nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒09‒19
34 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Structure of the USDA Livestock and Poultry Baseline Model By Maples, William E.; Brorsen, B. Wade; Hahn, William; MacLachlan, Matthew; Chalise, Lekhnath
  2. Synopsis: Rural household welfare in Papua New Guinea: Food security and nutrition challenges By Schmidt, Emily; Fang, Peixun; Mahrt, Kristi
  3. Integrated modelling approaches for sustainable agri-economic growth and environmental improvement: Examples from Canada, Greece, and Ireland By Jorge A. Garcia; Angelos Alamanos
  4. Intervention on biofuels and the Japan WTO rice stock to stabilise world food prices By Franck Galtier
  5. USDA Conservation Technical Assistance and Within-Field Resource Concerns By Rosenberg, Andrew B.; Wallander, Steven
  6. Quantifying Consumer Welfare Impacts of Higher Meat Prices During the COVID-19 Pandemic By Dong, Diansheng; Stewart, Hayden; Dong, Xiao; Hahn, William
  7. The Philippines: Impacts of the Ukraine and global crises on poverty and food security By Diao, Xinshen; Dorosh, Paul A.; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James; Pradesha, Angga
  8. Egypt: Impacts of the Ukraine and global crises on poverty and food security By Diao, Xinshen; Abdelradi, Fadi; Abay, Kibrom A.; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Raouf, Mariam; Thurlow, James
  9. COVID-19 Working Paper: Food Insecurity During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Four African Countries By Bloem, Jeffrey; Michler, Jeffrey D.; Josephson, Anna; Rudin-Rush, Lorin
  10. Sustainable Food System in Southeast Asia Under and Beyond COVID-19 Policy Evidence and Call for Action a Conference Synthesis By Bhadrakom, Chayada; Boughton, Duncan; Kitchaicharoen, Jirawan; Napasintuwong, Orachos; Saiyut, Pakapon; Satsue, Palakorn; Punjatewakupt, Piyawong; Suebpongsang, Pornsiri; Yotapakdee, Teeka; Satimanon, Thasanee
  11. Intensive and extensive impacts of EU subsidies on pesticide expenditures at the farm level By Magali Aubert; Geoffroy Enjolras
  12. System Dynamics modelling and Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Areas: A literature review By Alberto Gabino Martínez-Hernández
  13. The Food and Nutrition Assistance Landscape: Fiscal Year 2021 Annual Report By Jones, Jordan W.; Toossi, Saied; Hodges, Leslie
  14. Cover Practice Definitions and Incentives in the Conservation Reserve Program By Pratt, Bryan; Wallander, Steven
  15. COVID-19 Working Paper: Single Commodity Export Dependence and the Impacts of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa By Gerval, Adam; Hansen, James
  16. The unequal distribution of water risks and adaptation benefits in coastal Bangladesh By Barbour, Emily J.; Sarfaraz Gani Adnan, Mohammed; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Paprocki, Kasia; Shah Alam Khan, M.; Salehin, Mashfiqus; W. Hall, Jim
  17. Extensive and Improved Traditional Poultry Farming in Togo: A Comparative Analysis of Socioeconomic Characteristics of Farmers By Mawussi Kossivi Soviadan; Anselm Anibueze Enete; Chukwuemeka Uzoma Okoye; Kossivi Fabrice Dossa
  18. Where does the CAP money go? Design and priorities of the draft CAP Strategic Plans 2023-2027 By Becker, Stefan; Grajewski, Regina; Rehburg, Pia
  19. Synopsis: Implications of public investments and external shocks on agriculture, economic growth and poverty in Papua New Guinea: An economywide analysis By Dorosh, Paul A.; Pradesha, Angga
  20. The perversion of public land distribution by landed elites: power, inequality and development in Colombia By Faguet, Jean-Paul; Sanchez, Fabio; Villaveces, Marta-Juanita
  21. Technological developments to address climate change in South Technological developments to address climate change in South Africa and their potential economic impacts By Jarrad Wright
  22. Utilization Pattern of PM-KISAN Benefits By H, Gopi; K B, Rangappa
  23. Quels enjeux socioéconomiques pour une alimentation durable ?, AgroParisTech By Pierre Levasseur
  24. Environmental Policies Benefit Economic Development: Implications of Economic Geography By Seth Morgan; Alexander Pfaff; Julien Wolfersberger
  25. Assessing the Use of Land as Collateral for Accessing Credit from Institutional Sources in Rural India By Prerna Prabhakar; Nishika Pal; Deepak Sanan; Somnath Sen
  26. Economic impact assessment of public incentives to support farm-to-school food purchases By Krasnoff, Shayna; Schmit, Todd M.; Bilinski, Cheryl B.
