nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒08‒08
104 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Irrigation inequality, rice farming productivity and food insecurity in rural Cambodia By Budy P. Resosudarmo; Kimlong Chheng
  2. Farm-level responses to weather trends By Wimmer, Stefan; Stetter, Christian; Schmitt, Jonas; Ringer, Robert
  3. Pathways from irrigation to prosperity, nutrition and resilience: The case of smallholder irrigation in Mali By Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Magalhaes, Marilia; Kato, Edward; Diaby, Mahamadou; Kalifa, Traore
  4. The impact of agricultural subsidies on environmental pollution in the European Union By Balogh, Jeremias
  5. IFAD Research Series 77: The role of trade and policies in improving food security By van Berkum, Siemen
  6. Ex-ante assessment of policies supporting precision agriculture in small-scaled farming systems By Späti, Karin; Huber, Robert; Finger, Robert
  7. Ready or not, here I come: Understanding English farmers perceptions of the changes in UK agricultural and environmental policy By Huang, Iona Y.; Behrendt, Karl; Parker, Eleanor; Hill, Nigel; Purewal, Amandeep Kaur; Swales, David; Baker, Sarah
  8. ANALYSIS TO GUIDE USAID/MOZAMBIQUE PROGRAMMATIC INVESTMENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD NUTRITION SECURITY By Tschirley, David; Donovan, Cynthia; Mata, Tatiana; Chapoto, Antony; Mather, David
  9. Anomalous Weather, Prices and the ‘Missing Middle’ By Bebber, Dan; Lin, Han; Lloyd, Tim; McCorriston, Steve; Varma, Varun
  10. Stated Farmers’ Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Climate Resilient Potato Varieties in Kenya: A Discrete Choice Experiment By Kimathi, Sally Mukami; Ayuya, Oscar Ingasia; Mutai, Benjamin
  11. Connectivity in Rural America By Ponti-Lazaruk, Jacki
  12. FSIS' Role in Verifying Truthful Labeling By Canavan, Jeff
  13. IFAD Research Series 75: Reverse thinking: taking a healthy diet perspective towards food systems transformations By Brouwer, Inga D.; van Liere, Marti J.; de Brauw, Alan; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Herforth, Anna; Kennedy, Gina; Lachat, Carl; van Omosa, Esther; Talsma, Elsie F.; Vandevijvere, Stephanie; Fanzo, Jessica; Rue, Marie T.
  14. Climate-Smart Innovations to Improve Food Security By Mehta, Shefali
  15. Culture and Agricultural Biodiversity Conservation By Wang, Yanbing; Schaub, Sergei; Wuepper, David; Finger, Robert
  16. CO2 Emission and Trade Policy in Agricultural and Food products By Raimondi, Valentina; Curzi, Daniele; Lucarno, Riccardo; Olper, Alessandro
  17. Understanding the Agricultural Land Leasing Market in Ireland: A Transaction Cost Approach By Onofri, Laura; Trestini, Samuele; Mamine, Fateh; Loughrey, Jason
  18. The FSEC-SSPs: Shared Socio-economic Pathways for global agricultural production and their implications for on-farm management decisions By Hunecke, Claudia
  19. Thrifty Food Plan Changes By Mangini, Brittany
  20. Agro-ecology and agricultural transformation: conceptual analysis and theoretical considerations By Faye, Amy
  21. Reducing US Biofuels Requirements Mitigates Short-term Impacts of Global Population and Income Growth on Agricultural Environmental Outcomes By David R. Johnson; Nathan B. Geldner; Jing Liu; Uris Lantz Baldos; Thomas Hertel
  22. Smallholder irrigation technology diffusion in Mali: Insights from stakeholder mapping By Houeto, Dede Aduayom; Diamoutene, Abdoul K.; Diop, Loty; Ringler, Claudia
  23. Dynamics of food consumption during political instability: evidence from Kyrgyzstan By Kimsanova, Barchynai; Sanaev, Golib; Herzfeld, Thomas
  24. Food policy in a more volatile climate and trade environment By Kym Anderson
  25. IFAD Research Series 74: Women’s empowerment, food systems, and nutrition By Quisumbing, Agnes; Heckert, Jessica; Faas, Simone; Ramani, Gayathri; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Malapit, Hazel; The pro-WEAI for Market Inclusion Study Team
  26. Agriculture’s globalization: Endowments, technologies, tastes and policies By Kym Anderson
  27. Client satisfaction and product understanding as drivers for insurance renewal – A case study in Mali By Kirchner, Ella; Musshoff, Oliver
  28. Different shades of green? Differentiation of hill farming in North Wales, what will be the impact of the future Welsh Agricultural policy? By Lenormand, Theo; Dwyer, Janet; Devienne, Sophie
  29. Trends in adoption of conservation practices in the U.S. By Bowman, Maria
  30. Tennessee Feeder Cattle Prices Influenced by COVID-19 By Griffith, Andrew P.; Martinez, Charles
  31. Can diet change meet climate targets? By Jacobs, Alec; Youngman, Tom
  32. The Russia-Ukraine War and Food Security in Morocco By Abdelaaziz Ait Ali; Uri Dadush; Fatima Ezzahra Mengoub; Isabelle Tsakok
  33. Climate Change, Comparative Advantage and the Water Capability to Produce Agricultural Goods By Fabien Candau; Charles Regnacq; Julie Schlick
  34. Animal Welfare, Altruism and Policy Support By Läpple, Doris; Osawe, Osayanmon Wellington
  35. It All Adds Up: U.S. Agricultural Exports by the Numbers By Whitley, Daniel
  36. Regulation of agricultural markets in Malawi By Duchoslav, Jan; Nyondo, Christone; Comstock, Andrew R.; Benson, Todd
  37. Global Impacts of Agricultural Productivity Growth By Hertel, Thomas W.
  38. Biostimulants: Climate-Smart Solutions for Better Crop Quality By Ellsworth, Jason W.
  39. Blazing a Unique Path for Specialty Crops By Guenther, Robert
  40. IFAD Research Series Issue 76: Upscaling of traditional fermented foods to build value chains and to promote women entrepreneurship By Materia, Valentina C.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Smid, Eddy J.; Schoustra, Sijmen E.
  41. Evaluating environmental effects of the adoption of automatic milking systems in Norway By Martinsson, Elin; Storm, Hugo
  42. Challenges and Prospects for Growth in the Global Market By Sutter, Jim
  43. Untapping Beer Terroir: Experimental Evidence of Regional Variation in Hop Flavor Profiles By Malone, Trey; Staples, Aaron J.; Sirrine, J. Robert; Mull, Alec; Stuhr, Scott; Adams, Alex
  44. How to advance regional circular bioeconomy systems? Identifying barriers, challenges, drivers, and opportunities By Rodrigo Salvador; Murillo Vetroni Barros; Mechthild Donner; Paulo Brito; Anthony Halog; Antonio C. de Francisco
  45. IFAD Research Series 73: Food systems and rural wellbeing: challenges and opportunities By Woodhill, Jim; Kishore, Avinash; Njuki, Jemimah; Jones, Kristal; Hasnain, Saher
  46. Soil carbon and soil health in agricultural systems By Atwood, Lesley
  47. Considerations for U.S. Sugar Policy By Lanclos, Kent
  48. From fork to fish: The role of consumer preferences on the sustainability of fisheries By Coralie KERSULEC; Luc DOYEN
  49. Gender Difference in Nutrition and Health in Agricultural Households in Nigeria: the Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Oil Producing Communities By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  50. Promoting and reporting on climate action carried out within the framework of the Low-Carbon Standard Clarifications and practical examples from the agricultural sector By Thomas Bonvillain; Claudine Foucherot; Valentin Bellassen
  51. U.S.-China Agricultural Trade: Present State of Affairs By Grant, Jason
  52. Out of communal land: Clientelism through delegation of agricultural tenancy contracts By Takashi Kurosaki; Saumik Paul; Firman Witoelar
  53. Research and productivity in Indonesian agriculture By Peter Warr
  54. The market for wine quality evaluation: evolution and future perspectives By Dubois, Magalie
  55. Cybersecurity for Agriculture By Reynolds, Taylor
  56. Analysis of Tennessee Wine and Grape Industry Trends, 2020 By Hughes, David W.
  57. India's ethanol programme - implications for world sugar By Forber, Gareth
  58. A climatic classification of the world’s wine regions By Puga, German; Anderson, Kym; Jones, Gregory; Tchatoka, Firmin Doko; Umberger, Wendy
  59. A Future with Zero Hunger and Zero Waste By Armbruster, Kari
  60. Implications of Food Systems for Food Security: The case of the Federal Republic of Nigeria By Isabelle Tsakok
  61. Sacramental Wine: Fruit of the Earth By O’Boyle, Edward J.
  62. Estimating supply functions for wine attributes: a two-stage hedonic approach By Oczkowski, Edward
  63. Livestock Greenhouse Gas Intensity Metrics By Itle, Cortney
  64. Post-Harvest Losses and Climate Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa By Curzi, Daniele; Nota, Paolo; Di Falco, Salvatore
  65. Beef-Cattle Industry & Market Situation By Tonsor, Glynn
  66. Financial access of midstream agricultural firms in Africa: Evidence from the LSMS-ISA and World Bank enterprise surveys By Ambler, Kate; de Brauw, Alan; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Pulido, Cristhian
  67. Implications of Livestock Risk Protection Subsidy Rate Changes for Feeder Cattle By Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.
  68. Farm Size and Productivity -The Role of Family Labor By Muhammad Ayaz; Mazhar Mughal
  69. Alternative adaptation scenarios towards pesticide-free urban green spaces: Welfare implication for French citizens By Marianne Lefebvre; Masha Maslianskaia-Pautrel; Pauline Laille
  70. Revisiting the Judgment of Paris. The Rise and the Fall of Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars By Gergaud, Olivier; Ginsburgh, Victor; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.
  71. Structural transformation away from agriculture: What role for trade? By Kym Anderson; Sundar Ponnusamy
  72. Evolving Regimes of Land Use and Property in the West Bank: Dispossession, Resistance, and Neoliberalism By Fadia Panosetti; Laurence Roudart
  73. Managing Weather Risks Using Regenerative Ag and Crop Insurance By Griff, Lance
  74. New Opportunities in the Bio-Economy that Target Zero Waste Agriculture By Orts, William
  75. African Swine Fever Industry Perspective: Packer By Masters, Barbara
  76. Sugar in the USMCA: Canadian Sugar Perspective By Marsden, Sandra
  77. Ideology and Rifles: the Agrarian Origins of Civil Conflict in Colombia By María del Pilar López-Uribe; Fabio Sanchez Torres
  78. Does ‘Price Framing’ Influence Empirical Estimates in Discrete Choice Experiments? A Case Study for the South African Wine Industry By Chikumbi, Lydia; Scasny, Milan
  79. Assessing the Risk of Climate Change Using Extreme Event Models By Borman, Julia
  80. ANNUAL REPORT Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security, Policy Research, Capacity and Influence October 2020 - September 2021 By Tschirley, Dave
  81. Cotton and Climate Change: The Untold Story By Hughes, Kai
  82. Household Expenditure in the Wake of Terrorism: evidence from high frequency in-home-scanner data By Daniel Mirza; Elena Stancanelli; Thierry Verdier
  83. The Physical Vulnerability to Climate Change Index computed at the sub-national level By Michaël Goujon; Olivier Santoni; Laurent Wagner
  84. Globalization and Political Economy of Food Policies: Insights from Planting Restrictions in Colonial Wine Markets By Meloni, Giulia; Swinnen, Johan
  85. The (in)stability of farmers’ risk preferences By Finger, Robert; Wüpper, David; McCallum, Chloe
  86. Does quality pay off? “Superstar” wines and the uncertain price premium across quality grades By Castriota, Stefano; Corsi, Stefano; Frumento, Paolo Dyno; Ruggeri, Giordano
  87. Anatomy of Green Specialisation: Evidence from EU Production Data, 1995-2015 By Francesco Vona; Francesco Bontadini
  88. Fighting climate change: International attitudes toward climate policies By Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Adrien Fabre; Tobias Kruse; Bluebery Planterose; Ana Sanchez Chico; Stefanie Stantcheva
  89. Customisable or local? Consumers’ preferences and willingness for the characteristics of fruit and vegetable box schemes in Scotland By Akaichi, Faical; Toma, Luiza
  90. Are fertilizer subsidies in Malawi value for money? By De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan
  91. Combining Revealed and Stated Preference Models for Artificial Reef Siting: A Study in the Florida Keys By Paul Hindsley; O. Ashton Morgan; John C. Whitehead
