nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒05‒30
35 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Agrivoltaics across the water-energy-food-nexus in Africa: Opportunities and challenges for rural communities in Mali By Cheo, Ambe Emmanuel; Adelhardt, Nora; Krieger, Tim; Berneiser, Jessica; Sanchez Santillano, Federico Alberto; Bingwa, Brendon; Suleiman, Nischa; Thiele, Patricia; Royes, Alvaro; Gudopp, Daniel; Sidibé, Amadou; Fahmy, Karim; Tambo, Erick; Diallo, Yacouba; Sogoba, Bougouna
  2. Indigenization of Indian Agriculture and Sustainable Rural Development: A Critical review of its need and Challenges By K.B., Rangappa; G.K., Chetan Kumar
  3. Increasing production diversity and diet quality through agriculture, gender, and nutrition linkages: A cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bangladesh By Ahmed, Akhter; Coleman, Fiona; Ghostlaw, Julie; Hoddinott, John F.; Menon, Purnima; Parvin, Aklima; Pereira, Audrey; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Roy, Shalini; Younus, Masuma
  4. Determinants of resilience for food and nutrition security in South Sudan By Ulimwengu, John M.; Thomas, Timothy S.; Marivoet, Wim; Benin, Samuel
  5. Assessing the development impacts of bio-innovations: The case of genetically modified maize and cassava in Tanzania By Benfica, Rui; Zambrano, Patricia; Chambers, Judith A.; Falck-Zepeda, José Benjamin
  6. On the relationships among durum wheat yields and weather conditions: evidence from Apulia region, Southern Italy By Tappi, Marco; Nardone, Gianluca; Santeramo, Fabio
  7. Causes behind Tenancy Contract among the Marginal Farmers of West Bengal, India and Its’ Impact on their Livelihood By Kundu, Amit; Goswami, Pubali
  8. Do Obese and Nonobese Consumers Respond Differently to Price Changes? Implications of Preference Heterogeneity for Using Food Taxes and Subsidies to Reduce Obesity By Zhen, Chen; Chen, Yu; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Karns, Shawn; Mancino, Lisa; Ver Ploeg, Michele
  9. Income dynamics of agricultural biogas production: a value chain analysis By Pascal Grouiez
  10. Roles of public expenditures and public investments on the demand and productivity of agricultural inputs/services: Some insights from Nigeria By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Edeh, Hyacinth; Andam, Kwaw S.
  11. Curbing antimicrobial resistance By Okelo, Walter
  12. Threats to global food systems from biosecurity issues By Pingali, Prabhu
  13. Exploring changing food attitudes to respect planetary boundaries By BOYSEN-URBAN Kirsten; M'BAREK Robert; PHILIPPIDIS George; FERRER Hugo
  14. Dynamics of comparative advantage in export of India’s agriculture By Kannan, Elumalai; Kumar, Anjani
  15. From Massification to Diversification: Inequalities in the Consumption of Dairy Products, Meat and Alcoholic Drinks in Spain (1964-2018) By Pablo Delgado; Vicente Pinilla
  16. Unpacking the nexus in a changing world – the relationship between biosecurity, trade, health and environment By Hinder, Nicola
  17. The economic performance of transitional and non-transitional organic dairy farms: A panel data econometric approach in Brittany By Elodie Letort; Aude Ridier
  18. Forever Niche: Why do organic vegetable varieties not diffuse? By Rohe, Sebastian; Oltmer, Marie; Wolter, Hendrik; Gmeiner, Nina; Tschersich , Julia
  19. Weather variability and extreme shocks in Africa: Are female or male farmers more affected? By Nico, Gianluigi; Azzarri, Carlo
  20. (Un-)sustainable transformations : everyday food practices in Italy during COVID-19 By Francesca Forno; Mikko Laamanen; Stefan Wahlen
  21. The Structural and Productivity Effects of Infrastructure Provision in Developed and Developing Countries By Orea, Luis; José A. Pérez-Méndez; Álvarez, Inmaculada C.
  22. India’s pulse policy landscape and its implications for trade By Roy, Devesh; Boss, Ruchira; Pradhan, Mamata; Ajmani, Manmeet
  23. The race to save banana By Kernot, Irene
  24. Global collaboration: International Plant Sentinel Network By Gale, David; O’Donnell, Katherine
  25. PSDR4 Repro-Innov - Réorganisations productives et innovations dans les filières agri-alimentaires By Pierre Triboulet; Charlène Arnaud; Pascale Chateau Terrisse; Danielle Galliano; Amélie Gonçalves; Geoffroy Labrouche; Antoine Larribeau; Rachel Levy; Nadine Loirette-Baldit; Geneviève Nguyen; Thomas Pomeon; Marianne Sanlaville; Lucie Viou
  26. Green Growth By Anna Valero
  27. What works best in promoting climate citizenship? A randomised, systematic evaluation of nudge, think, boost and nudge+ By Banerjee, Sanchayan; Galizzi, Matteo M.; John, Peter; Mourato, Susana
  28. Exploring household heterogeneities of the Deaton-Paxson puzzle: Evidence for Argentina By Echeverría, Lucía; Molina, José Alberto
  29. Tracking Quality Assessments Over Time. The Rise and Fall of S.L.V. Cabernet Sauvignon By Olivier Gergaud; Victor Ginsburgh; Juan D. Moreno-Ternero
  30. A Neural Network Approach to the Environmental Kuznets Curve By Mikkel Bennedsen; Eric Hillebrand; Sebastian Jensen
  31. La dimension territoriale des transitions agroécologiques : les acquis du programme PSDR4 By André Torre; Frederic Wallet; Jiao Huang; Cécile Détang-Dessendre; Catherine Huyghe
  32. Q&A: Curbing antimicrobial resistance By Warburton, Cathie; Hinder, Nicola; Gale, David; Anderson, Jay; Okelo, Walter
  34. The German Wine Queen: Opportunities and Challenges of a Product Ambassador Format between Tradition and Modernity By Gebhardt, Beate; Kloeckner, Carolin
  35. Social Safety Nets and Food Insecurity in the Time of COVID-19: Selected MENA Countries By Amira EL-SHAL; Eman MOUSTAFA; Nada ROSTOM; Yasmine ABDELFATTAH

  1. By: Cheo, Ambe Emmanuel; Adelhardt, Nora; Krieger, Tim; Berneiser, Jessica; Sanchez Santillano, Federico Alberto; Bingwa, Brendon; Suleiman, Nischa; Thiele, Patricia; Royes, Alvaro; Gudopp, Daniel; Sidibé, Amadou; Fahmy, Karim; Tambo, Erick; Diallo, Yacouba; Sogoba, Bougouna
    Abstract: Small-scale, rain-fed subsistence agriculture and pastoralism represent the major activity for Africa. For Mali, this represents about 80% of the population employed by the agricultural sector and contributes to about 42% of the Gross domestic product (GDP). The overreliance on rainfall, competing for the most valuable lands, the increasing scarcity of water, the lack of innovative technologies and infrastructure has made the agriculture sector vulnerable to climatic and non-climatic risks including an increase in the number of land conflicts. In addition, inadequate access to affordable energy has also limited social opportunities for the poor communities, especially in rural areas of Mali. Water Energy and Food (WEF) Nexus solutions such as agrivoltaics are increasingly being deployed to improve access to water for agricultural uses, improve yields and incomes, reduce drudgery especially for women, enhancing resilience and microclimate, improve land use efficiency and food security. This innovative approach has opened new prospects to improve the quality of life for people as well as their environment as a whole. Agrivoltaics is rapidly gaining popularity in many countries but not yet in African countries. This paper presents a feasibility analysis, recommendations and future directions of agrivoltaics in Mali and in Africa as a whole. Furthermore, applications of agrivoltaic systems are discussed in terms of their socio-economic and environmental effects, emphasizing also the necessity of integrative thinking in the process of strategic planning for achieving security in water, energy and food.
