nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒05‒02
thirty-one papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Scale and Conditions of Agricultural Land Lease in The Case of Individual Farms By Karwat-Woźniak, Bożena; Buks, Bogdan
  2. How does research and development affect the nexus of climate change and agricultural productivity in Asian and Pacific countries? By Huynh, Cong Minh
  3. Impacts of Droughts and Floods on Agricultural Productivity in New Zealand as Measured from Space By Elodie Blanc; Ilan Noy
  4. Local Knowledge and Natural Resource Management in a Peasant Farming Community Facing Rapid Change: A Critical Examination By Jules R. Siedenburg
  5. Predicting Agri-food Quality across Space: A Machine Learning Model for the Acknowledgment of Geographical Indications By Resce, Giuliano; Vaquero-Pineiro, Cristina
  6. Long-run impacts of the conflict in Ukraine on food security in Africa By Balma, Lacina; Heidland, Tobias; Jävervall, Sebastian; Mahlkow, Hendrik; Mukasa, Adamon N.; Woldemichael, Andinet
  7. Spatial Pigmeat Price Transmission: The Case of Lithuania and Poland By Jurkėnaitė, Nelė; Syp, Alina
  8. Calculations of gaseous and particulate emissions from German agriculture 1990 - 2020: Report on methods and data (RMD) Submission 2022 By Vos, Cora; Rösemann, Claus; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Döring, Ulrike; Wulf, Sebastian; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Freibauer, Annette; Döhler, Helmut; Schreiner, Carsten; Osterburg, Bernhard; Fuß, Roland
  9. Land rights and the impact of farm input subsidies on poverty convergence By Mwale, Martin Limbikani; Kamninga, Tony Mwenda
  10. Regional Cooperation for Improving Agriculture Production Efficiency: A Strategic Tool for Emission Reduction By Zaman, Kazi Arif Uz
  11. Climate Change and Economic Activity: Evidence from U.S. States By Kamiar Mohaddes; Ryan N. C. Ng; M. Hashem Pesaran; Mehdi Raissi; Jui-Chung Yang
  12. Favorit: farmers volatility risk treatment By Dadasaheb G. Godase; P. R. Sheshagiri Rao; Anil Gore
  13. Farm Succession and Retirement across Continents and Cultures: A Focus on Ireland and Iowa By Shane Francis Conway; Maura Farrell; John McDonagh; Anne Kinsella; John R. Baker
  15. Determine the Food Access among Low-Income Households in Rural Area, Kedah, Malaysia By Ahmad Zubir Ibrahim
  16. The COVID-19 pandemic in the agri-food supply chain: Impacts and responses By DI MARCANTONIO Federica; SOLANO HERMOSILLA Gloria; CIAIAN Pavel
  17. Food Insecurity and Malnutrition of Africa: A Combined Attempt Can Reduce Them By Mohajan, Haradhan
  18. Insurer's Role in Intensifying Environmental Sustainability And Social Development By Soumya Sasidharan
  19. Groundwater Quality in the Endemic Areas of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka and Its Treatment by Community-Based Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plants By Imbulana, Sachithra Madhushani
  20. The role of demand in land re-development By Carozzi, Felipe
  21. Climate Change Impact on Economic Growth: Regional Climate Policy under Cooperation and Noncooperation By Yongyang Cai; William Brock; Anastasios Xepapadeas
  22. Fertilizer Markets: The Clash between Energy, Ag, Weather, Profits, and Policy By Oranuch Wongpiyabovorn; Chad Hart; John M. Crespi
  23. Will the Soaring Farmland Market Drop When the Federal Reserve Raises Interest Rates? By Wendong Zhang; Abulena Basha
  24. Relative Price Changes of Ecosystem Services: Evidence from Germany By Jonas Heckenhahn; Moritz A. Drupp
  25. The state of social insurance for agricultural workers in the Near East and North Africa and challenges for expansion By Lucas Sato
  26. The Productive Capacity And Environment: Evidence From OECD Countries By Oluc, Ihsan; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Can, Muhlis; Guzel, Ihsan; Brusselaers, Jan
  27. Optimal Control Approaches to Sustainability under Uncertainty By Phoebe Koundouri; Georgios I. Papayiannis; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
  28. Tracking International Aid Projects for Ocean Conservation and Climate Action By Shiiba, Nagisa; Maekawa, Miko; Vegh, Tibor; Virdin, John
  29. Productivity effects of trade in natural resources – comparison with mechanisms of technological specialisation. By Zuzanna Bazychowska; Aleksandra Parteka
  30. Health Care Expenditure and Farm Income Loss: Evidence from Natural Disasters By Hung-Hao Chang; Chad Meyerhoefer
  31. Offshore Wind Energy as an Emergent Ocean Infrastructure in India: Mapping of the Social and Environmental Impacts By Sarangi, Gopal

  1. By: Karwat-Woźniak, Bożena; Buks, Bogdan
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to determine the scale and conditions of agricultural land leases in the case of individual farms and their impact on the area structure of farms, opportunities for the development of lease transactions, mainly between neighbors, as well as difficulties in this segment of the agricultural land market. The analysis was based on data from Statistics Poland (Polish: GUS) and the National Support Centre for Agriculture (Polish: KOWR), as well as the results of multi-year field research representative of individual farms conducted by the Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics National Research Institute mainly in 2011 and 2020. The analysis showed the development of the lease market, mainly neighbor-to-neighbor leases, and the increasing impact of leases on increased land equipment for individual farms. Between 2011 and 2020, the share of individual farms organized with leased land increased from 16 to 28%, and the share of leased land in the total area of land at the disposal of individual farmers grew from 15 to 20%. The number of persons who leased a larger area of land also increased. The changes were mainly a consequence of an increase (by approx. 