nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒05‒23
34 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Can trade contribute to a global environmental sustainability? By Elverdin, Pablo; Glauber, Joseph W.; Laborde Debucquet, David; Piñeiro, Valeria
  2. Agroforestry Programs in the Colombian Amazon: Selection, Treatment and Exposure Effects on Deforestation By Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Aravena, Claudia; Castillo, Natalia; Ehrlich, Marco; Taou, Nadia; Wagner, Thomas
  3. Measuring and Mapping Food Security Status of Rajasthan, India: A District-Level Analysis By Mai, Nhat Chi
  4. Urbanisation and rural development in developing countries: A review of pathways and impacts By Sakketa, Tekalign Gutu
  5. Price or income support to farmers? Policy options and implications By C.S.C. Sekhar
  6. View from the private sector: Trust and purpose By Kaan, Rob
  7. An assessment of Sudan’s wheat value chains: Exploring key bottlenecks and challenges By Abdelaziz, Fatma; William, Amy; Abay, Kibrom A.; Siddig, Khalid
  8. Public food procurement benchmarking: using a best practice approach to assess public food procurement from smallholder farmers By Ana Miranda; Israel Klug
  9. Decentralized Targeting of Agricultural Credit Programs: Private versus Political Intermediaries By Pushkar Maitra; Sandip Mitra; Dilip Mookherjee; Sujata Visaria
  10. On the economic value of the agronomic effects of crop diversification for farmers: estimation based on farm cost accounting data By Ibirénoyé Romaric Sodjahin; Fabienne Femenia; Obafemi Philippe Koutchade; A. Carpentier
  11. Impacts of the Fomento Programme on family farmers in the Cerrado biome and its relevance to climate change: preliminary findings By Patricia S. Mesquita; Teophilo Folhes; Luciana Vieira de Novais; Louise Cavalcante
  12. THE RECENT FARM LAWS IN INDIA: RATIONALE, IMPLICATIONS AND WAY FORWARD By C.S.C.Sekhar
  13. What prevents the adoption of regenerative agriculture and what can we do about it? Lessons from a behaviorally-attuned Participatory Modelling exercise in Australia By Castilla-Rho, Juan; Kenny, Daniel
  14. Future-proofing with advanced and emerging technologies and tools By Horsch, Rob
  15. Changing and increasing biosecurity risks to food and nutrition security By Robinson, Andrew
  16. African swine fever – beyond the numbers By Cooper, Tarni
  17. Are interactions important in estimating flood damage to economic entities? The case of wine-making in France By David Nortes Martínez; Frédéric Grelot; Pauline Bremond; Stefano Farolfi; Juliette Rouchier
  18. Prioritizing development policy research in Sudan: An innovative approach to guide IFPRI’s Sudan Strategy Support Program By Kirui, Oliver K.; Siddig, Khalid; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Kassim, Yumna
  19. The battle against fall armyworm By Dale, Chris
  20. Does climate change perception make livelihood diversification more effective? Evidence from the consumption mobility study of rural households By Saudamini Das; Arup Mitra
  21. Has Open Innovation Taken Root in India Evidence from Startups working in Food Value Chains By Chandra S.R. Nuthalapati
  22. Deadweight Losses or Gains from In-kind Transfers? Experimental Evidence from India By Klaus Abbink; Gaurav Datt; Lata Gangadharan; Digvijay Negi; Bharat Ramaswami
  23. Global socio-economic and climate change mitigation scenarios through the lens of structural change By Julien Lefevre; Thomas Le Gallic; Panagiotis Fragkos; Jean-François Mercure; Yeliz Simsek; Leonidas Paroussos
  24. Diagnosis in a fish farmer’s backpack By Barnes, Andrew C.; Das, Suvra; Silayeva, Oleksandra; Wilkinson, Shaun; Cagua, Fernando; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jerome
  25. Challenges and innovations in the economic evaluation of the risks of climate change By Rising, James A.; Taylor, Charlotte; Ives, Matthew C.; Ward, Robert E.t.
  26. Productivist Agricultural Systems to Multifunctional Agriculture in the Cocoa Agrarian System and the payment for environmental services By Gustavo Bittencourt Machado
  27. The state of social insurance for agricultural workers in the Near East and North Africa and challenges for expansion By Lucas Sato
  28. Bad Weather, Social Network, and Internal Migration; Case of Japanese Sumo Wrestlers 1946-1985 By Eiji Yamamura
  29. Trade, Trees, and Contingent Trade Agreements By Bård Harstad
  30. Infrastructure under pressure: water management and state-making in Southern Iraq By Mason, Michael
  31. Beyond global rankings: Benchmarking public food procurement By Ana Miranda; Israel Klug
  32. Implementation of a 2-for-1 Price Incentive for Fruits and Vegetables in a Grocery Retail Setting By Rebecca Franckle; R. J. Boulos; A. N. Thorndike; A. J. Moran; N. Khandpur; J. Greene; J. P. Block; E. B. Rimm; M. Polacsek
  33. Numerical Assessment of Groundwater Flowpaths below a Streambed in Alluvial Plains Impacted by a Pumping Field By Jérôme Texier; Julio Gonçalvès; Agnès Rivière
  34. Sustainable finance: A journey toward ESG and climate risk By Billio, Monica; Costola, Michele; Hristova, Iva; Latino, Carmelo; Pelizzon, Loriana

  1. By: Elverdin, Pablo; Glauber, Joseph W.; Laborde Debucquet, David; Piñeiro, Valeria
    Abstract: Achieving world food security is more complex nowadays. It is not only necessary to pay attention to the availability of food, but also to the way in which it is produced, paying special attention to the impact of the food production systems on climate change and natural resources sustainability. The challenge is to produce a diversified basket of nutritious food in sufficient quantity while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and minimizing the impact on natural resources. Accomplishing these diverse goals requires an integrated strategy that takes into account increased productivity and the environmental sustainability of food production systems with a focus on efficient use of land, water, fertilizers and energy.