    Keywords: Nexus solutions,Climate change,Sahel region,Sub-Saharan Africa,Innovation
    Date: 2022
  2. By: K.B., Rangappa; G.K., Chetan Kumar
    Abstract: India is predominantly an agricultural nation. Agriculture is the source of livelihood security for majority of the rural population. Indian agriculture has witnessed several transformations since the beginning of planned economic development. These technological shifts have induced our farmers to adopt new technologies which are not native to our system. Majority of these technologies are imported or indigenously developed on imported ideas. Although these new technologies did help in transforming food deficit nation into food surplus nation, it seems like Green Revolution has run its course. Our paper is a descriptive attempt to trace the development of Indian agriculture along with identifying inherent structural problems it has. The final objective of the paper is not necessarily to give wholistic solutions to the problems but to discuss the issues at hand in hope of creating a conducive environment in academia for finding better solution.
    Keywords: Green Revolution, Sustainable Development, contemporary problems, wholistic approach
    JEL: Q1 Q15 Q18 Q19
    Date: 2022–02–24
  3. By: Ahmed, Akhter; Coleman, Fiona; Ghostlaw, Julie; Hoddinott, John F.; Menon, Purnima; Parvin, Aklima; Pereira, Audrey; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Roy, Shalini; Younus, Masuma
    Abstract: A growing body of evidence indicates that agricultural development programs can potentially improve production diversity and diet quality of poor rural households; however, less is known about which aspects of program design are effective in diverse contexts and feasible to implement at scale. We address this issue through an evaluation of the Agriculture, Gender, and Nutrition Linkages (ANGeL) project. ANGeL is a randomized controlled trial testing what combination of trainings focused on agricultural production, nutrition behavior change communication, and gender sensitization were most effective in improving production diversity and diet quality among rural farm households in Bangladesh. We find that trainings focused on agriculture improved production diversity in terms of greater production of fruits and vegetables grown on the homestead, eggs, dairy, and fish; adding trainings on nutrition and gender did not significantly change these impacts. Trainings focused on both agriculture and nutrition showed the largest impacts on diet quality, with evidence indicating that households in this arm also significantly increased consumption out of homestead production for fruits and vegetables, eggs, dairy, and fish. Findings indicate that agricultural training that promotes production of diverse, high-value, nutrient-rich foods can increase production diversity, and this can improve diet quality, but diet quality impacts are larger when agricultural training is combined with nutrition training. Relative to treatments combining agriculture and nutrition training, we find no significant impact of adding the gender sensitization on our measures of production diversity or diet quality.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; production; diversification; diet; agriculture; gender; nutrition; agricultural production; dietary diversity; nutrition-sensitive agriculture; randomized controlled trials; diet quality
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Ulimwengu, John M.; Thomas, Timothy S.; Marivoet, Wim; Benin, Samuel
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the determinants of long-term individual and community resilience for food and nutrition security in South Sudan using data from multiple sources including key informant interviews, household and community surveys, and georeferenced secondary data on climate, agricultural production, irrigation, and market access. Major agricultural development constraints as well as incidence of and responses to shocks and conflict are described. Climate-crop modeling and simulation methods are used to evaluate the constraints and to identify crop investment options. Then, a spatial typology of food and nutrition security is used to evaluate the constraints along the production-to-nutrition pathway to identify interventions that target different segments of the chain and options for improving agriculture and broader development outcomes. These are classified into production, access, and utilization efficiencies, and whether the underlying constraints are structural (i.e., level of efficiency remains the same over time) or stochastic (i.e., level of efficiency changes over time). The analysis is focused on about a dozen selected counties. The results show that development challenges are being compounded by climate change, with significant increases in the mean annual rainfall and daily maximum temperature for the warmest month. Between 1975 and 2016 for example, the mean annual rainfall in the selected counties increased by 40-111 mm/year, with a rise in the intensity of 0.2-1.3 mm per event. The daily maximum temperature for the warmest month increased by 2.0-3.2°C. If these trends (especially for temperature) continue to 2050, crop yields are projected to decline in the selected counties on average by 12-23% for sorghum, 9-18% for maize, 19-30% for groundnuts, and 16-24% for cassava. In general, there is an inverse-U-shaped the relationship between temperature and yields. While the peak of the inverse U varies by crop, time of the growing season, and other factors, crops in South Sudan are typically on the downward sloping side of the inverse U implying that increases in temperature will decrease yields (and at an increasing rate). Results of a spatial typology show that a majority (78%) of the selected counties are classified as having medium production efficiency and 22% as low production efficiency, none with high production efficiency. With respect to access to nutritious food, 55%, 29%, and 17% of the counties are classified as low, medium, and high access efficiency, respectively. And regarding the conversion of food access into nutritional status, 37%, 26%, and 37% are classified as low, medium, and high utilization efficiency, respectively. Whereas production efficiency mostly remains constant over time, (with only 24% of the counties recording substantial changes in efficiency level), access and utilization efficiency appear more volatile (with substantial changes observed in 52% of the counties). These results suggest that the access segment of the production-to-nutrition value chain is the most constraining, followed by the utilization segment. The differences in the results across counties reflect differences in development constraints across the country, which are also described. Implications of the results for building long-term individual and community resilience are discussed, in addition to areas for further research. Given the complex nature of crises facing South Sudan, our findings call for a comprehensive policy approach to address not only the urgent humanitarian crisis but also to help restore agricultural production systems as well as support communities to cope, recover, and build their resilience to shocks and crises. This is in line with the Partnership for Recovery and Resilience (PfRR) integrated programme framework for resilience which comprises four pillars: i) re-establish access to basic services, ii) rebuild trust in people and institutions, iii) restore productive capacities, and iv) nurture effective partnerships.
