nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒07‒25
forty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Climate Change and Downstream Water Quality in Agricultural Production: The Case of Nutrient Runoff to the Gulf of Mexico By Levan Elbakidze; Yuelu Xu; Philip W. Gassman; Jeffrey G. Arnold; Haw Yen
  2. Estimating the Effect of Easements on Agricultural Production By Nicole Karwowski
  3. Vertical Farm Technology in Agriculture By Buelow, Roger
  4. Have households’ livelihoods and food security rebounded from COVID-19 shocks in Nigeria? Results from a follow-up phone survey By Balana, Bedru B.; Oyeyemi, Motunrayo; Ogunniyi, Adebayo; Fasoranti, Adetunji; Edeh, Hyacinth; Andam, Kwaw
  5. Healing America - A Future Food System for our Farmers, Consumers and Planet By Jekanowski, Mark
  6. Initiative for Convergent-Manufacturing for Agriculture and Food for Equity (CAFE) By Malshe, Ajay P.
  7. Water Policy, Agricultural Water Use, Drought, and the Value of Water in the Southeast By Masters, Mark
  8. The Cost of a Healthy Diet: Accounting for Nutrition and Food Spending Goals and Constraints By Wilde, Parke
  9. Understanding and Mitigating Risks from Supply Chain Disruptions in Food and Agriculture By Matlock, Marty D.
  10. Co-locating Agriculture and Solar Renewable Energy Production (agrivoltaics) to Improve Food, Energy, and Water Security By Barron-Gafford, Greg
  11. Farm to School Efforts Supporting Resilient Local Food Systems By Brewer, Julie
  12. Does Violent Conflict Affect Labor Supply of Farm Households? The Nigerian Experience By John Chiwuzulum Odozi; Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere
  13. American Agriculture, Nutrition, and Community Connection By English, Tim
  14. Growing Organic through Transition, Standards Development, Oversight, and Enforcement By Tucker, Jennifer
  15. Status of the U.S. Sugar Industry and Reflections on 36 Years on the Sugar Beat By Roney, Jack
  16. The evolution of early hominin food production and sharing By Ingela Alger; Slimane Dridi; Jonathan Stieglitz; Michael Wilson
  17. U.S. agricultural productivity growth: measurement, trends, and drivers (1948-2019) By Wang, Sun Ling; Mosheim, Roberto; Njuki, Eric; Nehring, Richard
  18. Using economics to design better incentives for soil-health policy By Duke, Joshua M.
  19. Genetically Modified Organisms and Agricultural Productivity By Robert G Chambers; Yu Sheng
  20. The Future of the Food Industry - Perspective from the Farm Sector By Newton, John
  21. Initiative for Convergent-manufacturing of Agriculture and Food for Equity (I-CAFE) By Malshe, Ajay P.
  22. Practical Challenges in the Application of Precision Agriculture By Weirich, Jason
  23. Firms, Agricultural Imports, and Tariff-Rate Quotas: An Assessment of China’s Wheat, Corn, and Rice Imports Using Firm-Level Data By Grant, Jason; Xie, Chaoping; Boys, Kathryn
  24. Supply Chain Resilience: The U.S. Ethanol Industry's Response to COVID-19 By Cooper, Geoff
  25. Food system development pathways for healthy, nature-positive and inclusive food systems By Gaupp, F.; Ruggeri Laderchi, C.; Lotze-Campen, H.; DeClerck, F.; Bodirsky, B. L.; Lowder, S.; Popp, A.; Kanbur, R.; Edenhofer, O.; Nugent, R.; Fanzo, J.; Dietz, S.; Nordhagen, S.; Fan, S.
