting effects on agricultural and owner outcomes. The induced rentals increase equity - reallocating plots to farmers who own fewer plots and are younger and more market-oriented - and persist beyond the subsidy. Renters increase output and value added on the rented plot, by more than owners under an equivalent unconditional cash transfer, and they do so by increasing commercial crop cultivation and non-labor inputs, rather than labor. Although owners cultivate less land under the rental subsidy, their non-agricultural labor decreases. The results shed light on the nature and magnitude of land market frictions, and on their interactions with other missing markets.
    JEL: C93 O11 O12 O13 Q15
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30495&r=
  12. By: Gayatri Acharya; Emilie Cassou; Steven Jaffee; Elyssa Kaur Ludher
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Food Security Health, Nutrition and Population - Food & Nutrition Policy Urban Development - Urban Economic Development Urban Development - Urban Governance and Management Urban Development - Urban Services to the Poor Industry - Food & Beverage Industry
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35137&r=
  13. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Food Security Public Sector Development - Public Sector Expenditure Policy
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35811&r=
  14. By: Hamilton, Stephen; Ligon, Ethan; Shafran, Aric
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2022–09–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdl:agrebk:qt1g81h250&r=
  15. By: Jessica Denila Villanueva (UP Los Baños - University of the Philippines Los Baños); Jonathan D. Austria (UP Los Baños - University of the Philippines Los Baños); Kendrick Mico Faronilo (UP Los Baños - University of the Philippines Los Baños); Aywin Rosette Sunga-Lim (UP Los Baños - University of the Philippines Los Baños); Enrico L. Replan (UP Los Baños - University of the Philippines Los Baños); Janice B. Sevilla-Nastor (UP Los Baños - University of the Philippines Los Baños); Renante Abuyan (SLSU - Southern Luzon State University); Nicolas Peyraube (I2M - Institut de Mécanique et d'Ingénierie - UB - Université de Bordeaux - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Arts et Métiers Sciences et Technologies - HESAM - HESAM Université - Communauté d'universités et d'établissements Hautes écoles Sorbonne Arts et métiers université)
    Abstract: The alarming presence of COVID-19 challenged the United Nations' (UN) Sustainable Development Goal 2 and made the World Health Organization (WHO) declare a public health emergency of international concern. Imposed lockdowns disrupted the supply and demand chain of the food systems, hence affecting food security. This research would like to know and assess the early effect (two months after the lockdown) of the enhanced community quarantine on food security in the Philippines. An online survey was employed participated by 331 household representatives using a survey instrument containing food security assessment, household socio- demographic characteristics, behavioral responses covering food purchase and consumption behavior, and emergency measure adoption. Statistical tests were applied: Mann-Whitney U test to know the behavioral response of the food secure vs. food insecure households, as well as the phi coefficient and Cramer's V test to determine and assess the parameters that plays important role in food security during this period. Results showed that 73% of the respondents were food insecure. The early effect of the lockdown was seen in the behavioral responses, significant differences between food secure and insecure households were found in age, income, and food purchase behavior. Parameters associated with food security are age, income, food allocation, expectations on the livelihood impact and change in expenditure, and the adoption motivations in practicing backyard gardening. The stress evaluation revealed that while Filipinos tried to cope, an increased level of anxiety was experienced. The need for clear measures in terms of preparedness in any pandemic situation was heightened. These findings are significant in providing benchmark information on food security during a pandemic.
    Keywords: backyard gardening,COVID-19 pandemic,food security,Philippines,purchase behavior,stress evaluation
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03775378&r=
  16. By: Ernesto Sánchez-Triana
    Keywords: Environment - Environmental Disasters & Degradation Environment - Environmental Economics & Policies Environment - Environmental Governance Environment - Environmental Management Environment - Environmental Protection Environment - Natural Resources Management Environment - Pollution Management & Control Environment - Sustainable Land Management Environment - Water Resources Management
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:36266&r=
  17. By: Bruno Conte
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impacts of climate change in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) on migration and other economic outcomes. I develop a quantitative spatial model that captures the role of trade networks, migration barriers, and agricultural yields on the geography of the economy. I combine the model with forecasts of future crop yields to find that climate change, by the end of the century, reduces SSA real GDP per capita by 1.8 percent and displaces 4 million individuals. Migration barriers in SSA are very stringent: if absent, climate-induced migration exceeds 100 million individuals. Still, migration and trade are powerful adaptation mechanisms. Reducing migration barriers to the European Union (EU) standards eliminates the aggregate economic losses of climate change in SSA, but at the cost of more climate migration and higher regional inequality. Also reducing trade frictions to the EU levels attenuates this cost and makes SSA better off on aggregate and distributional terms.