40%) in land leased from neighbors. With depleting resources of undistributed treasury land and farmers’ attachment to patrimony, neighbor-to-neighbor leases will be the basic way to provide more land to commercial farms, and thus increase their competitiveness. For this to happen, it is necessary to overcome the main barriers hindering the growth of agricultural land mobility through the institutional regulation of the private lease market and taking actions to persuade owners of agricultural real estates who earn their living from non-agricultural sources to lease land that they do not use.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022–03–28
  2. By: Huynh, Cong Minh
    Abstract: This study empirically examines the impact of climate change and agricultural research and development (R&D) as well as their interaction on agricultural productivity in 12 selected Asian and Pacific countries over the period of 1990 – 2018. Results show that both proxies of climate change – temperature and precipitation – have negative impacts on agricultural productivity. Notably, agricultural R&D investments not only increase agricultural productivity but also mitigate the detrimental impact of climate change proxied by temperature on agricultural productivity. Interestingly, climate change proxied by precipitation initially reduces agricultural productivity until a threshold of agricultural R&D beyond which precipitation increases agricultural productivity. The findings imply useful policies to boost agricultural productivity by using R&D in the context of rising climate change in the vulnerable continent.
    Keywords: Agricultural productivity; Asia and Pacific; Climate change; R&D; SGMM
    JEL: D24 O13 O33 Q16 Q54
    Date: 2022–04–03
  3. By: Elodie Blanc; Ilan Noy
    Abstract: This study estimates the impact of excess precipitation (or the absence of rainfall) on productivity of agricultural land parcels in New Zealand. This type of post-disaster damage assessments aims to allow for quantification of disaster damage when on-the-ground assessment of damage is too costly or too difficult to conduct. It can also serve as a retroactive data collection tool for disaster loss databases where data collection did not happen at the time of the event. To this end, we use satellite-derived observations of terrestrial vegetation (the Enhanced Vegetation Index – EVI) over the growing season. We pair this data at the land parcel level identifying five land use types (three types of pasture, and annual and perennial crops) with precipitation records, which we use to identify both excessively dry and excessively wet episodes. Using regression analyses, we then examine whether these episodes of excess precipitation had any observable impact on agricultural productivity. Overall, we find statistically significant declines in agricultural productivity that is associated with both floods and droughts. The average impact of these events, averaged over the affected parcels, however, is not very large; usually less than 1%, but quite different across years and across regions. This average hides a heterogeneity of impacts, with some parcels experiencing a much more significant decline in the EVI.
    Keywords: satellite-derived data, crop productivity, drought, flood
    JEL: Q15 Q54 C23
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Jules R. Siedenburg
    Abstract: Environmental degradation is a major global problem. Its impacts are not just environmental, but also economic, with degradation recognised as a key cause of reduced agricultural productivity and rural poverty in the developing world. The degradation literature typically emphasises common property or open access natural resources, and how perverse incentives or missing institutions lead optimising private actors to degrade them. By contrast, the present paper considers degradation occurring on private farms in peasant communities. This is a critical yet delicate issue, given the poverty of such areas and questions about the role of farmers in either degrading or regenerating rural lands. The paper examines natural resource management by peasant farmers in Tanzania. Its key concern is how the local knowledge informing their management decisions adapts to challenges associated with environmental degradation and market liberalisation. Given their poverty, this question could have direct implications for the capacity of households to meet their livelihood needs. Based on fresh empirical data, the paper finds that differential farmer knowledge helps explain the large differences in how households respond to the degradation challenge. The implication is that some farmers adapt more effectively to emerging challenges than others, despite all being rational, optimising agents who follow the strategies they deem best. The paper thus provides a critique of local knowledge, implying that some farmers experience adaptation slippages while others race ahead with effective adaptations. The paper speaks to the chronic poverty that plagues many rural communities in the developing world. It helps explain the failure of proven sustainable agriculture technologies to disseminate readily beyond early innovators. Its key policy implication is to inform improved capacity building for such communities.