  26. U.S. Organic Production, Markets, Consumers, and Policy, 2000-2020 By Carlson, Andrea
  27. Organic Supply Chain Patterns, Consumption, and Consumer Expectations By Batcha, Laura
  28. Modeling and Forecasting Agricultural Commodity Support in the Developing Countries By Zhao, Jing; Miller, J. Isaac; Binfield, Julian; Thompson, Wyatt
  29. The evolution of early hominin food production and sharing By Ingela Alger; Slimane Dridi; Jonathan Stieglitz; Michael Wilson
  30. Weather Ready Farms By Mueller, Nathan; Bartels, Melissa; Hulbert, Candace
  31. Cost-benefit analysis of nitrate abatement in the Souffel catchment (France): Sensitivity study of the damage and spatialization of the abatement effort By François Destandau; Youssef Zaiter
  32. Developing Forest Resilience and Water Security in a Fire and Flood Affected Watershed By Altmann, Garrett
  33. For Whom the Bell Tolls: Climate Change and Inequality By Mr. Serhan Cevik; João Tovar Jalles
  34. Implications of increasing fruits and vegetable consumption in Scotland By Dogbe, Wisdom
  35. Multi-scale Analysis of Nitrogen Loss Mitigation in the US Corn Belt By Jing Liu; Laura Bowling; Christopher Kucharik; Sadia Jame; Uris Baldos; Larissa Jarvis; Navin Ramankutty; Thomas Hertel
  36. Wildfires in California: Interactions and Implications for Agriculture By Patel-Weynand, Toral
  37. Shifting Preferences: A Closer Look at Changes in U.S. Consumer Food Purchases By Harig, Andy
  38. State Food Safety Agencies' Use of Social Media By Badour, Jessica
  39. How can the European Union adapt to climate change? By Klaas Lenaerts; Simone Tagliapietra; Guntram B. Wolff
  40. Toward achieving sustainable development agenda: Nexus between Agriculture, Trade Openness, and Oil rents in Nigeria By Festus F. Adedoyin; Olawumi A. Osundina; Festus V. Bekun; Simplice A. Asongu
  41. Boats don't fish, people do: A sociological contribution towards holistic fisheries bycatch management By Barz, Fanny
  42. The Outlook for U.S. Agriculture – 2022: New Paths to Sustainability and Productivity Growth By Meyer, Seth
  43. Trade and U.S. Agriculture: Market Access, Institutions, and Competition Policy By Hafemeister, Jason
  44. Supply Chain Disruptions: Impact and Outlook for U.S. Dairy Exports By Loux, William
  45. Measuring trade creation effects of free trade agreements: Evidence from wine trade in East Asia By Kimie Harada; Shuhei Nishitateno
  46. Buying groups formation: what effects on competition in the retail industry? By Marie-Laure Allain; Rémi Avignon; Claire Chambolle; Hugo Molina

  1. By: Levan Elbakidze; Yuelu Xu; Philip W. Gassman; Jeffrey G. Arnold; Haw Yen
    Abstract: Nitrogen (N) fertilizer use in agricultural production is a significant determinant of surface water quality. As climate changes, agricultural producers are likely to adapt at extensive and intensive margins in terms of land and per acre input use, including fertilizers. These changes can affect downstream water quality. We investigate the effect of climate-driven productivity changes on water quality in the Gulf of Mexico using an integrated hydro-economic agricultural land use (IHEAL) model. Our results indicate that land and N use adaptation in agricultural production to climate change increases N delivery to the Gulf of Mexico by 0.4%-1.58% relative to the baseline scenario with no climate change.
    JEL: Q1 Q25 Q5
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30153&r=
  2. By: Nicole Karwowski
    Abstract: US crops face higher losses as growing season temperatures rise and destructive disasters become commonplace. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) easement programs offer an adaptation strategy to improve agricultural resilience. Easements impact agricultural production directly by reducing planting on marginal land and indirectly by improving yields on surrounding cropland. I use national USDA data from the past three decades to build a county-level panel. I employ a regression model with two-way fixed effects to quantify how easement land share impacts yields, risk, as well as acres planted, failed, and prevented planted. A 100% increase in land share of wetland easements increases yields by 0.34%, 0.77% and 0.46% for corn, soybeans, and wheat. Easements improve yields by mitigating the effect of excess precipitation and extreme degree days. Wetland easements reduce soybean losses from excess moisture, heat, and disease by $3.59, $6.07 and $11.23 for each dollar of liability. I also find evidence of a spillage effect in which producers reduce soybean and wheat acreage but increase corn production. This work quantifies the ecosystem benefits of easement habitats and uncovers program externalities including yield spillovers and a spillage effect. My results have policy implications for future NRCS funding and targeting decisions.
