nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒05‒16
thirty papers chosen by

  1. Can fair trade resolve the “hungry farmer paradox”? By Ninon Sirdey; Sylvaine Lemeilleur
  2. Resilience in the Malawi agri-food system amid the COVID-19 crisis: Evidence from a 2021 nationally representative household survey By Ragasa, Catherine; Balakasi, Kelvin; Carrillo, Lucia
  3. Global cropland could be almost halved: Assessment of land saving potentials under different strategies and implications for agricultural markets By Schneider, Julia M.; Zabel, Florian; Schünemann, Franziska; Delzeit, Ruth; Mauser, Wolfram
  4. Reducing Water Pollution from Nitrogen Fertilizer: Revisiting Insights from Production Economics By Chai, Yuan; Pannell, David J.; Pardey, Philip G.
  6. Early exit from business, performance and neighbours’ influence: a study of farmers in France By Emmanuel Paroissien; Laure Latruffe; Laurent Piet
  7. Cumulative Climate Shocks and Migratory Flows: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Salvatore Di Falco; Anna B. Kis; Martina Viarengo
  8. L'assurance récolte au Sahel, des difficultés de diffusion face aux stratégies de sécurisation des moyens d'existence des agriculteurs au Burkina Faso By KOLOMA, YAYA
  9. Unintended consequences of farm input subsidies: women’s contraceptive usage and knock-on effects on children By Mwale, Martin Limbikani
  10. Lessons learned from the impacts of climate change on a water infrastructure programme in the Brazilian semiarid By Louise Cavalcante; Patrícia S. Mesquita
  11. Implications of Food Systems for Food Security: The case of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire By Isabelle Tsakok
  12. Cliometrics of Climate Change By Olivier Damette; Claude Diebolt; Stephane Goutte; Umberto Triacca
  13. Scientific Selection: A Century of Increasing Crop Varietal Diversity in U.S. Wheat By Chai, Yuan; Pardey, Philip G.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.
  14. The French animal sectors in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic By Vincent Chatellier; François Cadudal; Philippe Chotteau; Boris Duflot; Pascale Heydemann
  15. Between complexity and unfamiliarity: Preferences for soil-based ecosystem services By Bartkowski, Bartosz; Massenberg, Julian Richard; Lienhoop, Nele
  16. Economy’s response to Rainfall and Economic factors By Nilabja Ghosh; M. Rajeshwor; Hrishabh Narayan
  17. Maggie Dickinson, 2019, Feeding the Crisis Care and Abandonment in America’s Food Safety Net University of California Press, 224 p. By Andrew Fisher
  18. Researcher-implementer partnerships for learning and impact: Lessons from IFPRI's experiences with nutrition-sensitive programming By Bliznashka, Lilia; Sproule, Katie
  19. Impacts of the war in Ukraine on Malawi By De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan
  20. Unreliable Public Water Supply and Coping Mechanisms of Low-Income Households in Delhi By Satarupa Chakravarty; Sukanya Das; Saudamini Das
  21. Are risk preferences consistent across elicitation procedures ? A field experiment in Congo Basin countries By Marielle Brunette; Jonas Ngouhouo-Poufoun
  22. Accessibility of Institutional Credit among the Agricultural Labour Households and its Impact on their Livelihood By Kundu, Amit; DAS, SANGITA
  23. Inflation expectations and climate concern By Meinerding, Christoph; Poinelli, Andrea; Schüler, Yves
  24. Pandemic, Poverty, and Inequality: Evidence from India By Mr. Arvind Virmani; Surjit Bhalla; Karan Bhasin
  25. The Inherent Trade-Off Between the Environmental and Anti-Poverty Goals of Payments for Ecosystem Services By Seema Jayachandran
  26. The fertility transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: The role of structural change By Büttner, Nicolas; Grimm, Michael; Günther, Isabel; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan
  27. Are Ideas Really Getting Harder to Find? By Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.
  28. Fostering co-operation through participation in natural resource management. An integrative review By Ortiz-Riomalo, Juan Felipe; Koessler, Ann-Kathrin; Engel, Stefanie
  29. Non-Paternalistic Foundation of Sugar Taxation and Missing Markets for Sugar Content By Thomas Eichner; Marco Runkel
  30. Will Putin's Ukraine war provoke famine and upheaval in Africa? By Kohnert, Dirk

  1. By: Ninon Sirdey (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Sylvaine Lemeilleur (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: AbstractFair trade (FT) schemes claim to improve food security by generating economic gains for certified households. Previous research has shown that FT-certified households may benefit from higher prices and incomes. However, little attention has been paid to the implications of FT for food security. In this paper, we use qualitative data, cross-sectional household surveys conducted among coffee-growing households in Peru and matching econometric methods to investigate whether economic gains resulting from FT are enough to ensure food security for farming households. Results show that although FT increased the return from certified coffee (prices, production, yields and net return), the extent of the food insecurity facing FT participants remained unchanged. Our qualitative results suggest that farming households use the additional income they receive from FT to pay for their children's higher education as a long-term non-farm investment. This leakage effect raises the question of the effect of FT in the medium and long term from a rural development perspective.