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; resilience; nutrition; nutrition security; value chains; households; modelling; food security; climate change; climate-crop modeling; market connectivity
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Benfica, Rui; Zambrano, Patricia; Chambers, Judith A.; Falck-Zepeda, José Benjamin
    Abstract: Tanzania’s agriculture faces persistent low crop productivity due to endogenous and exogenous factors, particularly low and unpredictable rainfall, and the incidence of pests. To address these challenges, the government and partners are making efforts to develop and deploy Genetically Modified (GM) Maize varieties with drought tolerance and insect resistant traits (WEMA), and Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) resistant varieties. This analysis overcomes limitations from earlier assessments of the impacts of those GM crops by accounting for trade-offs in resource competition and considering the indirect effects of adoption and yield gains from GM maize and cassava varieties on the broader economy, the Agri-Food System (AFS), and on household level outcomes. It extends the BioRAPP analysis to an ex-ante economywide framework. We reveal several findings. First, GM maize and cassava (individually and jointly) have positive impacts in the economy, the AFS, and the poverty, particularly in rural areas and among the poorest households. Second, given its relatively greater relevance in output and employment, and the stronger linkages in the AFS, the effects of GM maize on GDP and AFS growth, and poverty is relatively stronger than those from GM cassava. Third, as expected, relatively greater effects are found in higher adoption and high yield gains scenarios, and, in each scenario, the effects on the poorest households are greater than that for the higher quintiles. Furthermore, differential impact across scenarios is also greater amongst the poorest, while the differences are minimal for the top quintile. Finally, the high variation of results across scenarios, and the significant effects of the high adoption/high yield change scenario, suggest that efforts will be critical to ensure the realization of the maximization of adoption rates while ensuring the materialization of the yield growth potential of the GM varieties through the efficient use of technical recommendations on crop production management, and the introduction of the right investments and policy incentives.
    Keywords: TANZANIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agricultural production; models; poverty reduction; maize; cassava; agrifood systems; computable general equilibrium models; genetically modified foods; policies; innovation adoption; yields
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Tappi, Marco; Nardone, Gianluca; Santeramo, Fabio
    Abstract: The weather index-based insurances may help farmers to cope with climate risks overcoming the most common issues of traditional insurances. However, the weather index-based insurances present the limit of the basis risk: a significant yield loss may occur although the weather index does not trigger the indemnification, or a compensation may be granted even if there has not been a yield loss. Our investigation, conducted on Apulia region (Southern Italy), aimed at deepening the knowledge on the linkages between durum wheat yields and weather events, i.e., the working principles of weather index-based insurances, occurring in susceptible phenological phases. We found several connections among weather and yields and highlight the need to collect more refined data to catch further relationships. We conclude opening a reflection on how the stakeholders may make use of publicly available data to design effective weather crop insurances.
    Keywords: climate change, farming system, phenological phase, risk, weather insurance
    JEL: G22 Q14 Q18 Q54
    Date: 2022–04
  7. By: Kundu, Amit; Goswami, Pubali
    Abstract: The basic objective of this paper is to identify the possible factors which influence the marginal farmer households of West Bengal to go for tenancy contracts. In our study area, the target group is marginal farmer households where the only fixed-rent contract is observed, and all the contracts are verbal. Comparatively big landowners among the marginal farmer households where lack of motivation is observed among the younger generations to pursue agricultural activities for their livelihood and have higher earnings from different non-farm activities influence them to lease out the land. On the contrary, landless or the marginal farmer households owned very small size of land are more eager to take land in a lease for cultivation. The availability of family labour force among these types of households and earnings from alternative sources play an important role during the time of taking such a decision. After applying Heckman’s two-step treatment effect models, it is observed that marginal farmer households who lease out land are economically better off than the marginal farmer households who are not interested in any such tenancy contract. Besides that, it is also observed that farm households even after taking land in the lease are economically worse-off than the farm households who are not interested in any tenancy contract. But most of the marginal farmer households whichever type are living below the poverty line.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Tenancy Contract, Marginal farmers, Impact Evaluation, Poverty
    JEL: C31 I32 Q15 R23
    Date: 2021–03–03
  8. By: Zhen, Chen; Chen, Yu; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Karns, Shawn; Mancino, Lisa; Ver Ploeg, Michele
    Abstract: Preference heterogeneity in food demand has important health and equity implications for targeted taxes and subsidies intended to enhance diet quality and reduce obesity. We study the role of obesity in the purchases of food at home and food away from home using data from the nationally representative National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey. We develop a method for incorporating the complex survey design and retail scanner data into the estimation of a 21-good Exact Affine Stone Index demand system with endogenous prices and truncated purchases. We find significant preference heterogeneity associated with the obesity status of household members. Counterfactual simulations find that 1) a sweetened beverage tax is effective in increasing the healthfulness of grocery purchases by lower-income obese consumers; 2) the nutritional benefits of a fruit and vegetable subsidy are concentrated on nonobese consumers with little improvement in obese consumers’ Healthy Eating Index and an increase in their total calories purchased; and 3) a fiscally neutral healthy food subsidy fully funded by an unhealthy food tax benefits nonobese consumers both financially and nutritionally more than it does obese consumers. These findings show that lowering healthy food prices without raising the cost of unhealthy foods is unlikely to reduce obesity. Policymakers in favor of a systems approach of simultaneously taxing unhealthy foods and subsidizing healthy foods should be mindful of the distributional effects of this policy on obese consumers and the lower-income population.