    JEL: Q1 Q15 Q18 Q54 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30156&r=
  3. By: Buelow, Roger
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321138&r=
  4. By: Balana, Bedru B.; Oyeyemi, Motunrayo; Ogunniyi, Adebayo; Fasoranti, Adetunji; Edeh, Hyacinth; Andam, Kwaw
    Abstract: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on households’ income, jobs, and food security have continued despite perceptible reductions in transmission and lifting of restrictive policy measures in several countries. To assess these effects on Nigerian households, we collected household data for the initial three months after the outbreak of the pandemic in Nigeria. To track the changes since the first survey, we conducted a follow-up phone survey with the same households a year later. We undertook a comparative analysis between the two surveys focusing on income loss, job loss, food security, and dietary diversity. The study also investigated how changes in income, wealth endowments, social capital, safety net programs, and recurrent conflicts affected the severity of food insecurity amid the pandemic. We found that both income and jobs have rebounded by 50 percentage points compared to the baseline results. In terms of food insecurity, households in a “severely food insecure” situation dropped to 65 percent in the follow up survey compared to 73 percent in the first survey and dietary diversity of households improved by 5-percenatge points in the follow-up survey. However, over 70 percent increase in conflicts were re[ported which affected farm investment decisions in 44 percent of smallholder farmers surveyed. While income loss significantly worsened households’ food insecurity; livestock ownership and social capital cushioned many households from falling into a more severe food insecurity. However, safety net programs did not significantly protect households from falling into severe food insecurity amid the pandemic. We suggest four policy propositions: prioritize investment in job creation to curb income loss; enable households to build their wealth base (e.g., land tenure security or livestock) to enhance resilience to shocks; revisit the effectiveness of safety net programs; and finally, devise and implement conflict resolutions to induce investment and enhance productivity.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321205&r=
  5. By: Jekanowski, Mark
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321014&r=
  6. By: Malshe, Ajay P.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321083&r=
  7. By: Masters, Mark
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321031&r=
  8. By: Wilde, Parke
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321147&r=
  9. By: Matlock, Marty D.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321107&r=
  10. By: Barron-Gafford, Greg
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321140&r=
  11. By: Brewer, Julie
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321035&r=
  12. By: John Chiwuzulum Odozi (Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ajayi Crowther University Oyo, Nigeria); Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere (Department of Economics Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Ga; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Bonn Germany and Global Labor Organization (GLO))
    Abstract: Nigeria has experienced bouts of violent conflict in different regions over the last few decades leading to significant loss of life. In this paper, we explore the potential short and accumulated long term effects of such conflict on labor supply of agricultural households. Using a nationally representative panel dataset for Nigeria in combination with armed conflict data, we estimate the effect of violent conflict on a farm household members labor supply. Our findings suggest that exposure to violent conflict significantly reduces the total number of hours the farm household head works and also deceases total family labor supply for agricultural households.
    Keywords: Violence, Nigeria, Conflict, Boko Haram, Farm Households, Labor Supply
    JEL: Q10 Q12 O1 D74
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hic:wpaper:345&r=
  13. By: English, Tim
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321034&r=
  14. By: Tucker, Jennifer
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321146&r=
  15. By: Roney, Jack
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321008&r=
  16. By: Ingela Alger; Slimane Dridi (Unknown); Jonathan Stieglitz (IAST - Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse); Michael Wilson (Unknown)
    Abstract: How did humans evolve from individualistic foraging to collective foraging with sex differences in food production and widespread sharing of plant and animal foods? While current models of food sharing focus on meat or cooking, considerations of the economics of foraging for extracted plant foods (e.g., roots, tubers), inferred to be important for earlier hominins (∼ 6–2.5 mya), suggest that hominins shared such foods. Here we present a conceptual and mathematical model of early hominin food production and sharing, prior to the emergence of frequent scavenging, hunting and cooking. We hypothesize that extracted plant foods were vulnerable to theft, and that male mate-guarding protected females from food theft. We identify conditions favoring plant food production and sharing across mating systems (i.e., monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity), and we assess which mating system maximizes female fitness with changes in the energetic profitability of extractive foraging. Females extract foods and share them with males only when: i) extracting rather than collecting plant foods pays off energetically; and ii) males guard females.