  92. Tennessee Cattle Marketing Influenced by COVID-19 By Martinez, Charley; Griffith, Andrew P.
  93. Supporting Organic Trade by Expanding the Phytosanitary Toolbox By Hughes, Gabriel P.
  94. Covid-19 Lockdown and Wine Consumption Frequency in Portugal and Spain By Rebelo, João; Compés, Raúl; Faria, Samuel; Gonçalves, Tânia; Pinilla, Vicente; Simón-Elorz, Katrin
  95. Nonparametric Analysis of the Mixed-Demand Model By Hjertstrand, Per
  96. The economic returns of circular economy practices By Davide Antonioli; Claudia Ghisetti; Massimiliano Mazzanti; Francesco Nicolli
  97. A Maximum Entropy Estimate of Uncertainty about a Wine Rating By Bodington, Jeff
  98. The Signaling Values of Nested Wine Names By Ay, Jean-Sauveur; Le Gallo, Julie
  99. Price Data for Sheep and Lambs By Hahn, William
  100. New Developments in Sugarbeet Seed Research and the Effect on the U.S. Beet Sugar Industry By Metzger, Mike
  101. Is climate change time reversible? By Francesco Giancaterini; Alain Hecq; Claudio Morana
  102. Transition versus physical climate risk pricing in European financial markets: a text-based approach By Bua, Giovanna; Kapp, Daniel; Ramella, Federico; Rognone, Lavinia
  103. Navigating Foodservice in a Pandemic By Winkler, Mark
  104. U.S. Dairy Exports: Where are Future Growth Markets By Harden, Krysta

  1. By: Budy P. Resosudarmo; Kimlong Chheng
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impacts of inequality access to irrigation on rice farming productivity as measured by rice yield and revenue per hectare and on food insecurity among rice farmers in rural Cambodia. Using our own household survey administered in 2014 to 251 rice farming households in 32 rural villages in four provinces, we show that better irrigation access, particularly reservoir, dike, or canal irrigation, provide households with significantly higher rice production and revenue. We also show that productivity of rice farming is significantly and negatively associated with household food insecurity. Hence, developing irrigation networks such as reservoirs, dikes, or canals to reduce irrigation inequality is a key policy option to tackle food insecurity in Cambodia.
    Keywords: irrigation, inequality, rice farming productivity, food insecurity.
    JEL: D33 I31 O12 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2021-19&r=
  2. By: Wimmer, Stefan; Stetter, Christian; Schmitt, Jonas; Ringer, Robert
    Abstract: Assessing the effects of climate change on agricultural production is crucial for designing pol-icies related to climate change and climate change mitigation. A large body of literature identi-fied detrimental effects on crop yields around the globe under various climate change scenarios, while farm-level adaptation has been shown to mitigate the adverse effect of climate change on agricultural production. In this paper, we use a structural approach to examine farms’ produc-tion responses to both expected and realized weather. We investigate how farmers adjust crop supply and input demand by estimating a system of output supply and input demand functions that controls for non-random crop selection. Using panel data on 1406 German crop farms (2005–2019), we find that both expected and realized weather outcomes determine farmers out-put supply and input demand, and that a drought shock has both immediate and lasting effects on farmers’ production decisions.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321221&r=
  3. By: Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Magalhaes, Marilia; Kato, Edward; Diaby, Mahamadou; Kalifa, Traore
    Abstract: Irrigation is increasingly promoted in Africa south of the Sahara, but the benefit streams of small-scale irrigation in Mali remain largely unknown. This study collected detailed quantitative data of irrigators and non-irrigators in two regions of Mali: Mopti, which is in the Sahelian zone, and Sikasso, the southernmost region of the country, which receives more rainfall. Econometric results show that the irrigation suitability, female household headship, proximity to markets and market participation increase the propensity to irrigate. The results suggest that small-scale irrigation investments have the potential to benefit women farmers directly. We used Two-Stage Weighted treatment effects multivariate regression to identify the impact of irrigation on selected outcomes. The impact assessment results show that crop income and diversification, market participation, employment, and dietary quality were substantially higher in irrigated farms compared to non-irrigated farms. Likewise, irrigating households had higher food security and higher dietary diversity. The results show that irrigation is a key entry point for combatting climate variability and change. However, the low adoption levels of improved water-lifting technologies are a major challenge. Limited promotion of solar and motorized pumps has contributed to the low adoption of these improved water-lifting technologies. A less profitable option, lifting water with a rope-and-bucket system, remains the most common water-lifting technology in the study areas. We find that investing in effective advisory services that target agricultural water management could increase uptake of more profitable irrigation technologies.
    Keywords: MALI; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; irrigation; nutrition; resilience; living standards; smallholders; households; extension
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2129&r=
  4. By: Balogh, Jeremias
    Abstract: The agricultural production in the European Union (EU) accounted for 40 % of the total land area of the EU Member States, providing farming opportunities for 10 million workers. In the EU, agriculture is also responsible for a significant share of greenhouse gas emissions. The research investigates how the evaluation of agricultural subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) can contribute to agricultural sustainability in the European Union. The research question addresses the implementation of climate agreements into CAP regulations and the influence of agricultural subsidies on greenhouse gas emissions. Panel data econometrics is employed to analyse the effectiveness of EU subsidies on diminishing agricultural emissions between 2004 and 2019. The results suggest that some agri-environmental measures included in the Common Agricultural Policy served to cut GHG emissions by increasing the area of organic farming. The expansion of organic farming and CAP payments on rural development contributed significantly to CO2 emissions reduction in the EU. On the other hand, CAP direct payments stimulated GHG emissions. Regarding CAP reforms, the Health Check carried out in 2009 helped reduce while Ciolos reform in 2013 stimulated GHG emission for a period analysed. The results draw attention to the need for action to curb EU agricultural emissions by reforming or restructuring the system of direct agricultural subsidies.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Public Economics
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321223&r=
  5. By: van Berkum, Siemen
    Abstract: Developing competitive and inclusive food value chains requires domestic macroeconomic policies to improve the agricultural sector’s business environment and create outside opportunities, and sector-specific targeted measures to promote smallholder participation in competitive value chains by reducing market access costs. Key elements of an agricultural development strategy are: infrastructure investment to reduce transaction costs; improving smallholder access to markets; and promoting their participation in food value chains through empowering and increasing their capacity to comply with food quality and safety requirements. Encouraging innovation and adoption of technologies in all segments of the value chain is crucial for upgrading and diversifying agricultural output. This in turn leads to greater income generation, jobs outside of agriculture, and increased export opportunities. Export diversification strengthens countries’ resilience to trade shocks and reduces vulnerability to the rising costs of food imports.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy
    Date: 2022–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:unadrs:321997&r=
  6. By: Späti, Karin; Huber, Robert; Finger, Robert
    Abstract: Reducing nitrogen losses and the associated negative impact on the environment is a major challenge in agricultural production. Precision agricultural technologies are supposed to help solving this challenge. Since the adoption rate of such technologies in small-scale farming systems is still rather low, additional policy measures are needed to support their adoption. In this study, we investigate the efficiency of such measures using an agent-based modelling framework that combines cognitive and dispositional farmers’ characteristics with a bio-economic optimization model. We simulate the effect of different policies on the adoption decisions of farmers in a Swiss case study. We use census, choice experiment and survey data from Swiss crop farmers to calibrate the agent-based model. Our results help to better assess the impact of different policy measures on the adoption decisions regarding site-specific fertilization and to inform policy makers on the most efficient measures.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321215&r=
  7. By: Huang, Iona Y.; Behrendt, Karl; Parker, Eleanor; Hill, Nigel; Purewal, Amandeep Kaur; Swales, David; Baker, Sarah
    Abstract: Under the new post-Brexit era English agricultural and environmental policies are changing, with a transition away from direct payments to agri-environmental schemes. With a significant proportion of farmers reliant on direct payments for their viability, there is a need to understand farmers awareness of the proposed changes in farm policy, and to assess the extent to which English farmers are adapting their businesses to changes in policy. This research used transcribed qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 34 farmers across England and representative of the main industry sectors. Thematic content analysis using NVivo and attributional information was used to analyse farmer responses. The research found that there existed predominantly negative views about the ELMs and the Sustainable Farming Incentive pilot. Alarmingly over a third of farmers did not know the financial impacts of future policy changes and over a fifth of farmers had undertaken no planning at all, with only a third of farmers planning for reduced support. The results identified that the in-coherence between the ELMs policy and international trade policy was the main source of farmers’ resentment towards the new policy and opportunities to improve the design of future schemes and policy to align with farmers’ goals.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Agribusiness
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321210&r=
  8. By: Tschirley, David; Donovan, Cynthia; Mata, Tatiana; Chapoto, Antony; Mather, David
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–03–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miprre:322053&r=
  9. By: Bebber, Dan; Lin, Han; Lloyd, Tim; McCorriston, Steve; Varma, Varun
    Abstract: Climate change will increase the frequency of extreme weather events, affecting food systems. How food prices in domestic markets are affected by resulting supply shocks is key to understanding the impacts of climate change on food security. The expectation that supply shocks are fully translated into higher consumer prices may, however, not hold true even for commodities that see minimal processing from farm to plate and, in particular, where vertical chains deviate from perfect competition. Focussing on four major consuming countries, we show that anomalous weather patterns in exporting countries affects the spread between world and retail prices suggesting that shocks are mainly ameliorated (but in one case, exacerbated) by firms that comprise the supply chain - ‘the missing middle’. Our findings highlight placing equal emphasis on understanding how firms in this ‘missing middle’ will adapt to, and determine the impact of, climate shocks on participants in value chains.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321228&r=
  10. By: Kimathi, Sally Mukami; Ayuya, Oscar Ingasia; Mutai, Benjamin
    Abstract: Despite sustained efforts by various research organizations in developing and disseminating climate resilient varieties, adoption of climate resilient potato varieties (CRPVs) remains low in Sub-Saharan Africa. This has been majorly attributed to limited coordination between formal research institutions and farmers hence sidelining farmers’ preferences especially smallholder farmers. Considering farmer preferences in the breeding process may yield optimal combination of varietal attributes hence increasing adoption. Therefore, this study used a discrete choice experiment to investigate farmers’ preferences and mean Willingness to Pay (WTP) for various attributes of CRPV. Results indicate that farmers have a strong preference for high resistance to pests and diseases as compared to other attributes which include low water requirements, short maturation period and high yield. Despite farmers preferring low prices for CRPV attributes, we also note that they were low price responsive. A small change in price did not affect their preferences for other CRPV attributes. This study emphasizes on the need for participatory breeding efforts that embed traits preferred by farmers hence satisfying the demands of different population segments based on age, gender and education level.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321220&r=
  11. By: Ponti-Lazaruk, Jacki
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321017&r=
  12. By: Canavan, Jeff
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321133&r=
  13. By: Brouwer, Inga D.; van Liere, Marti J.; de Brauw, Alan; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Herforth, Anna; Kennedy, Gina; Lachat, Carl; van Omosa, Esther; Talsma, Elsie F.; Vandevijvere, Stephanie; Fanzo, Jessica; Rue, Marie T.