    Keywords: climate change, migration, economic geography
    JEL: O15 Q54 R12
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9948&r=
  18. By: Romy Lynn Chaib (UMR ITAP - Information – Technologies – Analyse Environnementale – Procédés Agricoles - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Catherine Macombe (UMR ITAP - Information – Technologies – Analyse Environnementale – Procédés Agricoles - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Rallou Thomopoulos (UMR IATE - Ingénierie des Agro-polymères et Technologies Émergentes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Prospective methods, in their various forms, have been used to anticipate the possible evolutions of a studied system since the 50's. The so-called "scenario method" introduced by Godet is a French prospective way which provides a formal scenario-building model based on interactions with chosen prospects; it has proven to be efficient in many fields. This method was typically used for the pork value-chain in the 80's, then in 2021, in independent studies. The process itself changed over the years, and so did its application. In this paper we discuss the differences of application of the Godet method in the 80's and today. We then indicate the results obtained by applying the Godet method to the pork-value-chain then and now: we complete the analysis by showing that even though some key determinants remained unchanged, other key determinants are proper to the current value-chain.
    Keywords: Prospective methods,Godet method,Comparison of models,Pork value-chain,Scenarios,Key variables
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03770738&r=
  19. By: Mikaël J.A. Maes (OECD); Abel Gonzales-Hishinuma (OECD); Ivan Haščič (OECD); Claire Hoffmann (OECD); Alexandre Banquet (OECD); Paolo Veneri (OECD); Alexandre Bizeul (International Energy Agency); Arnau Risquez Martin (International Energy Agency); Roberta Quadrelli (International Energy Agency)
    Abstract: This paper supports countries in understanding the potential impact of climate-related natural hazards by assessing the exposure of people and assets to these hazards. It develops indicators of climate-related hazards and exposures for seven hazard types (extreme temperature, extreme precipitation, drought, wildfire, wind threats, river flooding and coastal flooding) and four exposure variables (cropland, forests, urban areas and population density). The paper presents the associated methodologies and discusses the global geospatial datasets used to construct the indicators. It shows that it is possible to develop exposure indicators for climate-related hazards with a global geographic coverage at the national and subnational levels. The results, presented for 52 IPAC countries, suggest that all countries are exposed to one or more climate-related natural hazards, but with significant differences in the occurrence and intensity of such hazards. The empirical evidence presented here points to the urgency to take strong climate change mitigation measures. It also highlights the need to accelerate efforts towards the global goal on adaptation to strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change in the context of the Paris Agreement.
    JEL: Q15 Q2 Q54 R11
    Date: 2022–10–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:envaaa:201-en&r=
  20. By: Wanglin Ma; Sanghyun Hong (University of Canterbury); W. Robert Reed (University of Canterbury); Jianhua Duan; Phong Quoc Luu
    Abstract: This study uses a meta-analysis to synthesize the effects of agricultural cooperative membership on the yield of crops and livestock. It collects 158 estimated yield effects from 42 studies, covering 19 developing countries. Our analysis finds evidence that there exists positive publication bias in the empirical literature, confirming that researchers and journals have a preference to publish articles that report positive and significant results. After correcting for publication bias, we find that cooperative membership has a small-sized and insignificant effect on the yield. The meta-regression analysis reveals that variation in the reported yield effects can be largely explained by the study attributes such as the sample type (full sample vs. subsample), membership ratio, econometric approaches (instrumental-variable based parametric approach, non-parametric approach or ordinary least square regression), effect size types (average treatment effects on the treated, average treatment effects, or coefficient), agro-product type (grain or others), and climate zones (tropical or non-tropical).