    Date: 2022–04
  5. By: Resce, Giuliano; Vaquero-Pineiro, Cristina
    Abstract: Geographical Indications (GIs), as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), offer a unique protection scheme to preserve high-quality agri-food productions and support rural development, and they have been recognised as a powerful tool to enhance sustainable development and ecological economic transactions at the territorial level. However, not all the areas with traditional agri-food products are acknowledge with a GI. Examining the Italian wine sector by a geo-referenced and a machine learning framework, we show that municipalities which obtain a GI within the following 10 years (2002-2011) can be predicted using a large set of (lagged) municipality-level data (1981-2001). We find that the Random Forest algorithm is the best model to make out-of-sample predictions of municipalities which obtain GIs. Among the features used, the local wine growing tradition, proximity to capital cities, local employment and education rates emerge as crucial in the prediction of GI certifications. This evidence can support policy makers and stakeholders to target rural development policies and investment allocation, and it offers strong policy implications for the future reforms of this quality scheme.
    Keywords: Geographical Indications, Rural Development, Agri-Food Production, Machine Learning, Geo-Referenced Data
    JEL: C53 Q18
    Date: 2022–04–11
  6. By: Balma, Lacina; Heidland, Tobias; Jävervall, Sebastian; Mahlkow, Hendrik; Mukasa, Adamon N.; Woldemichael, Andinet
    Abstract: Many African countries heavily rely on imports of agricultural commodities and agricultural inputs from Ukraine and Russia, for example wheat, other grains, and fertilizer. Russia's invasion of Ukraine has disrupted global access to grains due to reduced production, exports, and increased trade costs. This policy brief investigates the possible long-term consequences of the conflict on food security in Africa. We use a long-run general equilibrium trade model and study three scenarios that may evolve as a consequence of the conflict: 1) Ending exports of Ukrainian wheat and other cereals for food production, such as corn or sorghum. 2) Russia's potential ban on exports of grains and fertilizers, and 3) The impact of increased trade costs due to disrupted trade routes in the Black Sea. The model simulations show the conflict will severely compromise food security in Africa. We document important cross-country heterogeneity in the severity of impacts.
    Keywords: Food security,Grains,Fertilizers,Africa,Ukraine conflict,General equilibrium trade model,Ernährungssicherheit,Getreide,Dünger,Afrika,Ukraine-Konflikt,Allgemeines Gleichgewichtsmodell
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Jurkėnaitė, Nelė; Syp, Alina
    Abstract: The paper investigated the patterns of changes in spatial price transmission between pigmeat prices of two post-communist Member States, namely Lithuania and Poland, and five main producing countries in the EU-15, namely Germany, Denmark, France, Spain, and the Netherlands. This study employed vector autoregression modelling, as well as the Granger causality concept, and focused on changes in price behavior from May 2004 to May 2021. The findings suggest fundamental differences in the short-term price behavior of two post-communist countries. Over the investigated period, Poland strengthened the position in the EU pigmeat market and could be classified as a price leading country for the certain markets. The case of Lithuania demonstrated that countries with lower productivity and the dominant share of pig population on small-scale farms as well as high price level became vulnerable and evolved towards a viable national pig farming structures. Hence, a movement of new Member States towards greater market integration must be linked to the spread of innovations in pig farming or exit of uncompetitive farms. In the case of Lithuania, a promising direction of policy implications is support for the establishment of modern and competitive medium-sized farms, as well as the spread of relevant knowledge and innovations.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2022–03–28
  8. By: Vos, Cora; Rösemann, Claus; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Döring, Ulrike; Wulf, Sebastian; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Freibauer, Annette; Döhler, Helmut; Schreiner, Carsten; Osterburg, Bernhard; Fuß, Roland
    Abstract: The report at hand (including a comprehensive annex of data) serves as additional document to the National Inventory Report (NIR) on the German green house gas emissions and the Informative Inventory Report (IIR) on the German emissions of air pollutants (especially ammonia). The report documents the calculation methods used in the German agricultural inventory model Py-GAS-EM as well as input data, emission results and uncertainties of the emission reporting submission 2022 for the years 1990 - 2020. In this context the sector Agriculture comprises the emissions from animal husbandry, the use of agricultural soils and anaerobic digestion of energy crops. As required by the guidelines, emissions from activities preceding agriculture, from the use of energy and from land use change are reported elsewhere in the national inventories. The calculation methods are based in principle on the international guidelines for emission reporting and have been continuingly improved during the past years by the Thünen Institute working group on agricultural emission inventories, partly in cooperation with KTBL. In particular, these improvements concern the calculation of energy requirements, feeding and the N balance of the most important animal categories. In addition, technical measures such as air scrubbing (mitigation of ammonia emissions) and digestion of animal manures (mitigation of emissions of methane and laughing gas) have been taken into account. For the calculation of emissions from anaerobic digestion of animal manures and energy crops (including spreading of the digestate), the aforementioned working group developed, in cooperation with KTBL, a national methodology. [...]
