nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒06‒27
twenty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Risk Management for Smallholder Farmers: An Empirical Study on the Adoption of Weather-Index Crop Insurance in Rural Kenya By Keiko Fukumori; Ayumi Arai; Tomoya Matsumoto
  2. Trade-offs between economic, environmental and social sustainability on farms using a latent class frontier efficiency model: Evidence for Spanish crop farms By Amer Ait Sidhoum; K. Hervé Dakpo; Laure Latruffe
  3. Agricultural Crises and Government Responses Between the World Wars in the Atlantic Trading Network By Price V. Fishback
  4. From Massification to Diversification: Inequalities in the Consumption of Dairy Products, Meat and Alcoholic Drinks in Spain (1964-2018) By Pablo Delgado; Vicente Pinilla
  5. Sustainable food systems science based on physics’ principles By Hugo de Vries; Mechthild Donner; Monique Axelos
  6. Explaining Bilateral Patterns of Global Wine Trade, 1962-2019 By German Puga; Alfinura Sharafeyeva; Kym Anderson
  7. Impact of COVID-19 on Household Incomes and Food Consumption – The Zambian Case By Kabisa, Mulako; Subakanya, Mitelo; Malambo, Miyanda; Chapoto, Antony; Maredia, Mywish; Tschirley, David
  8. Millet, Rice, and Isolation: Origins and Persistence of the World's Most Enduring Mega-State By James Kai-sing Kung; Ömer Özak; Louis Putterman; Shuang Shi
  9. Does Hotter Temperature Increase Poverty? Global Evidence from Subnational Data Analysis By Dang, Hai-Anh; Trinh, Trong-Anh
  10. Strategic ignorance and crises of trust: un-anticipating futures and governing food supply chains in the shadow of Horsegate By Brice, Jeremy; Donaldson, Andrew; Midgley, Jane
  11. Property rights and reputation in the dairy agro-industrial system By Carolina Andrea Gómez Winkler Sudré; José Paulo De Souza; Melise Bouroullec
  12. Reforming Fertilizer Import Policies for Sustainable Intensification of Agricultural Systems in Sri Lanka: Is there a Policy Failure? By Weerahewa, Jeevika; Senaratne, Athula; Babu, Suresh
  13. The Fruit of Regulation: Wine, Regulations, Subsidies, Quality and Cooperatives in Franco's Spain and Beyond By Samuel Garrido
  14. Transformative change for a sustainable management of global commons: Biodiversity, forests and the ocean. Recommendations for international cooperation based on a review of global assessment reports and project experience By Wittmer, Heidi; Berghöfer, Augustin; Büttner, Leonie; Chakrabarty, Ruchira; Förster, Johannes; Khan, Sabina; König, Claudia; Krause, Gesche; Kreuer, David; Locher Krause, Karla Estela; Moreno Soares, Thais; Muñoz Escobar, Marcela; Neumann, Malte; Renner, Isabel; Rode, Julian; Schniewind, Imma; Schwarzer, Dorothea; Tröger, Ulrike; Zinngrebe, Yves; Spiering, Salina
  15. Commercial performance of the integration of standards in olive oil and agri-food marketing By Rocio Carrillo Labella; Fatiha Fort; Manuel Parras Rosa
  16. Large-scale land deals and social conflict: Evidence and policy implications By de Juan, Alexander; Geissel, Daniel; Lay, Jann; Lohmann, Rebecca
  17. How do environmental policies affect green innovation and trade? Evidence from the WTO Environmental Database (EDB) By Bellelli, Francesco S.; Xu, Ankai
  18. Climate change and the economy: an introduction By António R. Antunes; Bernardino Adão; João Valle e Azevedo; Nuno Lourenço; Miguel Gouveia
  19. A Ten-Year Review of the Southeast U.S. Green Industry, Part II: Addressing Labor Shortages and Internal and External Factors Affecting Business Strategies By Rihn, Alicia L.; Fulcher, Amy; Khachatryan, Hayk; LeBude, Anthony; Warner, Laura A.; Schnexnayder, Susan
  20. Proposed alcohol tax reform in the UK: Implications for wine-exporting countries By Kym Anderson; Glyn Wittwer
  21. A Bioeconomic Projection of Climate‐Induced Wildfire Risk in the Forest Sector By Miguel Riviere; F. Pimont; P. Delacote; S. Caurla; J. Ruffault; A. Lobianco; T. Opitz; J. Dupuy
  22. Tubers and its Role in Historic Political Fragmentation in Africa By Obikili, Nonso
  23. Climate change concerns and actions – Can provision of information motivate people to fight climate change? By Tzamourani, Panagiota
  24. The Likely Fiscal and Public Health Effects of an Excise Tax on Sugar sweetened Beverages in Kenya By van Walbeek, Corné; Mthembu, Senzo
  25. Eliminating government support to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing By Claire Delpeuch; Emanuela Migliaccio; Will Symes
  26. Ask a local: improving the public pricing of land titles in urban Tanzania By Martina Manara; Tanner Regan

  1. By: Keiko Fukumori; Ayumi Arai; Tomoya Matsumoto
    Abstract: This study examines the determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption of weather-index crop insurance, which is considered to be a promising means of mitigating the negative welfare impacts of crop loss caused by drought or excess rainfall. The study utilizes household survey data covering 495 smallholder farmers in rural Kenya. It finds that a better understanding of insurance, together with a significant positive effect of years of education, considerably increases insurance uptake. The evidence suggests that it is important to provide educational programs on new financial products when introducing such products to smallholder farmers. However, it also shows the limitations of this study by revealing how important proper study design is to draw reliable methodological impact evaluations.