    Keywords: Cooperative membership; Yield effects; Meta-analysis; Developing countries
    JEL: J54 Q12
    Date: 2022–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cbt:econwp:22/15&r=
  21. By: Stephane Hallegatte; Rubaina Anjum; Paolo Avner; Ammara Shariq; Michelle Winglee; Camilla Knudsen
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Impacts Environment - Coastal and Marine Environment Environment - Drylands & Desertification Environment - Environmental Economics & Policies Environment - Forests and Forestry Environment - Natural Disasters Environment - Water Resources Management
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35751&r=
  22. By: Bas Smeets; Guan Schellekens; Thomas Bauwens; Harry Wilting
    Abstract: The environmental externalities of economic activities, such as anthropogenic climate change and pollution, have major social, environmental and economic consequences. Monetary valuation of these externalities is a widely acclaimed approach to better account for them in economic decisions, as it provides an appropriate price level for charging a Pigouvian tax. Yet, little research exists on the monetary valuation of the environmental externalities associated with Dutch economic activities and the impact of pricing them on the profitability of different sectors. To address this gap, this paper estimates the monetary value of 30 environmental externalities associated with the activities of 13 sectors and 163 subsectors for the year 2015, based on a global environmentally extended input-output model. It then compares these environmental costs with the financial performance of the sectors to provide an appraisal of potential profit at risk. The findings show that total environmental damage costs associated with the Dutch economy amount to EUR 50 Bn or 7.3% of Dutch GDP in 2015. They also demonstrate that some sectors (energy production, waste and sewage treatment, manufacturing, transport and agriculture) do not generate sufficient profit to cover their natural resource use and pollution costs. These sectors are particularly exposed to the transition risks associated with the internalization of these costs through, for instance, taxation or stricter regulation. It is especially important for financial institutions to be aware of the presence of these risks. The analysis within this research could help to introduce and improve standards and systems, including relevant regulations aimed at internalizing the external costs of production, extraction and consumption. Moreover, these tools can also support financial institutions to inform their heat mapping exercises, the assessment of materiality and/or measurement of environmental transition risks more broadly.
    Keywords: Externalities, Environment; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies; Valuation of Environmental Effects; Environmental Accounts and Accounting
    JEL: H23 F64 Q51 Q56
    Date: 2021–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dnb:dnbwpp:719&r=
  23. By: Berg-Andersson, Birgitta; Kulvik, Martti; Lintunen, Jussi; Kunttu, Janni; Orfanidou, Timokleia
    Abstract: Abstract Forests can be seen as a source of wood raw material and bioenergy, a recreational area with health benefits, a carbon sink, and a source of biodiversity. This report examines how different shifts in perceptions and in the wider forest sector environment affect forest sector production, wood use, and the development of workforce skills needs. The forward-looking analysis is based on a projection up to 2026 and scenario work up to 2040. Combined with today’s views on changes in forest ownership and management practices, technological developments and policy measures already agreed and planned, the foresight work creates a broad vision of the future of the forest sector. Although the outlook for the forest-based industries is relatively stable for the coming years, significant changes are foreseen by 2040. Changes in forestry will be driven by changes in forest management practices and forest ownership, climate and biodiversity targets for land use, and changes in the risk of natural disturbances due to climate change. In production, development paths depend more strongly on how society, and hence demand for final products, evolves. Value added in the forest industry can increase, in particular if the by-products of production can be diverted from energy production to high value-added products. This development will be limited by the energy needs of the production processes themselves, which will have to be met by other means if the energy from the by-products is abandoned in significant quantities. Supplementary-material
    Keywords: Scenarios, Foresight, Forest sector, Wood uses, Forest management practices
    JEL: L73 C53 P18
    Date: 2022–09–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rif:report:131&r=
  24. By: Rodolphe Desbordes; Markus Eberhardt
    Abstract: The climate damage function used to assess the economic impact of secular changes in temperature and precipitation is one of the most speculative components of integrated assessment models of climate change. Whether detrimental effects of temperature change on economic prosperity are most significant for countries with low incomes or those with high temperatures is still an unresolved question in the literature, while changes in precipitation are widely regarded as not having any significant productivity effects. Existing work informing this debate is based on pooled empirical models incorporating simple interaction terms with ‘low income’ or ‘high temperature’, which further give little regard to long-term dynamics. We use aggregate and agricultural data for 154 countries over the past six decades to estimate dynamic heterogeneous models which (a) allow the weather-output nexus to differ freely across countries, (b) help distinguish short-run from long-run effects, and (c) account for unobserved time-varying heterogeneity. Our preferred specifications suggest that a temporary (permanent) 1?C rise in temperature is associated with a reduction in income per capita of 1.3% (14%) in high-temperature countries, with the long-run effects substantially larger than those commonly suggested in the literature. We find weaker differential effects by income-group. We further highlight that changes in precipitation levels can influence short-run and long-run agricultural output per worker in high-temperature or low-income countries, albeit to a very modest extent.