  27. Rolling out of agro-ecology practices in Lukudzi Section, Ntcheu, Malawi: A case study By Kabambe, Vernon H; Chamdimba, Bridget; Phiri, Jechner
  28. Livestock, livestock products, and fish, April 2022 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  29. Globalized system of market production in crisis. Global warming, rare earths, GAFAM, economic war By Jacques Fontanel
  30. Market heterogeneity and the distributional incidence of soft-drink taxes: evidence from France By Fabrice Etilé; Sébastien Lecocq; Christine Boizot-Szantai
  31. Economic Globalisation and Inclusive Green Growth in Africa: Contingencies and Policy-Relevant Thresholds of Governance By Isaac K. Ofori; Francesco Figari
  32. Supplement to Adjusting to Higher Labor Costs in Selected U.S. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Industries: Case Studies By Calvin, Linda; Martin, Philip; Simnitt, Skyler
  33. Ask a local: Improving the public pricing of land titles in urban Tanzania By Tanner Regan; Martina Manara
  34. Can Information and Communication Technology and Institutional Quality help mitigate climate change in E7 economies? An Environmental Kuznets Curve extension By Bright A. Gyamfi; Asiedu B. Ampomah; Festus V. Bekun; Simplice A. Asongu

  1. By: Maples, William E.; Brorsen, B. Wade; Hahn, William; MacLachlan, Matthew; Chalise, Lekhnath
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) produces annual 10-year projections for the food and agriculture sector that cover major agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregated indicators of the U.S. farm sector. These projections are published in an annual report, with the most recent being USDA Agricultural Projections to 2031. Also, the Economic Report of the President includes these projections and has a direct impact on policy decisions. These 10-year projections are called the “baseline.” The USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) maintains a stand-alone livestock baseline model, which characterizes the relationships among livestock production and the market conditions for related animal products for cattle/beef, hogs/pork, chicken, and turkey. This bulletin outlines the equations used to create the livestock baseline. These equations were used in the creation of the 2031 baseline report.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Production Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–02–22
  2. By: Schmidt, Emily; Fang, Peixun; Mahrt, Kristi
    Abstract: While a lot of development planning and policy attention has been dedicated to achieving dietary energy (i.e., calorie) adequacy to ensure food security and support greater household wellbeing, nutrition adequacy is also necessary to achieve improved human development indicators (e.g., improved educational attainment, decreased disease prevalence, and decreased child stunting prevalence). This study (explained in detail in the comprehensive working paper) calculates two poverty lines based on the costs that an individual faces in PNG to secure a diet consisting of foods typically consumed by poor households adjusted to align with a calorie threshold and healthy diet thresholds, respectively, together with modest non-food expenditures. Results suggest that over half of the sample households are unable to meet the necessary costs of ensuring an calorie equate modest food basket along with some basic non-food needs (Schmidt et al., 2022). Comparing the healthy diet poverty line to average household income suggests that attaining a nutritious, balanced diet while meeting other basic needs remains out of reach for nearly 4/5 of the rural sample households. Based on the study results, we identify 3 key interventions to improve food and nutrition security in vulnerable areas. First, PNG will continue to face disruptive climate events that quickly increase agricultural vulnerability and food insecurity in remote areas with limited market access and underdeveloped support services. The government of PNG in collaboration with development partners should pilot a series of social safety net programs that can assist vulnerable populations. These programs can be designed to build resiliency during non-shock seasons or years, such as improving livestock holdings, diversifying crop mix, investing in sustainable land management, and building agricultural production and other rural infrastructure for improved marketing and access to agricultural inputs. Second, a concerted effort is needed to promote the importance of nutrition at all levels of society. At the household level, training should aim to instill (for both men and women) the value of a costlier, but more nutritious diet. District and regional government officials, healthcare workers and other key stakeholders should be trained on methodologies to integrate nutrition programming into other development activities. High-level government dialogue and learning should aim to encourage greater coordination between local and federal government officials and across government departments to ensure improved nutrition outcomes for greater agricultural productivity and economic growth. Finally, PNG (both government and development partners) must invest in more timely data collection of key welfare indicators to inform nutrition targets and assistance programming.
    Keywords: PAPUA NEW GUINEA; OCEANIA; food security; nutrition; household consumption; human health; recommended nutrient intake; pverty lines; poverty reduction; energy consumption; diet; developing countries
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Jorge A. Garcia; Angelos Alamanos
    Abstract: Complex agricultural problems concern many countries, as the economic motives are increasingly higher, and at the same time the consequences from the irrational resources use and emissions are becoming more evident. In this work we study three of the most common agricultural problems and model them through optimization techniques, showing ways to assess conflicting objectives together as a system and provide overall optimum solutions. The studied problems refer to: i) a water-scarce area with overexploited surface and groundwater resources due to over-pumping for irrigation (Central Greece), ii) a water-abundant area with issues of water quality deterioration caused by agriculture (Southern Ontario, Canada), iii) and a case of intensified agriculture based on animal farming that causes issues of water, soil quality degradation, and increased greenhouse gases emissions (Central Ireland). Linear, non-linear, and Goal Programming optimization techniques have been developed and applied for each case to maximize farmers welfare, make a less intensive use of environmental resources, and control the emission of pollutants. The proposed approaches and their solutions are novel applications for each case-study, compared to the existing literature and practice. Furthermore, they provide useful insights for most countries facing similar problems, they are easily applicable, and developed and solved in publicly available tools such as Python.
    Date: 2022–08
  4. By: Franck Galtier (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: On international markets, prices of grains (wheat, maize) and vegetable oils (rapeseed, sunflower, soybean, palm) have been rising since mid-2020. Biofuels play a major part in this increase, and the war in Ukraine, which began in February 2022, has exacerbated it. Biofuels in fact link the price of these commodities to that of crude oil: when the crude oil price rises, the biofuels industry increases its demand for maize and vegetable oils. Temporarily limiting this industrial usage would reduce the price of these commodities. Moreover, in case of an increase in rice prices, one solution would be to authorise Japan to export the rice stock it has built up under World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. In order to prevent future crises, these two levers could be activated as soon as world prices of these agricultural commodities reach predetermined levels.