    Abstract: Food systems are failing to deliver healthy, accessible diets while not exceeding the boundaries of planetary resources. The international community has called for food systems transformation and policy solutions to secure healthy diets for all. These strategies, however, focus on supply and the market rather than a healthy diet perspective. This paper argues that food systems transformation should incorporate a dietary perspective that is guided by information on diets, dietary trends, consumer motives, and the food environment characteristics. It shows that dietary trends differ by food system development stage, thus different transformational approaches are required. It reviews the knowledge on drivers of consumer choices and discusses conflicting objectives and trade-offs among the multiple food systems actors. It outlines promising policy options and reflects on how a dietary perspective may contribute to sustainable food systems transformations.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:unadrs:321954&r=
  14. By: Mehta, Shefali
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321137&r=
  15. By: Wang, Yanbing; Schaub, Sergei; Wuepper, David; Finger, Robert
    Abstract: Agriculture is a main source of environmental degradation and biodiversity decline. We investigate the causal effects of culture on pro-environmental behaviors of the agricultural population (farmers), and how policy instruments interact with culture to influence individual behavior. We exploit a unique natural experiment in Switzerland, which consists of two parts. First, there is an inner-Swiss cultural border between German- and French-speaking farmers who share the same natural environment, economy, and institutions, but differ in their norms and values. Second, in 2014, there was an unexpected and vast agri-environmental policy reform that increased the monetary incentive to enroll land into biodiversity conservation. Using a spatial difference-in-discontinuities design and panel data of all Swiss farms between 2010 and 2017, we show the following findings: Before the reform, farmers on the French-speaking side of the cultural border systematically enrolled less land into biodiversity conservation, compared to the German-speaking side. With increased monetary incentives following the 2014 policy reform, the French-speaking farmers enrolled more additional land than the German-speaking farmers, shrinking the discontinuity. These findings indicate that cultural effects on pro-environmental behaviors are more important when external incentives are relatively low, and with increased economic incentives, cultural differences become less important. We discuss the implications for research and especially for policy.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321224&r=
  16. By: Raimondi, Valentina; Curzi, Daniele; Lucarno, Riccardo; Olper, Alessandro
    Abstract: Agri-food system is one of the economic sectors most at risk from climate change, but it is also a significant contributor to it, with greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from the food supply chain equal to one-third of the global anthropogenic total in 2018 (Tubiello et al. 2021). Specifically, crop and livestock production within the farm gate contributes more than 50% of the methane (CH4) and 75% of the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from human activity globally (FAO, 2020). This paper relies on the recent work of Shapiro (2021) that firstly analysed the nexus between pollution embodied in traded goods, against the actual structure of trade policy (tariffs or non-tariff measures-NTMs). In our contribution we focus on agricultural and food products, considering three main pollutants (CO2, CH4, N2O), with the aims of answering the following research question: are actual trade policies a tax or a subsidy to total CO2 (equivalent) emissions embedded in agri-food imported goods? Main findings suggest that for all the three pollutants investigated a negative implicit carbon tax is applied, i.e. on average countries applied an implicit subsidy on more pollutant imported goods. This estimated implicit subsidy to CO2 emissions imported in agri-food products tend to be higher when also the ad-valorem equivalent of non-tariff measures (NTMs) is accounted for. By investigating the country-group heterogeneity in the applied tax or subsidy to imported CO2, results show that the larger implicit subsidy is applied by the trade policy structure of European Union countries. Specifically, Western and Northern European countries have among the largest negative environmental biases in trade policy, while more polluting countries, like China, India, Russia, Brazil and Mexico, tend to apply smaller (implicit) subsidies.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321217&r=
  17. By: Onofri, Laura; Trestini, Samuele; Mamine, Fateh; Loughrey, Jason
    Abstract: Formal written land leasing contracts offer an alternative to land purchase for those farmers wishing to expand their land area and provide greater security relative to informal short-term rental agreements and are particularly important for beginning farmers with resources insufficient to purchase land. Formal land leasing contracts vary in terms of their duration but there is limited understanding about the determinants of contract duration in developed countries. In this research, we use econometric techniques and transaction level data to explore the determinants of duration for agricultural land lease contracts for two regions in Ireland. Under the Transaction Cost Economics approach, the research explores the role of legal status, price and non-price conditions in influencing the contract duration. Results indicate that the legal status of the tenant is a significant factor in influencing the duration. Provisions such as break clauses appear positively related to duration and confirm the theoretical expectation that long-term contracts create a demand for processes that enable adaptation over the course of long-term exchange.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321211&r=
  18. By: Hunecke, Claudia
    Abstract: The Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) are qualitative descriptions of five equally plausible, potential future scenarios related to climate change mitigation and adaptation. The FSEC-SSPs extend the SSPs framework and contribute to this literature by focusing on the global agricultural production level as its scope. We examine the drivers determining future on-farm management decisions and their outcomes regarding output and productivity, profitability, and environmental impacts. We apply a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews and expert workshops, with its results to be implemented as a baseline in Integrated Assessment Modelling exercises. The storyline elements and the associated storylines are defined by an international group of experts in agricultural economics from both FSEC (Food System Economics Commission) and various other research institutions. Besides, bio-physical and locational factors of the farm, especially the structure of the agricultural system of the particular country and the political environment, are predicted to be significant drivers of future development. However, demand for various product groups, the availability and use of specific technologies, and the market structure are additional forces to impact production decisions. The description of typical farms for each SSP in different world regions will support the qualitative storylines.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics, Farm Management
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321222&r=
  19. By: Mangini, Brittany
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321148&r=
  20. By: Faye, Amy
    Abstract: The sustainability of agricultural production systems is of growing concern. Agro-ecology has received considerable interest as an alternative to conventional farming. Clarity of both concepts is a precondition for any assessments. Large-scale adoption of agro-ecology could yield profound changes in rural Africa and on economic development of African countries due to the interlinkages between agriculture and the other sectors of an economy. Therefore, its promotion should be cautiously investigated and guided not only by its environmental effects but also by its ability to contribute to food systems sustainability, the development of rural economies, and economies as a whole. Consequently, the analysis of agro-ecology should be connected to the objectives of agricultural transformation as part of a process of structural transformation. Based on a meta-narrative review approach using multiple references from selected online reference databases, the concepts of agricultural transformation and agro-ecology are assessed, and a conceptual framework to guide future empirical analyzes of the role of agro-ecology on agricultural transformation as part of a process of structural transformation is proposed.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, Production Economics
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321227&r=
  21. By: David R. Johnson; Nathan B. Geldner; Jing Liu; Uris Lantz Baldos; Thomas Hertel
    Abstract: Biobased energy, particularly corn starch-based ethanol and other liquid renewable fuels, are a major element of federal and state energy policies in the United States. These policies are motivated by energy security and climate change mitigation objectives, but corn ethanol does not substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions when compared to petroleum-based fuels. Corn production also imposes substantial negative externalities (e.g., nitrogen leaching, higher food prices, water scarcity, and indirect land use change). In this paper, we utilize a partial equilibrium model of corn-soy production and trade to analyze the potential of reduced US demand for corn as a biobased energy feedstock to mitigate increases in nitrogen leaching, crop production and land use associated with growing global populations and income from 2020 to 2050. We estimate that a 23% demand reduction would sustain land use and nitrogen leaching below 2020 levels through the year 2025, and a 41% reduction would do so through 2030. Outcomes are similar across major watersheds where corn and soy are intensively farmed.
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2206.14321&r=
  22. By: Houeto, Dede Aduayom; Diamoutene, Abdoul K.; Diop, Loty; Ringler, Claudia
    Abstract: Small-scale irrigation has significant potential to increase crop productivity in Mali, in particular given growing climate change impacts on the country and region. While large-scale development is substantial, small, private irrigation remains limited, affecting food and particularly nutrition security as small-scale technologies are more likely to be used for high-value vegetable crops. To better understand the challenges and opportunities in the diffusion of small-scale irrigation technologies, two workshops were organized in 2021 at the national and regional levels, respectively, to consider national and local factors supporting the diffusion of small-scale irrigation technologies. Key constraints identified were a lack of linkages between intermediary organizations in the small-scale irrigation diffusion process, such as commodity associations, financial institutions and technology vendors with government agencies in charge of irrigation, limiting the sharing of consistent and effective information across entities; the lack of a clear policy framework and long-term guidance for private individual irrigation; an associated lack of targeted technology development including limited adaptation to different local contexts, missing financial products linked to irrigation technology, and inadequate capacity building of farmers through extension services and demonstration sites. Workshop participants suggested a dedicated platform for more effective information exchange across the key actors identified in the events, improved capacity building on private irrigation, and a supportive policy and financial environment to ensure growth and sustainability of small-scale irrigation development in the country.
    Keywords: MALI; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; smallholders; irrigation; technology; stakeholders; cartography; diffusion; small-scale irrigation
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2128&r=
  23. By: Kimsanova, Barchynai; Sanaev, Golib; Herzfeld, Thomas
    Abstract: Shocks might affect consumers quite differently. Traditional regression to the mean approaches ne- glects the within-sample heterogeneity. This paper evaluates households’ food consumption in Kyrgyzstan conditional upon their consumption “intensity” based on nationally representative household panel sur- veys before and after the two revolutions. A complete demand system is estimated, considering quality biases, spatial and temporal variations, and differences in household characteristics. Our results reveal that households are susceptible to income shocks for fruits & vegetables and meat & fish, which accounts for more than 50% of households’ food expenditures. The first revolution worsened household food con- sumption by widening the gap between urban and rural areas, while the adaptive capacity of households, driven by improved income stability, increased during the second revolution, allowing rural households to improve their diets with consumption of different types of products. The results of the more stable period show an improvement in the country’s food consumption; however, dietary habits have shifted towards over-processed and energy-intensive foods, posing a threat of overweight and related health problems.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321213&r=
  24. By: Kym Anderson
    Abstract: Providing affordable access to enough healthy and safe food for an ever-more-affluent and growing world population has become more challenging in the face of climate change, rising income inequality and a more uncertain global trade environment. Agriculture is expected to contribute more, but is under pressure in both high-income and developing countries to do so more sustainably and inclusively. This paper reviews the roles of food policy in this changing setting. It begins by revisiting the case for keeping food markets open to international trade, investment and technology transfer, and concludes that openness is even more important, especially for developing countries, as the climate becomes warmer and more volatile. It then summarizes trade-related food policy developments globally in the 50 years prior to the global financial crisis, and in the price-spike periods since then. The current situation is calling for more action – including from agriculture – to mitigate climate change and biodiversity loss. The scope for re-purposing food policies to better meet these demands is then assessed. It proposes some alternatives to current measures that could better achieve national societal objectives while simultaneously benefitting the rest of the world in terms of easing natural resource and environmental stresses and reducing national and global poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and inequalities in income, wealth and health. The review concludes by noting areas where further research could facilitate such transformations in food policy.
    Keywords: Uncertain international trade environment; Virtues of liberal food trade; Re- purposing food policies.
    JEL: F13 F18 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2021-25&r=
  25. By: Quisumbing, Agnes; Heckert, Jessica; Faas, Simone; Ramani, Gayathri; Raghunathan, Kalyani; Malapit, Hazel; The pro-WEAI for Market Inclusion Study Team
    Abstract: This background paper examines the linkages and interactions between women’s empowerment, food systems, and nutrition. It examines: How women’s empowerment and gender equality relate to a range of nutrition outcomes across various levels in six countries in Asia and Africa. The factors that are conducive to greater empowerment of women and gender equality based on a literature review and analysis of data on women’s empowerment in agricultural value chains in Bangladesh, the Philippines, Benin, and Malawi. Three case studies from rural Burkina Faso, Kenya, and Nigeria that were gender sensitive and aimed to improve nutritional status or food security. Engaging in formative research to understand the challenges women face and explicitly including gender-transformative strategies in intervention design can improve their performance.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:unadrs:321953&r=
  26. By: Kym Anderson
    Abstract: The history of agricultural trade stretches back more than ten millennia, but it became more inter-continental from the 17th century and much denser in the 19th century following the repeal of Britain’s protective Corn Laws in 1846 and major declines in international trade costs. Trade was chaotic in the period bookended by the two world wars, but trade policy anarchy gave way to greater certainty after the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was signed in 1947. This paper seeks to identify the forces that shaped that history, and to re-examine the case for continued openness to trade in farm products. It does so in the wake of uneven economic growth and structural transformation and as agri-food systems respond to increased market and policy uncertainties this century – and to growing pressures for agricultural production to become more sustainable and for its food outputs to be more nutritious. The paper points to better policy options than trade measures for achieving most national objectives – options that can simultaneously benefit the rest of the world. Areas for further economic research also are provided in the final section.
    Keywords: Trade barriers; trade costs; trade specialization, agricultural comparative advantage.