    Date: 2022–05–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03681083&r=
  17. By: Wang, Sun Ling; Mosheim, Roberto; Njuki, Eric; Nehring, Richard
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Production Economics
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321121&r=
  18. By: Duke, Joshua M.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321119&r=
  19. By: Robert G Chambers (University of Maryland); Yu Sheng (Peking University)
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aso:wpaper:wp0003&r=
  20. By: Newton, John
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:320975&r=
  21. By: Malshe, Ajay P.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321139&r=
  22. By: Weirich, Jason
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:320995&r=
  23. By: Grant, Jason; Xie, Chaoping; Boys, Kathryn
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iatrcp:321889&r=
  24. By: Cooper, Geoff
    Keywords: Production Economics, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:320981&r=
  25. By: Gaupp, F.; Ruggeri Laderchi, C.; Lotze-Campen, H.; DeClerck, F.; Bodirsky, B. L.; Lowder, S.; Popp, A.; Kanbur, R.; Edenhofer, O.; Nugent, R.; Fanzo, J.; Dietz, S.; Nordhagen, S.; Fan, S.
    Abstract: Sustainable food systems require the integration of and alignment between recommendations for food and land use practices, as well as an understanding of the political economy context and identification of entry points for change. We propose a food systems transformation framework that takes these elements into account and links long-term goals with short-term measures and policies, ultimately guiding the decomposition of transformation pathways into concrete steps. Taking the transition to healthier and more sustainable diets as an example, we underscore the centrality of social inclusion to the food systems transformation debate.
    Keywords: ood System Economics Commission; funded by the Wellcome Trust; grant agreement no. 221362/Z/20/Z
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–12–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:113421&r=
  26. By: Carlson, Andrea
    Keywords: Production Economics, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321001&r=
  27. By: Batcha, Laura
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321003&r=
  28. By: Zhao, Jing; Miller, J. Isaac; Binfield, Julian; Thompson, Wyatt
    Abstract: We use econometric models to study the links between the evolution of agricultural support for six agricultural commodities and economic development as measured by real income per capita. Each commodity has a panel dataset with around 30-50 countries including developed, developing and less developed countries over 1961-2011. We investigate more complicated nonlinear relationships between income and support as measured by Nominal Rates of Assistance (NRAs) than previously examined and employ fixed effects to capture heterogeneity across countries. We find that a significant relationship exists between income measures and measures of border protection, but that the link between income and domestic support is generally weaker. Using these estimates and projections of macroeconomic variables, projections of future agricultural commodity support are generated for Brazil, Russia, India, and China. The projections of economic measures of support are then be compared to the commitments made by these countries to the World Trade Organization (WTO). There is a clear distinction between actual policies in place, aggregate estimates of them (such as NRAs), and WTO notifications. We do not forecast WTO notification data but compare in a general way long-run trends in development and associated support to these countries’ multilateral commitments. We use the projections derived from the empirical models to discuss the drivers of agricultural support, how these might have implications for WTO notifications, and how these effects relate to WTO commitments.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iatrcp:321785&r=
  29. By: Ingela Alger (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, IAST - Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse , CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Slimane Dridi (UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Jonathan Stieglitz (UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, IAST - Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse); Michael Wilson (University of Minnesota [Crookston] - University of Minnesota System)
    Abstract: How did humans evolve from individualistic foraging to collective foraging with sex differences in food production and widespread sharing of plant and animal foods?While current models of food sharing focus on meat or cooking, considerations of the economics of foraging for extracted plant foods (e.g., roots, tubers), inferred to be important for earlier hominins (∼ 6–2.5 mya), suggest that hominins shared such foods. Here we present a conceptual and mathematical model of early hominin food production and sharing, prior to the emergence of frequent scavenging, hunting and cooking. We hypothesize that extracted plant foods were vulnerable to theft, and that male mate-guarding protected females from food theft. We identify conditions favoring plant food production and sharing across mating systems (i.e., monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity), and we assess which mating system maximizes female fitness with changes in the energetic profitability of extractive foraging. Females extract foods and share them with males only when: i) extracting rather than collecting plant foods pays off energetically; and ii) males guard females. Males extract foods whenever these are sufficiently high in value, but share with females only under promiscuous mating and/or no mate guarding. These results suggest that if early hominins had mating systems with pair-bonds (monogamous or polygynous), sharing of extracted plant foods by females occurred long before scavenging, hunting and cooking. Such cooperation may have enabled early hominins to expand into more open, seasonal habitats, and provided a foundation for the subsequent evolution of unique human life histories.