    Keywords: agriculture, weather risk, weather-index insurance, rural households, Kenya, JEL (O12, O13, O33, G22)
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:jic:wpaper:230&r=
  2. By: Amer Ait Sidhoum; K. Hervé Dakpo; Laure Latruffe (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article studies trade-offs of farms in terms of economic sustainability (proxied here by technical efficiency), environmental sustainability (proxied here by farmers' commitment towards the environment) and social sustainability (proxied here by farmers' contribution to on farm well-being and communities' well-being). We use the latent class stochastic frontier model and create classes based on three separating variables, representing farms' environmental sustainability and social sustainability. The application to a sample of Spanish crop farms shows that more environmentally sustainable farms are likely to have lower levels of technical efficiency. However, improvements in social concerns, both towards own farm and the larger community, may lead to improved technical efficiency levels. In general, our study provides evidence of trade-offs for farms between economic sustainability and environmental sustainability, but also between environmental sustainability and social sustainability.
    Keywords: Sustainable agriculture,Sustainability science,Agricultural economics,Farms,Crops,Agricultural workers,Pesticides,Agriculture
    Date: 2022–01–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03675565&r=
  3. By: Price V. Fishback
    Abstract: The paper summarizes research on the heterogeneous experiences of actors in agriculture in Europe and the Americas between the First and Second World Wars. Following a period of increasing globalization of agricultural markets, the First World War sharply limited farming in the main combatant nations, which led to sharp increases in agricultural prices and farm incomes in countries outside the combat zones. During the 1920s the combatants experienced a return to normalcy, while farmers that experienced booms during the war went through hard times. During the Great Depression that followed, farm prices for most goods fell sharply and farm regions were flooded with unemployed workers. During both decades, most countries responded by raising tariffs and setting quotas on farm imports in an attempt to protect farmers, most often large farmers, against the drops in prices. After experimenting with aiding farmers through price guarantees in the 1920s, nearly every government in the 1930s regulated agriculture in some new way: by providing subsidies, setting minimum prices, purchasing surpluses, or limiting output. Often the regulations led to problems that led to new regulatory fixes while setting the precedents for the domestic farm programs that continue to protect farmers in the modern era.
    JEL: N50 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30069&r=
  4. By: Pablo Delgado (Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Economía Aplicada e Historia Económica e Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón, IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Gran Via 4, 50005 Zaragoza, España); Vicente Pinilla (Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Economía Aplicada e Historia Económica e Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón, IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Gran Via 4, 50005 Zaragoza, España)
    Abstract: From the second half of the twentieth century, two facts characterized western societies from a nutritional point of view. On the one hand, the culmination of the nutritional transition and a trend towards a global homogeny diet. On the other hand, in high-income societies emerged two different food consumption models. The raise in the intake of agri-industrial food products characterizes the first food consumption model. The second model is characterized by both the reduction of caloric intake and the increase in the consumption of elaborated, sophisticated and processed foodstuff. Using Spain as a study case, the aim of this work how was the inequality evolution by income and region during the culmination of the modern nutritional transition and in the raise of each food consumption model. Specifically, we display the evolution of the inequalities in the consumption of dairy products, meat and alcoholic beverages from 1964 to 2018. By exploiting direct sources of food consumption, we show that around 1960, not all social classes and regions had culminated the modern nutritional transition but around 1980/90 all types of disparities had disappeared. However, during the last decades, new types of inequalities are emerging in the access to some elaborated food products.