    JEL: F13 F15 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2021-26&r=
  27. By: Kirchner, Ella; Musshoff, Oliver
    Abstract: Agricultural microinsurance are a promising risk management tool for smallholder farmers. However, adoption rates remain low and only a small share of farmers renews their policy after the first period. Yet, it is essential for the sustainability of an insurance scheme to retain a solid customer base. To date, it is largely unknown what drives the decision to renew an agricultural microinsurance policy. We address this question by performing mean comparisons and logistic regressions based on collected primary data on 479 smallholder farmers in Mali who purchased a weather index-based insurance in 2020. Results show low levels of understanding of the product among all clients, but especially among those who did not renew. Similarly, the level of satisfaction was considerably higher among clients who renewed. Both factors were confirmed as drivers for renewal. Yet, in line with previous findings, the receipt of a payout had the strongest effect on the renewal decision whereas harvest loss in the most recent season was not having an impact. We conclude that additional efforts to foster client satisfaction as well as to promote understanding of agricultural insurance among smallholder farmers are highly recommended.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321216&r=
  28. By: Lenormand, Theo; Dwyer, Janet; Devienne, Sophie
    Abstract: In the last 20 years Welsh Hill farming has faced many challenges; long-supported specialisation in beef and sheep production systems has been called into question as the policy focus shifted and markets have offered poor returns. Drivers of evolution changed and some near-extinct enterprises have reappeared in the Welsh hills (e.g. dairying, poultry), linked to both market and policy changes. Two in-depth agrarian diagnoses in hill and upland areas of North Wales (Bala and the Vale of Clwyd) show a differentiation of production systems. The apparently homogenous pastoral landscape now sports different levels of management and land use intensity (in fodder output, stocking rates and livestock types). Farms have become increasingly polarised depending on their business opportunities, and these farmed landscapes in Wales are changing rapidly. With the Brexit process and in the context of Covid, changes have intensified as the farming sector seeks to adapt and plan ahead. We assess the likely impact of possible Welsh and UK governments’ future policies in the emerging market context, to understand their likely impact, using a typology of production systems in the two landscapes. On this basis, we expect the trend of polarisation in the Welsh hills to continue, raising some challenges for future policy aspirations.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics, Farm Management
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321200&r=
  29. By: Bowman, Maria
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321134&r=
  30. By: Griffith, Andrew P.; Martinez, Charles
    Abstract: Feeder cattle prices are driven by supply and demand for live cattle (i.e., finished cattle) that are in turn driven by supply and demand for beef. Supply and demand in the cattle and beef industries change seasonally, resulting in seasonal price changes for feeder cattle, finished cattle and beef. For example, on the cattle side, many cow-calf producers calve in late winter and early spring months (February and March) and market cattle in the fall (October and November). The increased supply of lower-weighted calves (i.e., less than 600 pounds) induces lower prices in the fall, whereas in the spring (March or April), there is a lower supply of animals under 600 pounds that typically sell at higher prices. Additionally, the timing of calving greatly influences when an animal will enter the feedlot and thereby when it will be harvested. From a beef demand perspective, the greatest demand for beef generally occurs during the summer grilling months, and the softest demand occurs during the winter months. Thus, these factors also seasonally influence feeder cattle prices. Outside of supply and demand for beef, feeder cattle prices are regularly influenced by changes in feed prices, as feed costs are a large component of feedlot production costs. However, there are occasions when other external (exogenous) shocks influence feeder cattle prices, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2003, drought in 2011 and 2012, and the Tyson beef packing facility fire in 2019. Each of these external shocks affected the typical supply and demand of finished cattle, which also transmitted to feeder cattle prices. Though these shocks were exogenous to the market, they were primarily isolated to the cattle industry or agricultural production industries; that is, they did not involve the broader United States population. Coronavirus (COVID-19) is another external shock influencing cattle prices in early 2020. The difference between COVID-19 and the external shocks discussed above is that coronavirus influenced most national and international markets, not just beef cattle. The purpose of this publication is to illustrate how Tennessee feeder cattle prices were impacted by COVID-19 in the first four months of 2020, compared to those same four months historically (based on data for cattle sold through Tennessee auction markets reported by USDA-AMS).
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing
    Date: 2020–07–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:303908&r=
  31. By: Jacobs, Alec; Youngman, Tom
    Abstract: Ruminant livestock produce more than half of the UK’s agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, leading the Climate Change Committee to call for diets to move away from meat and dairy. We run simulations in Defra’s partial equilibrium model of the UK’s agricultural economy to evaluate how diet change might affect UK herd sizes and associated greenhouse gas emissions. We also simulate carbon tax and tariff policy scenarios to compare how diet shifts would interact with a widely advocated policy measure. We find unilateral diet change in the UK alone more likely to provoke a decrease in imports (and potentially an increase in exports) than bring about a significant reduction in UK ruminant herds and associated UK territorial greenhouse gas emissions. Conversely, our simulations find a large carbon tax imposed on domestic farmers alone reducing territorial emissions significantly, but only by leading to higher imports (and associated emissions) from overseas as UK consumption remains inelastic. Our modelling indicates that meeting the UK’s agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation goals requires holistic action on the consumption and production side of the economy, with the UK facing unintended consequences in its agri-food trade balance if its climate ambition is not in harmony with its trade policy.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321207&r=
  32. By: Abdelaaziz Ait Ali; Uri Dadush; Fatima Ezzahra Mengoub; Isabelle Tsakok
    Abstract: Following on the heels of the COVID-19 pandemic and severe drought in North Africa, the Russian invasion of Ukraine – large exporters of food and, in the case of Russia, energy— may inflict increased hunger on the food insecure in Morocco – despite mitigating measures by the government. Morocco is so far successfully shielding its large poor and vulnerable population by subsidizing essential commodities. With memories of the violent protests during the 2007/08 food and fuel crisis still fresh, government support is necessary to maintain social stability. Such support measures are costly even in a typical year. In 2022, the legacy of the pandemic, a combination of drought, soaring cereal and oil prices, global inflation, and economic slowdown will test the 'government's ability to keep fiscal deficits within sustainable bounds. Looking to the longer term, the high costs of government subsidies highlight the need for a sustainable strategy to deal with food security. Morocco's New Development Model (April 2021) promises to progress towards this goal by re-orienting public investment and creating incentives to improve efficiency and resilience in rain-fed agriculture and add value throughout the agri-food sector, not just in irrigated agriculture. The food and fuel crises triggered by the war raise the stakes for reforming the agri-food system throughout Africa, not only in Morocco. The African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) presents a unique opportunity to develop a vast and reliable regional market including food that is less exposed to the vagaries of the political, security, and economic environment outside the region.
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ocp:ppaper:pb34-22&r=
  33. By: Fabien Candau (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Charles Regnacq (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Julie Schlick (RITM - Réseaux Innovation Territoires et Mondialisation - Université Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: This article analyzes how climate change inuences the capabilities to export agricultural goods and the specialization of nations (e.g., comparative advantages) by altering farmers' capability to use available water. Our main contribution is methodological since we present the rst attempt to link precisely the micro-determinants of production to the macro-determinants governing the specialization of countries. We use a rich set of data both locally (at the crop level analyzing thousand elds that cover the Earth's surface) and at the global level (analyzing bilaterally the international trade of nations). At the local level, we estimate the elasticity of production to the thermal and hydrologic conditions (including blue and green water as well as groundwater storage) along with xed eects (at country-product and at the crop level) to control for omitted variables. At the global level, we use the predicted value of these elasticities to compute an indicator of the water capability to export agricultural goods, which is then used in a trade gravity equation to control for trade costs that also shape the specialization of countries. From these estimates, we nally build an indicator of comparative advantage in agricultural goods and analyze how these relative advantages are aected by climate change in 2050. We present unexpected results at rst sight, that are however in line with the Ricardian theory, such as cases where a deterioration of the local conditions to produce a good does not prevent an improvement in the comparative advantage to produce it (representing 32.51% of cases in our simulation), or the reverse, when the improvement of the local conditions happens simultaneously with a deterioration of the comparative advantages (representing 18.16% of cases in our simulation).
    Date: 2022–05–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03671521&r=
  34. By: Läpple, Doris; Osawe, Osayanmon Wellington
    Abstract: Animal welfare provision by dairy farmers has implications that go well beyond the individual dairy farm. In this study, we assess dairy farmers' willingness to pay to support a policy aimed at improving calf welfare and link this to altruism. We conceptualise the farmer's decision into private reasons, and motivations to improve animal welfare on their own farm or eliminate bad practices elsewhere. Our data comes from a survey with over 400 Irish dairy farmers that included an experimental component. Specifically, we used a contingent valuation referendum method to elicit farmers' willingness to pay. We measured altruism with a financially incentivised social value orientation scale. Our findings indicate that most farmers are supportive of a policy scheme to improve animal welfare, and altruism is positively associated with higher willingness to pay. Specifically, our findings suggest that altruists are willing to pay €429 per annum, while individualistically minded farmers are willing to pay €220 per annum to support the new initiative. Our findings have important policy implications as we show that the majority of farmers are willing to financially support the implementation of a policy that can help to prevent public bads.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321212&r=
  35. By: Whitley, Daniel
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321088&r=
  36. By: Duchoslav, Jan; Nyondo, Christone; Comstock, Andrew R.; Benson, Todd
    Abstract: Agriculture holds special significance in Malawi, because most Malawian households depend primarily on this sector for income and food security. Therefore, legislation surrounding the agricultural sector, and the foundation it lays for the sector’s governance, are fundamental to the development prospects of the country. At their best, agricultural laws encourage farmers, traders (both domestic and international), and processors of agricultural commodities to fully engage and further invest in the agricultural sector. At their worst, they undermine confidence to do so.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; regulations; market regulations; markets; agriculture; legislation; implementation
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspn:45&r=
  37. By: Hertel, Thomas W.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321122&r=
  38. By: Ellsworth, Jason W.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Agribusiness
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321127&r=
  39. By: Guenther, Robert
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321013&r=
  40. By: Materia, Valentina C.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Smid, Eddy J.; Schoustra, Sijmen E.
    Abstract: Fermentation is an ancient processing technique that relies on microbes to transform raw materials into products with increased food safety, commercial value, nutritional value, health features, and sensory attributes. Despite its benefits, fermentation remains a neglected practice in many countries. In Africa, the agrifood sector has great potential for entrepreneurship, job creation, innovation, and and economic and social empowerment of women and youth. Yet many local, traditional, and nutritious foods—including fermented foods—have not reached the broad range of potential consumers due to small-scale processing and a lack of effective value chains. Small-scale fermentation activities represent an important economic opportunity, particularly for women. This paper explores how traditional processing of fermented foods can be scaled up while enhancing functional food properties and strengthening local value chains.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:unadrs:321996&r=
  41. By: Martinsson, Elin; Storm, Hugo
    Abstract: In Norwegian dairy farming, the usage of automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased during the last decades. AMS is primarily a productivity increasing and labor reducing technology, but previous research shows that AMS can have other (secondary) effects that could impact the environmental performance of farms. Effects of AMS-adoption found, include increased total production, increased farm size, changes in grazing patterns and feed mix and changes in energy consumption. This paper aims to study the hypothesis that AMS-adoption, through these secondary effects, affect farm-level GHG-emissions. Using a difference-in-difference approach, we provide evidence of the presence of secondary effects and shows that AMS-adoption negatively affects farms’ eco-efficiency, particularly by increasing enteric fermentation. The causal effect is identified by considering adopting farms and non-adopting farms observed at two periods in time. Apart from providing this empirical result, the paper also presents a general procedure of how to go about evaluating farm-level effects of technology adoption.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321199&r=
  42. By: Sutter, Jim
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321089&r=
  43. By: Malone, Trey; Staples, Aaron J.; Sirrine, J. Robert; Mull, Alec; Stuhr, Scott; Adams, Alex
    Abstract: Thanks in part to the push for localized supply chains, U.S. hop production is becoming more regionally diverse. Differentiation in geographies implies changes in growing climates and other environmental factors known to alter the flavor profiles of agricultural commodities used in food and drink. We use a chemical analysis, blind taste test, and choice experiment to identify whether the same hop cultivar grown in different regions induces a unique sensory profile in hops and beer. The chemical analysis and taste test provide evidence of hop terroir, while we find that brewers are willing to pay a premium for local hops.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Agribusiness
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321849&r=
  44. By: Rodrigo Salvador (DTU - Technical University of Denmark [Lyngby], LDSPS - Laboratory for the Development of Sustainable Production Systems - Department of Industrial Engineering - University of Santiago of Chile); Murillo Vetroni Barros (LDSPS - Laboratory for the Development of Sustainable Production Systems - Department of Industrial Engineering - University of Santiago of Chile); Mechthild Donner (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Paulo Brito (Politécnico de Portalegre = Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre); Anthony Halog (School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland); Antonio C. de Francisco (LDSPS - Laboratory for the Development of Sustainable Production Systems - Department of Industrial Engineering - University of Santiago of Chile)
    Abstract: High rates of resource consumption and waste generation have put pressure on environmental systems and one of the solutions to this concerning behavior is a circular bioeconomy (CBE). However, for a CBE to succeed, new businesses and business models are needed, for which many drawbacks might be faced. Therefore, this article aimed (i) to identify the drivers, opportunities, challenges, and barriers for businesses in a CBE both from theoretical and practical perspectives, and (ii) to present the regional differences in those aspects for different continents. A mixed-method approach was adopted, comprising a systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews with 32 organizations from 18 countries in 4 continents (Africa, America, Australia, and Europe). Eight barriers and twenty challenges, as well as fifteen drivers and eight opportunities were identified. The main barrier and challenge pointed out by stakeholders were lack of financial resources/capital, and price competitiveness with traditional/linear product offers. The most prominent driver and opportunity were establishment of public policies/governmental support, and waste recovery. Regional aspects of CBEs (by continent) were also identified. Advancing CBEs requires setting strategies to overcome the lack of financial resources/capital, developing and/or making the adequate technology available locally, and enabling price competitiveness with traditional (linear and non-renewable-based) options. This study also unveils a series of managerial and business implications. There is the risk of rebound effects, such as waste becoming mainstream feedstock and bioproducts being introduced to the market on low-price strategies, thus triggering increased consumption. Premium pricing strategies need to be considered for bio-based products (compared with non-bio-based products). Moreover, technological development plays a role in driving innovation, and pioneers might lead the development of policies. For CBE systems to succeed there needs to be further technological development and greater connection among the actors in the value chain, converging in resilient circular business models for a CBE.