    Keywords: temperature, weather, climate change, economic development, economic growth
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:not:notgep:2022-06&r=
  25. By: Panos Varangis; Juan Buchenau; Toshiaki Ono; Rachel Sberro-Kessler; Asuka Okumura
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Access to Finance Finance and Financial Sector Development - E-Finance and E-Security Finance and Financial Sector Development - Finance and Development Gender - Gender and Development Gender - Gender and Rural Development Poverty Reduction - Inequality Rural Development - Agricultural Growth and Rural Development Rural Development - Rural Microfinance and SMEs
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:35471&r=
  26. By: Bettina Meinhart
    Abstract: International climate targets have far-reaching implications for all areas of the economy and life, including trade policy. To reach the target of the Paris Agreement, it may be necessary to link trade and environmental policy, whereby one way of linking the two policy areas is to include environmental provisions (EPs) in trade agreements. Several motives for including environmental concerns in trade agreements exist, ranging from promoting environmental cooperation and ensuring a level playing field to pursuing protectionist interests. In principle, the inclusion of environmental aspects is not a new development. Since the 1990s, EPs have been frequently integrated into trade agreements, for example on issues such as hazardous waste, deforestation or biodiversity protection. In recent years, as climate initiatives have gained prominence at the EU level, the number of EPs in trade agreements has steadily increased. Thereby, the inclusion of these concerns is very heterogeneous in terms of the subject matter and enforceability. A closer look at the enforceability indicator is crucial, because if EPs are not legally enforceable, addressing environmental concerns may not have an impact on trade and the environment. The European Commission is aware of this issue and therefore published the review of its policy chapter on trade and sustainable development in June 2022. This identifies how the contribution of EU trade agreements to promoting environmental protection can be improved, mentioning, among other actions, the strengthening of enforcement through trade sanctions as a last resort. Whether the current changes are effective in terms of environmental and trade impacts will be seen in further research.
    Date: 2022–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wsr:pbrief:y:2022:i:055&r=
  27. By: Kastoryano, Stephen (University of Reading); Vollaard, Ben (Tilburg University)
    Abstract: We uncover a hidden illegal fishing practice: the use of fishing nets with illegally small mesh size. The small mesh prevents nearly all fish of saleable size from escaping the net, but also traps a large number of fish which are too small to be sold on the market and are therefore discarded at sea. Our approach relies on readily available data on reported fish landings rather than on data from inspections, which are rare, and which tend to be anticipated by fishermen. We focus on bottom trawling, the world's most widely used fishing method. We exploit the fact that using illegally small mesh size strongly increases the share of small fish in the catch. Using quasi-random variation in nautical patrol as a source of variation in the incentive to comply, we show that in weeks without patrol the share of small fish in the landed catch is systematically larger than in adjacent weeks with patrol. Our results are in line with widespread use of illegally small mesh.
    Keywords: enforcement, regulation, environmental economics, fisheries
    JEL: D22 K42 Q22
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp15543&r=

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