    Keywords: Fair trade,Food security,Impact,Coffee,Peru
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Balakasi, Kelvin; Carrillo, Lucia
    Abstract: This report provides a farm-level analysis of the effects of the COVID-19 crisis, 12–15 months in, using a nationally representative rural household survey conducted in June–July 2021. We draw three major observations from the survey. First, farming activities, access to inputs and extension services, production, and sales were largely unaffected by the crisis. There were temporary challenges in accessing inputs during lockdown and mobility restrictions, and input prices and transportation costs increased; however, production and sales volume and value were largely unaffected. Second, although farming was not affected, other nonfarm livelihoods of a large proportion of farmers were negatively affected because of lower demand and fewer buyers. Eighty-two percent of rural households were engaged in various nonfarm livelihoods, and 32 percent reported negative impacts of the crisis on their nonfarm incomes. Third, direct responses from sample households indicate no negative impacts of the crisis on food access and food consumption by most rural households. Comparisons between 2018 and 2021 of various food security indicators show improvements in food access and dietary diversity. Improvements are likely attributable to better harvests overall and greater awareness of the need to eat healthy and nutritious foods to combat COVID-19 and other diseases. Results show overall resilience of rural households and the agriculture sector amid the COVID-19 crisis. Nonetheless, the survey was conducted right after harvest, and the situation needs to be monitored during the lean season.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, resilience, food systems, agrifood systems, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19, household surveys, surveys
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Schneider, Julia M.; Zabel, Florian; Schünemann, Franziska; Delzeit, Ruth; Mauser, Wolfram
    Abstract: The pressure on land resources continuously increases not only with the rising demand for agricultural commodities, but also with the growing need for action on global challenges, such as biodiversity loss or climate change, where land plays a crucial role. Land saving as a strategy, where agricultural productivity is increased to allow a reduction of required cropland while sustaining production volumes and meeting demand, could address this trade-off. With our interdisciplinary model-based study, we globally assess regional potentials of land saving and analyze resulting effects on agricultural production, prices and trade. Thereby, different land saving strategies are investigated that (1) minimize required cropland (2) minimize spatial marginalization induced by land saving and (3) maximize the attainable profit. We find that current cropland requirements could be reduced between 37% and 48%, depending on the applied land saving strategy. The generally more efficient use of land would cause crop prices to fall in all regions, but also trigger an increase in global agricultural production of 2.8%. While largest land saving potentials occur in regions with high yield gaps, the impacts on prices and production are strongest in highly populated regions with already high pressure on land. Global crop prices and trade affect regional impacts of land saving on agricultural markets and can displace effects to spatially distant regions. Our results point out the importance of investigating the potentials and effects of land saving in the context of global markets within an integrative, global framework. The resulting land saving potentials can moreover reframe debates on global potentials for afforestation and carbon sequestration, as well as on how to reconcile agricultural production and biodiversity conservation and thus contribute to approaching central goals of the 21st century, addressed for example in the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement or the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Chai, Yuan; Pannell, David J.; Pardey, Philip G.
    Abstract: Nitrogen sourced from agricultural fertilizers is a major contributor to water pollution. Despite policies targeting a range of farming practice changes, the goal of substantially reducing nitrogen losses from farms remains elusive. We highlight three empirical results from production economics that appear to provide untapped opportunities for policies to reduce nitrogen rates. First, many farmers apply more nitrogen than required to maximize expected profits or utility. Second, contrary to the perceptions of some farmers and farm advisers, nitrogen fertilizer is a risk- increasing input. Third, over wide ranges of nitrogen fertilizer rates, the relationship between rate and profit is remarkably flat, meaning that farmers can reduce fertilizer usage substantially at minimal private cost. We discuss a variety of policy options for efficiently exploiting these insights.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–04
  5. By: C.S.C Sekhar; Namrata Thapa (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: The gap between the incomes of agricultural workers vis-a-vis non-agricultural workers in India has widened since the 1990s and improving farmers’ income has emerged as the key policy focus in recent times. In realizing this objective, functioning of the markets is very critical as market imperfections can increase the production and transaction costs of farmers and can have a crucial bearing on farm income. The present study, based on primary data, attempts to explore imperfections (if any) in important markets viz. output, input, factor and credit markets. The study also takes into account the asset base, skill endowments, coping mechanisms of farmers in the face of economic hardships and their social capital. Some of the important government programs have also been analyzed. The study was conducted in four states – Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab. Based on multi-stage sampling methodology, 1800 households spread over 45 villages and 21 districts were surveyed across four states. Tabular analysis has been complemented by an econometric analysis using data at the household level. The results show a strong inverse relation between land productivity and farm size and this was almost entirely driven by an intensive use of family labour on smaller farms. There was little evidence of differences in intensity of use of any other factor or input. This underlines the prevalence of imperfections mainly in the land and labour markets. The per capita income increased with the farm size though, underlining the positive impact on income of better access to technology and credit of larger farmers.