    Keywords: soda tax, fruit and vegetable subsidy, FoodAPS, EASI demand, preference heterogeneity, nutrition inequality
    JEL: D12 H23 I14 I18
    Date: 2021–12–06
  9. By: Pascal Grouiez (UPC - Université Paris Cité, LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPC - Université Paris Cité)
    Abstract: This article presents the main results of the Métha'revenus research project, funded by the French Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and commissioned in 2019 to the Ladyss laboratory (CNRS). It adopts an institutionalist approach, known as a 'value chain' approach, to account for the income dynamics of agricultural biogas production in France. It distinguishes between two periods: the emergence of agricultural biogas production, driven by pioneering farmers and supported by public policies from the 2000s onwards; and the development of the sector, marked by an increase in the number of intermediaries, by a logic of optimising methanogenic power and greater competition between farmers on the one hand, and between farmers and industrialists on the other after 2015. Our results show a diversity of ways of generating income from agricultural biogas production in France. We also show that this sector is currently undergoing a process of industrialisation and expansion - in the sense of an increase in the number of segments and therefore of players. This dynamic is reflected in the fact that it is more difficult for some farmers to earn an income from this non-farming activity, particularly for those located upstream in the chain. It is not certain that farmers remain dominant players in anaerobic digestion and earn a significant income from it in the future.
    Abstract: Cet article présente les principaux résultats du projet de recherche Métha'revenus, financé par le ministère de l'Agriculture et de l'Alimentation, et commandé en 2019 au laboratoire Ladyss (CNRS). Il adopte une approche institutionnaliste dite « de filière » pour rendre compte de la dynamique de revenu de la méthanisation agricole en France. Il distingue deux périodes : celle de l'émergence de la méthanisation, portée par des éleveurs pionniers et soutenue par les politiques publiques à partir des années 2000 ; celle du développement de la filière marqué par une augmentation du nombre des intermédiaires, par une logique d'optimisation du pouvoir méthanogène et une plus grande concurrence entre les agriculteurs-méthaniseurs d'une part, et entre agriculteurs et industriels d'autre part après 2015. Nos résultats montrent une diversité de manières de dégager un revenu de la méthanisation agricole en France, du fait de l'histoire de l'émergence et du développement de la filière. Ils soulignent aussi que cette filière connait actuellement une logique d'industrialisation et d'extension – au sens d'une augmentation du nombre de segments et donc d'acteurs. Cette dynamique se traduit par une plus grande difficulté, pour certains agriculteurs, à dégager un revenu de cette activité non agricole, en particulier pour ceux situés en amont de la filière et qui n'ont pas réussi à internaliser au maximum les différentes étapes du processus de production. Il n'est pas certain que les agriculteurs, à terme, parviennent à être des acteurs dominants de la méthanisation et à en dégager un revenu significatif, quelles que soient leurs spécificités.
    Keywords: Non agricultural farmers' income,Agricultural biogas production,value chain analysis,Méthanisation agricole,revenus non agricole,analyse de filière,biogaz
    Date: 2021–07
  10. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Edeh, Hyacinth; Andam, Kwaw S.
    Abstract: Knowledge gaps remain as to how longer-term public investments (PI) such as agricultural research and development (R&D), and short-term interventions through other public expenditures in agriculture (PEA) complement each other in enhancing productivity and efficiency in the agrifood sector. This study attempts to partly fill this gap by using nationally representative panel household survey data, subnational PEA data, locations of national agricultural R&D, and various spatial agroclimatic data in Nigeria. The analyses generally indicate that marginal returns to agricultural inputs/services (fertilizer, agricultural mechanization, irrigation, extension, agricultural equipment, and family labor) often increase by PI that raise overall agroclimatic similarity (AS) (through R&D locations), as well as increase PEA-share by subnational governments. There is often complementarity between these PI and PEA, particularly for extension services, investment in agricultural equipment, irrigation, and in the northern part of the country. Promoting further adoptions of modern inputs/services, increasing PEA-share, and selecting PI for agricultural R&D given in-country variations in agroclimatic conditions can help raise agricultural profitability and incomes in Nigeria.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; public expenditure; public investment; farm inputs; services; productivity; mechanization; fertilizers; agricultural productivity; research; agricultural services; stratified difference-in-difference propensity-score matching
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Okelo, Walter
    Abstract: The discovery of antimicrobial agents for treatment of diseases in humans, animals and plants was one of the most significant events of the 20th century. Notwithstanding their importance, acquired resistance has become increasingly evident and this pattern has followed the introduction of each new antimicrobial agent. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has not only led to unwarranted mortality rates in humans, but also presents a major economic burden to farmers, governments and the rest of society. Hence, the alarming worldwide escalation of AMR poses a serious threat to public health, agricultural production and food security, and can cause major disruption globally. Whilst there has been progress in understanding the causes of AMR, there is a dearth of knowledge on how to empirically mitigate it using the One Health approach in low resource settings. Furthermore, the occurrence of AMR in the Pacific region is poorly understood. Using Fiji as a case study and through the Enhancing the Management of Antimicrobial Resistance (EMAR) project, we illustrate how systems thinking can be applied in the context of AMR. We also describe the impact of AMR on agricultural systems, and demonstrate how we are tackling the problem of resistance in Fiji to improve health, agricultural production, and ecosystem outcomes in a sustainable and cost-effective manner. We envisage that the approach used in Fiji, including the lessons learnt, will be scaled out to other low resource settings to reduce the spread of AMR.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Pingali, Prabhu
    Abstract: Global food systems have gone through periodic transformtions over the past sixty years: the Green Revolution, the Livestock Revolution, and the globalisation of food trade are some of the epochal events observed. The nature and magnitude of biosecurity risks have evolved with the rising intensity and complexity of agriculture and food systems. While transboundary crop pests continue to challenge global food security, zoonotic diseases are rising as risks to human health. The global movement of goods and people has further expanded biosecurity risks, in terms of scale and intensity of impacts. Rising global temperatures will further exacerbate the risks associated with transboundary pest and zoonotic diseases. COVID-19 provides an important example of food systems impacts from a global health shock. Policy and management opportunities for managing biosecurity risks and rebuilding food system resilience need urgent assessment and global action.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
  13. By: BOYSEN-URBAN Kirsten (European Commission - JRC); M'BAREK Robert (European Commission - JRC); PHILIPPIDIS George; FERRER Hugo
    Abstract: Healthier, more sustainable and more equitable food systems have a key role to deliver progress on all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study aims at assessing the impact of behavioural changes with regard to food consumption with a focus on the objectives of SDG target 12.3. As a stylised representation of our finite planetary resources, the study employs a recursive dynamic global computable general equilibrium simulation model known as MAGNET, which is ideally suited to examining forward-looking medium- to long-term scenarios. The scenarios selected represent important targeted synergetic directions for tackling the most pressing challenges of today and the future, put in place on a global policy agenda with the SDGs and the Paris agreement. From a European perspective, within the context of the European Green Deal and related strategies, the market driven dynamics explored in this report constitute a relevant building block toward the realisation of a sustainable 21st century vision of European agriculture. For example, there is a clear complementarity in pairing the attitudinal changes toward more sustainable food consumption examined in this report, with environmentally friendly and, albeit, potentially productivity reducing farming practises. The implications for food affordability, sustainable usage of resources and the protection of rural livelihoods through payments linked to efficient and socially responsible agricultural production practises, offers great promise and should constitute a line of inquiry for further research.