    Keywords: WORLD; trade; environment; sustainability; food production; natural resources; greenhouse gas emissions; agriculture; environmental sustainability
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:135830&r=
  2. By: Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Aravena, Claudia; Castillo, Natalia; Ehrlich, Marco; Taou, Nadia; Wagner, Thomas
    Abstract: Tropical rainforests play a critical role in the fight against climate change. However, record high levels of deforestation have been experienced in the Amazon which, together with land use change, has led to loss of biodiversity and sustainable livelihoods. Agroforestry and silvo-pastoral conservation programs are particularly promising in this context because of their potential to simultaneously offer sustainable forest cover and support local livelihoods. Together with sustainable animal husbandry, they are critical in addressing the twin challenges of food security and climate change. But empirical estimates of the effectiveness of planned agroforestry on deforestation are largely absent. We study the effects of an innovative and ambitious agroforestry program, part of the UN REDD initiative in Colombia, upon deforestation in the Amazon. Enrolment on the program is not random but based on matching and choice. Achieving reduced deforestation through planned agroforestry is challenging. When selected farms undergo 'treatment' under the program, they initially experience reduction in secondary vegetation in the medium run (5-20 years). Using a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences approach, and both traditional and new econometric methods, we estimate treatment, exposure and selection effects. The findings emphasize that agroforestry programs can stall deforestation and even promote permanent forest cover. However, this requires continuous upscaling with continued and very rapid expansion of the program, entailing substantial costs to society but also significant return.
    Keywords: Agroforestry programs, Selection, Treatment and Exposure effects, Difference-in-differences, Colombian Amazon, Deforestation
    JEL: C21 Q23 Q15 C55 Q56 C23
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nsr:niesrd:537&r=
  3. By: Mai, Nhat Chi
    Abstract: The present study tries to analyse the status of food security, along with its various components, such as food availability, accessibility, and stability with the help of a multidimensional index across districts of Rajasthan, India based on an indicator approach. The QGIS mapping computer application and quintile method were used to map districts into low, medium, high, and very high categories. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was applied to find out the significant determinants of food security and its respective components. The results confirm that there is a wide range of inequalities in terms of food security and its components of availability, accessibility, and stability across districts. It was found that the Ganganagar district (0.407) was rated the most food-secure district due to relatively higher food stability (0.401) in the Rajasthan state. On the contrary, lower food availability (0.084) and accessibility (0.183) contributed to the lowest food security in the Dungarpur district. Moreover, districts associated with dry regions are highly vulnerable and relatively less food secure compared to districts having surface irrigation facilities. Hence, the study recommends; diversification from farm to non-farm activities; sufficient storage capacity to control price fluctuations throughout the year, formulation and dissemination of climate-resilient technologies; investment in infrastructure, promotion of water management, conservation technologies, regulation and replenishment of groundwater in rural areas for augmenting cropping intensity; district-specific policies to arrest food insecurity; and strengthening the coverage of rural employment programme, i.e. MGNREGA.
    Date: 2022–04–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:d2buh&r=
  4. By: Sakketa, Tekalign Gutu
    Abstract: This paper reviews the current state of literature on the impacts of urbanization on rural development in developing countries, with an emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It also provides a conceptual framework for linking these phenomena, and identifies research gaps that have important policy implications. In particular, this study identifies the following pathways through which urbanization can impact rural (economic) development: Production and consumption linkages, labor/employment linkages, financial linkages, land market linkages, linkages with information or public services, linkages with social interaction, and linkages with environmental externalities such as waste/pollution, environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. To this end, the review has identified the following research gaps. First, although effective rural-urban planning, monitoring and evaluation of rural-urban development policies require better data, there is lack of data collection systems or their quality is poor. In this respect, investing in emerging data sources such as satellites data can help countries improve their data collection systems and measures. Second, research is needed to revise and reformulate better theoretical frameworks that take into account the uniqueness of African urban cities. Third, empirical evidence which documents to what extent and how rural-urban linkages provide an important arena for improving social interactions among neighbors, societies, and communities is needed. Finally, as many African countries continue to experience rapid urbanization (mostly urban sprawl), a thorough study of the impacts of urban externalities on agricultural productivity, food security, biodiversity, and the health of rural communities is necessary.
    Keywords: Rural development,urbanization,rural-urban linkages,social cohesion,Sub-Saharan Africa,rapid review
    JEL: D6 O1 Q1 R2
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:diedps:52022&r=
  5. By: C.S.C. Sekhar (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: The recent farm laws enacted by the Indian Parliament have sparked a major debate over the importance and the form of public support for farming in India. At the centre of the discourse are issues related to price support, income stabilization, fair trade and the role of government. The Government of India and the state governments have launched several programs in recent years to provide support to farmers. Some of the policy initiatives of the Central Government included major departures from the past. An ambitious price support program (PM-AASHA) was launched in 2018 with a vastly enhanced minimum support prices (MSP). For the first time, a direct income support program (PM-KISAN) was launched in 2019 to make direct transfer payments to farmers. The present study explores the scalability and feasibility of these programs. Different models of price and income support have been analyzed and a comparative picture has been drawn. The study finds that direct income transfers have several advantages over MSP-procurement system. However, given the crucial role of food stocks for food security, a differentiated policy may be needed for staple and non-staple food crops. A judicious policy mix may be needed considering the supply-demand conditions of different crops, affordability of food prices to the poor and ensuring a minimum income to farmers.