    Keywords: market imperfections, farm profitability, farmers’ income, small and marginal farmers
    Date: 2021–09
  6. By: Emmanuel Paroissien (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Laure Latruffe (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Laurent Piet (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This article investigates the effects of economic performance and neighbours' characteristics on farmers' exit behaviour before retirement age. Using a unique set of social security data describing all French farmers under 50 over the years 2004–2017, we explore how these effects depend on farmers' characteristics and how they stand relative to their neighbours. Our probit estimations reveal that younger farmers and farmers operating smaller farms are more sensitive to their own and neighbours' performance than other farmers. Allowing for an asymmetric comparison effect between farmers and their neighbours, we uncover a nonlinear influence of own and neighbours' profit and size.
    Keywords: Neighbours,Performance,Farms,Exit,Heterogeneity
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Salvatore Di Falco; Anna B. Kis; Martina Viarengo
    Abstract: We re-examine the effects of negative weather anomalies during the growing season on the decision to migrate in rural households in five sub-Saharan African countries. To this end we combine a multi-country household panel dataset with high-resolution gridded precipitation data. We find that while the effect of recent adverse weather shocks is on average modest, the cumulative effect of a persistent exposure to droughts over several years leads to a significant increase in the probability to migrate. The results show that more frequent adverse shocks can have more significant and long-lasting consequences in challenging economic environments.
    Keywords: climate shocks, rural-urban migration, economic development
    JEL: O15 O13 Q54
    Date: 2022
    Abstract: English Since its introduction in 2011, crop insurance in the Sahel (CSI), which appeared as a practical innovation in West Africa, has been struggling to spread in Burkina Faso. As an index-based insurance scheme, it is expected to secure financing for agriculture and preserve farmers' incomes by minimizing the risk of decapitalization in case of drought. After more than 9 years of dissemination, its scope seems very limited. Indeed, the subscription rate remains low, below 10% of the target population. This limited reach can be explained in part by the low level of local and social learning, which reflects both the difficulty of local promoters in mastering and disseminating the product to farmers, and their mistrust, which can be explained by the fact that the expected gain is considered too uncertain, especially compared to more common and better mastered systems. Although some farmers have expressed interest, few rely solely on this system to secure their grain. The use of better controlled instruments such as animal savings, activities diversification, including non-agricultural activities, monetary savings, and crop storage systems explains this limited scope and is part of a broader approach to food security and resilience in the face of multiple hazards, not only climatic ones. French Depuis son introduction en 2011, l’assurance récolte au Sahel (ARS), apparue comme une innovation pratique en Afrique de l’Ouest peine à se diffuser au Burkina Faso. En tant que dispositif assurantiel indiciel, elle est censée sécuriser le financement agricole et préserver le revenu des agriculteurs en minimisant le risque de décapitalisation en cas de sécheresse. Sa portée semble très limitée après plus de 9 années de diffusion. En effet, la souscription reste faible, en dessous de 10% de la population ciblée. Cette faible portée trouve en partie son explication dans le faible apprentissage local et social montrant aussi bien la difficulté des promoteurs locaux à maitriser et à diffuser le produit auprès des agriculteurs qu’une méfiance de ces derniers, s’expliquant par une espérance de gain considérée comme trop aléatoire, surtout comparée à des dispositifs plus communs et mieux maitrisés. Bien que certains agriculteurs se soient intéressés, rares sont ceux qui comptent uniquement seulement sur ce dispositif pour sécuriser leurs céréales. La confiance en des instruments mieux maitrisés comme l’épargne animale, la diversification des activités y compris celles non-agricoles, l’épargne monétaire, les systèmes de stockage des récoltes, le salariat agricole, entre autres, explique cette portée limitée et s’inscrit dans une logique plus large de sécurité alimentaire et de résilience face aux aléas multiples, pas seulement climatiques.