    Keywords: Evolution,Food production,Sharing,Mating systems
    Date: 2022–05–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03676885&r=
  30. By: Mueller, Nathan; Bartels, Melissa; Hulbert, Candace
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321095&r=
  31. By: François Destandau (UMR GESTE - Gestion Territoriale de l'Eau et de l'environnement - ENGEES - École Nationale du Génie de l'Eau et de l'Environnement de Strasbourg - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Youssef Zaiter (UMR GESTE - Gestion Territoriale de l'Eau et de l'environnement - ENGEES - École Nationale du Génie de l'Eau et de l'Environnement de Strasbourg - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Nitrate transfer from agricultural sources via river networks remains a serious unresolved and complex issue. This article proposes an economic analysis of the optimal reduction of this nitrate. A linear transformation and transport model of nitrogen inputs from agricultural sources in the form of nitrate from five agricultural areas towards a hydrographic network in France is used to calculate the optimal effort to reduce nitrogen inputs on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). A sensitivity study is implemented with different damage scenarios. In addition, efforts to reduce uniform and spatialized inputs are compared. In particular, our results show the determining role of the magnitude of the damage. The ratio of 1 to 3 between the low and high range of its estimation would make it possible to attain good status, as specified by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), without having to resort to the exemption procedure, decreasing the average optimal nitrate concentration from 47 mg/l to 42 mg/l. Moreover, this would increase the absolute and relative benefits of spatialization by a factor of 9 and 2, respectively.
    Keywords: abatement effort spatialization,environmental damage,sensitivity analysis,cost-benefit analysis,nitrogen pollution
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03658461&r=
  32. By: Altmann, Garrett
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321096&r=
  33. By: Mr. Serhan Cevik; João Tovar Jalles
    Abstract: Climate change is the defining challenge of our time with complex and evolving dynamics. The effects of climate change on economic output and financial stability have received considerable attention, but there has been much less focus on the relationship between climate change and income inequality. In this paper, we provide new evidence on the association between climate change and income inequality, using a large panel of 158 countries during the period 1955–2019. We find that an increase in climate change vulnerability is positively associated with rising income inequality. More interestingly, splitting the sample into country groups reveals a considerable contrast in the impact of climate change on income inequality. While climate change vulnerability has no statistically significant effect on income distribution in advanced economies, the coefficient on climate change vulnerability is seven times greater and statistically highly significant in the case of developing countries due largely to weaker capacity for climate change adaptation and mitigation.
    Keywords: climate change vulnerability; climate change adaptation; income redistribution; income equality; income growth; Income inequality; Climate change; Income distribution; Global
    Date: 2022–05–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2022/103&r=
  34. By: Dogbe, Wisdom
    Abstract: The food system is a major cause of global warming contributing between 9 - 29 per cent of global carbon emissions. In addition, diet is believed to be a major cause of non-communicable diseases in Scotland, resulting in about 24 per cent of deaths and a reduction in life expectancy to 62.3 years. There is therefore the need to change consumer behaviour towards more sustainable lifestyles. The literature argues for diets high in fruit and vegetable but low in red meat and fat/sugar-based foods. To increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the UK i.e., Scotland, the government launched the “five-a-day” campaign in 2003 to increase fruit and vegetable consumption to 400 g/day through education and advertisement. However, after 18 years of its implementation, 2020 DEFRA food consumption data shows that Scottish consumption of fruits and vegetables was 23 per cent below the recommended daily intake. The goal of the present analysis is to simulate the price change required to increase fruit and vegetable consumption by 10 per cent in Scotland. The study relied on monthly food purchase data from 2013 – 2020 collated by Kanter Worldpanel for Scotland. This data was used to estimate unconditional food demand elasticities using an EASI demand model. The elasticities were introduced into a model that calculates the shadow prices that must prevail for consumers to increase their purchase of fruit and vegetables without changing the taste or utility of diets. Results suggest that, for the average person, a 10 per cent increase in purchases of fruits and vegetables would require subsidies between 8.36 per cent and 56.35 per cent for Processed fruit and fruit products and Fresh fruits, respectively. The post-policy diet was higher in the following food products: non-carcase meat and meat products, Butter, margarine, vegetable oils, cakes, buns and pastries, and confectionery. Unintended effects of the policy are 1) increase in average GHGe per person per day, and 3) increase in saturated fats and total fat purchases. The distributional analysis shows that 1) different income groups respond differently to subsidies, 2) persons earning above 30 K would reduce their emissions, and 3) households earning below 30 K would increase their sugar, saturate fat, and total fat purchases. In summary, though the policy would increase fruits and vegetable consumption, there will be unintended negative consequences.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Demand and Price Analysis, Health Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc22:321232&r=
  35. By: Jing Liu; Laura Bowling; Christopher Kucharik; Sadia Jame; Uris Baldos; Larissa Jarvis; Navin Ramankutty; Thomas Hertel
    Abstract: Reducing the size of the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico has proven to be a challenging task. A variety of mitigation options have been proposed, each likely to produce markedly different patterns of mitigation with widely varying consequences for the economy. The general consensus is that no single measure alone is sufficient to achieve the EPA Task Force goal for reducing the Gulf hypoxic zone and it appears that a combination of management practices must be employed. However, absent a highly resolved, multi-scale framework for assessing these policy combinations, it has been unclear what pattern of mitigation is likely to emerge from different policies and what the consequences would be for local, regional and national land use, food prices and farm returns. We address this research gap by utilizing a novel multi-scale framework for evaluating alternative N loss management policies in the Mississippi River basin. This combines fine-scale agro-ecosystem responses with an economic model capturing domestic and international market and price linkages. We find that wetland restoration combined with improved N use efficiency, along with a leaching tax could reduce the Mississippi River N load by 30-53\% while only modestly increasing corn prices. This study underscores the value of fine-resolution analysis and the potential of combined economic and ecological instruments in tackling nonpoint source nitrate pollution.