    Keywords: Indian agriculture, minimum support price, public support, food security, farm laws
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:awe:wpaper:420&r=
  6. By: Kaan, Rob
    Abstract: Global agriculture is facing many dynamic trends and emerging issues that present both challenges and incredible opportunities for evolution and growth. Key issues such as food security, consumer influence, biosecurity, labour shortage, water utilisation, climate change, deforestation, people talent, sustainability, trust in science/business/technology and smooth trade flow make just a short list of major drivers that require consideration, proactive investment, and decisive action now from many stakeholders to ensure industry success in the long term. The urgency and importance of these trends are different by country, and many trends and issues connect and converge. Developed countries, like Australia, can play a pivotal role in evolving quickly with these trends and leveraging our experience and learnings appropriately to developing nations. I will focus on three key areas and share how the private sector is viewing these in both Australia and developing nations, share examples of how these are being addressed in various countries, and offer suggestions for management of these issues in the future. I will share examples of private–public collaboration that can help address these trends, and touch on the important responsibility of the private sector in embracing Corporate Social Responsibility. Smooth trade flow of agricultural produce is essential to the development of all nations and in meeting global food security challenges. Influences on trade flow are diverse, including political drivers, industry direction, regulatory structures, and food chain stakeholders. Collaboration and transparency between key stakeholders are essential in managing future emerging trends that will impact trade flow. Biosecurity issues continue to impact agricultural production. Recent examples, such as fall armyworm across Asia and the industry response to this, serve as a good case study to assess the importance of multi-stakeholder cross-country collaboration for rapid response to these issues. Technology investment, development and acceptance are essential in agriculture to address current issues and capture future opportunities from within the sector. Technology partnerships with a clear alignment of objectives and a transparent regulatory framework are essential to attract required investment.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp21:320494&r=
  7. By: Abdelaziz, Fatma; William, Amy; Abay, Kibrom A.; Siddig, Khalid
    Abstract: Wheat is a strategic and political good in Sudan and has played a central role in the country’s economy during successive regimes. Disruptions in Sudan’s wheat value chain usually leads to shortages of wheat bread, price spikes, and political unrest. With the objective of ensuring sufficient grain supplies for domestic consumption, Sudan’s domestic and imported wheat sectors have been subject to several government interventions over the last decades. Most interventions have focused on and aimed to (i) stimulate domestic production, (ii) ensure a reliable flow of wheat imports to compensate for low domestic wheat production, and (iii) monitor wheat flour and bread distribution processes to limit leakage and wastage. Sudan has two distinct wheat value chains: one for imported wheat and one for domestic wheat. The imported wheat value chain involves three major actors: milling companies, wheat flour agents, and bakeries. The domestic (locally produced) wheat value chain involves four main actors: wheat producers, wheat grain wholesalers, wheat grain retailers, and consumers. To understand the landscape of the wheat sector in Sudan, this report relies on rapid assessment surveys of the main wheat value chain actors. The aim is to closely identify different value chain actors’ distinct roles of the and to explore their linkages. The report evaluates and identifies key bottlenecks that likely cause wheat and bread supply disruptions while also shedding light on untapped opportunities and possible policy options to improve the functioning of Sudan’s wheat sector. We document wheat value chain actors’ policy preferences, which vary depending on whether actors are engaged in the domestic or the imported value chain. The report highlights the differential impact of COVID-19 and related mobility restrictions on wheat value chain members. For example, while wheat production remains mostly unaffected by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the marketing, trade, and distribution of wheat and wheat flour has been adversely affected by it.
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, assessment, wheat, value chains, domestic production, international trade, governance, prices, farmers, wholesale markets, retail marketing, policies, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ssspwp:4&r=
  8. By: Ana Miranda (IPC-IG); Israel Klug (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: Local food procurement; sustainable public procurement; Home Grown School Meals; school feeding; food assistance procurement
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opager:470&r=
  9. By: Pushkar Maitra (Department of Economics, Monash University); Sandip Mitra (Sampling and Official Statistics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute); Dilip Mookherjee (Department of Economics, Boston University); Sujata Visaria (Department of Economics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: We conduct a field experiment in India comparing two approaches to appointing a local commission agent to select eligible smallholder farmers for a subsidized credit program: a private trader in TRAIL, versus a political appointee in GRAIL. Although both schemes had similar loan take-up and repayments and similar treatment impacts on borrowing and farm output, only TRAIL raised farm profits significantly. This cannot be explained by greater connectedness between TRAIL agents and farmers, or differential patterns of borrower selection. Instead, TRAIL agents increased their interactions with treated farmers, and we argue this helped them procure inputs at lower prices.
    Keywords: Targeting, Intermediation, Decentralization, Community Driven Development, Agricultural Credit, Networks
    JEL: H42 I38 O13 O16 O17
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hke:wpaper:wp2021-05&r=
  10. By: Ibirénoyé Romaric Sodjahin (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Fabienne Femenia (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Obafemi Philippe Koutchade (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); A. Carpentier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: Despite many benefits provided by diversified cropping systems, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the economic relevance of their effects, mainly due to lack of information on the dynamics of farmers' crop acreages. Our article contributes to fill this gap and, thereby, to shed light on a pair of apparently contradictory facts. European farmers tend to stick to specialized crop acreages despite agronomic experiments tending to show that crop diversification could reduce chemical input uses while maintaining or even enhancing arable crop yield levels We provide estimates of the effects of previous crops and crop acreage diversity on yield and chemical input use levels based on a sample of 769 arable crop producers covering the Marne département in France from 2008 to 2014. Our farm level dataset combines cost accounting data, information on crop sequences as well as detailed soil and weather data. Our estimation approach relies on yield functions and input use models defined as systems of simultaneous equations. These models feature farm specific random parameters for accounting for unobserved heterogeneity across farms and farmers as well as for accommodating input use endogeneity in the considered empirical crop yield functions. We estimate pre crop and crop acreage diversity effects for four major crops in the area. Pre crops effects on yields are estimated relatively accurately and are generally consistent with the rankings provided by crop production experts. Estimated pre crop effects on input uses are small and insignificant from a statistical viewpoint despite our large sample, suggesting that pre crops don't impact much chemical input requirements or/and that farmers tend to downplay these effects when deciding their chemical input use levels. Our results also show that crop acreage diversity positively impacts yield levels and tend to induce reductions in pesticide uses, herbicide uses in particular. Overall, our results demonstrate statistically significant though economically limited effects of pre crops and crop acreage diversity on crop gross margins. They also suggest that policy measures aimed to foster crop diversification are unlikely to significantly reduce chemical input uses on major crops if they are not supplemented by measures specifically aimed to reduce the uses of these inputs.