    Keywords: Agricultural insurance, agricultural loan, smallholders’ farmers, Burkina Faso
    JEL: D1 G21 G22 Q12 Q14
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Mwale, Martin Limbikani
    Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa’s countries adopted farm input subsidies, with a twin goal of bolstering food security and reducing poverty. Many scholars evaluate the subsidies against these intended impacts, while ignoring the potential unintended consequences. In this paper, I take advantage of a rare combination of information on both contraceptive usage and a subsidy program, from Malawi’s 2020 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), to investigate whether Malawi’s Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP) affected women’s contraceptive usage. I find that women that lived in FISP households increased contraceptives usage. This is in line with the hypothesis that the women aimed to prevent pregnancy, and hence dedicate uninterrupted time to farming, complementing the FISP. More of women’s time in farming could imply less of their time in domestic chores. I therefore further investigated whether children, in the same households, increased participation in the domestic chores, to take up roles left by the farming women. I find that this is the case. These findings therefore suggest that past studies evaluating the subsidies, and failed to consider the unintended consequences on fertility choices and domestic child labour, may have over- or underestimated the benefits of the subsidies
    Keywords: Women; Contraceptive Usage; Children; Domestic Chores; Subsidies; Malawi
    JEL: D13 D61 I15 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2022–04–10
  10. By: Louise Cavalcante (IPC-IG); Patrícia S. Mesquita (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: climate change; climate models; water management
    Date: 2021–09
  11. By: Isabelle Tsakok
    Abstract: For the second time, Côte d'Ivoire is known for being a "miracle economy" –high aggregate GDP growth of 8% per year since 2012. Despite this achievement, its food systems are unable to deliver food security to most Ivoirians. These systems are being undermined by several structural factors, which include broad-based low productivity and limited diversification of its agri-food sector; the high numbers of extremely poor, some 30% of the population; and the vulnerable who are millions more who toil in the informal sector–70% of all workers; and the men, women, children, and infants who are afflicted by the double burden of malnutrition. The Government of President Ouattara, responsible for this "miracle economy," is well aware of the long road ahead as it sets its sights on Côte d'Ivoire becoming an upper-middle income country by 2030, with a more food-secure population.
    Date: 2022–04
  12. By: Olivier Damette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Claude Diebolt (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stephane Goutte (Cemotev - Centre d'études sur la mondialisation, les conflits, les territoires et les vulnérabilités - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines); Umberto Triacca (UNIVAQ - University of L'Aquila [Italy])
    Abstract: This paper presents the findings of climate change impact on a widespread human crisis due to a natural occurrence, focusing on the so-called Little Ice Age period. The study is based on new non-linear econometrics tools. First, we reassessed the existence of a significant cooling period using outliers and structural break tests and a nonlinear Markov Switching with Levy process (MS Levy) methodology. We found evidence of the existence of such a period between 1560-1660 and 1675-1700. In addition, we showed that NAO teleconnection was probably one of the causes of this climate change. We then performed nonlinear econometrics and causality tests to reassess the links between climate shock and macroeconomic indicators. While the causal relationship between temperature and agricultural output (yields, production, price) is strongly robust, the association between climate and GDP identified by the MS Levy model does not reveal a clear causality link. Although the MS Levy approach is not relevant in this case, the causality tests indicate that social disturbance might also have been triggered by climate change, confirming the view of Parker (2013). These findings should inform current public policies, especially with regard to the strong capacity of climate to disrupt social and economic stability.
    Keywords: Economic cycles,Causality,Markov Switching Levy,Non-linear econometrics,Climate change,Little Ice Age,Social crisis
    Date: 2020–04–16
  13. By: Chai, Yuan; Pardey, Philip G.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.
    Abstract: A prevalent and persistent biodiversity concern is that modern cropping systems lead to an erosion in crop genetic diversity. Although certain trait uniformity provides advantages in crop management and marketing, farmers are also incentivized to use diverse genetics to reduce risks from change in climate, pests and markets. These risk factors have spurred increased turnover in varietal use to address complex and spatially variable genetics, environment, and crop management (GxExM) interactions to optimize crop performance. Contrary to commonly held perceptions, phylogenetically blind and phylogenetically informed diversity metrics reveal that the intensive use of scientifically selected varieties has led to significant increases in both the spatial and temporal diversity of the U.S. wheat crop over the past century.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–04
  14. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - INSTITUT AGRO Agrocampus Ouest - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); François Cadudal (ITAVI); Philippe Chotteau (IDELE - Institut de l'élevage); Boris Duflot (IFIP - Institut du Porc); Pascale Heydemann (IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de L'équitation)
    Abstract: This article presents an analysis of the economic situation of several animal sectors (cow's milk, beef, pork, poultry and horses) in France, two years after the start of the Covid-19 pandemic. Using the latest statistical data available for the period 2020 to 2021 and taking into account the historical trajectories followed, it seeks to highlight how this health crisis has had implications for production, prices, consumption, foreign trade and, in the case of the equine sector, various activities (horse betting, attendance at riding schools, etc.). The production of agricultural goods was generally little affected by the health crisis, as farmers continued to produce, sometimes despite certain difficulties (lack of manpower, temporary loss of outlets, etc.). Faced with a significant change in the structure of demand (increase in products purchased by households to the detriment of those favored in out-of-home catering), sudden measures imposed by the State and the difficulties sometimes encountered in maintaining the number of employees, processing actors were able to adapt quickly to enable them to supply consumers with the goods they demanded. Trade flows were also disrupted in 2020, before picking up again in 2021, following trends that are ultimately quite consistent with those seen before the crisis. Under the influence, on the one hand, of higher energy prices (even before the war in Ukraine which started on February 24, 2022) and, on the other hand, of fluctuating imports from China on the world markets, producer prices increased at the end of 2021 (with the exception of the pig sector), but this increase is counterbalanced by an increase in production costs. In the equine sector, turnover losses have been temporarily significant due to the strong interaction of this sector with the public. After the shock of 2020, and thanks to a strong adaptation of the actors, the activities are gradually resuming.