    Keywords: Price,price stabilisation,price policy,food product,grain,wheat,maize,rice,vegetable oil,rapeseed oil,sunflower oil,palm oil,soybean oil,crude oil,biofuel,fossil fuels,economic crisis,food security,domestic market,world market,food stock,WTO,Africa,United States,world,developed country,developing country,Russia,Ukraine,European Union countries
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Rosenberg, Andrew B.; Wallander, Steven
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Conservation Technical Assistance (CTA) program provides conservation planning and field-level assessments of conservation strategies, partnering with a network of county field offices, conservation districts, and State agencies. The CTA program supports these efforts with more than $700 million per year in Federal funding. A similar amount of technical assistance funding is provided to directly support the planning required to enroll land in the USDA’s working lands programs, such as the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and the Conservation Stewardship Program (USDA, Office of Budget and Program Analysis, 2019). The CTA program and the working lands programs help reduce soil erosion, improve water quality conditions, and address other resource conditions referred to as resource concerns. This bulletin looks at how many fields in several major commodity crops have self-reported, on-field resource concerns and whether the producers received technical assistance to address these concerns from USDA or other sources. Using field-level data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) for soybeans, wheat, oats, and cotton, the analysis focuses on within-field, predominately soil-related concerns—such as water-driven erosion, wind-driven erosion, soil compaction, poor drainage, low organic matter, within-field water quality concerns, or some other concern—that are self-reported by survey respondents. Respondents report that 49 percent of fields represented have at least one resource concern and 26 percent have multiple resource concerns. Of the fields represented with at least one concern, only 24 percent received technical assistance. Fields with three or more respondent-reported concerns are more likely to have received assistance. The largest source of assistance is the USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), but other USDA agencies, cooperative extension, and non-USDA entities also provide technical assistance. Notably, 25 percent of the fields having received technical assistance for at least one resource concern obtained assistance from multiple sources.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Production Economics
    Date: 2022–05–05
  6. By: Dong, Diansheng; Stewart, Hayden; Dong, Xiao; Hahn, William
    Abstract: While the U.S. food system has been largely able to maintain operations and provide consumers with the variety of foods they desire since the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic began, U.S. households have been facing sharply higher food prices for many staple items, especially meat. In this study, U.S. households’ meat purchases at retail stores for at-home consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic are examined and compared with those before the virus outbreak. A demand model is estimated using data collected during 2019 and 2020 on households’ purchases of beef, pork, poultry, and other meats (mainly lamb and mutton) at retail stores. Results show that households spent more on meat for at-home consumption during 2020. This increase in expenditures reflects both higher retail food prices—which other research attributes to pandemic-related supply chain problems—and higher quantities purchased that offset reductions in meat consumption at restaurants and other foodservice facilities. Although U.S. households maintained their overall level of meat consumption during 2020, higher prices for meat at retail food stores still reduced their welfare. Those losses were higher during the spring and summer of 2020 and peaked in June 2020, with U.S. households’ monthly welfare down by $24.51 per household during that month due to higher prices for meats in general. Higher prices for beef, pork, and poultry accounted for $8.30, $7.07, and $8.18, respectively, of that total. In December 2020, households’ monthly welfare loss was $6.19 per household with higher prices for beef, pork, and poultry accounting for $2.44, $1.54, and $1.89, respectively.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Financial Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Public Economics
    Date: 2022–04–28
  7. By: Diao, Xinshen; Dorosh, Paul A.; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James; Pradesha, Angga
    Abstract: Global food, fuel, and fertilizer prices have risen rapidly in recent months, driven in large part by the fallout from the ongoing war in Ukraine and the sanctions imposed on Russia. Other factors, such as export bans, have also contributed to rising prices. Palm oil and wheat prices increased by 56 and 100 percent in real terms, respectively, between June 2021 and April 2022, with most of the increase occurring since February (Figure 1). Wide variation exists across products, with real maize prices increasing by only 11 percent and rice prices declining by 13 percent. The price of crude oil and natural gas has also risen substantially, while the weighted average price of fertilizer has doubled. With these changes in global prices, many developing countries and their development partners are concerned about the implications for economic stability, food security, and poverty.
    Keywords: PHILIPPINES, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, Ukraine, poverty, food security, armed conflicts, crises, prices, shock, agrifood systems, equality, diet, commodities, fertilizers
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Diao, Xinshen; Abdelradi, Fadi; Abay, Kibrom A.; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Raouf, Mariam; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: Global food, fuel, and fertilizer prices have witnessed rapid and significant increase in recent months, driven largely by the fallout from the ongoing war in Ukraine and associated sanctions im-posed on Russia. Other factors, including governments’ responses and export bans, have also con-tributed to rising prices (Laborde and Mamun 2022). Palm oil and wheat prices increased by 56 and 100 percent in real terms, respectively, between June 2021 and April 2022, with most of the in-crease occurring since February 2022.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, poverty, food security, armed conflicts, crises, prices, shock, agrifood systems, equality, diet
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Bloem, Jeffrey; Michler, Jeffrey D.; Josephson, Anna; Rudin-Rush, Lorin