    Keywords: nutritional transition, inequality, dairy products, meat, wine, alcoholic beverages
    JEL: N34 N54 O13 R21
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ahe:dtaehe:2202&r=
  5. By: Hugo de Vries (UMR IATE - Ingénierie des Agro-polymères et Technologies Émergentes - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Mechthild Donner (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Monique Axelos (INRAE - TRANSFORM Division - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Background In Europe, the Farm to Fork Strategy provides ambitions for sustainable and circular food systems. However, what are the driving and uniting forces that keep systems sustainable? Scope and approach First, food systems are regarded as open thermodynamic systems, fuelled by solar energy, with seven building blocks: players, pieces, moves, playing fields, rules, wins, and time. Second, sustainable food systems are complex adaptive systems evolving in a melting zone, or safe and just operating space, between frozen states and chaos. Third, players (actors) and pieces (resources and products) are bound by 4 fundamental forces, as in physics, namely the strong, weak, electromagnetic energy, and gravitation forces. Key findings and conclusions A physics-based first-order approximation concept of sustainable food systems permits formulating relevant, future Food Science and Technology Developments. A network of food actors re-orient single food chains towards systems of diverse food products, resources, and diets. Their features are multi-functionality, resilience, adaptability, temporal and spatial flexibility regarding food handling. Their pathways are characterized by balancing patterns between frozen states and chaos, and not endless growth curves.
    Keywords: Sustainability,food systems,conceptual framework,physics principle,food science and technology
    Date: 2022–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03629092&r=
  6. By: German Puga (Centre for Global Food and Resources, Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia); Alfinura Sharafeyeva (Centre for Global Food and Resources, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia); Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia)
    Abstract: This study uses gravity models to explain the bilateral pattern of global wine trade since 1962.This is, to our knowledge, the first study on global wine trade covering the second wave of globalisation as a whole. The results suggest that the impact of distance, common language, and common coloniser post-1945 on wine trade was lower in the 1991-2019 period than in the 1962-1990 period. We also use gravity models to explain the impact on that bilateral wine trade pattern of similarities across countries in the mix of winegrape varieties in their vineyards. The results suggest that countries trade more wine with each other the closer their mix of winegrape varieties, although our models do not allow us to identify causality.
    Keywords: wine trade, second wave of globalisation, gravity model, varietal similarity index
    JEL: Q17 F14
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adl:winewp:2022-03&r=
  7. By: Kabisa, Mulako; Subakanya, Mitelo; Malambo, Miyanda; Chapoto, Antony; Maredia, Mywish; Tschirley, David
    Abstract: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has devastated health and economic systems worldwide with varying impacts across different economic sectors. Projections of its impact in early 2020 were that developing countries in the global south with historic system inefficiencies would be the worst hit, as weaknesses in their economies would be exposed by the pressure the pandemic would place on health, food and economic systems. Global evidence on the impacts of COVID-19 on economic livelihoods suggests that the most vulnerable income sources to COVID-related shocks would be temporary wage income as opposed to permanent wage income, primarily because casual work that requires day to day contact would be less due to social distancing requirements and movement restrictions (Diao and Mahrt, 2020). Also, national and household food security and nutrition would be negatively impacted, mostly through loss or reduction in household income (both formal and informal sectors) and disruption of supply chains due to movement restrictions within and across countries (Mofya-Mukuka et al., 2020; GRZb, 2020). In Zambia, it has been expected that food consumption would be reduced as the informal sector, which employs over 70 percent of the country’s population, would be hardest hit – particularly for those in agriculture and trade (wholesale and retail) (CUTS and UNDP, 2020). Current local evidence shows that urban households are bearing the brunt of impact compared to their rural counterparts and the sources of impact include price gouging, reduced customers, and reduced business income (Kabisa et al., 2020; Mulenga et al., 2020; Mofya-Mukuka et