    Abstract: Malgré les nombreux bénéfices qu'apportent les systèmes de culture diversifiés, on manque aujourd'hui de preuves empiriques sur la valeur économique de leurs effets agronomiques. Ceci est principalement dû à un manque d'informations sur la dynamique des assolements des agriculteurs. Notre article contribue à combler cette lacune : nous estimons les effets de précédents culturaux et de la diversification des cultures assolées sur les rendements et les utilisations d'intrants chimiques à partir d'un échantillon de 769 producteurs de grandes cultures dans la Marne observés entre 2008 et 2014. Notre ensemble de données combine des données de comptabilité analytique des exploitations, des informations sur les séquences de cultures obtenues à partir de données administratives ainsi que des données détaillées sur la qualité des sols et sur la météo. Notre approche d'estimation repose sur des fonctions de rendement et d'utilisations d'intrants sur les cultures définis comme des systèmes d'équations simultanées. Ces modèles comportent des paramètres aléatoires spécifiques à chaque exploitation pour tenir compte de l'hétérogénéité non observée des exploitations et des agriculteurs ainsi que de l'endogénéité des intrants dans les fonctions empiriques de rendement considérées. Nous estimons les effets précédents culturaux et diversification des assolements pour les quatre cultures principales de la région. Les effets des précédents culturaux sur les rendements sont estimés assez précisément et correspondent généralement aux classements fournis par les experts agronomes. Les effets estimés des précédents culturaux sur les utilisations d'intrants sont faibles et non significatifs d'un point de vue statistique malgré notre large échantillon, ce qui suggère que les agriculteurs ont tendance à peu en tenir compte lorsqu'ils décident de leurs niveaux d'utilisation d'intrants chimiques. Nos résultats montrent également que la diversité des cultures assolées, lorsqu'elle est décrite par un ensemble d'indicateurs approprié, a un impact positif sur les niveaux de rendement et tend à induire une réduction des utilisations de pesticides, des herbicides en particulier. Dans l'ensemble, nos résultats démontrent des effets statistiquement significatifs mais économiquement limités des précédents culturaux et de la diversification des assolements sur les marges brutes des cultures. Ils suggèrent également que les mesures politiques visant à encourager la diversification des cultures sont peu susceptibles de réduire de manière significative les utilisations d'intrants chimiques sur les principales cultures si elles ne sont pas complétées par des mesures visant spécifiquement à réduire ces utilisations d'intrants.
    Keywords: Crop rotation effects,Crop diversification,Endogeneity,Random parameter,SAEM algorithm,Effets des rotations culturales,Diversification des cultures,Endogénéité,Paramètres aléatoires,Algorithme SAEM
    Date: 2022–03–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03639951&r=
  11. By: Patricia S. Mesquita (IPC-IG); Teophilo Folhes (IPC-IG); Luciana Vieira de Novais (IPC-IG); Louise Cavalcante (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: social protection; food and nutrition security; job creation
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opager:474&r=
  12. By: C.S.C.Sekhar (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: Indian Parliament has recently enacted three laws related to agricultural marketing (two laws and an amendment to an existing Act), which are popularly called the ‘Farm Laws’. The enactment of these laws led to largescale unrest and protests in some parts of the country, particularly the northwestern states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Several concerns have been raised, particularly related to continuance of the minimum support price, possible abolition of APMC markets and privatization of agriculture leading to corporate takeover of small farms. This essay is an attempt to find answers to some of these questions. The essay delves into the important aspects of these laws – the background and the rationale; the actual provisions (of these laws) & their implications; the main shortcomings and the needed improvements. The broad conclusion of the study is that the broad intent and content of the laws appear to be in the right direction but some serious flaws need to be corrected. Also, the laws need to be complemented with a set of structural reforms in agricultural support system and land markets to be really effective.
    Keywords: Agricultural marketing: farm laws; India; contract farming; essential commodities Act
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:awe:wpaper:428&r=
  13. By: Castilla-Rho, Juan; Kenny, Daniel
    Abstract: Regenerative agricultural methods (RegenAg) can help farmers attune their agricultural practices to the natural design of earth’s cycles and support systems. Their adoption hinges not only on a good understanding of biophysical processes but perhaps more importantly on farmers’ values and beliefs, which can become an obstacle for triggering widespread transitions towards synergistic relationships with the land. We conducted a Participatory Modelling exercise with RegenAg stakeholders in Australia—the aim was to provide a blueprint of how challenges and opportunities could be explored in alignment with stakeholders' personal views and perspectives. A participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping exercise was undertaken to unpack stakeholder perspectives into a formal representation or ‘mental model’ of the barriers and enablers for adoption of RegenAg practices, and to subsequently identify actions that might close the gap between the two. To promote a better understanding and internalization of the outcomes of the engagement, we extracted the dominant narratives which encode the key drivers and pain points in the system. The process relied on a suite of innovative virtual delivery methods that were designed to conduct the stakeholder engagement under COVID-19 lockdown restrictions. For the first time, our Participatory Modelling exercise reveals the key drivers of RegenAg in Australia, highlighting the complex forces at work and the need for coordinated actions at the institutional, social, and individual levels, across long timescales (decades). Such actions are necessary for RegenAg to play a greater role in national economies, to bring balancing relationships to systems currently reliant on conventional agriculture with few internal incentives to change. Our methods and findings are relevant not only for those seeking to promote adoption of RegenAg in Australia, but more broadly for governments and agriculturalists seeking to take a behaviorally-attuned stance to engage with farmers on issues of sustainable and resilient agriculture.