    Keywords: circular business model,bioeconomy,circular economy,circular bioeconomy,sustainable production,sustainable consumption
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03657626&r=
  45. By: Woodhill, Jim; Kishore, Avinash; Njuki, Jemimah; Jones, Kristal; Hasnain, Saher
    Abstract: Creating a policy landscape that aligns rural poverty alleviation with food systems transformation requires a better understanding of: the wide set of inequalities and vulnerabilities affecting poverty and hunger; the diversity of rural households; and the impact of rapid structural changes in markets, the environment, and the political economic context. This paper provides a framework for assessing the dynamics of rural wellbeing and food systems change. It provides a synthesis of over 840 recommendations made in recent international reports on the linkages between food systems and rural development. It also looks at the viability of small-scale farming and the diversification of livelihood options needed to overcome rural poverty and inequality.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:unadrs:321943&r=
  46. By: Atwood, Lesley
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321117&r=
  47. By: Lanclos, Kent
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321126&r=
  48. By: Coralie KERSULEC; Luc DOYEN
    Abstract: The increasing consumption of seafood products raises concerns over the sustainability of marine ecosystems. We examine the role of consumer preferences on seafood demand and consequently on the sustainability of fisheries. Our analysis relies on a bio-economic model combining a demand derived from a CES utility depending on different fish species, a mixed fishery supply based on the Schaefer production function, a market equilibrium and a multispecies resource-based dynamics. Using both a steady-state approach and bio-economic viability goals, we identify analytical conditions on consumer preferences making it possible to balance biodiversity conservation with viable profits. We derive policy recommendations in terms of eco-labels for the sustainability of fisheries and the underlying seafood system. We exemplify the analytical results with the coastal fishery in French Guiana.
    Keywords: Biodiversity, Multi-species fishery, Sustainability, Ecolabel, CES utility function, Consumer preferences, Food systems, Viability goals; Bioeconomics.
    JEL: Q21 Q22 Q57
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:grt:bdxewp:2022-10&r=
  49. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the multinational oil companies' (MOCs) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on gender difference in nutrition and health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 800 women respondents were sampled across the rural areas of the Niger Delta region. The results from the use of a combined propensity score matching and logit model indicate that CSR of the MOCs using GMoU model has made significant success in closing the gender difference in nutrition and health in agricultural household in the Niger Delta region. The findings also show that mainstreaming gender in nutrition within the field of agriculture is a critical aspect of strengthening gender and nutrition/health linkages, in recognition of women substantial contribution to agriculture production and their central role in household food collection, preservation/processing and preparation. This suggest that mainstreaming gender in nutrition offers opportunities to integrate agriculture and health approaches in GMoU projects, which will require increased collaboration and coordination between the MOCs’ and CBD clusters in the field of gender and nutrition to exploit existing complementary and comparative advantages, and to apply a holistic approach in host communities. This implies that gender and nutrition/health have multiple dimensions and are highly context-specific; and the pathway towards improved food and nutrition security for all should be a gender-equitable process incorporated in CSR programmes and projects in sub-Saharan Africa. This research contributes to the gender debate in agriculture from a CSR perspective in developing countries and rationale for demands for social project by host communities. It concludes that business has an obligation to help in solving problems of public concern.
    Keywords: Gender, nutrition and health, agricultural households, corporate social responsibility, multinational oil companies, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:agd:wpaper:22/042&r=
  50. By: Thomas Bonvillain (I4CE - Institut de l’Économie pour le Climat); Claudine Foucherot (I4CE - Institut de l’Économie pour le Climat); Valentin Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: French agriculture lacks the capacity to single-handedly address the many challenges it faces. Its necessary transformation can only proceed if additional external funding is made available. Carbon certification frameworks, by providing guarantees on the veracity of emission reductions (ER) and the additionality of projects, are one of the tools to provide new financial resources to the sector. France has had its own carbon certification framework since 2018, overseen by the Ministry of the Ecological Transition: the French Low-Carbon Standard (Label Bas-Carbone, LBC)1. The development of sectoral methodologies is progressing rapidly and projects have already received the standard, but it has become apparent that several clarifications are necessary to facilitate the financing of agricultural projects by agribusinesses. A recurring question asked by potential funders is "What am I allowed to say and do when financing certified low-carbon projects?" And underlying this question are many others: are there double counting problems surrounding voluntary credits and State inventories? Is there a need to distinguish between ER from inside or outside the value chain in the context of a carbon offset approach? What are the best methods of project communication when several funders are involved? These questions are not specific to the LBC, as they concern the functioning of all voluntary carbon markets, and nor are they new. However, they remain topical and are even the subject of numerous international debates, although no consensus has been reached. Paradoxically, these discussions, held in the pursuit of rigour and raising ambitions, are delaying the financing of projects. In the short term it is therefore necessary to provide operational answers to funders, at least in the specific LBC context. In France, these issues have mainly been raised by the agri-food industries, which is why this document focuses specifically on this sector. Taking this into account, the aim of this study is to provide practical answers to agri-food companies that are wondering what they are entitled to say or do when financing projects within the LBC framework. Through an analysis of five project funding case types, we make recommendations on the structuring of the carbon assessment and reporting with which financing companies can engage, whether through a carbon offsetting approach or a contribution to the climate effort. These technical recommendations made for each case type stem from three general recommendations: when financing low-carbon projects, one must seek to be cooperative, pragmatic and transparent. Cooperation Neither the private sector nor the State alone has the means to finance all the projects needed to achieve the objectives that France has set itself in the framework of the Paris Agreement. Partnerships between value chains, between industrial sectors, between territories, between the private and public sectors, should be facilitated and encouraged to finance as many projects as possible. Presenting oneself as the sole beneficiary of a financed project in terms of carbon accounting is often misleading and can be detrimental to project development. In the carbon field, everyone benefits from the actions of others. So much the better if "collateral benefits", such as Scope 3 reductions for a third party, occur during a project's implementation. But beware: only funders can claim responsibility for ER. Pragmatism Guidelines cannot be based on rules that are unverifiable in practice, as we see for the issue of double counting between Scope 3 carbon reporting and voluntary credits. It must be remembered that the framework within which companies act on climate change inherently involves a degree of uncertainty, which is limited and controlled, but nevertheless real. Perfect is the enemy of good: the search for rigour and high standards must not be at the expense of project funding. Transparency Transparency is the most important point and the counterpart of the first two. Being transparent about actions undertaken is the best guarantee of credibility regarding climate impact. Agribusinesses must first make a clear distinction between their carbon reporting on the one hand, and the ER purchased or financed by the organisation on the other. Furthermore, they should report not only in tCO2e, the commonly used indicator, but also in euros, to show the amount spent on project financing. This provides additional information. Ideally, both figures should be provided, and not one or the other. Indeed, a contribution made at a carbon credit price of 5 euros, for example, is not equal to one with a credit price of 100 euros. Finally, a funder's communication should not anticipate the certification of ER. As soon as funding has been committed, it is possible to report in terms of euros. However, it is not until ER have been acknowledged by the Ministry that the volume of ER can be made public.
    Keywords: Carbon offsetting,Communication,Label Bas-Carbone,Low-carbon standard,Agriculture
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03613848&r=
  51. By: Grant, Jason
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321103&r=
  52. By: Takashi Kurosaki; Saumik Paul; Firman Witoelar
    Abstract: Do local institutions influence the nature of political clientelistic exchange? We find a positive answer in the context of a village institution prevalent in Java since the Dutch colonial rule, where democratically elected village heads receive usufruct rights over a piece of communal village land (bengkok land) as a compensation for their service in lieu of salary. To formulate how limited-term private ownership of bengkok land promotes clientelism, we model a timely delegation of agricultural tenancy contracts to villagers-cum-voters as an incumbent re-election strategy. Based on a household survey fielded in 2018 across 130 villages in Java, Indonesia, we find that the chances of a bengkok plot being rented out increase by 6 percentage points as the time of the next election becomes closer by one year, and sharecropping is preferred to a fixed-rental contract as the election approaches. The empirical results are statistically significant and remain largely unchanged against a series of robustness checks. We also find suggestive evidence of short-term efficiency loss from clientelistic politics over bengkok land.
    Keywords: tanah bengkok, political budget cycle, clientelism, agricultural tenancy, electoral competition, Indonesia.
    JEL: D72 H77 H83 O17 O18
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2021-20&r=
  53. By: Peter Warr
    Abstract: Total factor productivity growth contributed 38 per cent of Indonesia’s agricultural output growth from the mid-1970s to the mid-2000s. This study uses time series data analysed with the error correction mechanism to examine the contribution of Indonesian publicly funded agricultural research to this outcome, allowing for other possible determinants of productivity growth, including international agricultural research, extension, government price policy and weather. The results imply a 27% real annual rate of return from a marginal increase in Indonesian agricultural research expenditure. Indonesia’s public agricultural research explains virtually all of its agricultural total factor productivity growth between 1975 and 2006.
    Keywords: Agricultural research; Indonesia; error correction mechanism.
    JEL: O13 O33 C22
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2022-02&r=
  54. By: Dubois, Magalie
    Abstract: Most economic studies on expert wine evaluation focus on this evaluation as a determinant of wine prices, whereas most management research on the topic tackles its impact on the perception of wine quality: wine consumers use expert evaluation as an external quality cue. In the present research, we intend to fill the gap in valuation studies. We propose a first extensive exploration and categorization of five decades of research on wine quality signaling and evaluation through market analysis. We review the emergence and evolution of a consumer- oriented wine evaluation market, providing a critical account of demand, and unveil the market structure and mechanisms. The parallel development of scientific knowledge and technical practices over the last few decades has had a significant impact on wine quality definition and evaluation. It also influenced the way consumers obtain information about wine quality. We provide a historical perspective, exploring the emergence and standardization of wine quality evaluation and identifying the 1970s as the turning point from a production-driven market to a consumer-oriented one. Important changes are afoot on the market for wine evaluation: in areas traditionally set aside for experts, the roles of social media and experts have evolved meaningfully over the past decade with the growing self-confidence and self-reliance of wine consumers and the disappearance of the demarcation between marketplace and prescription.