    Abstract: This report analyzes trends in food security up to one year after the onset of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in four African countries. Using household-level data collected by the World Bank, this report shows differences in food security over time during the pandemic between rural and urban areas as well as between female- and male-headed households in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. Analysis of data collected during the pandemic shows a sharp increase in food insecurity in the early months of the pandemic with a subsequent gradual decline. Additionally, this report finds that a larger increase in food insecurity occurred in rural areas relative to urban areas within each of these countries. Finally, the authors found no systemic difference in food insecurity between female-headed and male-headed households. These trends, documented amid the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, complement previous microeconomic analyses studying short-term changes in food security associated with the pandemic and macroeconomic projections based on expected changes to income, prices, and food supply.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Financial Economics, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Public Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–07–07
  10. By: Bhadrakom, Chayada; Boughton, Duncan; Kitchaicharoen, Jirawan; Napasintuwong, Orachos; Saiyut, Pakapon; Satsue, Palakorn; Punjatewakupt, Piyawong; Suebpongsang, Pornsiri; Yotapakdee, Teeka; Satimanon, Thasanee
    Abstract: The conference focused on the key role of research evidence for the design of policy and institutional innovations that accelerate the transformation to healthier, more sustainable, equitable, and resilient food systems. Research offers many important contributions to achieve the SDGs. It generates the basic inputs for innovations, i.e. policy and institutional innovations (incl. social and business innovations) as well as technology-based innovations to catalyze, support, and accelerate food systems transformation. Second, research assesses targets and actions by understanding the impliciations of various development pathways (for instance through quantitative analyses and food systems modeling) as well as assessing impacts ex-post to ensure learning and corrective measures. Taking a food systems approach that draws on expertise and evidence from different research disciplines is necessary to understand how investments and choices in food production, distribution, processing, and consumption determine outcomes related to nutrition, food security, socio-economic welfare, and environmental health. The conference demonstrated that high quality evidence is available even if there are still important gaps that need to be filled. The human and organizational capacity to generate evidence and innovation is also available if we can mobilize the financial resources and regional collaboration to address them. Of course, we must also use evidence to accelerate positive change. This is an important part of the “call to action” of this conference.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–03–20
  11. By: Magali Aubert (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Geoffroy Enjolras (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: This paper studies the intensive and extensive effects of European subsidies on pesticide expenditures at the farm level. Intensive effects refer to the relative value of pesticide expenditures to sales, while extensive effects consider acreage effects. Our approach is original insofar as we consider the consequences of EU policies at the farm level. The analysis relies on the French Farm Accountancy Data Network database from 2007 to 2015 which provides detailed information on farm structure and accounting. The influence of subsidies on pesticide expenditures is measured through a simultaneous equation model using panel data. Even if the aggregate value of EU subsidies does not seem to influence pesticide expenditures, each of the pillars has for its part a significant influence: the 1st pillar contributes to increasing pesticide expenditures, while the 2nd pillar leads to decreasing pesticide expenditures, except for subsidies to crop insurance policies. Overall subsidies and subsidies from the 1st pillar have also a significant and positive impact on farm acreage. The very contrasting effect of European subsidies on pesticide expenditures thus questions the effectiveness of public policies towards the issue of environmentally friendly practices.
    Keywords: Pesticides,EU subsidies,FADN,France
    Date: 2022
  12. By: Alberto Gabino Martínez-Hernández (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: Climate change impacts in coastal areas (CA) have exposed coastal ecosystems to unprecedented conditions. System dynamic modelling (SD) has been used as a powerful tool to improve climate change adaptation (CCA) strategies. However, until now there are no review papers that summarize how academic literature that employs SD modelling has addressed CCA in CA. Hence, the main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the state of the art of this field. A systematic literature review was chosen as the main method of analysis, which was complemented with a bibliometric analysis and a categorization of the main contents of the papers selected. Our results suggest that the literature is clustered in three groups: physical or social impacts, water and agriculture management, as well as ecosystem services. Following the classification of key representative risks (KRK) of the IPCC, some topics have been addressed more than others. Most papers focus on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) compared to adaptation to slow onset hazards. Besides, research in developing countries remains scarce, except for the case of Vietnam. One group of models seem to be in an advanced stage or abstract enough to be applied in other areas, whereas another group is better suited for local modelling. Quantitative SD modelling has been preferred compared to qualitative or mixed approaches. Finally, Stella and Vensim seem to be the most popular platforms to run simulations.
    Keywords: Climate change adaptation, Coastal areas, System dynamics modelling, Environmental modelling, Literature review
    JEL: C61 C63 Q54
    Date: 2022–08
  13. By: Jones, Jordan W.; Toossi, Saied; Hodges, Leslie
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers 15 domestic food and nutrition assistance programs that together affect the lives of millions of people and account for roughly two-thirds of USDA’s annual budget. In response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, USDA launched additional temporary programs and implemented numerous policy changes that expanded the scope and coverage of existing programs. Together, these initiatives contributed to higher spending on food and nutrition assistance programs in fiscal year (FY) 2021 (October 1, 2020, to September 30, 2021), which amounted to a historic high of $182.5 billion. This report uses preliminary data from USDA, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) and USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) to examine program trends and policy changes in USDA’s largest U.S. food and nutrition assistance programs through FY 2021. It also summarizes a recent USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS) report examining the prevalence of household food insecurity in the United States in 2020 and a working paper examining the expansion of free meal sites targeting children in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Financial Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy, Political Economy, Public Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–06–22