    Date: 2022–04–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:asxr2&r=
  14. By: Horsch, Rob
    Abstract: Ongoing contributions of agriculture to human health and well-being face major risks. Extreme poverty per se and ineffective policies for development, trade and regulations are the largest risk multipliers, with abiotic and biotic stresses being the major risk drivers. Prevention, effective response, and innovation are the key risk mitigation factors. Tools and technology for 1) monitoring, modelling and predicting risk emergence, 2) deploying, tracking and optimising existing solutions, and 3) on-going innovations for better tools and solutions, are keys to future-proofing our agricultural system. I propose focusing on overall water-use efficiency as the normalising basis for quantitative tracking and prioritisation of progress and setbacks. Yeildgap.org is an excellent resource for tracking realised harvest vs water-limited potential harvest. Poor soil fertility in developing countries and pests/pathogens everywhere are the major limitations on agriculture using existing best practices. Soil fertility can be readily solved; the future will be limited primarily by pests and pathogens and increasing abiotic stresses. Recent case studies from Africa illustrate the situation. Maize lethal necrosis virus erupted suddenly in East Africa and exposed a vulnerability in the local seed system which, once understood, was then remedied. Cassava mosaic disease is an on-going and spreading problem that threatens much of Africa’s cassava crop. Despite excellent progress in tracking, modelling and development of solutions, it remains a major threat, due to slow progress in deployment of new resistant varieties and cooperation within and across country borders to contain the outbreak. New strains of wheat rust have emerged in eastern Africa and spread around most of the world. Deployment of single resistance genes has led to progressive loss of their effectiveness, complicating efforts to build a more durable resistance package. Molecular efforts to splice together multi-gene packages, and using synthetic biology to create new resistance genes not found in germplasm collections, promise a more robust and durable solution.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp21:320489&r=
  15. By: Robinson, Andrew
    Abstract: Australia’s biosecurity system protects us and the things we care about – including agriculture and the economy, animal and plant health, the environment and social amenity, and human health – from invasive pests. The nature of the risk from invasive pests is constantly changing, and almost invariably increasing, so the biosecurity system becomes ever more important. But what is the system? How does it work, and will it work the same way in the future? What is our role in it – and how can we best support it? Surely, it’s all someone else’s problem? This overview presentation will review the current and future impacts of emerging biosecurity threats to plant and animal production and human health and biodiversity. The four speakers in this session will pull out trends in the emergence and spread of plant and zoonotic diseases and identify key factors that both promote and reduce disease spread. We will tease out the threats to food security, nutrition and human health that arise from inadequate biosecurity understanding and management, and show how phytosanitary control and best-practice management can materially reduce biosecurity risks for the land-manager and the landscape. The biosecurity system is no longer just AQIS standing steadfast at the border, and perhaps it never was really that simple. But we need to change the way we think about biosecurity as a system of organisations, as a regulatory framework, and as an outcome. The increasing interconnectedness of consumers and international markets means that we are now all stakeholders of and participants in the biosecurity system. Changing trade patterns, changing global alliances, and changing climate all press us to think and act today! How will we get there?
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp21:320496&r=
  16. By: Cooper, Tarni
    Abstract: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal disease of pigs, with no effective treatment or vaccine. Since it emerged in China in 2018 the disease has killed millions of pigs across 13 countries in the Asia Pacific Region where the overwhelming majority of pig-keepers are smallholders. The impact in numbers, such as financial cost to the industry and national protein deficits, is staggering, and the lesser-reported human impacts are profound. This presentation gives an overview of pilot applications of the Socioeconomic and Livelihood Impact Assessment (SELIA) framework to ASF in the Philippines and Timor-Leste. In Timor-Leste, university and government researchers applied spatial group model building techniques to yield insights into the dynamics of ASF impact. With a range of stakeholders, the group prioritised problems associated with ASF and then developed causal-loop diagrams to identify important relationships and identify potential leverage points for intervention. Important features included building trust between farmers and the government veterinary services, strengthening veterinary services, and providing cash grants to farmers conditional on biosecurity investments. In the Philippines, university and government researchers applied a suite of participatory tools with farmers and associated value chain actors to develop a rich understanding of the impact of ASF along value chains. While overwhelmingly negative, the livelihood impacts of ASF were not equal among value chain actors, thus suggesting the need for tailored support. Another important finding for further consideration was around the need for sensitive and safe pig-depopulation practices to reduce the distress of affected farming communities and veterinary staff.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp21:320499&r=
  17. By: David Nortes Martínez (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Frédéric Grelot (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Pauline Bremond (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Stefano Farolfi (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Juliette Rouchier (LAMSADE - Laboratoire d'analyse et modélisation de systèmes pour l'aide à la décision - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Abstract: Estimating flood damage, although crucial for assessing flood risk and for designing mitigation policies, continues to face numerous challenges, notably the assessment of indirect damage. It is widely accepted that damage other than direct damage can account for a significant proportion of total damage. Yet due to scarcer data sources and lack of knowledge on links within and between economic activities, indirect impacts have received less attention than direct impacts. Furthermore, attempts to grasp indirect damage through economic models have not gone below regional levels. Even though local communities can be devastated by flood events without this being reflected in regional accounts, few studies have been conducted from a microeconomic perspective at local level. What is more, the standard practices applied at this level of analysis tackle entities but ignore how they may be linked. This paper addresses these two challenges by building a novel agent-based model of a local agricultural production chain (a French cooperative wine-making system), utilized as a virtual laboratory for the ex ante estimation of flood impacts. We show how overlooking existing interactions between economic entities in production chains can result in either overestimation (double counting) or underestimation (wrong estimation of the consequences for the activity) of flood damage. Our results also reveal that considering interactions requires thorough characterization of their spatial configuration. Based on both the application of our method and the results obtained, we propose balanced recommendations for flood damage estimation at local level.