    Keywords: Marketing, Agribusiness
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321855&r=
  55. By: Reynolds, Taylor
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321019&r=
  56. By: Hughes, David W.
    Abstract: This publication presents an analysis of recent trends for the Tennessee wine and grape industries. Growth in both the wine and grape sectors has been substantial but has recently slowed. These sectors have begun to lag behind those of key neighboring states. The data for these states are also presented for purposes of comparison. The COVID-19 pandemic has important implications for the Tennessee industry. A set of policy recommendations aimed at leveling the playing field for Tennessee’s wine and grape industry with that of other states, bolstering sales, and increasing production of Tennessee wines and Tennessee grapes are also made.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2020–08–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:321274&r=
  57. By: Forber, Gareth
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321115&r=
  58. By: Puga, German; Anderson, Kym; Jones, Gregory; Tchatoka, Firmin Doko; Umberger, Wendy
    Abstract: Using a dataset with 16 climate variables for locations representing 813 wine regions that cover 99% of the world’s winegrape area, we employ principal component analysis (PCA) for data reduction and cluster analysis for grouping similar regions. The PCA resulted in three components explaining 89% of the variation in the data, with loadings that differentiate between locations that are warm/dry from cool/wet, low from high diurnal temperature ranges, low from high nighttime temperatures during ripening, and low from high vapor pressure deficits. The cluster analysis, based on these three principal components, resulted in three clusters defining wine regions globally with the results showing that premium wine regions can be found across each of the climate types. This is, to our knowledge, the first such classification of virtually all of the world’s wine regions. However, with both climate change and an increasing preference for premium relative to non-premium wines, many of the world’s winegrowers may need to change their mixes of varieties, or source more of their grapes from more-appropriate climates.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321845&r=
  59. By: Armbruster, Kari
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321021&r=
  60. By: Isabelle Tsakok
    Abstract: Oil dominates Nigeria’s economy- “Africa’s Giant†. Oil revenues are both a blessing and a curse: a blessing because they are the single most important contributor to government revenues; a curse because, through the Dutch Disease, they undermine the productivity and competitiveness of other non-oil sectors, primarily agriculture and agri-processing; and manufacturing, two major sources of non-oil employment and incomes. Since Nigerian governments did not try to counter the Dutch Disease, Nigeria’s food systems have remained low productivity, a refuge for the majority of poor and vulnerable worsening overall poverty. The COVID-19 pandemic, closely followed by the widespread global supply chain dislocations and high inflation aggravated by the Russian invasion of Ukraine, has exacerbated an already difficult situation for Nigeria. To achieve its ambition of substantially reducing poverty by 2030, Nigeria must overcome daunting challenges on multiple fronts, e.g., governance, fiscal, socio-political and environmental. Whatever success is achieved along these fronts will have significant implications for its food systems and food security.
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ocp:ppaper:pb41-22&r=
  61. By: O’Boyle, Edward J.
    Abstract: Among the Jewish people wine has been a symbol of joy and so significant in their sacred rituals that on feast days they were obligated to see that everyone regardless of means was provided for. Among Christians wine in abundance dates from the marriage feast at Cana. In the following we address sacramental wine from a secular perspective. Our efforts are intended to answer the following questions. What types and brands of sacramental wine are produced, who are the producers, and how much do they charge? What procedures are used by the Roman Catholic Church to validate the wine for use at Mass? How is the wine marketed and distributed? It’s not so much the technology behind the process that differentiates wine for sacramental use from wine for secular use. It’s the people and their connectedness to the end use of the wine. Our research leads to three principal conclusions. First, the production of sacramental wine is in the hands of five vineyards and wineries that likely will remain in production for some time to come: Cribari, Joseph Filippi, Mont La Salle, O-Neh-Da, and San Antonio. Second, the distribution of altar wine through Catholic supply stores also appears to the assured for years to come, though some may fail under competitive pressure from direct sales, supermarkets, and other wine-specialty stores. Third, retail prices today for sacramental wines and mustum are relatively inexpensive, ranging from $60 to $80 per case. Our research leads to three unanswered issues. First, do all wines labeled “altar wine” or “sacramental wine” comply with the Church’s validation specifications? Second, how big is the market for sacramental wine? Third, which winery is the oldest producer of sacramental wine?
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321854&r=
  62. By: Oczkowski, Edward
    Abstract: A vast body of literature exists on estimating hedonic price functions which relate the price of wine to its attributes. Some studies have employed producer specific variables such as quantity sold and producer reputation in hedonic functions to potentially capture supply influences on prices. This paper recognizes that the original Rosen (1974) hedonic theoretic framework excludes producer specific variables from the hedonic price function and justifies their inclusion only for second-stage attribute supply estimation. We use the two-stage Rosen approach employing data from multi-markets for the same wines to identify supply functions. The application to Australian produced wines demonstrates the importance of a wine's quality and age as attributes in inverse supply functions. Counter to expectations a direct relation between producer size and marginal attribute costs is estimated which appears to be due to the method employed rather than the peculiarities of the data.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321856&r=
  63. By: Itle, Cortney
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321135&r=
  64. By: Curzi, Daniele; Nota, Paolo; Di Falco, Salvatore
    Abstract: Post–harvest losses (PHL) are particularly critical for developing countries. This is especially evident in Sub-Saharan (SSA) countries, where PHL are estimated to be about 37% of the total food production. Climate is a core determinant of cereal losses, as biodeterioration factors are sensitive to the temperature and humidity. In this paper we analyse to what extent climatic conditions affect PHL. The analysis considers Sub-Saharan countries and focuses on maize production over the period 2000-2020 period. Data on PHL are taken from APHLIS (African Postharvest Losses Information System), which represents a network of cereals and grain experts in SSA countries. Data collected by APHLIS are aimed at improving existing aggregated data on PHL (e.g. FAO data). PHL data quantify the percentage loss for each phase of the post-harvest chain. APHLIS has some unique characteristics, as it provides PHL at the province (Administrative 1 - ADM1) level over time. The main results of our analysis suggest that humidity is the most relevant determinant of PHL in this region. Our results are relevant, especially if we consider the future instability of the climate in this area.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321219&r=
  65. By: Tonsor, Glynn
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:320987&r=
  66. By: Ambler, Kate; de Brauw, Alan; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Pulido, Cristhian
    Abstract: The midstream of agricultural value chains are rapidly changing in response to shifting domestic and international demand. While the performance of this segment may have important implications for the entire sector, evidence on midstream actors and their financial needs remain thin. We use data from both the Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture and the World Bank Enterprise Survey from seven African countries to identify these agricultural midstream firms and assess their access to formal credit, comparing them to other, non-agricultural midstream firms. We find that the identified agricultural midstream firms are larger and more productive than their non-agricultural midstream counterparts and are less likely to report barriers to accessing credit, though overall access levels remain low. Among agricultural midstream firms, those owned or managed by women are more likely to report barriers to accessing credit. Taken together, these findings help build our understanding about the financial needs of micro-, small-, and medium-size enterprises in the agricultural midstream.
    Keywords: AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; CENTRAL AFRICA; EAST AFRICA; NORTH AFRICA; SOUTHERN AFRICA; WEST AFRICA; financial institutions; agro-industry; World Bank; surveys; value chains; demand; credit; enterprises; small and medium enterprises; finance
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2125&r=
  67. By: Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.
    Abstract: Price risk is a primary source of risk for cattle producers. Larger cattle operations have traditionally managed this risk using futures and options contracts. However, futures and options contracts are traded in 50,000-pound increments, which makes these tools inefficient for producers marketing less than 50,000-pounds at one time. An alternative for managing price risk is Livestock Risk Protection insurance (LRP). LRP can be used to manage price risk on as few as one animal, and it pays policyholders at the time of policy expiration if a cash price index is lower than the insured price, which is set when the policy is purchased. LRP is flexible in that several coverage levels and endorsement lengths (period) are available each day. Premiums for LRP increase as coverage level (coverage price) and endorsement length (number of weeks in the future in which to insure a price) increase. Coverage levels range from 70 to 100 percent of the expected ending value and when multiplied by the expected ending value, result in the coverage price. For more specifics on LRP, please refer to Griffith, 2021. When the LRP program was initiated, insurance premiums received a 13 percent subsidy. Nonetheless, at this subsidy rate, LRP policies were expensive and would only pay indemnities when prices would rapidly decline in a short period (Merritt et al. 2017). Subsidy rates were increased in both 2019 and 2020. The new subsidy rate structure is a 35 percent subsidy for a coverage level between 95 and 100 percent, 40 percent for coverage between 90 and 94.99 percent, 45 percent for coverage between 85 and 89.99 percent, 50 percent for coverage between 80 and 84.99 percent, and 55 percent for coverage between 70 and 79.99 percent (USDA RMA, 2021a). The objective of this research was to determine the impact of the 2020 LRP subsidy rate change on price protection for feeder cattle, and determine the probability of the LRP insured price being greater than the actual ending price (e.g., an indemnity being paid). These results could help cow-calf and stocker producers identify the contract that best fits their needs.
    Keywords: Marketing, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–06–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:321273&r=
  68. By: Muhammad Ayaz (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Mazhar Mughal (ESC PAU - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce, Pau Business School, TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this study, we draw a theoretical model to demonstrate that small farms achieve lower total factor productivity (TFP) compared to large farms, even though their yield may be higher. We argue that taking into account family labor modifies the farm size-productivity relationship. We test our hypotheses on geocoded data from 5,645 agriculture farms in Pakistan using Pakistan household integrated economic survey 2018-19 and labor force survey 2018 combined with remote sensing data to account for farm-specific topographic features. We base our analysis on OLS and stochastic frontier analysis. We find that family labor is the key to understanding the nature and strength of the farm size-productivity relationship. Farm size's association, both with yield and TFP, turns positive when we measure family labor in terms of market wage rate rather than marginal product. Farm yield decreases by-0.07% with a one percent increase in farm size but gets insignificant or increases by 0.034% when family labor cost is measured at market wages rather than the marginal product. We find that higher family labor intensity, labor market distortion due to the notion of family dishonor, and suboptimal crop selection by small farms play a crucial role in this context.
    Keywords: technical efficiency,family dishonor,TFP,family labor,productivity,Farm size,Pakistan.
    Date: 2022–05–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03669234&r=
  69. By: Marianne Lefebvre (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Masha Maslianskaia-Pautrel (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Pauline Laille (Plante & Cité)
    Abstract: Adaptation of urban green spaces (UGSs) to allow their maintenance without pesticides is likely to impact the value attached to these green infrastructures by urban citizens. To understand citizens' preferences for UGSs in this context, a Discrete Choice Experiment was administered in France in 2017, when a pesticide ban in all UGSs was implemented. It allows evaluating the impact on citizens' welfare of different UGSs management scenarios without pesticides. The scenario offering new recreational opportunities is by far the most valued by citizens. Only a minority is worse-off in the "laisser-faire" scenario, where the vegetation is much less controlled. Citizens suffer from welfare losses in the scenario "apparently as before" since it comes at the cost of deteriorated working conditions for maintenance teams. The policy recommendations drawn can contribute to greater social acceptance of the transition towards pesticide-free UGSs.
    Keywords: JEL classification : Q24,Choice experiment,France,Pesticides,Urban green spaces,Welfare measure
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03694169&r=
  70. By: Gergaud, Olivier; Ginsburgh, Victor; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.
    Abstract: In this short note, we show that the results of the famous 1976 Judgment of Paris, a blind wine tasting of ten wines by eleven judges which ranked a Californian wine, Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars as first, do no longer hold. The “best” wines are French (Château Haut-Brion, Château Léoville Las Cases, and Château Mouton Rothschild). Two Californian wines (Ridge Vineyards Monte Bello and Heitz Wine Cellars) are very close to some of the Great Grands Crus de Bordeaux, but Stag’s Leap is far behind. It is not celar what happened. Either the wine was overated in 1976, or its quality decreased over time.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321844&r=
  71. By: Kym Anderson; Sundar Ponnusamy
    Abstract: An understanding of how and why economies structurally transform away from agriculture as they grow is crucial for developing sensible farm and food policies. Typically, analysts who study this and related structural change issues focus on sectoral shares of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment. This paper draws on trade theory to focus as well on exports. It also notes that the trade costs of some products are too high at early stages of development to make international trade profitable, so a nontradables sector is recognized. The general equilibrium model presented in the theory section provides hypotheses about structural change in differently endowed economies as they grow. Those hypotheses are tested econometrically with a new annual endowments dataset covering 1995 to 2018 for more than 130 countries, a period when trade restrictions were at their lowest for at least a century. The results are consistent with long run de-agriculturalization in terms of sectoral shares of GDP and employment in the course of national economic growth. But a decline in agriculture’s share of exports in every country is not inevitable. Moreover, policies can be designed to support growth-enhancing and welfare-improving structural transformation without harming agricultural exporters and distorting world trade in farm products.