    Keywords: food system, food waste, food loss, diets, modelling, MAGNET, CGE
    Date: 2022–04
  14. By: Kannan, Elumalai; Kumar, Anjani
    Abstract: This paper analyses the dynamics of comparative advantage in India’s agricultural exports over the period 2001 to 2019. In order to analyze the pattern of export specialization, we use the revealed comparative advantage index, and its variant, the revealed symmetric comparative advantage index. We use the Markov transition matrix to examine the product mobility of comparative advantage. Our results show that the extent of agricultural trade openness has remained constant over time and that there has been little change in the composition of agricultural exports. Between 2017 and 2019, two products—semi- or wholly milled rice, and frozen shrimps and prawns—accounted for one-third of all exports. Analysis of the mobility of comparative advantage reveals little mobility of products from the lowest to the highest decile. There is a 65.8 percent probability that a product will stay in the first decile even after nearly two decades. A high degree of persistence of export specialization implies a much greater probability of starting and ending up in the highest decile. Policy should aim at diversification of the agricultural export basket through a product-specific focus that is based on export demand and the exploration of new markets.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; agriculture; exports; dynamics; agricultural trade; trade; agricultural trade specialization; trade openness; revealed comparative advantage; mobility of comparative advantage
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Pablo Delgado (Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Economía Aplicada e Historia Económica e Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón, IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Gran Via 4, 50005 Zaragoza, España); Vicente Pinilla (Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Economía Aplicada e Historia Económica e Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón, IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Gran Via 4, 50005 Zaragoza, España)
    Abstract: From the second half of the twentieth century, two facts characterized western societies from a nutritional point of view. On the one hand, the culmination of the nutritional transition and a trend towards a global homogeny diet. On the other hand, in high-income societies emerged two different food consumption models. The raise in the intake of agri-industrial food products characterizes the first food consumption model. The second model is characterized by both the reduction of caloric intake and the increase in the consumption of elaborated, sophisticated and processed foodstuff. Using Spain as a study case, the aim of this work how was the inequality evolution by income and region during the culmination of the modern nutritional transition and in the raise of each food consumption model. Specifically, we display the evolution of the inequalities in the consumption of dairy products, meat and alcoholic beverages from 1964 to 2018. By exploiting direct sources of food consumption, we show that around 1960, not all social classes and regions had culminated the modern nutritional transition but around 1980/90 all types of disparities had disappeared. However, during the last decades, new types of inequalities are emerging in the access to some elaborated food products.
    Keywords: nutritional transition, inequality, dairy products, meat, wine, alcoholic beverages
    JEL: N34 N54 O13 R21
    Date: 2022–05
  16. By: Hinder, Nicola
    Abstract: International trade in agricultural and food commodities is essential to global food and nutrition security. Trade is enhanced by systems-based and science-based approaches to regulation that address risks to animal and plant biosecurity, zoonotic disease, food safety and nutrition. The World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) recognises the ‘three sisters’ – the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) – as the international standard-setting bodies squarely at the centre of this nexus between biosecurity, health and trade. The standards set by these bodies are integral to maintaining a transparent rules-based trading environment and reducing risk for those operating in the increasingly connected global value chain. I will explore how the work of the three sisters intersect to influence food import and export systems, continuing to adapt in a changing world, and I will discuss Australia’s crucial role in promoting science-based standards and guidance that facilitate trade in safe food, with a focus on the important role Australia plays in contributing to the work of Codex.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Elodie Letort (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Aude Ridier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The economic performance of organic dairy farms, especially during the transitional period, is not consensus in economics studies, depending on the method used, the type of indicators, the nature and scale of the performance indicator, the geographical location. We compare the economic and financial performance of both conventional and organic dairy farms based on a mixed effect panel data model estimated on 1,016 farm micro-data collected between 2007and 2018 in two departments of Brittany. As in other studies, we find that the herd size influences positively all economic and financial indicators. Even if the growth in assets is heterogeneous among organic farms, it is higher than in other farms, which decreases their return on assets. Finally, even if they share the same objective of food autonomy and sparing variable expenses, dairy farms based on grassland production system do not exhibit the same performance dynamics as organic farms.
    Abstract: La littérature existante sur les performances des exploitations biologiques est abondante, mais il est encore difficile aujourd'hui d'identifier les résultats spécifiques de performance des exploitations biologiques dans la mesure où les échantillons sont très petits. Les résultats obtenus sont également très dépendants des régions et des secteurs agricoles étudiés, des indicateurs de performance économique et des méthodes utilisées. Dans ce papier, nous comparons les performances économiques et financières des exploitations laitières conventionnelles et biologiques à partir d'un modèle à effets mixtes estimé sur 1 016 micro-données collectées entre 2007 et 2018 dans le département d'Ille-et-Vilaine (Bretagne, France). Comme dans d'autres études, nous constatons que la taille du troupeau influence positivement tous les indicateurs économiques et financiers. Même si la croissance des actifs est hétérogène entre les exploitations biologiques, elle est plus élevée que dans les autres exploitations, ce qui diminue leur rendement sur actifs. Enfin, même si elles partagent le même objectif d'autonomie alimentaire et d'économie de charges variables, les exploitations laitières basées sur un système de production herbager ne présentent pas la même dynamique de performance que les exploitations biologiques.