al., 2020). This brief aims to contribute to the local evidence on the impact that COVID-19 has had on incomes and food security in Zambia. This study complements nationwide-surveys documenting the impact the pandemic is having in real time on the economic livelihoods of Zambians in both rural and urban areas, and tracking food consumption changes during the course of the pandemic. This is in order to provide empirical evidence to guide government policy interventions. This brief is organized as follows: Section 2 gives a brief overview of how the Zambian government has responded to the COVID-19 pandemic and this is followed by a summary of the data collection methods in Section 3. The survey results are discussed in Section 4 and conclusions of the findings and their policy implications are summarized in Section 5.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–07–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miprpr:320703&r=
  8. By: James Kai-sing Kung (The University of Hong Kong); Ömer Özak (Southern Methodist University); Louis Putterman (Brown University); Shuang Shi (The University of Hong Kong)
    Abstract: We propose and test empirically a theory describing the endogenous formation and persistence of mega-states, using China as an example. We suggest that the relative timing of the emergence of agricultural societies, and their distance from each other, set off a race between their autochthonous state-building projects, which determines their extent and persistence. Using a novel dataset describing the historical presence of Chinese states, prehistoric development, the diffusion of agriculture, and migratory distance across 1-degree x 1-degree grid cells in eastern Asia, we find that cells that adopted agriculture earlier and were close to Erlitou -- the earliest political center in eastern Asia -- remained under Chinese control for longer and continue to be a part of China today. By contrast, cells that adopted agriculture early and were located further from Erlitou developed into independent states, as agriculture provided the fertile ground for state-formation, while isolation provided time for them to develop and confront the expanding Chinese empire. Our study sheds important light on why eastern Asia kept reproducing a mega-state in the area that became China and on the determinants of its borders with other states.
    Keywords: Comparative Development, State-Building, Emergence of States, Agricultural Adoption, Isolation, Neolithic Revolution, Social Complexity, East Asia, China, Erlitou
    JEL: F50 F59 H70 H79 N90 O10 R10 Z10 Z13
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:smu:ecowpa:2202&r=
  9. By: Dang, Hai-Anh (World Bank); Trinh, Trong-Anh (University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Despite a vast literature documenting the negative effects of climate change on various socio-economic outcomes, little, if any, evidence exists on the global impacts of hotter temperature on poverty. Analyzing a new global dataset of subnational poverty in 166 countries, we find higher temperature to increase poverty. This finding is robust to various model specifications, data samples, and measures of temperature. Our preferred specification shows that a 1˚C increase leads to a 2.1 percent increase in the headcount poverty rate, using the US$ 1.90 daily poverty threshold. Regional heterogeneity exists, with Sub-Saharan African countries being most vulnerable to higher temperature. We find suggestive evidence that reduction in crop yields could be a key channel that explains the effects of rising temperature. Further simulation indicate that global warming can significantly increase poverty, with more pronounced effects occurring in poorer regions and under scenarios of higher greenhouse gas emissions without mitigation policies.
    Keywords: climate change, global warming, poverty, agriculture
    JEL: Q54 I32 O1
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp15326&r=
  10. By: Brice, Jeremy; Donaldson, Andrew; Midgley, Jane
    Abstract: This paper explores how transnational food supply chains are governed and secured through examining the 2013 horsemeat scandal, during which processed beef products were adulterated with horseflesh. Drawing on theories of governmentality and ignorance studies, it argues that the apparent ignorance among food businesses about their supply chains which this event exposed arises in response to a regulatory apparatus which renders businesses responsible for taking precautions only against foreseeable threats to food safety and authenticity. Limiting their knowledge of their supply chains therefore enables food businesses to control their ability to anticipate (and their liability for) crises. This paper highlights the role of strategic ignorance in rendering future events unforeseeable and ungovernable, and in mediating the politics of accountability and responsibility within anticipatory governmental apparatuses.