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2206.07596&r=
  36. By: Patel-Weynand, Toral
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321044&r=
  37. By: Harig, Andy
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:320974&r=
  38. By: Badour, Jessica
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:321000&r=
  39. By: Klaas Lenaerts; Simone Tagliapietra; Guntram B. Wolff
    Abstract: The authors thank Stavros Zenios and other Bruegel colleagues for their valuable comments and suggestions. Europe must increasingly deal with the harmful impacts of climate change, regardless of its success in reducing emissions. These impacts have significant cross-border effects and threaten to deepen existing divisions. Cooperation on adaptation, which is mostly seen as requiring local or regional efforts, may be useful, but the role of the European Union is ill-defined....
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bre:polcon:49231&r=
  40. By: Festus F. Adedoyin (Bournemouth University, United Kingdom); Olawumi A. Osundina (Babcock University, Ogun State, Nigeria.); Festus V. Bekun (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Over the years, agriculture has been considered as a panacea for long-term economic growth as believed by the physiocracy school of thought. Aligning this with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (specifically UN-SDG-2 which highlights zero hunger), the present study empirically complements existing studies by exploring the interactions between agriculture, trade openness and oil rents using annual time frequency series data from 1981-2017. A series of analysis is conducted. First, a battery of non-stationarity and stationarity unit root tests are performed; these range from the traditional Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) techniques to the relatively recent Zivot Andrews (ZA) unit root test which accounts for a single structural break to ascertain stationarity properties in the variables under review. Subsequently, the recent Bayer and Hanck (2013) test in conjunction with the Johansen co-integration test were used for the co-integration analysis. Furthermore, to detect the direction of causality, the Toda-Yamamoto Granger Causality test alongside the impulse response function technique shows insightful outcomes. From the empirical results, co-integration is apparent and a long-run equilibrium relationship is traced between the outlined variables over the investigated period. The causality results and impulse response analysis highlight the existence of one-way causality links running from agriculture to trade and from trade to oil rents. These are revealing given the dwindling oil market prices. More insights are elucidated in the conclusion section accordingly.