  14. By: Pratt, Bryan; Wallander, Steven
    Abstract: The environmental benefits of the USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) depend on both the environmental sensitivity of land enrolled and the conservation covers selected for that land. The CRP’s General Signup, which enrolls the majority of program acreage, uses a combination of competitive pressure and cost sharing to encourage higher quality conservation covers. In this report, we examine recent data obtained for General Signups 45, 49, and 54 (implemented in 2013, 2016, and 2020, respectively) to understand offer value and cost-share payments for cover choices. The findings in the report include identifying the most common practice choices, reporting on the average practice cost paid by the participants and USDA, how the participant's choice of cover practice responds to these costs and the incentive points associated with practices. We use our empirical results and a simple conceptual model to describe the implications of policy changes that would adjust the ranking or financial incentives to select higher quality conservation covers. The report presents evidence to suggest that the costs of cover practices—and related policy levers—impact producers decisions and, by extension, program outcomes.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–02–23
  15. By: Gerval, Adam; Hansen, James
    Abstract: As recent trade disputes have led the United States to broaden export markets, the macroeconomic and developmental characteristics of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ostensibly indicate the region will likely be a destination for U.S. agricultural exports in upcoming years. However, many of these characteristics are symptomatic of the economic development struggles prevalent in the region, which present significant challenges to sustained development. Trade in high-value commodities, for example, may offer economic growth, but the benefits are not necessarily diffused throughout the broader economy. Serving as the primary source for economic growth, foreign exchange, and export revenue, exports of high-value commodities can create terms-of-trade shocks during periods of significant fluctuations in international prices. This can limit a country’s ability to trade effectively and alter trade flows due to the resultant depreciating exchange rate. The current Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis has created such a period of intense price volatility, offering a unique opportunity for modeling potential effects of a global shock on trade with these nations. This working paper illuminates the impact that this volatility can have on U.S. agricultural product export values to SSA. By simulating the effects of declining oil prices in 2020 and subsequent years through a shock to gross domestic product (GDP) in oil-dependent nations—i.e., Angola and Nigeria—we can evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on agricultural trade for key U.S. export commodities to SSA.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Financial Economics, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–05–19
  16. By: Barbour, Emily J.; Sarfaraz Gani Adnan, Mohammed; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Paprocki, Kasia; Shah Alam Khan, M.; Salehin, Mashfiqus; W. Hall, Jim
    Abstract: Increasing flood risk, salinization and waterlogging threaten the lives and livelihoods of more than 35 million people in Bangladesh’s coastal zone. While planning models have long been used to inform investments in water infrastructure, they frequently overlook interacting risks, impacts on the poor and local context. We address this gap by developing and applying a stochastic-optimization model to simulate the impact of flood embankment investments on the distribution of agricultural incomes across income groups for six diverse polders (embanked areas) in coastal Bangladesh. Results show that increasing salinity and waterlogging negate the benefits of embankment rehabilitation in improving agricultural production while improved drainage can alleviate these impacts. Outcomes vary across income groups, with risks of crop loss being greatest for the poor. We discuss the need for planning models to consider the interacting benefits and risks of infrastructure investments within a local political economy to better inform coastal adaptation decisions.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–04–01
  17. By: Mawussi Kossivi Soviadan (Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN), Center for Development Research (ZEF) - Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn); Anselm Anibueze Enete (Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN)); Chukwuemeka Uzoma Okoye (Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN)); Kossivi Fabrice Dossa (Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN))
    Abstract: Since 2014, the Agricultural Sector Support Project (PASA) has been assisting smallholder farmers in Togo with the adoption of Improved Traditional Poultry Farming Technique (ITPFT) in rural areas for wealth creation, food security and poverty alleviation. This paper focuses on comparing the socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of PASA subsidies. Both random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 400 farmers. The sample consisted of 86 project beneficiaries and 314 non-beneficiaries. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. Results of analysis indicated that there is a significant difference in socioeconomic variables such as self-financing capacity, level of education, membership in cooperative societies, household size, farm size, and annual sale of poultry between project beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries prior to the implementation of PASA. Descriptive statistics show that five years after the implementation of PASA, the annual poultry sales per farmer ranged from 0 to 1700 birds for beneficiaries and from 9 to 200 birds for non-beneficiaries. The turnover per farmer ranged from US$ 0 to US$ 42409 and from US$ 33 to US$ 996 for beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries, respectively. The profit per farmer ranged from US$ 0 to US$ 25446 for beneficiaries and from US$ 26 to US$ 797 for non-beneficiaries. The magnitude of the standard deviations of the potential outcome variables among beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries suggests that adoption rates of ITPFT may vary from one farmer to another. As a result, compared to non-beneficiaries, beneficiaries experienced a greater increase in potential outcomes five years after the implementation of PASA. Failure to comply with improved production technique on certain farms, despite receiving subsidies, is a factor that could negatively impact the effective, efficient, and optimal achievement of the project's expected results. Further research will concentrate on determining the added value of PASA through the use of appropriate and thorough econometric adoption and impact assessment methods.