    Keywords: anticipation; governmentality; ignorance; food scares; supply chain; horsemeat
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020–10–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:106122&r=
  11. By: Carolina Andrea Gómez Winkler Sudré (UEM - Universidade Estadual de Maringá [Maringá]); José Paulo De Souza (UEM - Universidade Estadual de Maringá [Maringá]); Melise Bouroullec (INPT - EI Purpan - Ecole d'Ingénieurs de Purpan - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of governance structure alignment, property rights protection, and reputation in generating efficiency in dairy agro-industrial system in Paraná, Brazil, and Midi-Pyrénées, France. Design/methodology/approach Descriptive qualitative research, comprising semi-structured interviews with producers, processors and key agents of the dairy agrindustrial system in Brazil and France, in 2016/2017. Findings As a result, it was identified that measurement generates information about transacted dimensions and when it is shared can generate affect reputation in transactions that leads to system improvement. It was also observed that, in the dairy agro-industrial system, reputation acquired does not reduce all the measurement costs, as the product requires measurement in each all collection, regardless of the reputation created. Research limitations/implications As a limitation of the study, there is a difference in the moments when the interviews were done. In 2016, in France, the context was low prices, while in 2017, in Brazil, there was a rise in prices. This difference could have influenced some responses to the interviews, mainly about efficiency by producers. Practical implications Reputation, protecion of property rights by measurement and information sharing allows reduction costs (transaction, measurement and negotiation costs). This efficiency implies improvement to the system, in cases of milk producers and processors. Social implications Improvements in the dairy system can have repercussions on several other improvements such as better distribution of income among agents in the chain; better-paid producers, which implies the improving quality of lives of these people; better products offered to consumers. Originality/value From a complementary perspective of transaction cost economics and measurement cost economics, reputation and protection of property rights are discussed with a focus on efficiency. Empirically, the paper contains heterogeneous data collected from two countries: Brasil and France.
    Keywords: Measurement,Reputation,Property rights,Governance structure,Dairy agro-industrial system
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03671577&r=
  12. By: Weerahewa, Jeevika; Senaratne, Athula; Babu, Suresh
    Abstract: The government of Sri Lanka has implemented a myriad of fertilizer import and use options during 2015 – 2021 with the objective of making agricultural systems more financially and environmentally sustainable. However, these policy actions were not fully informed by global and national evidence. This policy brief illustrates how the fertilizer policy environment influences the performance of agricultural systems in Sri Lanka, reviews past policy changes and presents a set of options for sustainable intensification of Sri Lankan agricultural systems.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–08–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miprpr:320705&r=
  13. By: Samuel Garrido (Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Economia, España)
    Abstract: Cooperative wineries are one of the cornerstones of the wine industry in Europe today. To explain how they reached this condition, I use the case of Spain and pay special attention to the period in which they took off in the country, the Franco dictatorship (1939-1975). Wine economists often believe that cooperatives produce mediocre wines because they cannot avoid the opportunistic behaviour of their members. I argue that they can prevent it and that the poor quality of their wine in some provinces was the result of the perverse stimuli provided by a badly designed market regulation policy.
    Keywords: wine, cooperative wineries, market regulation, buffer stocks, Franco's Spain, European Union
    JEL: D40 L66 N34 Q13
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ahe:dtaehe:2204&r=
  14. By: Wittmer, Heidi; Berghöfer, Augustin; Büttner, Leonie; Chakrabarty, Ruchira; Förster, Johannes; Khan, Sabina; König, Claudia; Krause, Gesche; Kreuer, David; Locher Krause, Karla Estela; Moreno Soares, Thais; Muñoz Escobar, Marcela; Neumann, Malte; Renner, Isabel; Rode, Julian; Schniewind, Imma; Schwarzer, Dorothea; Tröger, Ulrike; Zinngrebe, Yves; Spiering, Salina
    Abstract: Global scientific assessments increasingly reach the conclusion that transformative change of global production and consumption systems is necessary to safeguard and maintain global commons, such as biodiversity, natural forests and the ocean, and to stabilise climate at the global scale. Against this background the present study analyses the conclusions of global assessments and derives recommendations on how to increase the transformative potential of international negotiations and agreements as well as development cooperation programs, projects, and initiatives. The study develops a conceptual framework building on the academic literature and argues that interventions are much more likely to achieve transformation to sustainability if they are embedded within a more comprehensive framing of transformative change consisting of 1. a compelling transformative vision, 2. knowledge on systemic change, 3. navigation of the dynamics inherent in changing development pathways, and 4. emancipated agency providing room for inclusive deliberation and 5. combine transformative modes of governance. The study identifies core challenges and gaps for the conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity in general and for forests and the ocean by (i) examining the recommendations from global assessments and reports on the state of nature and the environment, and (ii) by analysing international cooperation projects for biodiversity, forests and the ocean with regard to their transformative potential. Finally, the study provides recommendations on how Germany can support transformation in the context of international and development cooperation.