    Keywords: patterns of structural change, de-agriculturalization, comparative advantage, farm productivity growth
    JEL: F11 F43 F63 N50 O14
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2022-04&r=
  72. By: Fadia Panosetti; Laurence Roudart
    Date: 2022–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/344648&r=
  73. By: Griff, Lance
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321109&r=
  74. By: Orts, William
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321098&r=
  75. By: Masters, Barbara
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:320983&r=
  76. By: Marsden, Sandra
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321005&r=
  77. By: María del Pilar López-Uribe; Fabio Sanchez Torres
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between land dispossessions of peasants and the origin of the civil conflict in Colombia. Using a matching-pair instrumental variable approach, we show that the historical dispossession of peasants' lands by landlords that led to the rise of peasant grievances is associated with the activity of the rural guerrilla movement -Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (FARC) - during the first stage of the Colombian civil conflict ( 1964-1985). We exploit the random variation in floods to identify the effect of peasants' land dispossessions during 1914-1946 on the rise of rural guerrilla movements. Using a novel municipal-level data set, the study documents that municipalities experiencing floods b etween 1914 and 1946 were substantially more likely to experience land dispossession than municipalities that did not. Floods temporarily worsened the conditions of the land and its value, facilitating the dispossession of peasant land by large landowners. We propose two mechanisms through which previous land dispossession resulted in the emergence of rebel-armed groups. On the one hand, the ideological cohesion stemming from radical liberals and communists exacerbated the grievances and helped to shape the political objectives of the rebel armed groups. On the other hand, exposure to prior violent events gave military training, access to weapons, and military experience to the rural population, that likely emboldened the formation of rebel groups.
    Keywords: Land reform, Land Conflict, Property Rights, Weather shocks, Civil Conflict.
    JEL: N46 N56 D74
    Date: 2022–06–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000089:020225&r=
  78. By: Chikumbi, Lydia; Scasny, Milan
    Abstract: The approach and survey used to examine non-market value in a stated preference study can influence the outcomes and impact the validity and reliability of value estimates. While prior research has investigated the impact of 'price framing' on decision-making in other disciplines, (i.e. marketing & psychology), little is known about its validity and reliability in Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) and environmental valuation. The study explores the effect of 'price framing' on DCE measurements. The tests are carried out using data from a choice experiment on preferences for natural preservatives in wine. The same respondents completed a nearly identical DCE survey, one with a real price and another with a percentage price change as cost attribute. 611 respondents completed the survey, and a panel mixed logit model was used for the analysis. Results demonstrate that 'price framing' remarkably influenced respondents WTP changes in attributes. The data reveals that while the rank order of importance of attributes, signs, and significance levels are similar for the two samples, they differ in the parameter magnitudes. The study sheds light on the establishment of guidelines for developing valid cost attributes in DCEs studies.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Agribusiness
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321843&r=
  79. By: Borman, Julia
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321108&r=
  80. By: Tschirley, Dave
    Abstract: During Year 2, the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy Research, Capacity, & Influence (PRCI) consolidated its operations under the continuing limitations imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. As the year ended, the Lab was beginning to see the reduction of COVID risks that could allow it to re-start travel and enter a new, hybrid phase of operations that promises even greater efficiency and effectiveness in what we do. PRCI exceeded targets in all five of the indicators for which targets had been set for Year 2. In addition, the Lab achieved five institutional architecture milestones and had 18 studies in phase 1 of policy development (“under research”) and 11 in Phase 3 (“made available for update”). The Lab completed its first cohorts of mentored research and training under the Core Center program and under the STAAARS+ fellowship program. A new STAAARS+ competition was held, four new teams of fellows were selected, and mentors and co-mentors were assigned to each. Mentors for cohort 2 expanded to include representatives from all three stateside PRCI partners: Cornell, MSU, and IFPRI. For cohort 2 Core Center technical training, program leaders conducted a qualitative needs assessment and began laying out a technical training program that responded to these needs while taking advantage of the publicly accessible material developed for cohort 1. Buy-ins were a major story for PRCI in Year 2. The Lab wrapped-up its buy-in with the Mozambique mission with a report that was very well received and that the mission made available to every bidder on its agricultural and nutrition sector RFAs. The Lab received research-oriented buy-ins of $500,000 each from the RFS Center for Nutrition for work (being done in collaboration with Tegemeo Institute and other partners) on food systems and nutrition, and from the Center for Resilience for work (shared with IFPRI) on policies and programmatic investments to promote resilience to climate change. As the year was closing, two buy-ins, each for $1 million, were received. One featured joint funding from the Center for Resilience and the Africa Bureau for CACCI – the Comprehensive Africa Climate Change Initiative that will build capacity and spur action on the ground to help African countries respond to their climate commitments under the Paris Agreement while increasing the resilience of their food and agricultural value chains. The second $1 million buy-in was from the USAID/Malawi mission to continue previous support under other funding to MwAPATA, a local policy research center started two years ago with technical support from MSU. This set of buy-ins will dramatically increase PRCI’s research footprint. PRCI’s partners in Asia and Africa increased their capacity and extended their reach for policy influence and building of capacity in their region, both key goals of PRCI. PRCI saw a big advance in its Asia training and research during Year 2. Professionals from five centers (in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Laos) used the training they had received on trade flow analysis at the end of Year 1 to develop research papers (all nearly finalized by the end of Year 2 but posted publicly only at the beginning of Year 3) on locally decided topics. Kasetsart University (KU) in Thailand played a major role in the training, beginning the process of extending its engagement regionally – a key objective of KU under PRCI and in keeping with the Lab’s approach of “building capacity to build capacity”. KU also began planning, with PRCI support, a second step in its regional outreach – leading the preparation of a regional conference in May 2022 that draws on those involved in PRCI research and beyond. ReNAPRI saw a major rise in its profile on the continent thanks in part to PRCI support. The strategic planning that PRCI supported in Year 1 segued to detailed research planning at the start of Year 2. With an effective Secretariat in place due to PRCI financial support, ReNAPRI was able to serve as co-leader of the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA’s) 2021 African Agricultural Status Report (AASR), as co-leader of preparations for the Abuja II summit of fertilizer and soil health, and as leader of an AGRA-sponsored study of policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic finished by the end of 2020. As the year was closing, ReNAPRI was chosen as a co-lead, with AKADEMIYA2063 and under the auspices of the African Union Commission, of CACCI. As a result of its strategic planning under PRCI’s institutional capacity strengthening effort (PICA), CPEEL in Nigeria was able to realize the vision it first laid out in its winning proposal to PRCI in year 1 to launch PiLAF – the Innovation Lab for Policy Leadership in Agriculture and Food Security as a unit within CPEEL focusing on the food and agriculture sector. PiLAF launched its activities with extensive structured engagement with stakeholders in the country’s poultry value chain as a precursor to research it is planning in that area. Capping off the institutional strengthening portion of PRCI’s work, the Lab wrapped-up the intensive phase of the PICA Process, working with all three CPLs to finalize their strategic plans and budgets. Full funding based on this work was put I place for all three CPLs early in Year 3.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–01–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miprar:322044&r=
  81. By: Hughes, Kai
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321016&r=
  82. By: Daniel Mirza (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans [2022-...] - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours - Université de Clermont-Ferrand, UT - Université de Tours, CEPII - Centre d'études prospectives et d'informations internationales); Elena Stancanelli (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Thierry Verdier (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This paper adds to the scant literature on the impact of terrorism on consumer behavior, focusing on household spending on goods that are sensitive to brain-stress neurocircuitry. These include sweet-and fat-rich foods but also home necessities and female-personal-hygiene products, the only female-targeted good in our data. We examine unique continuous in-homescanner expenditure data for a representative sample of about 15,000 French households, observed in the days before and after the terrorist attack at the Bataclan concert-hall. We find that the attack increased expenditure on sugar-rich food by over 5% but not that on salty food or soda drinks. Spending on home maintenance products went up by almost 9%. We detect an increase of 23.5% in expenditure on women's personal hygiene products. We conclude that these effects are short-lived and driven by the responses of households with children, youths, and those residing within a few-hours ride of the place of the attack.
    Keywords: Conflict economics,Household economics,Stress,Food Consumption
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-03659739&r=
  83. By: Michaël Goujon (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Olivier Santoni (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Laurent Wagner (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International)
    Abstract: The Physical Vulnerability to Climate Change Index (Feindouno et al., 2020) is a composite indicator computed at country level (191 countries) that can be used for the identification of the most vulnerable countries and as a criterion for guiding the international allocation of resources for adaptation. In this paper we present the details of the computation of the PVCCI at the sub-national level (2nd sub-national administrative level in the GADM database), representing 47,138 administrative units in the World (covering all land but Antarctica). It aims at measuring vulnerability to climate change at a finer geographic level, which is particularly relevant for countries that are characterized by high geoclimatic diversity. It would help identify the most vulnerable subnational administrative units and could be used as an instrument of adaptation planning.
    Keywords: Vulnerability index,Climate change
    Date: 2022–05–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03672203&r=
  84. By: Meloni, Giulia; Swinnen, Johan
    Abstract: Globalization transforms not just the economics of production and exchange in the world, but also the political economy of public policies. We analyze how wine regulations, and more specifically planting rights restrictions, have been affected by globalization, in particular colonial expansions of wine producing empires. We study several historic cases and find that (a) planting right restrictions and compulsory uprooting of vineyards are introduced to deal with falling wine prices as colonial wine production takes off and expands; (b) that enforcement of the restrictions and uprooting was difficult and often imperfect; and (c) that there was a strong persistence of the policies: after their introduction the restrictions remain in place for a long time (often centuries) and they are only removed after major shocks to the political economy equilibrium.
    Keywords: Political Economy, Marketing
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321850&r=
  85. By: Finger, Robert; Wüpper, David; McCallum, Chloe
    Abstract: We test and quantify the (in)stability of farmer risk preferences, accounting for both the instability across elicitation methods and the instability over time. We used repeated measurements (N=1530) with Swiss fruit and grapevine producers over 3 years, where different risk preference elicitation methods (domain-specific self-assessment and incentivized lotteries) were used. We find that farmers’ risk preferences change considerably when measured using different methods. For example, self-reported risk preference and findings from a Holt and Laury lottery correlate only weakly (correlation coefficients range from 0.06 to 0.23). Moreover, we find that risk preferences vary considerable over time too, i.e. applying the same elicitation method to the same farmer in a different point in time results in different risk preference estimates. Our results show self-reported risk preferences are moderately correlated (correlation coefficients range from 0.42 to 0.55) from one year to another. Finally, we find experiencing climate and pest related crop damages is associated with farmers becoming more risk loving.
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321196&r=
  86. By: Castriota, Stefano; Corsi, Stefano; Frumento, Paolo Dyno; Ruggeri, Giordano
    Abstract: We use data from Wine Spectator on 266,301 bottles from 12 countries sold in the United States to investigate the link between the score awarded by the guide and the price charged. In line with the literature, the link between quality and price is positive. In a deeper inspection, however, hedonic regressions show that the price premium attached to higher quality is significant only for “superstar” wines with more than 90 points (in a 50-100 scale), while prices of wines between 50 and 90 points are not statistically different from each other. Furthermore, an analysis performed through normal heteroskedastic and quantile regression models shows that the dispersion of quality-adjusted prices is described by an asymmetric U-shaped function of the score; that is, products with the lowest and highest quality have the highest residual standard deviation. Pursuing excellence is a risky strategy: the average price is significantly higher only for wines that achieve top scores, and the price premium becomes more volatile.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321846&r=
  87. By: Francesco Vona (University of Milan, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and OFCE Sciences-Po); Francesco Bontadini (OFCE Sciences-Po, LUISS Guido Carli University and SPRU – University of Sussex)
    Abstract: We study green specialisation across EU countries and detailed 4-digit industrial sectors over the period of 1995-2015 by harmonizing product-level data (PRODCOM). We propose a new list of green goods that refines lists proposed by international organizations by excluding goods with double usage. Our analysis reveals important structural characteristics of green specialisation in the manufacturing sector. First, green production is highly concentrated, with 13 out of 119 4-digit industries, which are high-tech and account for nearly 95% of the total. Second, green and polluting productions do not occur in the same sectors, and countries specialise in either green or brown sectors. Third, our econometric analysis identifies three key drivers of green specialisation: (i) first-mover advantage and high persistence of green specialisation, (ii) complementarity with non-green capabilities and (iii) the degree of diversification of green capabilities. Importantly, once we control for these drivers, environmental policies are not anymore positively associated with green specialisation.