    Keywords: Traditional Poultry Farming,PASA,Government Subsidies,Improved Production Technique,Comparative Analysis,Socioeconomic Characteristics,Togo
    Date: 2021–10–31
  18. By: Becker, Stefan; Grajewski, Regina; Rehburg, Pia
    Abstract: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2023-2027 is implemented through national strategic plans. This paper examines the strategic plans submitted for approval, analysing their financial priorities to identify commonalities, differences and overarching patterns of national CAP implementation. It aims to provide general orientation on the new funding period as well as starting points for further studies. The paper shows that the member states use the discretion granted in the Strategic Plan Regulation in various ways. Despite common goals and funding guidelines, the plans show great heterogeneity. Regarding the general design, the plans differ quite vastly mainly in the reallocation of funds between the first and the second pillar or the level of contribution rates. In the first pillar, the plans not only vary in their shares of decoupled and coupled direct payments as well as the newly introduced eco-schemes; they also differ considerably in how these interventions are designed. Overall, the funds planned for eco-schemes are slightly above the prescribed minimum, while some member states are close to the maximum share of coupled direct payments. Interventions in specific sectors also vary. Some offerings are highly differentiated; however, most funds will flow into the fruit and vegetable and wine sectors. The second pillar is marked by overall continuity. Despite the eco-schemes in the first pillar, agri-environment-climate measures also remain important in the second pillar. Support for organic farming and animal welfare measures even increase slightly in relative terms. The same is true for risk management, where Italy and France make substantial use of CAP funds. Support for investments remains high, but becomes less important. More significant than the changes compared to the current funding period are national differences: The strategic plans attribute quite different importance to each of these interventions. Despite the heterogeneity, the strategic plans heavily focus on the agricultural sector; services of general interest and business development in rural areas as well as the forestry sector are only secondary. The goals primarily pertain to income, competitiveness and the environment. This pattern is also evident, albeit in a weakened form, if only the second pillar is considered. Nevertheless, the overall diversity of strategic plans is further evidence of the subsidiarity in the Common Agricultural Policy.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy,CAP strategic plans,direct payments,eco-schemes,agri-environment-climate measures,rural development,Gemeinsame Agrarpolitik,GAP-Strategiepläne,Direktzahlungen,Ökoregelungen,Agrarumwelt-und Klimamaßnahmen,Ländliche Entwicklung
    JEL: Q18 Q15
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Dorosh, Paul A.; Pradesha, Angga
    Abstract: Policy simulations utilizing an economy-wide model based on PNG national accounts and survey data highlight the importance of linkages between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors of the PNG economy. There are potentially major benefits of increased agricultural productivity for national income and urban households. To reduce rural poverty, however, transport and processing costs must be lowered, as well. Even if only half of the increase in foreign exchange earnings from the 2022 world energy price shock is absorbed into the PNG economy, the real exchange rate appreciates by 13 percent, reducing incomes from export crops. However, increased domestic demand for non-tradable crops contributes to a 10 percent income gain for the rural poor. Using a portion of increased oil and natural gas revenues to finance new investments in crop agriculture, processing and transport, provides even greater benefits by spurring real GDP growth and raising real household incomes by an additional 2 to 4 percentage points. A hypothetical carbon credit arrangement in which PNG reduces deforestation in exchange for funds used to finance cash transfers to the poorest 20 percent of both urban and rural households could raise the incomes of these groups by about 13 percent.
    Keywords: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, OCEANIA, public investment, investment, shock, agriculture, economic growth, poverty, policies, economic sectors
    Date: 2022
  20. By: Faguet, Jean-Paul; Sanchez, Fabio; Villaveces, Marta-Juanita
    Abstract: Over two centuries, Colombia transferred vast quantities of public land into private hands. Much of this process was justified publicly in terms of giving land to the landless and reducing rural poverty. And yet Colombia retains one of the highest concentrations of land ownership in the world. Why? Analyzing the period 1960-2010, we show that the effects of public land distribution across 1100+ municipalities are highly heterogeneous. Where small and medium-sized farms dominate, land distribution increased average farm size, decreased land inequality, and accelerated local development. But where land was concentrated in the hands of a rural elite, distributed land was diverted to bigger farms, resulting in fewer small and more large farms, greater plot size dispersion, and lower levels of development. We explore whether these effects flow through voter turnout, political competition, or public expenditure and taxation. Land distribution increases turnout, makes politics more competitive, and increases public service provision. But landed elites use patron-client ties to distort local policy and decision-making to their benefit. Land distribution’s secondary, institutional effects on the distribution of power outweigh its primary effects on the distribution of land.
    Keywords: land reform; public land distribution; inequality; development; Latifundia; Colombia
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020–12–01
  21. By: Jarrad Wright
    Abstract: Technological developments to address climate change in South Africa and their potential economic impacts
    Date: 2022–05–25
  22. By: H, Gopi; K B, Rangappa
    Abstract: In developing countries like India, the obstacles for development for an economy are large. Such countries' population is mainly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. It is relic, that the exploitation of landlords and zamindari systems on small and marginal farmers. Even today small and marginal farmers with small holdings are still in the need of development. Due to some market negotiations while selling their output, farmers might face loss and sometimes find difficult to debt repayment, crop diseases, floods and droughts. Because of debt issues large number of farmers have given up their lives. According to the National Crime Report of Bureau (NCRB), the number of farmer suicides in the country has plunged to 11,379 in 2016, 12,360 and 12,602 in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Therefore, to rescue and upliftment of SMFs,’ the central government of India introduced many programs among PM-KISAN Yojana is also one which provides a financial inducement to the farmers through instalments under certain duration gap, since December 1st of 2018. The scheme aims to provide financial support to the small and marginal farmers to get hold of various inputs such as crop health and appropriate yields along with farm income proportionate to the land holdings at the end of each crop. This would also protect them from falling in the clutches of moneylenders for meeting such expenses and ensure their continuance in the farming activities. As of the aim of PM-KISAN, beneficiaries have not been optimum utilization of the scheme financial assistance. So that, the present study objects to analyses the scheme benefit utilization pattern among beneficiaries in Davanagere district of Karnataka. The description of the study relates to Davanagere district particularly and that has planned to take few farmers to analyses the scheme influences on beneficiaries. The information will be collected from beneficiaries directly and will be presented through tabular representation with some analysis followed by interpretation. There are many sources even used by articles, newspapers and government publications.