    Keywords: Organic farms,Economical and financial performance,Mixed effect model,Agriculture biologique,Performances économiques et financières,Modèle à effets mixtes
    Date: 2022–04–08
  18. By: Rohe, Sebastian (Universitf of Oldenburg); Oltmer, Marie (University of Oldenburg); Wolter, Hendrik (University of Oldenburg); Gmeiner, Nina (University of Oldenburg); Tschersich , Julia (Utrecht University)
    Abstract: While organic food has increased its market share in conventional food retail, virtually all organic vegetables are still conventionally bred. For decades, organically bred vegetable varieties remained a market niche, despite their socio-ecological benefits. This paper conceptualizes actors and activities around organic breeding as a Technological Innovation System (TIS) and analyzes what prevents these varieties from widely diffusing into conventional supermarkets. The investigated barriers relate to knowledge, market formation, investments, and legitimacy. The study is based on interviews with breeding initiatives and food retailers in Germany. Theoretically, the paper adds an innovation systems-perspective on the diffusion of organic varieties, a blind spot in the emerging debate so far. Furthermore, it contributes to the literature on sustainability transitions by introducing a novel empirical topic to the debate and reframing the TIS framework to analyzing fresh produce. Identifying existing barriers provides suggestions for practitioners seeking to successfully diffuse organic vegetable varieties.
    Keywords: agri-food transitions; Commons; organic breeding; diffusion; technological innovation systems; food retail
    JEL: O30 O31 O33 Q13
    Date: 2022–05–18
  19. By: Nico, Gianluigi; Azzarri, Carlo
    Abstract: Agriculture in Africa has been traditionally seen as an important employment provider, supporting agriculture-based livelihoods of the vast majority of the African population, (James, 2014; World Bank, 2011) and absorbing the largest share of the employed population. Data suggest that almost 224 million people aged 15 and above are directly engaged in agriculture in Africa (ILO, 2021), corresponding to nearly half of the total employed population in the continent and absorbing ¼ of global agricultural employment.
    Keywords: AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; CENTRAL AFRICA; EAST AFRICA; NORTH AFRICA; SOUTHERN AFRICA; WEST AFRICA; employment; agriculture; weather variability; literature reviews; gender; women; men; farmers; shock; climate change; weather shock
    Date: 2022
  20. By: Francesca Forno (EM - emlyon business school); Mikko Laamanen; Stefan Wahlen
    Abstract: In this article, we study how the global pandemic has affected food practices. We underscore how time, space, and modality as key facets of the everyday intersect with understandings, procedures, and engagements as components of practice, and how food practices in the pandemic context are transforming, at least temporarily, toward more sustainability. Our mixed-methods data were collected from participants in a local food initiative established in Trento during the first Italian lockdown in Spring 2020, which aimed to connect local producers to consumers more directly. We analyze data from a panel survey conducted with 55 participants of this initiative followed by ten in-depth interviews six months after the lockdown. The findings illustrate that the lockdown encouraged different people to search for "good food" through the food initiative. Sustainable food practices included more planning and less waste, but in some cases initial interest in the initiative changed back to prevailing industrial supply via supermarkets. Thus, not all food practices of our respondents were transformed to be more sustainable or permanent. We conclude that everyday food practices, when disrupted and if accompanied with well-functioning socio-technical innovations, can foster a transformation toward a more diversified and sustainable food system.
    Keywords: Everyday,Food,Practice theory,Stability,Sustainability,Transformation
    Date: 2022–01–01
  21. By: Orea, Luis; José A. Pérez-Méndez; Álvarez, Inmaculada C.
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of the land consolidation (LC) processes that have taken place in Asturias over recent decades. These processes received European funding given that their purpose is to improve the economic activity in rural areas. As many parishes have been involved in two or more LC processes, we use a Difference-in-Difference (DiD) approach with heterogeneous treatment timings to examine the temporal evolution of parishes’ livestock production and farms. To our best knowledge, a similar DiD model has not been estimated as yet in the literature. We examine whether LC helps to reverse rural depopulation in Asturias. We find that parishes’ livestock production increases about 3% on average once one or more LC processes have been implemented, and that the LC processes have especially attenuated the decline in the number of farms in (coastal) parishes where dairy farms predominate. We do not find strong evidence regarding the effectiveness of the LC processes in securing the level of rural population, except in some of the parishes located in western Asturias.
    Date: 2021
  22. By: Roy, Devesh; Boss, Ruchira; Pradhan, Mamata; Ajmani, Manmeet
    Abstract: The paper attempts to fill a knowledge gap by examining India’s pulse complex, consisting of production, consumption, and trade policies. India’s pulse policies are anchored in a cereal-centric farming system and prioritize national self-sufficiency as well as the mitigation of relative price increases in food. On the farmer side, government policy includes price support (a minimum support price [MSP]) for different pulses initially without procurement, but later backed by public procurement. The MSP plus procurement elicited a comparatively high supply response. Without procurement, the MSP worked only to anchor prices and benefit traders at the farmers’ expense. By not accounting for the needed risk premium (for a supply response) the MSP kept domestic production low. Even as the world’s largest importer of pulses, the scale of pulse imports in India have generally not been large enough to cool its markets and bring down domestic prices. Instantaneous supply adjustments by exporters in response to trade policy changes are difficult.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; grain legumes; policies; trade; agricultural production; consumption; trade; cereals; food prices
    Date: 2022
  23. By: Kernot, Irene
    Abstract: Fusarium wilt of banana caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense was first recorded in Australia in 1874, but its spread to Panama in 1890 was the start of the first global epidemic. The disease affected a susceptible variety dominant at the time, Gros Michel. By the 1950s Gros Michel was replaced by a variety resistant to the disease: the Cavendish banana. A silver bullet solution was rapidly adopted around the world. Then in 1967 symptoms of Fusarium wilt appeared on Cavendish in Taiwan. Tropical Race 4, the race that affects Cavendish in any environment, was named in the 1990s. In 2019 it appeared in Colombia, establishing it in every banana-growing region globally. This is a race the disease is winning in turtle-like fashion. Despite this, banana remains an important export and also provides nutrition and livelihood benefits to growers and communities around the tropics. What can we learn from our biosecurity responses to races 1 and 4 to provide a competitive advantage against any future race? Both technical and behavioural strategies are necessary, to be prepared for inevitable change. Solutions must offer hope to growers and smallholders that production can be maintained despite the presence of the disease as the return to business as usual becomes a distant dream.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
  24. By: Gale, David; O’Donnell, Katherine