    Date: 2021–10–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03609616&r=
  18. By: Kirui, Oliver K.; Siddig, Khalid; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Kassim, Yumna
    Abstract: This paper presents an innovative approach to prioritizing development policy research in Sudan with the specific objective of informing the research agenda of the Sudan Strategy Support Program (Sudan SSP) of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The key steps in this process were: A review of relevant priority setting methods and existing government strategies, Pre-selection of research themes, Selection of national and international experts, Design and conduct priority setting workshop; and Priority matrix construction and paper writing. The paper suggests key research priorities for Sudan, which are both highly relevant to Sudan’s current and future development policy agenda and consistent with IFPRI’s own comparative advantage and strategy. It identifies research areas and topics under five main themes, namely: 1. Agricultural production, 2. Markets and trade, 3. Livelihoods and nutrition, 4. Development strategy and investment planning, and 5. Increasing resilience of farming under growing climate challenges. Tackling the priority research tasks identified in this paper, for these five themes, is expected to help reduce poverty and improve food and nutrition security in Sudan. However, strengthening the links between policy research and decision-making will be crucial to ensure that evidence-based solutions are relevant and have a positive impact on people’s lives.
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, development policies, research, workshops, agricultural production, markets, trade, livelihoods, nutrition, investment, resilience
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ssspwp:5&r=
  19. By: Dale, Chris
    Abstract: Biosecurity is a shared responsibility. The coordination of biosecurity efforts at a national level has its challenges. The coordination of biosecurity efforts at a global and regional level across geographical, political, and institutional boundaries presents an even greater challenge. This presentation provides an overview of recent collaborative efforts of international organisations, regional plant protection bodies, and technical specialists to coordinate biosecurity initiatives to help countries prevent, prepare for, and respond to biosecurity threats across the Asia Pacific region. Biosecurity pest threats such as the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) have caused devastating impact upon agricultural sectors at a global level in recent years, and are threatening the biosecurity status of our near neighbour and Pacific island countries as they move via natural and trade pathways through the region. Agricultural production and food trade need to continue for economic and food security reasons but require coordination and collaboration at global, regional and national levels to support local biosecurity systems. Global and regional level biosecurity programs such as the FAO Global Action for Fall Armyworm Control, the ASEAN Action Plan on Fall Armyworm Control, and the DFAT–DAWE Pacific Biosecurity Partnership Program are coordinating the mobilisation of technical, operational, academic, research and communication expertise and resources in a collaborative effort to battle the spread and impact of the fall armyworm across the region. These initiatives are not only providing technical and operational support to biosecurity agencies through the development of regionally and globally consistent fall armyworm resources, but also they are supporting livelihoods at village, grower and commercial levels through implementation of globally harmonised preparedness, response and management initiatives.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp21:320498&r=
  20. By: Saudamini Das; Arup Mitra (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: Poor households engage in multiple activities to maintain their consumption in face of economic hardships or exogenous shocks. In this paper, we try to examine the effectiveness of such livelihood diversification to increase or maintain the inter-temporal consumption level conditional to the climate change knowledge of the households. We use a cross sectional survey data of 1200 households from central and western parts of Odisha and estimate multiple regression models with and without the assumption of endogeneity of occupational diversification index. Results clearly establish that households perceiving climate change significantly are able to benefit from diversification and maintain or improve their consumption intake over time, whereas those with no significant climate knowledge, are not able to benefit from diversification. In India, offering avenues for diversification has been a prime government policy with a view to augmenting farmers’ income; however, such policies will have limited effects unless farmers are given the correct climate education to be able to choose the right activities which can increase their income and stabilise consumption.
    Keywords: Climate change, livelihood diversification, consumption mobility, Odisha,farmer’s income
    JEL: J24 Q12 Q54
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:awe:wpaper:425&r=
  21. By: Chandra S.R. Nuthalapati (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: Open innovation represents a paradigm shift in the technology development process from the advent of the New Millennium. Though evidenced mainly in technology-intensive sectors of developed countries, several ‘erosion factors’ and their interplay catalyse open innovation in relatively traditional sectors of developing countries. The rise of startups with supplementary venture capital industry is hypothesised to play this role in the Indian food system. This paper examines this hypothesis by leveraging a large database of startups. Several types of startups have come up in the last decade and are filling the gaps in the food value chains in infrastructure deficit regions and introducing innovations. The interconnections between startups themselves and their business partnerships with input companies, processors, aggregators, traders, hotels and restaurants, supermarkets, e-commerce companies, research organisations, various governments, international institutions like the World Bank, various crop associations like the tea growers association, constitute a complex web. The knowledge flows are both outbound from the startups to the companies and other actors and sometimes in the opposite direction as well as bi-directional. These fast expanding knowledge flows have brought several innovations that could not be imagined just a few years back in developing countries. The emergence of open innovation in agriculture bodes well to food value chain flows and to harness the higher level of technologies. There is a need to internalise these innovations in the national food policy for addressing issues of inclusion. The paradigm shift also calls for rigorous research on the business models, and collaboration and licensing agreements between companies, universities, and governmental agencies
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:awe:wpaper:417&r=
  22. By: Klaus Abbink (Department of Economics, Monash University); Gaurav Datt (Centre for Development Economics and Sustainability, Monash University,); Lata Gangadharan (Department of Economics, Monash University); Digvijay Negi (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, India); Bharat Ramaswami (Ashoka University, India.)