    Abstract: Cet article propose une analyse de la situation économique de plusieurs filières animales (lait de vache, viande bovine, viande porcine, viande de volailles et secteur équin) en France, deux années après le début de la pandémie de Covid-19. En partant des dernières données statistiques disponibles sur la période 2020 à 2021 et tout en tenant compte des trajectoires historiques, il cherche à mettre en évidence en quoi cette crise a eu des implications sur la production, les prix, la consommation, les échanges extérieurs et, dans le cas du secteur équin, les différentes activités (paris hippiques, centres équestres, etc.). La production de biens agricoles a été globalement peu impactée par la crise sanitaire car les agriculteurs ont continué à produire, en dépit parfois de certaines difficultés telles que le manque de main d'œuvre, les pertes temporaires de débouchés, etc. Face à une modification importante de la structure de la demande (augmentation des produits achetés par les ménages au détriment de ceux privilégiés dans la restauration hors domicile), aux mesures soudaines imposées par l'État et aux difficultés parfois rencontrées pour maintenir les effectifs de salariés, les acteurs de la transformation ont été capables de s'adapter rapidement pour permettre de fournir aux consommateurs les biens demandés. Les flux d'échanges ont, eux aussi, été perturbés en 2020, avant de repartir à la hausse en 2021, selon des tendances finalement assez conformes à celles précédant la crise. Sous l'influence, d'une part, de la hausse du prix de l'énergie (avant même la guerre en Ukraine qui a débuté le 24 février 2022) et, d'autre part, de la fluctuation des importations de la Chine sur les marchés mondiaux de produits animaux, les prix à la production ont augmenté fin 2021 et début 2022, mais cette hausse est contrebalancée par une forte augmentation des coûts de production. Dans le secteur équin, les pertes de chiffre d'affaires ont été temporairement importantes en raison de l'interaction de ce secteur avec le public. Après le choc de 2020, et moyennant une adaptation des acteurs de la filière, les activités reprennent progressivement.
    Keywords: Animal sectors,Dairy sector,Meat sector,Equine sector,Covid-19,Filières animales,Lait,Viandes,Secteur équin,France
    Date: 2022–04–14
  15. By: Bartkowski, Bartosz; Massenberg, Julian Richard; Lienhoop, Nele
    Abstract: Soils provide multiple benefits for human well-being, which are largely invisible to most beneficiaries. Here, we present the results of a discrete choice experiment into the preferences of Germans for soil-based ecosystem services. To tackle complexity and unfamiliarity of soils, we express soil-based ecosystem service attributes relative to the site-specific potential of soils to provide them. We investigate how knowledge about soils, awareness of their contributions to human well-being and experience with droughts and floods affect the preferences. We find substantial yet heterogeneous preferences for soil-based ecosystem services. Only some measures of familiarity exhibit significant effects on preferences.
    Keywords: Agriculture,Discrete choice experiment,Ecosystem services,Nonmarket valuation,Stated preferences,Soil functions,Willingness to pay
    JEL: Q15 Q24 Q51 Q57
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Nilabja Ghosh; M. Rajeshwor; Hrishabh Narayan (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: Agriculture, known to be particularly sensitive to rainfall, helps determine GDP by its own performance and through its linkages with the industrial sector. Using Factor analysis to spatially disaggregate meteorological rainfall data based on commonality and employing an econometric simultaneous model the study finds determination of sectoral GDP performances in the economy to be a complex process. Although irrigation is making agriculture resilient to weather, irrigation itself depends on rainfall elsewhere and in past periods. Rainfall in different periods of the year and in the past and in disparate parts of the country together shape performance of the primary sector, especially its direction but the impact of rainfall on the secondary sector is relatively weak. Prices, policy variables, interest rates and exchange rates matter for both sectors but reactions may come with a delay especially in the secondary activities. Subsidized targeted credit for agriculture is found to help both sectors. For current agricultural performance, the criticality of good water management is implied by the highly influential role, not always favourable too, of rainfall in the previous year.