    Keywords: Green goods, green specialisation, environmental policies, complementarity, path dependency
    JEL: Q55 L60 O44
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2022.14&r=
  88. By: Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Adrien Fabre; Tobias Kruse; Bluebery Planterose; Ana Sanchez Chico; Stefanie Stantcheva
    Abstract: Using new surveys on more than 40 000 respondents in twenty countries that account for 72% of global CO2 emissions, we study the understanding of and attitudes toward climate change and climate policies. We show that, across countries, support for climate policies hinges on three key factors: the perceived effectiveness of the policies in reducing emissions, their perceived distributional impacts on lower-income households (inequality concerns), and their own household’s gains and losses. We also show that information that specifically addresses these key concerns can substantially increase the support for climate policies in many countries. Explaining how policies work and who can benefit from them is critical to foster policy support. Simply making people more worried about climate change is not an effective strategy to foster policy support. Furthermore, we identify several socioeconomic and lifestyle factors – most notably education, political leanings, car usage, and availability of public transportation – that are significantly correlated with both policy views and overall reasoning and beliefs about climate policies. Yet, it is difficult to predict beliefs or policy views based on these characteristics only.
    Keywords: carbon tax, climate change, climate policies, experiment, perceptions, survey
    JEL: D78 H23 Q54 Q58 P48
    Date: 2022–07–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:1714-en&r=
  89. By: Akaichi, Faical; Toma, Luiza
    Abstract: The demand for fruit and vegetable boxes (FVB) has increased sharply (111%) as a result of the Covid19 pandemic. Nonetheless, there is a growing fear that FVB schemes may increase food waste at home as, for example, many of the available fruit and veg boxes are not fully customisable. A choice experiment-based survey with 500 Scottish consumers was conducted to estimate consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay for strategies (e.g., completely customisable fruit and veg boxes) that can help reduce food waste that may result from the purchase and use of FVB. The preliminary results showed that customisability is a major barrier that is deterring over 76% of consumers from buying FVB. The sample consumers were found to be willing to pay a substantial price premium to improve the customisability of the FVB. Other FVB’s attributes that are frequently promoted by the sellers of FVB were found to be significantly less valued by 37% of the sampled Scottish consumers.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321234&r=
  90. By: De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan
    Abstract: It is easy enough to calculate how much the Government of Malawi spends on subsidizing chemical fertilizer. Last year, for example, this was MWK 120 billion (about US$ 150 million) taking up over 50% of the agricultural budget. It is much harder, however, to calculate the benefits that these subsidies bring about and how they stack up against the costs. In this policy note, we combine multiple methods and sources of data to narrow down the range of possible benefit estimates, compare it to the cost of subsidies, and propose changes to current policies to make fertilizer subsidies more efficient and affordable.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; fertilizers; subsidies; yields; maize; farmers; policies
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspn:46&r=
  91. By: Paul Hindsley; O. Ashton Morgan; John C. Whitehead
    Abstract: This paper investigates recreational divers’ preferences for artificial reef diving and willingness to pay (WTP) for large ship, artificial reef site attributes in the Florida Keys. We investigate diver demand for existing decommissioned ships that have been sunk off the Florida Keys as well as demand for four new vessels that are available for disposal from the U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration inventory. Using survey data from divers, we compare revealed preference (RP) site choices, stated preference (SP) choices from a discrete choice experiment, and joint RP/SP choices. Our analysis also incorporates stated attribute nonattendance (ANA) at the choice-task level. Our results indicate that the joint RP/SP models with stated ANA are preferred, leading to decreases in marginal WTP as well as decreases in the variability of marginal WTP estimates in the 95% confidence intervals. Results provide a framework for directing more efficient future decision making regarding sinkings at locations that will enhance welfare for divers. Key Words: discrete choice experiment; artificial reefs; diving demand; willingness to pay
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:apl:wpaper:22-05&r=
  92. By: Martinez, Charley; Griffith, Andrew P.
    Abstract: Cattle producers tend to market cattle about the same time each year. However, exogenous (external) factors can influence when cattle are marketed. An example of an extremely short-run factor is precipitation events such as rain or snow. Weather events can prohibit cattle producers from getting a truck and trailer to the cattle loading facilities, resulting in delayed marketing (sale). However, these events are generally short-lived and only change sales dates by a week or two. Alternatively, there are other events that can cause cattle producers to change or delay marketing cattle, because such events negatively influence cattle prices. Events that negatively influence cattle prices may be short-lived, or they can have influence on the market price for an extended period of time. When a short-term event becomes a long-term event with an unknown ending, the cattle producer cannot know for certain how long prices will be depressed. Thus, when cattle prices decline, cattle producers tend to delay marketing to give the market time to recover or regain some of its losses. This can be a useful strategy for a short period of time, but most cattle producers have finite resources, which means they cannot hold onto their cattle indefinitely. This strategy does not even consider that cattle are “perishable products,” in that they will continue to grow as time passes and will eventually have to move through the beef supply chain. Coronavirus is one of those events that has resulted in producers changing their cattle marketing plans in the state of Tennessee and across the country because it has had a negative effect on cattle prices. The purpose of this publication is to illustrate how cattle marketing receipts of feeder and stocker cattle have been influenced by coronavirus by providing information on the quantity of cattle that were delayed moving through the beef supply chain.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Farm Management, Marketing
    Date: 2020–07–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:303869&r=
  93. By: Hughes, Gabriel P.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321145&r=
  94. By: Rebelo, João; Compés, Raúl; Faria, Samuel; Gonçalves, Tânia; Pinilla, Vicente; Simón-Elorz, Katrin
    Abstract: This study aims to analyse how psychological factors related to the Covid-19 lockdown affected the frequency of wine consumption among Portuguese and Spanish consumers. To achieve this goal, we used data collected from an online survey in Europe comprising 4489 observations from Portuguese and Spanish samples. Using an ordered probit model, we analysed the wine consumption frequency as a function of a set of explanatory variables related to psychological factors and also sociodemographic variables, motivation-related variables and consumption characterisation. The results allow us to conclude that for Spanish respondents the fear of isolation was a decisive factor in increasing the probability of a higher frequency of wine consumption. Meanwhile, in Portugal, the fear of an economic crisis was the psychological factor leading to a higher consumption frequency. In both countries, psychological factors influenced the frequency of wine consumption during the lockdown due to Covid-19. However, the impact of the Covid-19 crisis has been felt differently in Spain and Portugal. Differences can be observed in both psychological and behavioural attitudes that have influenced the frequency of wine consumption and could also indicate significant cultural differences.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321853&r=
  95. By: Hjertstrand, Per (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: The mixed-demand model allows for very flexible specification of what should be considered endogenous and exogenous in demand system estimation. This paper introduces a revealed preference framework to analyze the mixed-demand model. The proposed methods can be used to test whether observed data (with measurement errors) are consistent with the mixed-demand model and calculate goodness-of-fit measures. The framework is purely non-parametric in the sense that it does not require any functional form assumptions on the direct or indirect utility functions. The framework is applied to demand data for food and provides the first nonparametric empirical analysis of the mixed-demand model.
    Keywords: Demand systems; Measurement errors; Mixed-demand; Non-parametric; Revealed preference
    JEL: D11 D12
    Date: 2022–05–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:1430&r=
  96. By: Davide Antonioli (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara and SEEDS – Centre for Sustainability, Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies); Claudia Ghisetti (Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara and SEEDS – Centre for Sustainability, Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies); Francesco Nicolli (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara and SEEDS – Centre for Sustainability, Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies)
    Abstract: Assessing the economic consequences of sustainable production choices aimed at reducing environmental negative externalities is crucial for policy making, in light of the increasing interest and awareness experienced in the recent EU policy packages (Circular Economy package; European Green Deal and Recovery Fund to support sustainable transition). This assessment is one of the goal of the current work, which tries to provide new empirical evidence on the economic returns of such choices, drawing on previous literature on the underlying determinants of greener production choices, which are stated to differ from standard technological innovations as they are subject to a knowledge and an environmental externality. Using an original dataset on about 3000 Italian manufacturing firms we provide evidence on the relations among innovations related to the Circular Economy concept and economic outcome in the short run. The evidence shows that in the short run it is difficult to obtain economic gains, especially for the SMEs.
    Keywords: Circular Economy, Sustainable Production, Environmental Innovation, Economic Effect
    JEL: O30 O44 O55
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2022.05&r=
  97. By: Bodington, Jeff
    Abstract: Much research shows that the ratings that judges assign to wines are uncertain and an acute difficulty in ratings-related research, and in calculating consensus among judges, is that each rating is one observation drawn from a unique and latent distribution that is wine- and judge-specific. A simple maximum entropy estimator is proposed that yields a maximum-entropy probability distribution for sample sizes of none, one, and more. A test of that estimator yields results that are consistent with the results of experiments in which blind replicates are embedded within flights of wines evaluated by trained and tested judges
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Agribusiness
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321847&r=
  98. By: Ay, Jean-Sauveur; Le Gallo, Julie
    Abstract: Unobserved quality challenges the empirical content of signaling theory, and often precludes the valuation of quality signals such as wine names. This paper uses the location of vineyard plots to control for unobserved wine quality when estimating the causal value of wine names on vineyard prices. The identification tackles unobserved spatial heterogeneity by newly combining a multi-cutoff spatial regression discontinuity design with plausibly exogenous name variations. We deal with standard requirements of causal inference – unconfoundedness and overlap – with instrumental variables and high-dimensional propensity models in a double robust framework. For the Burgundy region of France, we then recover the full causal signaling scheme of nested wine names with both a horizontal and a vertical dimension. This typical structure of names is monotone and complementary, as the names are consistently ordered within each dimension (rank preservation) and they present spillovers between them (umbrella effect). We find a high importance for unobserved wine quality, which produces heterogeneous signaling values.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aawewp:321851&r=
  99. By: Hahn, William
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:320989&r=
  100. By: Metzger, Mike
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321116&r=
  101. By: Francesco Giancaterini; Alain Hecq; Claudio Morana
    Abstract: This paper, exploiting the properties of mixed causal and noncausal models, proposes strategies to detect time reversibility in stationary stochastic processes. We show that they can also be used for nonstationary processes when the trend component is computed using the Hodrick-Prescott filter characterized by a time-reversible closed-form solution. We then establish a linkage between the concept of environmental tipping point and the statistical property of time irreversibility and investigate nine climate indicators. While we detect time irreversibility in GHG emissions, global temperatures and fundamental natural oscillations do not show this feature. Under a constructive view, our findings then give hope that correction policies might still help avoid the worst consequences of climate change.
    Keywords: mixed causal and noncausal models, time reversibility, global warming, generalized Student's t-distribution, Hodrick-Prescott filter.
    JEL: C22
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mib:wpaper:498&r=
  102. By: Bua, Giovanna; Kapp, Daniel; Ramella, Federico; Rognone, Lavinia
    Abstract: We examine the existence of physical and transition climate risk premia in euro areaequity markets. To do so, we develop two novel physical and transition risk indicators, basedon text analysis, which are then used to gauge the presence of climate risk premia. Resultssuggest that climate risk premia for both, transition and physical climate risk, have increasedsince the time of the Paris Agreement. In addition, we investigate which metrics may be usedby investors to proxy a firm’s exposure to either physical or transition risk. To this end, weconstruct portfolios according to the most common firm-specific climate metrics and estimatethe sensitivity of these portfolios to our risk indicators. We compare results from these firmlevelproxies to much simpler sectoral classifications to see if investors may simply pigeonholefirms into the industry they operate in. We find that firm level information appears to beused as a gauge for transition risk, in particular since 2015, whereas sectoral classificationsappear insufficient. However, sectoral classification may be employed to broadly gauge firms’exposures to physical risk. JEL Classification: C58, G12, G14, G28, Q51
    Keywords: Climate risk premia, Physical risk, Text analysis, Transition risk
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20222677&r=
  103. By: Winkler, Mark
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321025&r=
  104. By: Harden, Krysta
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321090&r=

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