    Abstract: Are in-kind transfers associated with deadweight losses? To answer this, we conducted an incentivized field experiment in India, which offered low-income households the choice between a free quantity of rice and varying amounts of cash to elicit their willingness to pay for rice. Contrary to expectation, we find evidence of deadweight gain on average, though with a striking contrast between a deadweight loss among respondents from female-headed households and a deadweight gain among respondents from male-headed households. Our results highlight the role of gender differences in bargaining power in shaping the choice between cash or rice.
    Keywords: deadweight loss, in-kind transfer, cash transfer, food subsidy, field experiment
    JEL: C93 D13 I38 J16 Q18
    Date: 2022–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mos:moswps:2022-10&r=
  23. By: Julien Lefevre (AgroParisTech, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thomas Le Gallic (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Panagiotis Fragkos; Jean-François Mercure (University of Exeter, CAM - University of Cambridge [UK]); Yeliz Simsek (University of Exeter); Leonidas Paroussos
    Abstract: This paper analyses structural change in the economy as a key but largely unexplored aspect of global socioeconomic and climate change mitigation scenarios. Structural change can actually drive energy and land use as much as economic growth and influence mitigation opportunities and barriers. Conversely, stringent climate policy is bound to induce specific structural and socioeconomic transformations that are still insufficiently understood. We introduce Multi-Sectoral Integrated Assessment Models as main tools to capture the key drivers of structural change and we conduct a multi-model study to assess main structural effectschanges of the sectoral composition and intensity of trade of global and regional economiesin a baseline and 2°C policy scenario by 2050. First, the range of baseline projections across models, for which we identify the main drivers, illustrates the uncertainty on future economic pathways-in emerging economies especially-and inform on plausible alternative futures with implications for energy use and emissions. Second, in all models, climate policy in the 2°C scenario imposes only a second-order impact on the economic structure at the macrosectoral level-agriculture, manufacturing and services-compared to changes modelled in the baseline. However, this hides more radical changes for individual industries-within the energy sector especially. The study, which adopts a top-down framing of global structural change, represents a starting point to kick-start a conversation and propose a new research agenda seeking to improve understanding of the structural change effects in socioeconomic and mitigation scenarios, and better inform policy assessments.
    Keywords: Energy sector,Multi-sectoral macroeconomic modelling,Climate policy,Socio-economic pathways,Structural change
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03622209&r=
  24. By: Barnes, Andrew C.; Das, Suvra; Silayeva, Oleksandra; Wilkinson, Shaun; Cagua, Fernando; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jerome
    Abstract: Fish underpin future nutritional security, supplying high quality protein, iron, iodine and vitamin A that are critical to childhood development and deficient in many staple foods. In 2018, 54.1 million tonnes of fish were produced by farming, generating US$138.5 billion and directly employing 19.3 million people, mostly in developing nations. With expansion and intensification, disease losses are increasing and are a priority for the FAO sub-committee on aquaculture. In most developing countries, disease mitigation comprises over-stocking to compensate, and use of readily available antibiotics. Indeed 67 different antimicrobials are used in the 11 major producing countries, contributing to the global pool of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Accurate identification of the causes and sources of infectious disease is essential for implementation of evidence-based treatment, biosecurity and prevention. Pathogen genomics can provide sufficiently detailed information but has, to date, been too expensive and time consuming. Lab-in-a-backpack uses nanopore sequencing technology and low-cost, low-waste sample preparation to generate whole pathogen genome sequence data from diagnostic samples on the farm without laboratory support. Our simplified safe workflow includes a cloud-based identification tool that returns near real-time information about the pathogen using any laptop or smartphone. This enables evidence-based treatment, epidemiological tracing, AMR surveillance and the production of simple low-cost locally produced ‘autogenous’ vaccines to protect the next crop. These big-data-informed but locally implemented solutions align well with FAO’s recently proposed Progressive Management Pathway for Improving Aquaculture Biosecurity, and can deliver real advances in local economy, nutritional security, antimicrobial stewardship and animal welfare.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp21:320492&r=
  25. By: Rising, James A.; Taylor, Charlotte; Ives, Matthew C.; Ward, Robert E.t.
    Abstract: A large discrepancy exists between the dire impacts that most natural scientists project we could face from climate change and the modest estimates of damages calculated by mainstream economists. Economic assessments of climate change risks are intended to be comprehensive, covering the full range of physical impacts and their associated market and non-market costs, considering the greater vulnerability of poor people and the challenges of adaptation. Available estimates still fall significantly short of this goal, but alternative approaches that have been proposed attempt to address these gaps. This review seeks to provide a common basis for natural scientists, social scientists, and modellers to understand the research challenges involved in evaluating the economic risks of climate change. Focusing on the estimation processes embedded in economic integrated assessment models and the concerns raised in the literature, we summarise the frontiers of research relevant to improving quantitative damage estimates, representing the full complexity of the associated systems, and evaluating the impact of the various economic assumptions used to manage this complexity.
    Keywords: ES/R009708/1; rantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment; at the London School of Economics; and the ESRC Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP; UKRI block grant
    JEL: R14 J01 N0
    Date: 2022–07–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:114941&r=
  26. By: Gustavo Bittencourt Machado (LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPC - Université Paris Cité)
    Date: 2022–04–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03649863&r=
  27. By: Lucas Sato (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: social protection; social insurance; rural development; agricultural workers; Near East and North Africa
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opager:466&r=
  28. By: Eiji Yamamura
    Abstract: Post-World War II , there was massive internal migration from rural to urban areas in Japan. The location of Sumo stables was concentrated in Tokyo. Hence, supply of Sumo wrestlers from rural areas to Tokyo was considered as migration. Using a panel dataset covering forty years, specifically 1946-1985, this study investigates how weather conditions and social networks influenced the labor supply of Sumo wrestlers. Major findings are; (1) inclemency of the weather in local areas increased supply of Sumo wrestlers in the period 1946-1965, (2) the effect of the bad weather conditions is greater in the locality where large number of Sumo wrestlers were supplied in the pre-war period, (3) neither the occurrence of bad weather conditions nor their interactions with sumo-wrestlers influenced the supply of Sumo wrestlers in the period 1966-1985. These findings imply that the negative shock of bad weather conditions on agriculture in the rural areas incentivized young individuals to be apprenticed in Sumo stables in Tokyo. Additionally, in such situations, the social networks within Sumo wrestler communities from the same locality are important. However, once the share of workers in agricultural sectors became very low, this mechanism did not work.