    Keywords: Landlords, Zamindari system, Crop Yield, Crop Health, NCRB
    JEL: D11 D13 D14 D61 I3 I38
    Date: 2021–02–05
  23. By: Pierre Levasseur (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Date: 2022–03–08
  24. By: Seth Morgan; Alexander Pfaff; Julien Wolfersberger (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: For over a century, starting with the work of Alfred Marshall (and including in resource economics), economic geography has emphasized the productivity of dense urban agglomerations. Yet little attention goes to one key policy implication of economic geography's core mechanisms: Environmental policies can aid economic development, per se—not hurting the economy to help the environment but advancing both objectives. We review mechanisms from economic geography which imply that environmental policies can deliver such win-wins: influences upon agglomeration of long-standing natural conditions, like usable bays, which long were perceived as fixed yet now are being shifted by global environmental quality; agglomeration's effects on other influential conditions, like urban environmental quality; and the effects of rural nvironmental quality on the flows to cities of people and environmental quality. Finally, we consider a geographic policy typology in asking why society leaves money on the table by failing to promote environmental policies despite the potential win-wins that we highlight.
    Keywords: economic geography,development,environment,natural resources
    Date: 2022–10
  25. By: Prerna Prabhakar (National Council of Applied Economic Research); Nishika Pal (National Council of Applied Economic Research); Deepak Sanan (National Council of Applied Economic Research); Somnath Sen (National Council of Applied Economic Research)
    Abstract: Data on access to credit in rural India is mostly available from periodic large-scale surveys and some primary research in different parts of India. The growth of institutional sources of credit was quite dramatic during the first four decades after Independence. There appears to have been a regression since then. There is some evidence to show that land as collateral is a frequent requirement for institutional lenders. There is also some scattered evidence that land is more likely to be used as collateral by larger landholders and a clear title favours extension of loans. However, there is very little data on the extent to which these hypotheses hold well across States. Textual records [copies of Record of Rights (RoRs)] gathered for the construction of the NCAER Land Records and Services Index (N-LRSI) 2020 offered an opportunity to understand the situation in different States with respect to the issues mentioned above. This paper assesses the data gathered for six Indian States/Union Territories (UTs): Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. The paper highlights the extent to which various hypotheses prevalent in the literature are borne out by the evidence obtained through the sample data gathered for the States/UTs that are the subject of this paper. While adding to the knowledge on the subject, it will help enhance an understanding of both the subject and policy making in the area of rural credit
    Keywords: : Collateral, Credit, Land Records, RoRs, N-LRSI, Joint ownership, Khatas, Khasras, Landholding
    Date: 2022–08–03
  26. By: Krasnoff, Shayna; Schmit, Todd M.; Bilinski, Cheryl B.
    Abstract: Farm-to-school projects have been widely supported by policy makers with funding provided at both the federal and state levels. Still, many of the outcomes of this inflow of policy and funding remain unclear. In 2018, New York State (USA) announced the 30% NY Initiative that increases school lunch reimbursements by $0.191 per meal if districts purchase at least 30% of their ingredients from New York farms. With detailed school food purchasing data from the Buffalo City School District for both before and after the Initiative started, we analyze the gross and net economic impacts of the increased local spending on the state economy through a customized input-output model. Results show net positive economic impacts of the policy, even when a negative household impact is applied to account for the cost of the initiative to taxpayers. For every dollar in additional reimbursement offered through the Initiative, economic impacts to the state increase by $1.54. However, at least 65% of the increase in local spending must represent new sales to final demand to ensure a benefit cost ratio above unity.
    Keywords: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2022–09–02
  27. By: Kabambe, Vernon H; Chamdimba, Bridget; Phiri, Jechner
    Abstract: This bulletin has been prepared by the Malawi Agro-Ecological Intensification (AEI) hub as a case study to highlight how AEI practices are being rolled out in Chibale Model Village, Likudzi Section, Manjawila Extension planning Area (EPA) in Ntcheu district. The efforts are led by public extension service, using multi-model extension approach-es and multi-stakeholder collaboration to harness synergy. FAO (2018) suggested ten elements of agro-ecology as analytical tools to help in identifying important properties of agro-ecological systems and approaches and also relevant considerations in developing enabling environments for agro-ecology. The ten elements also serve as guide to policy makers, practitioners and stakeholders in planning, managing and evaluating agro-ecological transitions. Thus the same FAO’s (2018) ten elements have been used as basis for appraisal. The review shows that all ten elements are being promoted in the area, with variation in intensity and scale, and also some more directly and others more indi-rectly. We identified areas needing more emphasis as market linkages, and responsible local governance to enable protection of resources in the field such as plant material used as cover in CA systems and long duration crops such as pigeon peas and cassava, from uncontrolled fires and free ranging animals. Through farmer field schools farmers are generating evidence of the use of neem leaf powder as organic treatment for notorious fall army worm infestation in maize. This is commendable and is worth scaling out.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–08–01
  28. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the weekly variation of retail prices for selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets and food security in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, livestock, prices, food prices, chickens, eggs, retail prices, livestock products, fish, goats
    Date: 2022
  29. By: Jacques Fontanel (CESICE - Centre d'études sur la sécurité internationale et les coopérations européennes - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble)
    Abstract: The globalized system of market production is in a strong crisis. Global warming, rare earths, GAFAM, economic war. Climate change poses a problem for the economic system that fostered the polluting industrial revolutions of coal and oil. Today, the digital economy revolution offers significant hope for reducing pollution and promoting decarbonisation. However, the economic interest struggles of the powerful lobbies of the polluting sectors seem to reduce the potential for transformation of an economic system driven by the search for shortterm profit. The major powers want to preserve their economic gains and are undertaking this revolution at a pace that suits them, which is not without conflict, given the urgency of action in the face of the harmful transformations undergone by ecosystems. Furthermore, the GAFAMs, the powerful providers of digital services and instruments, together with their Chinese competitors, have a considerable economic and strategic force that could undermine freedoms and human and citizens' rights. For the production of digital tools, rare earths are likely to pose new problems, those relating to the pollution involved in their production and their relative scarcity compared to the stocks known today. Finally, the economic war threatens the World Trade Organization, with the establishment of international and regional blocks.