    Keywords: sustainable development,biodiversity,forests,the ocean,ecosystems,transformative change,SDGs,sustainability goals,global assessments,global commons,sustainability transformation,policy measures,German Development cooperation,governance
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ufzrep:32021&r=
  15. By: Rocio Carrillo Labella (Department of Business Organization, Marketing and Sociology - UJA - Universidad de Jaén); Fatiha Fort (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Manuel Parras Rosa (Department of Business Organization, Marketing and Sociology - UJA - Universidad de Jaén)
    Abstract: Globalisation has led to more and more companies in the agri-food sector turning to accreditations such as those guaranteeing quality (ISO 9001), environmental sustainability (ISO 14001) and food safety (ISO 2200, BRC and IFS) for commercial purposes. However, these changes may not lead to an improved economic and commercial performance for olive oil companies. This study, therefore, has two specific objectives: first, to find out if there are groups of accreditations that determine company profiles; and, secondly, to analyse whether these profiles have any kind of influence on the economic and commercial performance of the olive oil industry. A quantitative investigation was carried out using ANOVA and among the main results, a bipolarity was observed between those that have no certification and those that are highly accredited for quality, environment, and food safety. Regarding the second objective, the results uphold the commercial function of accreditation in terms of improving commercialisation. It was not possible however to confirm such positive results in operative earnings, but it was observed that the companies with the strongest results invest more in accreditations, especially in food safety.
    Date: 2022–01–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03657769&r=
  16. By: de Juan, Alexander; Geissel, Daniel; Lay, Jann; Lohmann, Rebecca
    Abstract: How do large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) increase the risk of conflict, and what kind of policies can mitigate this effect? We address these questions with a systematic and policyoriented synthesis of prior research. First, we suggest a simple conceptual framework linking LSLAs to social conflict through relative deprivation. Second, we present empirical evidence on the associations between land investments and social conflict, drawing on preexisting quantitative and qualitative studies as well as on own descriptive analyses and case studies. Taken together, this evidence suggests that conflicts accompany a substantive share of LSLAs (10 to 20 percent). Specifically, contentious dynamics often start with violations of community interests, which spur largely peaceful community protests that trigger coercion and violence at the hands of armed actors associated with national governments and investors. Third, we develop a set of policy recommendations in highlighting the need for thorough regulatory frameworks, meaningful consultation, and full transparency.
    Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa,Southeast Asia,large-scale land acquisitions,social conflict,relative deprivation
    JEL: Q15 Q18 D74
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:gigawp:328&r=
  17. By: Bellelli, Francesco S.; Xu, Ankai
    Abstract: This study investigates how environmental policies impact trade and innovation in environmental goods. We make two major contributions to the economic debate. First, we extract a set of information from the WTO Environmental Database (EDB) through natural language processing techniques that could be useful for future research and policy analysis. Second, we use this data to test a set of economic hypotheses on how environmental measures impact environmental innovation and trade. Our findings show that environmental measures can be an effective tool for stimulating green innovation and trade in green goods. However, policy design matters. Green innovation is most sensitive to R&D expenditure and measures on intellectual property protection and enforcement, whereas trade in green goods increases with environmental subsidies and support measures. Conversely, we find that non-tariff barriers - such as quarantine requirements, import quotas, regulation affecting movement or transit - reduce both imports and exports of environmental goods. Our findings also highlight strong path dependency in innovation. Hence, the earlier the intervention, the greater the accumulated benefits from green innovation. Conversely, delays in intervention increase the cost of transition by further "locking-in" the economy on dirtier exports and technologies. Finally, our result highlight that there is a clear linkage between innovation and trade. Past patents are a strong predictor of future exports, and nations tend to innovate more in technologies related to their exports. We also find evidence of strong technological spillovers across countries and sectors integrated in Global Value Chains (GVC). Hence, integration in environmental goods' GVCs could provide further channels of green technology diffusion and development.
    Keywords: trade and environment,environmental policies,innovation
    JEL: F14 F18 O38 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:wtowps:ersd20223&r=
  18. By: António R. Antunes; Bernardino Adão; João Valle e Azevedo; Nuno Lourenço; Miguel Gouveia
    Abstract: This work presents in an accessible way the functioning of the natural climate system and the mechanisms through which global warming occurs. The warming of the Earth’s surface and the evolution of precipitation throughout the 20th century are documented, including for the Portuguese case. The channels of transmission of climate change to the economy are also analysed. The likely impact on the level of global GDP is negative, with a range of estimates very sensitive to the occurrence of phenomena that are difficult to predict. It also discusses economic policy proposals addressing the problem of fossil carbon emissions. Significant carbon taxation will likely have to coexist with the existing carbon emission permit system. The role of central banks in mitigating the effects of excessive CO2 emissions is analysed, highlighting regulatory reporting with a focus on environmental issues and the assumption of concerns related to sustainability and corporate responsibility. Finally, modelbased estimates of economic costs associated to climate change are presented. In this example, we conclude that the adoption of an optimal global policy would save Portugal about 0.5ºC of warming.