    Keywords: Agriculture, sustainability; Bayer-Hanck cointegration; Nigeria
    JEL: Q10 O13 C32 C33
    Date: 2022–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:agd:wpaper:22/031&r=
  41. By: Barz, Fanny
    Abstract: People have always been utilizing natural resources from the sea with various impacts on fish stocks and the marine environment. An issue that arises from humans', specifically fishers' interaction with the sea, is the entanglement of marine birds and mammals in fishing gears, in particular gillnets, as a result of which these air-breathing animals drown. These incidents are called bycatch. Gillnets have a long history and tradition in fishing in the Baltic Sea and are also one of the most common gears worldwide. Bycatch of seabirds and marine mammals in gillnet fisheries is therefore a hazard for conservation globally. Measures on bycatch mitigation in fisheries management so far are mostly based on technological and ecological findings. There is often a lack of knowledge concerning the heterogeneity of fishers' actions and drivers, despite its importance for effective fisheries management. This dissertation considered the case of the German gillnet fleet in the Baltic Sea to generate an ontological understanding of fishers' social practices to inform management and develop bycatch mitigation measures. Natural resource sociology offers the lens to look at this objective. In this dissertation the praxeological theory of structuration, extended by the concept of agency by is applied to the research question. The qualitative empirical research was conducted applying problem-centred interviews, analysed with documentary method. An expert-workshop about political and administrative aspects of bycatch management complemented the empirical research. With the praxeological view and in applying the concept of agency, three types of fishers' dominating agency were distinguished: (i) Fishers with a dominating projective (future-oriented) agency plan long term, keep abreast of current developments in the fishery and develop teleological projects. (ii) Fishers with a dominating evaluative (present-oriented) agency constantly evaluate as well as re-evaluation their situations. Evaluative social practices are not teleological and are rather characterized in the fishery by decisions that are directed to present situations. This can also show in deviant behaviour (iii) Fishers with a dominating iterational (past-oriented) agency are characterised through the iteration of known schemes of action, which therefore reproduce social practices constantly. Such iterational aspects can be seen in fishers who solely apply gillnets. Furthermore, the analysis of bycatch practice resulted in two different types: (i) non-normalization of bycatch, mostly concerning the bycatch of harbour porpoise, a critical situation interrupting the daily routine and (ii) normalization of bycatch, mostly concerning the bycatch of seabirds which was understood as part of a routine. In applying the knowledge of different fisher types and bycatch practices to possible management instruments, numerous measures that can be considered by fisheries managers ii Abstract were identified and their potential effectiveness concerning fishers' heterogeneity was discussed.It is concluded that considering the social practices of resource users may be an important contribution to design effective natural resource management instruments. The inclusion of sociology, as well as sociologically established theories and qualitative reconstructive methods, has led to practice-relevant insights how knowledge on human behaviour may inform management and mitigate bycatch.
    Keywords: Fishers' agency,Bycatch discourse,Bycatch mitigation,Fisheries management,Social-science fisheries research,Handlungsfähigkeit von Fischern,Beifangdiskurs,Beifangreduzierung,Fischereimanagement,sozialwissenschaftliche Fischereiforschung
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:jhtire:95&r=
  42. By: Meyer, Seth
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321076&r=
  43. By: Hafemeister, Jason
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao21:320977&r=
  44. By: Loux, William
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao22:321143&r=
  45. By: Kimie Harada; Shuhei Nishitateno
    Abstract: East Asia has experienced an unprecedented expansion in its wine market over the past two decades. This paper examines the extent to which import tariff reductions through bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have contributed to an increase in wine imports to Japan, China, and South Korea. Our empirical method involves estimating an augmented version of the gravity equation by the Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood (PPML) technique. Analyzing a panel dataset for 1990–2016 covering 27 exporters, we find that overall a 1 percentage point reduction in tariff among FTA member countries is associated with an increase in the wine import volumes by 0.042%, which is seven times higher than a similar reduction in tariff on an MFN basis. The strongest trade creation effects are founded for bottle wine. The results are robust to various specifications..
    Keywords: wine trade, FTAs, non-tariff barriers, gravity equation
    JEL: F14 F69 L66
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:papers:2021-13&r=
  46. By: Marie-Laure Allain (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, X - École polytechnique, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques); Rémi Avignon (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Claire Chambolle (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Hugo Molina (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Each year, commercial negotiations highlight the tensions between retailers and their suppliers, and public authorities are regularly called upon to balance the relationship. In this context, buying groups – which allow several large competing retailers to negotiate jointly with their suppliers – are likely to strengthen retailers' buyer power. France experienced two waves of buying groups formation in 2014 and in 2018 and the law was changed to allow the French Competition Authority (CA) – the Autorité de la concurrence – to control the formation of such alliances. This policy brief proposes a framework to analyse the effects of the buying groups on the sector as a whole. After a brief assessment of the economic forces at play based on a review of the literature, we discuss the results of two studies conducted by the authors of this note. The first one adopts an empirical approach to study the effects of buying groups formation in 2014 in France in the bottled water industry. It shows that the introduction of buying groups modified profit sharing at the expense of suppliers but also led to a decline in prices which benefited consumers. The second study discusses the efficiency of excluding private labels from the scope of buying groups – as advocated by the Competition Authority – to protect small suppliers and maintain product variety.
    Date: 2022–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:ipppap:halshs-03693440&r=

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