    Keywords: Digital economy,climate change,GAFAM,Rare Earths,Economic war
    Date: 2021–02–08
  30. By: Fabrice Etilé (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sébastien Lecocq (Université Paris-Saclay); Christine Boizot-Szantai (Université Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: Market heterogeneity may affect the distributional incidence of nutritional taxes if households sort by income across markets with different characteristics. We use scanner data to analyse the distributional incidence of the 2012 French soda tax on Exact Price Indices that measure consumer welfare from the price and availability of softdrinks at a local level. While the average pass-through was small-about 45 per cent-, tax incidence was significantly higher in low-income and less-competitive markets. Market heterogeneity ultimately has substantial distributional effects: it accounts for at least 33 per cent of the difference in welfare variation between low-and high-income consumers.
    Keywords: Consumer price index,Market structure,Inequality,Tax incidence,Soft-drink tax,France
    Date: 2021–12
  31. By: Isaac K. Ofori (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy); Francesco Figari (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy)
    Abstract: This study employs macrodata for 23 African countries to examine whether good governance interacts with economic globalisation (EG) to foster inclusive green growth (IGG). First, the study finds that EG hampers IGG in Africa. Second, although unconditionally good governance promotes IGG, only government effectiveness interacts with EG to foster IGG. Across the social and environmental sustainability dimensions of IGG, however, the effects differ substantially. Notably, while the EG-governance pathways yield remarkable environmental sustainability net gains, a modest harmful effect was observed for socioeconomic sustainability. Evidence from our threshold analyses also suggests that while government effectiveness is critical for propelling EG to promote IGG, across the social and environmental perspectives of IGG, it is investments in building frameworks and structures for corruption control and the rule of law that are crucial. Our results shed new light on IGG and have several implications for Agenda 2030 and Agenda 2063.
    Keywords: Africa; Economic Globalisation; Governance; Inclusive Growth; Inclusive Green Growth; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sustainable Development
    JEL: F18 F4 F6 F63 F64 H1 O55 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2022–01
  32. By: Calvin, Linda; Martin, Philip; Simnitt, Skyler
    Abstract: The report Adjusting to Higher Labor Costs in Selected U.S. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Industries examines how U.S. producers of major labor-intensive fresh fruit and vegetables are addressing the rising costs of labor. Farm labor costs are increasing for several reasons, including fewer newly-arrived unauthorized workers, rising State minimum wages, and new requirements to pay overtime wages to some farm workers. Short-term options to meet the labor needs on farms include management changes, such as picking fields and orchards less often and introducing mechanical aids that increase worker productivity. Long-term options include the use of more labor-saving mechanization, additional H-2A guest workers, and reducing overall domestic production. Adjusting to Higher Labor Costs in Selected U.S. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Industries provides an analysis of the ways in which producers are using different tools to address higher labor costs. This related report—Supplement to Adjusting to Higher Labor Costs in Selected U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Industries: Case Studies—analyzes adjustment options for four major fruit and three major vegetable and melon commodities.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Industrial Organization, Labor and Human Capital, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–07–12
  33. By: Tanner Regan (George Washington University); Martina Manara (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: Information on willingness-to-pay is key for public pricing and allocation of services but not easily collected. Studying land titles in Dar-es-Salaam, we ask whether local leaders know and will reveal plot owners' willingness-to-pay. We randomly assign leaders to predict under different settings then elicit owners' actual willingness-to-pay. Demand is substantial, but below exorbitant fees. Leaders can predict the aggregate demand curve and distinguish variation across owners. Predictions worsen when used to target subsidies, but adding cash incentives mitigates this. We demonstrate that leader-elicited information can improve the public pricing of title deeds, raising uptake while maintaining public funds.
    Keywords: property rights; willingness-to-pay; public pricing; local publicly provided goods
    JEL: O17 H40 R21 D80
    Date: 2022–07
  34. By: Bright A. Gyamfi (Cyprus International University, Nicosia, Turkey); Asiedu B. Ampomah (Cyprus International University, Nicosia, Turkey); Festus V. Bekun (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Understanding the role of information communication and technology (ICT) in environmental issues stemming from extensive energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the process of economic development is worthwhile both from policy and scholarly fronts. Motivated on this premise, the study contributes to the rising studies associated with the roles economic growth, institutional quality and information and communication technology (ICT) have on CO2emissionin the framework of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) on climate convention in Paris. Obtaining data from the emerging industrialized seven (E7) economies (China, India, Indonesia, Russia, Mexico, Brazil and Turkey) covering annual frequency from 1995 –2016 for our analysis achieved significant outcome. From the empirical analysis, economic globalization and renewable energy consumption both reduce CO2 emissions while ICT, institutional quality and fossil fuel contribute to the degradation of the environment. This study affirms the presence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) phenomenon which shows an invented U-Shaped curve within the E7 economies. On the causality front, both income and its square have a feedback causal relationship with carbon emissions while economic globalization, institutional quality, ICT and clean energy all have a one-way directional causal relationship with CO2 emissions. Conclusively, the need to reduce environmental degradation activities should be pursued by the blocs such as tree planting activities to mitigate the effect of deforestation. Furthermore, the bloc should shift from the use of fossil-fuel and leverage on ICT to enhance the use of clean energy which is environmentally friendly.
    Keywords: ICT; environmental sustainability; institutional quality; renewable energy transition; carbon-reduction; economic globalization, panel econometrics; E7 economies
    Date: 2022–01

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