    JEL: E21 E60 F40
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ptu:wpaper:o202201&r=
  19. By: Rihn, Alicia L.; Fulcher, Amy; Khachatryan, Hayk; LeBude, Anthony; Warner, Laura A.; Schnexnayder, Susan
    Abstract: Agriculture can be a very labor-intensive industry. While some types of crops and livestock operations have become highly mechanized and have incorporated precision agriculture technologies in planting, fertilizing, and harvesting activities, specialty crops, including nursery crops, still rely heavily on manual labor. For example, planting, pruning, fertilizing, staking, weeding, harvesting and pulling orders are often done manually by workers due to the diversity of products (e.g., size, shape), fragility of the product, and low consumer tolerance for aesthetic damage on plants. Labor accounts for approximately 40 percent of nursery production costs (Mathers et al., 2010; Hall & Ingram, 2014). However, a business model that depends on maintaining the current labor force may not be successful. Current surveys reveal that a shrinking workforce is becoming a greater barrier for producers. For example, Tennessee growers report that labor-related challenges including hiring and retaining domestic employees are increasing. A common refrain from Tennessee nursery owners is that locally sourced employees routinely do not return from lunch on their first day, if they show up at all. Tennessee producers’ experiences are not unique. Nationally, nearly 80 percent of nurseries indicated that labor is their greatest challenge, and more than 50 percent stated the lack of a qualified workforce limited their ability to fill vacant positions (McClellan, 2018). Given the persistent and widespread labor scarcity that U.S. nurseries are facing, growers may need to adopt strategies that improve efficiency and production to best utilize their limited workforce. In Part I of this series of publications, A Ten-Year Review of the Southeast U.S. Green Industry, Part I: Labor and Firm Characteristics, we explored annual sales, product types and workforce demographics. In Part II, we discuss what actions nurseries are taking to address the labor shortage and the role other factors and issues have on business decisions that could affect the future sustainability of the U.S. green industry. Growers and other industry stakeholders can use these results to evaluate strategies to address and alleviate labor issues. These results may also help decision makers within nurseries identify solutions, including technologies that align with their unique production situations. The results could also help elected officials, state and federal agriculture entities, and trade associations identify opportunities to develop new, and expand existing, cost share programs and similar initiatives that support nursery producers.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2022–05–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:320880&r=
  20. By: Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia); Glyn Wittwer (Centre of Policy Studies, Victoria University, Australia)
    Abstract: A proposal to reform the United Kingdom’s excise duty on alcohol is under consideration during 2022. The proposal would change the tax base from volume of product to volume of alcohol, which would see a fall in the tax on sparkling wine (by about one-fifth), a rise in the tax on fortified wines of 18% ABV (by about one-sixth), and table wines with more (less) than 11.5% ABV would become dearer (cheaper). With taxes on most beers to be unchanged and taxes on spirits to be lowered slightly, the pattern of UK wine consumption and imports would alter considerably. This article draws on a global model of national alcoholic beverage markets to estimate the likely bilateral trade effects of this proposed reform to UK excise duties. It compares them with the trade effects of the UK’s first two bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs), following the post-Brexit EU–UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement, which allow Australian and New Zealand vignerons tariff-free access to the UK wine market. Those two FTAs are estimated to cause the UK to import far more wine than is lost by the proposed changes in UK excise duties.
    Keywords: Alcohol excise duty, global beverage market modelling, wine alcohol levels, wine export competition
    JEL: F14 F17 H21 Q18
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adl:winewp:2022-02&r=
  21. By: Miguel Riviere (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); F. Pimont (URFM - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); P. Delacote (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CEC - Chaire Economie du Climat - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); S. Caurla (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Chaire Energie & Prospérité - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - X - École polytechnique - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - Institut Louis Bachelier); J. Ruffault (URFM - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); A. Lobianco (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); T. Opitz (BioSP - Biostatistique et Processus Spatiaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); J. Dupuy (URFM - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03655411&r=
  22. By: Obikili, Nonso
    Abstract: This paper examines the link between historical political fragmentation and surplus agricultural production, and the impact of natural endowments with regards to crop suitability. I show that in sub-Saharan Africa, groups that cultivated tubers, specifically yams, were more likely to have higher levels of local political fragmentation. I show that both tubers and most cereals were positively correlated with historic population density and that there was no historic discrimination in the capacity of crops to produce surpluses and support large populations. I however show that unlike cereal cultivators who were more likely to be centralized, tuber cultivators were likely to have more local political fragmentation. I use crop suitability and the proximity to the area of the domestication of yams to show that cultivating yams did lead to more local political fragmentation. I argue that this is likely due to the biological properties of yams which make them more difficult to expropriate and implies that surpluses stay local. I argue that the experience of keeping surpluses local is associated with contemporary social norms that are against autocracy and unitary accumulation of power. These social norms are an example of the mechanism through which these historical institutional structures transmit to contemporary times.