    Abstract: Invertebrate and pathogen pests present a significant risk to global plant health, and this threat is ever rising due to the growing global trade of plant material and, increasingly, as evidence suggests that climate change is influencing pest establishment in new locations. Sentinel plants within botanic gardens and arboreta can play a vital role in providing information on future and/or unknown threats. The objective of the International Plant Sentinel Network (IPSN) is to act as an early warning system to recognise new and emerging pest and pathogen risks, through the development of national and international partnerships between plant protection scientists and botanic gardens and arboreta. There are currently 71 members of IPSN. They include the Australian National Botanic Gardens (Canberra), Kings Park and Botanic Garden (Perth), Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, National Arboretum Canberra, Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens, and the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium of South Australia. As part of the project ‘Establishing a Program of Plant Pest Surveillance in Australian Botanic Gardens and Arboreta’, which is funded through the Australian Government’s Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper – the Government’s plan for stronger farmers and a stronger economy – Plant Health Australia has had the opportunity to develop connections with the IPSN to build capacity and knowledge, locally and abroad.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
  25. By: Pierre Triboulet (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Charlène Arnaud (LGCO - Laboratoire Gouvernance et Contrôle Organisationnel - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Pascale Chateau Terrisse (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Danielle Galliano (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Amélie Gonçalves (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Geoffroy Labrouche (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - ENSFEA - École Nationale Supérieure de Formation de l'Enseignement Agricole de Toulouse-Auzeville); Antoine Larribeau (Cooperative Qualisol); Rachel Levy (LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - ENSFEA - École Nationale Supérieure de Formation de l'Enseignement Agricole de Toulouse-Auzeville); Nadine Loirette-Baldit (DRAAF Occitanie); Geneviève Nguyen (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Thomas Pomeon (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marianne Sanlaville (coopération agricole Occitanie); Lucie Viou (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: productive reorganizations focuses on the evolution of farm profiles impacting agricultural cooperatives and territories. Research on organic agriculture explores the different aspects of its development, both in terms of production and consumption. Finally, research has examined the criteria that have a positive impact on the dynamics of innovation in rural areas and medium-sized cities. The interactions between the project partners have been rich and diverse, allowing for the completion of the works undertaken, for the exchange of the results obtained and for the co-construction of participative workshops.
    Abstract: La région Occitanie s'interroge sur le potentiel d'innovation et de création de valeur ajoutée dans le secteur agri-alimentaire (potentiel des signes de qualité, développement d'agro-chaînes, ...), compte tenu de son poids dans l'économie régionale. Face à cet enjeu, le projet Repro-Innov a pour objectif d'analyser les processus de réorganisation et les dynamiques d'innovation à l'œuvre dans les filières et les territoires. Il s'intéresse à la diversité des innovations, techniques, organisationnelles, mais aussi environnementales et sociales, aux différents maillons des filières. Le projet associe des méthodes quantitatives à partir d'enquêtes statistiques et de bases de données, et qualitatives à partir d'entretiens. Trois grands types de travaux structurent le projet. Les travaux sur les réorganisations productives s'intéressent à l'évolution des profils d'exploitation agricole impactant les coopératives agricoles et les territoires. Les travaux sur l'agriculture biologique explorent les différentes facettes de son développement, tant côté production que côté consommation. Enfin des travaux s'intéressent aux critères qui jouent favorablement sur les dynamiques d'innovation dans les espaces ruraux et les villes moyennes. Les interactions entre les partenaires du projet ont été riches et diverses, pour permettre de mener à bien les travaux engagés, pour échanger sur les résultats obtenus et pour co-construire des ateliers participatifs.
    Keywords: filières agri-alimentaires
    Date: 2022–03–25
  26. By: Anna Valero
    Abstract: Many countries have plans for a "green recovery" from the pandemic, in which the invention and diffusion of "clean" technologies and practices are central. How can environmental and broader industrial policies be combined to achieve growth that is strong, sustainable and inclusive? Economists study what drives innovation and growth - and how these can be steered towards delivering a zero-carbon future.
    Keywords: environment, industrial policies, , Productivity, growth
    Date: 2021–09–10
  27. By: Banerjee, Sanchayan; Galizzi, Matteo M.; John, Peter; Mourato, Susana
    Abstract: Nudges have been increasingly deployed to deliver climate policies in the last decade. Recent evidence shows nudges are hard to scale–up. So can we use nudges more effectively, or should we rely on other tools of behaviour change? We argue that reflective strategies can enhance nudges by encouraging agency and ownership in citizens. We test this by systematically comparing nudges to reflective interventions like thinks, boosts, and nudge+ over orders of low-carbon meals using an online experiment with 3,074 participants in the United Kingdom. We find all behavioural interventions increase intentions for climate-friendly diets, but encouraging reflection prior to nudging (“nudge+”) strengthens these treatment effects. There is no evidence of negative behavioural spillovers as measured by participants’ donations to pro-social charities. There is potential for reflective policies in promoting climate citizenship.
    Keywords: nudge; think; boost; nudge+; climate-friendly diets; climate citizenship; Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science; Department of Political Economy; Department of Geography and Environment
    JEL: C90 D91 I12 Q18 Q58
    Date: 2022–04
  28. By: Echeverría, Lucía; Molina, José Alberto
    Abstract: Theory predicts that economies of scale associated with the consumption of shared household public goods make larger families better off, given the same level of per capita expenditure or income. Public goods are relatively cheaper, while per capita expenditure on the private good will increase, as long as it is not easily substitutable, as in the case of food. However, Deaton and Paxson (1998) found exactly the opposite: food share declines with the number of heads, keeping household per capita expenditure constant. This paper aims to better understand the heterogeneities underlying the Deaton-Paxson paradox in food consumption, using data from the Argentinean Household Expenditure Survey (ENGH, Spanish acronym) for the period 2017/2018. We first differentiate the impact of an additional adult from an additional child on food demand, in families of different sizes. Second, we evaluate the relationship between food demand and household size on the distribution of income. Third, we explore potential associations beyond the conditional mean of food consumption. Because standard analysis focuses on average effects of family size on food demand, the existence of the paradox at the lower and upper end of the conditional food distribution remains unknown. Our evidence supports the findings of Deaton and Paxson (1998), and reveals important differences driving this food puzzle. Our results shed light on the crucial role of economies of scale in poor households.