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2204.07891&r=
  29. By: Bård Harstad
    Abstract: Can trade agreements motivate environmental conservation? I first present a model whereby the government in the South expands its production capacity (e.g., deforest) before trading with the North. After deriving negative relationships between tariff reductions and conservation, I show how all negative results are reversed if countries can negotiate a contingent trade agreement (CTA), where default tariffs vary with changes in the production capacity (or forest cover). A calibration suggests that growth and liberalization can cause Brazil’s agricultural area to expand by 27%, but this expansion can be avoided if the EU and the US offer a CTA.
    Keywords: international trade, trade agreements, deforestation, environmental conservation
    JEL: F18 F13 Q37
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9596&r=
  30. By: Mason, Michael
    Abstract: Water infrastructure is an active element of state-making in southern Iraq, although major failings in water governance have in recent years triggered violent protests. Informed by scholarship on state clientelism and the political ecology of infrastructure, I examine the conflict-affected trajectories affecting public water management in Basra governorate. The degraded water treatment network manifests a post-2003 political system structured by embedded clientelism and politically sanctioned corruption. However, broad categorisations of clientelism can miss context-laden political effects produced by the spatial and technological configurations of infrastructure. I consider the state effects of water infrastructure practices in Basra governorate–how water supply networks and treatment technologies project state (in)capacity by means of volumetric and qualitative control over water flows. The empirical focus is on compact water treatment units (CWTUs), which are the main technology of public water supply in Basra governorate. I undertake an analysis of the deployment and management of CWTUs, as experienced by local actors responsible for, or politically contesting, the workings of water infrastructure in Basra city. Clientelist practices targeting public procurement and maintenance contracts have disrupted and delayed the upgrading of water infrastructure; yet these practices were enabled by neoliberal state-building that promoted the privatisation of public resources. Shortfalls in state capacity to provide clean drinking water in Basra are compounded by the growing hydro-climatic unpredictability of water flows.
    Keywords: infrastructure; clientelism; state effects; water management; Iraq
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:114909&r=
  31. By: Ana Miranda (IPC-IG); Israel Klug (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: Local food procurement; sustainable public procurement; Home Grown School Meals; school feeding; food assistance procurement
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:wpaper:190&r=
  32. By: Rebecca Franckle; R. J. Boulos; A. N. Thorndike; A. J. Moran; N. Khandpur; J. Greene; J. P. Block; E. B. Rimm; M. Polacsek
    Abstract: There is growing interest in expanding healthy eating interventions in the retail setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a successful 2-for-1 price incentive for fruits and vegetables (F&V), including frozen and canned, that took place in partnership with a large chain grocery retailer in Maine.
    Keywords: nutrition, food retail, community intervention, price incentive, implementation science
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mpr:mprres:2a301c6a66fd49ceb7a51b01179a7be8&r=
  33. By: Jérôme Texier; Julio Gonçalvès (CEREGE - Centre européen de recherche et d'enseignement des géosciences de l'environnement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CdF (institution) - Collège de France - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Agnès Rivière (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres, MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres, PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Abstract: The quality of the water from a riverbank well field is the result of the mixing ratios between the surface water and the local and regional groundwater. The mixing ratio is controlled by the complex processes involved in the surface water–groundwater interactions. In addition, the drawdown of the groundwater level greatly determines the water head differences between the river water and groundwater, as well as the field flowpath inside the alluvial plain, which subsequently impacts the water origin in the well. In common view, groundwater flows from both sides of the valley towards the river, and the groundwater divide is located at the middle of the river. Here, we studied the standard case of a river connected with an alluvial aquifer exploited by a linear pumping field on one riverbank, and we proposed to determine the physical parameters controlling the occurrence of groundwater flow below the river from one bank to the other (cross-riverbank flow). For this purpose, a 2D saturated–unsaturated flow numerical model is used to analyze the groundwater flowpath below a streambed. The alternative scenarios of surface water–groundwater interactions considered here are based on variable regional gradient conditions, pumping conditions, streambed clogging and the aquifer thickness to the river width ratio (aspect ratio). Parameters such as the aspect ratio and the properties of the clogging layer play a crucial role in the occurrence of this flow, and its magnitude increases with the aquifer thickness and the streambed clogging. We demonstrate that for an aspect ratio below 0.2, cross-riverbank flow is negligible. Conversely, when the aspect ratio exceeds 0.7, 20% of the well water comes from the other bank and can even exceed the river contribution when the aspect ratio reaches 0.95. In this situation, contaminant transfers from the opposite riverbank should not be neglected even at low clogging.
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03629140&r=
  34. By: Billio, Monica; Costola, Michele; Hristova, Iva; Latino, Carmelo; Pelizzon, Loriana
    Abstract: The present paper proposes an overview of the existing literature covering several aspects related to environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors. Specifically, we consider studies describing and evaluating ESG methodologies and those studying the impact of ESG on credit risk, debt and equity costs, or sovereign bonds. We further expand the topic of ESG research by including the strand of the literature focusing on the impact of climate change on financial stability, thus allowing us to also consider the most recent research on the impact of climate change on portfolio management.
    Keywords: environmental,social,and governance factors (ESG),credit risk,debt cost,equity cost,sovereign bonds,portfolio management
    JEL: M14 G24 G11
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:safewp:349&r=

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