    Keywords: Political Fragmentation; Agriculture; Social Norms; Africa
    JEL: D72 N47 N57 O10
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:113201&r=
  23. By: Tzamourani, Panagiota
    Abstract: Are individuals concerned enough about climate change to change their behavior and bear additional costs as a consequence? How can they be motivated to fight climate change? A Bundesbank survey conducted between April 2020 and December 2021 shows that people are more concerned about climate change than about the state of the economy. During most of the ongoing pandemic, only the coronavirus was of a higher concern. While people who rate climate change as a serious issue are also more willing to take on additional costs to help fight climate change, providing information on ways to reduce carbon emissions further increases their willingness to do so.
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:esrepo:259296&r=
  24. By: van Walbeek, Corné; Mthembu, Senzo
    Abstract: Historically, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have typically been associated with tobacco and alcohol use. However, in recent decades increased levels of overweightness and obesity, mostly caused by poor eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle, have increased diabetes, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases. There is a general agreement that sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are bad for one’s health. As such, measures to reduce their consumption would be expected to positively impact population health. In this working paper, we develop and report on an Excel-based model, in which we simulate the impact of an SSB tax on the prevalence of overweightness and obesity. The model starts with a baseline scenario, which takes cognisance that a 10 KES specific tax already exists on all soft drinks. A sugar-based SSB tax is then introduced. The tax is levied as an amount per gram of sugar, with or without a tax-free threshold. Other than reducing the demand for SSBs, a sugar-based SSB also creates strong incentives for manufacturers to reformulate their products to reduce the sugar content. The model predicts that the average BMI would decrease across all age groups decreasing the prevalence of overweightness and obesity. The magnitude of the decrease in the prevalence of overweightness and obesity depends on the size of the SSB tax. For realistic and politically feasible values of the SSB tax, the prevalence of overweightness and obesity is expected to decrease by between 5 per cent and 10 per cent. Should Kenya implement a sugar-based tax on SSBs, over and above the current excise tax on soft drinks, the government should clarify that such a tax aims to enhance public health; raising additional revenue should be a secondary consideration. Also, implementing a sugar based SSB tax should be part of a more comprehensive strategy to reduce overweightness and obesity, because by itself the impact of the tax is modest.
    Keywords: Finance, Health,
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idq:ictduk:17424&r=
  25. By: Claire Delpeuch; Emanuela Migliaccio; Will Symes
    Abstract: This report assesses how to stop illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing benefitting from government support. Based on a survey of OECD countries and partner economies participating in the work of the OECD Fisheries Committee, it recommends actions that can be undertaken by countries to maximise the chances of excluding individuals and companies with links to IUU fishing from government support, and to minimise the risk that such support benefits IUU fishing ex ante, given the inherent difficulty to take action ex post. Eight specific recommendations are presented.
    Keywords: Fisheries, IUU, Marine resources, Ocean, Subsidy
    JEL: Q22 Q27 Q28 H25
    Date: 2022–06–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:agraaa:178-en&r=
  26. By: Martina Manara; Tanner Regan
    Abstract: Information on willingness-to-pay is key for public pricing and allocation of services but not easily collected. Studying land titles in Dar-es-Salaam, we ask whether local leaders know and will reveal plot owners' willingness-to-pay. We randomly assign leaders to predict under different settings then elicit owners' actual willingness-to-pay. Demand is substantial, but below exorbitant fees. Leaders can predict the aggregate demand curve and distinguish variation across owners. Predictions worsen when used to target subsidies, but adding cash incentives mitigates this. Finally, we demonstrate that leader-elicited information can improve the public pricing of title deeds, raising uptake while maintaining public funds.
    Keywords: property rights, willingness-to-pay, public pricing, local publicly provided goods
    Date: 2022–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp1848&r=

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