    Keywords: Leyes de Engel; Tamaño de Hogar; Economías de Escala; Consumo de Alimentos;
    Date: 2022–01
  29. By: Olivier Gergaud; Victor Ginsburgh; Juan D. Moreno-Ternero
    Abstract: The outcome of the famous 1976 Judgment of Paris, a blind wine tasting of ten wines by eleven judges, brought American wines to the forefront of the wine business. A Californian wine, the 1973 Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars S.L.V. Cabernet Sauvignon, was declared the winner, surpassing four highly prized French wines (Château Mouton-Rothschild, 1970; Château Montrose, 1970; Château Haut-Brion, 1970; and Château Léoville Las Cases, 1971). We collect ratings from experts for (almost) all vintages of the same ten wines over the years 1968-2021 and find that the S.L.V. Cabernet Sauvignon is far from being first. We conclude that either the 1973 vintage was overrated by the experts who tasted it in 1976, or 1973 was merely an outlier in this winery.
    Keywords: 1976 Judgment of Paris; 1973 S.L.V. Cabernet Sauvignon; wines; ratings; tracking quality.
    Date: 2022–05
  30. By: Mikkel Bennedsen (Aarhus University and CREATES); Eric Hillebrand (Aarhus University and CREATES); Sebastian Jensen (Aarhus University and CREATES)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between per capita gross domestic product and per capita carbon dioxide emissions using national-level panel data for the period 1960-2018. We propose a novel semiparametric panel data methodology that combines country and time fixed effects with a nonparametric neural network regression component. Globally and for the regions OECD and Asia, we find evidence of an inverse U-shaped relationship, often referred to as an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). For OECD, the EKC-shape disappears when using consumption-based emissions data, suggesting the EKC-shape observed for OECD is driven by emissions exports. For Asia, the EKC-shape becomes even more pronounced when using consumption-based emissions data and exhibits an earlier turning point. JEL classifcation: C14, C23, C45, C51, C52, C53 Key words: Territorial carbon dioxide emissions, Consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions, Environmental Kuznets curve, Climate econometrics, Panel data, Machine learning, Neural networks
    Date: 2022–05–24
  31. By: André Torre (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Frederic Wallet (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jiao Huang (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Cécile Détang-Dessendre (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Catherine Huyghe (CODIR - Collège de Direction - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This issue of Innovations Agronomiques presents the work carried out during the PSDR4 Programme (For and On Regional Development) from 2015 to 2020, including productions released beyond the end of the programme. PSDR4 involved more than 1,100 researchers and partner actors working together in 33 participatory and multidisciplinary research projects located in 10 French administrative regions. These projects have resulted in numerous scientific and practical products, some of which were presented at the Final Symposium of PSDR4 in October 2020. This issue presents the main results obtained in each of the projects. The focus is on actors' participation, as well as contributions to territorial development.
    Abstract: Les résultats présentés dans ce numéro d'Innovations Agronomiques sont issus du travail réalisé au cours du Programme PSDR4 (Pour et Sur le Développement Régional), entre 2015 et 2020, voire au- delà pour les productions faisant suite aux projets de recherche. Le Programme PSDR a réuni plus de1100 chercheurs et acteurs partenaires, qui ont travaillé ensemble au sein de 33 projets de recherche participatifs et pluridisciplinaires, répartis au sein de 10 Régions françaises. Il a donné lieu à de nombreuses productions scientifiques et partenariales, dont certaines ont été présentées lors du Symposium final, en octobre 2020. Dans ce numéro sont exposés les principaux résultats obtenus dans chacun des projets. L'accent est mis également sur la participation des acteurs, ainsi que sur les contributions au développement des territoires.
    Keywords: Transition agroécologique,Partenariat,Pluridisciplinarité,Développement territorial
    Date: 2022–03–25
  32. By: Warburton, Cathie; Hinder, Nicola; Gale, David; Anderson, Jay; Okelo, Walter
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
  33. By: Anne Albert-Cromarias (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Alexandre Asselineau (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'ENtreprise [Dijon] - BSB - Burgundy School of Business (BSB) - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon Bourgogne (ESC))
    Abstract: This article deals with the mechanism of coopetition formation from a network perspective, focusing in the wine industry. Through a comprehensive approach, we study the case of four vineyards in central France that are located in a low-profile wine-growing region and made up of very small firms fighting in a highly competitive market. While everything seems to encourage them to collaborate, these vineyards have so far remained unable to develop an effective coopetition strategy beyond a few specific initiatives. We seek to identify the reasons for these difficulties by analysing exogenous and endogenous coopetitive drivers. Our results provide theoretical contributions theory by showing that: the formation stage can lead to effective or ineffective coopetition; coopetition in an embedded network is specific; and coopetition intentionality plays a role in this formation stage.
    Keywords: Wine,Small business,Coopetition,Network,Coopetition formation
    Date: 2022
  34. By: Gebhardt, Beate; Kloeckner, Carolin
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze opportunities and challenges of the German wine queen concept as an example of a traditional food product ambassador. Explorative interviews with seven experts from politics, wine marketing and media have been conducted. The wine queen is confirmed as a well-known format that still seems to represent the self-image of the majority of the German wine industry well, especially for marketing abroad. Besides organizational and financial aspects, the main challenge is currently to re-shape the outdated role image and better align it recent social changes, yet without losing the appeal of its traditionality.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Marketing
    Date: 2021–09
  35. By: Amira EL-SHAL; Eman MOUSTAFA; Nada ROSTOM; Yasmine ABDELFATTAH
    Abstract: COVID-19 is testing food and social protection systems in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region at an unprecedented scale. Countries responded by expanding social safety nets (SSNs) and/or distributing new cash transfers. We estimate if and to what extent SSNs have mitigated food insecurity in MENA during COVID-19, using a unique panel survey of four MENA countries for November 2020–June 2021. Our difference-in-differences (DD) fixed-effects estimates show that those who received non-usual government support in Tunisia were 15 percentage points (ppts) less likely to be unable to buy their typical amount of food due to price increases than those who did not receive support. No significant effects are observed in Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco. Non-usual social support from non-governmental institutions had greater effect. Individuals who received non-usual support from non-governmental institutions in Morocco and Jordan were, respectively, 22 ppts and 15 ppts less likely to report being unable to buy their typical amount of food due to decreased income. Our estimates also show that government SSNs have mitigated the negative effect of food insecurity on resorting to adverse coping strategies during COVID-19, especially selling assets.
    Keywords: Afrique
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–05–04

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