    Keywords: Spatial rainfall, Factor analysis, policy effect, price effect, Water management, sectoral GDP
    Date: 2021–08
  17. By: Andrew Fisher (Ecological Farming Association)
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Bliznashka, Lilia; Sproule, Katie
    Abstract: Researcher–implementer partnerships are a subject of growing interest in CGIAR, and beyond, to help ensure research is relevant, cost-effective, and likely to scale up quickly among potential users. In 2021, as part of its synthesis strategy, the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) commissioned an external review of the International Food Policy Research Institute’s (IFPRI) researcher–implementer partnerships in the context of nutrition-sensitive programming.1 The objective of this external review was to characterize and evaluate IFPRI’s researcher–implementer partnerships with Helen Keller International (HKI) and the World Food Programme (WFP). In the context of this external review, “research–implementer partnership†referred to long-term partnerships between two organizations that lasted beyond the life of a single project or funding stream. This review aimed to characterize and document how researcher–implementer partnerships work, what factors facilitate or constrain these types of partnerships, and how the evidence generated by them influences changes in programs and policies at the partner organizations and beyond. The study was completed through a desk review of peer-reviewed and gray literature and a series of in-depth interviews with key informants from IFPRI, HKI, WFP, and staff from other implementing organizations, funding organizations, and academic institutions. In total, 15 individuals from 8 organizations were interviewed virtually in July and August 2021. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. This brief synthesizes the lessons learned about effective researcher–implementer partnerships and the implications for researchers, implementers, and funders.
    Keywords: WORLD; research; scientists; implementation; learning; nutrition; programmes
    Date: 2022
  19. By: De Weerdt, Joachim; Duchoslav, Jan
    Abstract: Although geographically distant, there are multiple channels through which Russia’s invasion of Ukraine can affect the lives of Malawians. Before the invasion, Russia’s and Ukraine’s exports accounted for about 12% of total calories (Glauber and Laborde, 2022) traded in the world, and the two countries were among the top five global exporters for many important cereals and oilseeds, including wheat, barley, sunflowers and maize (Figure 1). Ukraine is also an important source of sunflower seed oil, supplying about 50% of the global market. These exports have now largely seized as a result of war-related disruptions to production and logistics as well as economic sanctions on Russia and Belarus, its ally. This shock reduction of supply is driving up food commodity prices worldwide and will continue to do so while the current situation persists. The ongoing fighting has already disrupted the planting of barley and will soon disrupt the planting of maize, wheat, and oilseeds. The choke on global supply will thus continue for months (if not years) to come.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; trade; wheat; maize; cooking oils; grain; fertilizers; policies; food prices; war; fertilizer price
    Date: 2022
  20. By: Satarupa Chakravarty; Sukanya Das; Saudamini Das (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: India is reported to have the world’s highest inhabitants without access to safe drinking water.Even in the capital city Delhi, although around 81% of the households have access to piped water supply system, it does not indicate reliability in water supply in terms of quantity or quality. Households adopt various coping mechanisms such as collecting, purchasing, storing, and treating of water to cope with the unreliable and irregular water supply. In this study a household survey was conducted to examine the coping mechanisms and the costs incurred by some low-income households, residing in the command area of the Chandrawal water treatment plant in Delhi. There have been numerous occasions leading to irregularity or disruption in water supply due to planned works, plant operational problems, or high levels of ammonia in the Yamuna River, the source of raw water to this plant. The quantitative and qualitative problems related to unreliable water supply were investigated. The results indicate that, on an average, the annual coping cost to the households is INR 6487 (US$ 93), which is approximately 2.52% of their annual income. Income seems to play a strong role in the choice of coping activities adopted by the households.
    Keywords: Coping Cost, Household Production Function, Water Supply, Water Treatment Plant, Delhi
    Date: 2021–11
  21. By: Marielle Brunette (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Climate Economics Chair - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); Jonas Ngouhouo-Poufoun (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CIFOR - Center for International Forestry Research - CGIAR - Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research [CGIAR])
    Abstract: We compare individual risk preferences elicited through a classic Ordered Lottery Selection (OLS) procedure with five gambles, and an extended procedure composed of nine gambles. The research question is about the stability of the risk preferences across these two elicitation variants. We implemented a field experiment with 1002 rural households in the Congo Basin from December 2013 to July 2014. We show that 1/3 of the sample is extremely risk averse regardless of the procedure. We found inconsistencies in risk preferences elicited across procedures. Indeed, 45.71% are characterized by instability of preferences, either weak (34.53%) or strong (11.18%); 42.81% of the sample exhibits stable preferences and the remaining 11.48% of the sample-initially risk neutral in the classic procedure-is classified as risk loving in the extended procedure. Undereducation can be seen as the main driver of the strong instability since the incremental change brought about by the attainment of secondary school on the likelihood to remain stable is ten times greater than the other considered drivers.
    Keywords: Farmers,Preferences,Ordered lottery selection,Risk aversion,Field experiment
    Date: 2021–02–05
  22. By: Kundu, Amit; DAS, SANGITA
    Abstract: Despite the major structural changes in the Indian credit system, landless and near landless agricultural labour households are still facing difficulties while accessing formal credit services. The paper tries to examine the possible factors influencing the accessibility of institutional credit by agricultural labour households and its role in their livelihood. Based on a village-level field investigation in the district of East Medinipur, West Bengal, the study shows that the Possession of operational land, membership of SHG, diversified farm and non-farm income, and higher financial literacy index are the significant determinants to increase the possibility of receiving institutional credit for these households. Using the two-stage least square method, the paper further reveals that the monthly per capita income of the agricultural labour households can increase if they use institutional and non-institutional sources of loans in income-generating activities. The study also suggests that the lower the age of the household head and the less dependency on the informal credits for consumption purposes of the households, the higher the possibility of improving the livelihood of the agricultural labour households.
    Keywords: Agricultural labour households, Institutional credit, Probit regression, Instrumental variable, Livelihood
    JEL: C25 H81 I31 J43 Q12
    Date: 2021–09–02
  23. By: Meinerding, Christoph; Poinelli, Andrea; Schüler, Yves
    Abstract: Using survey data from German households, we find that individuals with lower climate concern tend to have higher inflation expectations up to five years ahead. This correlation is most pronounced among individuals with extremely high inflation expectations. Evaluating candidate explanations, we find that part of the link between climate concern and inflation expectations can be associated with individuals' perceived exposures to climate-related risks and with their distrust in the central bank. Overall, our results suggest that climate change perceptions matter for inflation expectations.
    Keywords: climate change,inflation expectations,physical risk,transition risk,central bank distrust,household surveys
    JEL: E31 E50 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Mr. Arvind Virmani; Surjit Bhalla; Karan Bhasin
    Abstract: The paper presents estimates of poverty [extreme poverty PPP$1.9 and PPP$3.2] and consumption inequality in India for each of the years 2004-5 through the pandemic year 2020-21. These estimates include, for the first time, the effect of in-kind food subsides on poverty and inequality. Extreme poverty was as low as 0.8 percent in the pre-pandemic year 2019, and food transfers were instrumental in ensuring that it remained at that low level in pandemic year 2020. Post-food subsidy inequality at .294 is now very close to its lowest level 0.284 observed in 1993/94.
    Keywords: Poverty Measurement, Pandemic
    Date: 2022–04–05
  25. By: Seema Jayachandran
    Abstract: Conservation programs in low-income countries often have dual goals of protecting the environment and reducing poverty. This article discusses the tension between these two goals in payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs. Participants who undertake a pro-environment behavior receive a payment, which can be decomposed into two parts: the amount that compensates them for the cost of changing their behavior and the extra amount that is a "pure transfer" to them. To maximize the program's environmental benefits, a policy maker would like to set the pure transfer component to zero, but the pure transfer is the only part of the payment that increases participants' economic well-being. In practice, PES programs pay out some pure transfers, and the extent of the anti-poverty benefits depends on whether the pure transfers are de facto targeted to the poor. I lay out these points and then illustrate them with data from a randomized trial of payments for forest protection in Uganda. I provide evidence that the economic gains from participation in PES are indeed larger for those with low costs to fulfill the program's conservation requirements. I also show that, in this context, poorer eligible households enjoyed more improvement in their economic well-being than richer ones did.
    JEL: H23 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2022–04
  26. By: Büttner, Nicolas; Grimm, Michael; Günther, Isabel; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan
    Abstract: Despite relatively sustained economic growth in at least parts of Sub-Saharan Africa over the past twenty years, the fertility transition has not much advanced in most countries in that region. We explore whether the lack of structural change can explain this slow transition. For this end, we analyze the determinants of fertility transitions across the developing world using a novel regional level panel dataset created by matching Demographic and Health Surveys and Household Income Surveys from 60 countries over three decades. Our key hypothesis is that structural change, i.e. a shift of employment from subsistence agriculture to more skill-intensive services, accompanied by an increase in human capital accumulation, is a key driver of the fertility transition. Our results indicate that higher education of women, female employment in non-agricultural formal jobs and industrialization as measured by an increase in nighttime light intensity are indeed important determinants of the fertility transition. We also find suggestive evidence for a complementary role of access to health insurance. Simulations show that if high-fertility countries in Sub-Saharan Africa had experienced the same structural change as the most demographically advanced regions in our sample over the last twenty years, fertility levels would be up to 40% lower.
    Keywords: Demographic transition,Fertility,Structural change,Human capital,Sub-SaharanAfrica
    JEL: D13 J11 J13 J22 O12
    Date: 2022
  27. By: Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.
    Abstract: Bloom et al. (2020) attribute the post-WWII slowdown in growth of U.S. TFP and other productivity measures to a decline in research productivity. A weakness in their approach is that the authors measure research productivity as the annual growth rate of industrial or economywide productivity divided by the number of researchers, contemporaneously. They give no consideration to the stock-flow relationships whereby current research effort gives rise to increments to a stock of depreciable knowledge and hence an evolving path of enhanced productivity over an extended but possibly finite future period. Using examples from agriculture, for which we have comparatively rich data, we revisit established ideas and evidence on links between research spending and productivity. On both conceptual and empirical grounds, we question whether the evidence supports the claim that a decline in productivity of researchers is responsible for the slowdown in productivity growth that has been observed, the large increases in numbers of scientists and in spending per scientist notwithstanding.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2022–04
  28. By: Ortiz-Riomalo, Juan Felipe; Koessler, Ann-Kathrin; Engel, Stefanie
    Abstract: Solving humanity’s social-environmental challenges calls for co-operation by the relevant actors. Hence, involving them in the policy process has been deemed both necessary and promising. But how and to what extent can participatory policy interventions effectively foster co-operation for sustainable natural resource management? Research on collective action and research on participatory governance offer insights on this question but have hitherto remained largely unconnected. In particular, results of field and lab experiments on collective action can complement those of case studies on participatory governance to shed further light on the potential (institutional and behavioural) impacts and mechanisms of participatory interventions. This article reviews and integrates key insights of these strands of research using the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. Our review shows that participatory interventions can foster co-operation (a) by helping the relevant actors craft adequate institutional arrangements, and (b) by addressing and/or influencing relevant actors’ attributes (i.e. their individual and shared understandings, beliefs, trust and preferences). However, to fulfil their potential, organisers of participatory interventions need to soundly design and implement them, adequately embedding them in the broader context. They must be complemented with proper follow-up, enforcement and conflict-resolution mechanisms to nurture, reassure and sustain trust and co-operation.
    Keywords: cooperation,collective action,social dilemmas,participatory governance,natural resource management,environmental policy,natural resource policy
    JEL: D72 D79 P32 P48
    Date: 2022
  29. By: Thomas Eichner; Marco Runkel
    Abstract: This paper provides a new foundation of soft drink taxation. We abstract from externalities and internalities previously used to justify such taxation and, instead, emphasize that neither explicit nor implicit markets and prices for sugar content can be expected to emerge. Hence, in the absence of any regulation, the sugar content of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) would be inefficiently high. This market failure can be corrected by a tax on the sugar content per unit of the SSB. However, a sugar content tax alone leads to an unintended downward distortion of the quantity of SSBs, which has to be corrected by an additional revenue-neutral subsidy on each unit of the SSB.
    Keywords: obesity, sugar-sweetened beverages, sugar content, sugar content tax, soft drink subsidy
    JEL: D50 H21 I18
    Date: 2022
  30. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: Famines are almost always man-made often used as a deterrent. Since ancient times, food and hunger have been a weapon of war. Among the most notorious examples in Africa are the Herero and Namaqua genocide in German South-West Africa (now Namibia) from 1904 to 1908. It was the first genocide of the 20th century. Also, the subsequent famines in Biafra (South-East Nigeria, 1967-1969), when an estimated 1.5 million people starved to death, the 1980 famine in Uganda, one of the worst in African history, when 21% of the population died, and the recurring famines in Ethiopia, Somalia and South Sudan since the 1990s have been burned into human memory. The use of food as a weapon was condemned as a war crime by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court in 1998. Since most African countries are Least Developed Countries (LLCs), they will suffer the hardest in the aftermath of Putin's war in Ukraine, especially Africa's poor. They have already suffered the consequences of drought, the corona pandemic and Islamist terrorism. Their already weakened position will be exacerbated by the spill-over effects of Russian aggression in Ukraine, which will further exacerbate hunger and poverty in Africa. All the more so as international development aid to Africa is likely to suffer from a massive redirection of aid to rearmament. Last but not least, Putin's war in Ukraine will have a major impact on EU-Africa relations. In view of the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic for Africa, it will further damage the mutual trust between both partners. About 86% of Africans have yet to receive two doses of vaccine. A growing number of African heads of state and government no longer see Western countries as reliable partners.
    Keywords: : Russia, invasion, Ukraine, Africa, famine, international trade, global power, food power, arms deals, fragile state, Islamist terrorism, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, South Africa, Cameroon, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Namibia, Nigeria, Sudan, energy security, China, EU, USA
    JEL: E26 E31 F02 F13 F35 F51 F54 H56 N47 N57 N77 P26 Q17 Z13
    Date: 2022–04–14

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.