    Keywords: emission inventory,agriculture,livestock husbandry,agricultural soils,anaerobic digestion,energy crops,renewable primary products,greenhouse gases,air pollutants,methane,laughing gas,ammonia,particulate matter,Emissionsinventar,Landwirtschaft,Tierhaltung,landwirtschaftliche Böden,anaerobe Vergärung,Energiepflanzen,nachwachsende Rohstoffe,Treibhausgase,Luftschadstoffe,Methan,Lachgas,Ammoniak,luftgetragene Partikel,Staub
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Mwale, Martin Limbikani; Kamninga, Tony Mwenda
    Abstract: Notwithstanding the global significant progress in reducing poverty over the last two decades, still many people live in poverty. Consequently, social protection remains key to welfare sustainability. In this paper, we used longitudinal data from Malawi to examine the impacts of farm input subsidies on poverty convergence. Convergence is coined here as the reduction in persistence of poverty over time. We specifically estimated the response of poverty convergence in a current period, to farm input subsidies that were provided in a prior period, to understand if the programs build sustainable welfare resilience among poor households. We analyse the convergence in two opposing land rights regimes: matrilocal settlements where only women hold rights to land, and patrilocal settlements where only men hold rights to land. Matrilocal and patrilocal settlements offer varying incentives to household heads, who are often men, of investing in familial land. We find that farm input subsidies lead to poverty convergence, only in settlements where men hold rights to land and receive the subsidies on behalf of their households. Poverty convergence is non-responsive to the subsidies in settlements where men receive the subsidies on behalf of their households, while women together with their extended families, hold rights to the land. We further find that the impact of farm input subsidies on poverty convergence is significant in a year when Malawi faced drought, suggesting that the subsidies built sustainable resilience, against an unanticipated climatic shock, in poor households. The paper calls for anti-poverty policies to target poor people while paying attention to their landholding traditions shared prosperity, is to be achieved.
    Keywords: Poverty Convergence; Subsidies; Land rights; Resilience; Shared Prosperity; Malawi
    JEL: D1 D6 H2 H5 O1 O2 Q1
    Date: 2022–03–14
  10. By: Zaman, Kazi Arif Uz (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The growing population and climatic uncertainties have compelled producers to undertake faster exploitation of the resources in agricultural production to meet global food security, which, in turn, leads to unsustainable and input-led inefficient production growth. The problem is further exacerbated by the increasing emission of GHGs from this production process. We suggest a solution to this by advocating the role of regional cooperation to increase the technical efficiency level in the agricultural production of countries through technology transfer, knowledge sharing, capacity building, and adequate investment under the regional cooperation framework. Concurrently, we link this improvement of production efficiency with the reduction of emissions both theoretically and empirically for all Asian subregions. We first adopt the stochastic frontier model—a widely used statistical technique that frames the production functions while estimating the inefficiencies of economic units. Using 2010–2016 panel data on agriculture production and five inputs—land, labor, capital, fertilizer, and energy—we estimate the agriculture production efficiencies of the countries under five Asian subregions. Estimations reveal that West Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and Central Asia have agriculture production efficiencies of 70%, 85%, 66%, 92%, and 76%, respectively. Following the estimations and other calculations, we find that with concerted efforts toward optimizing production efficiencies under (sub)regional cooperation frameworks, an annual emission of 384.5 megatons of CO2eq GHG could have been reduced in Asia while keeping the production at the current level. The potential reduction of emissions equals 16.8% of Asia’s total emissions originating from agricultural activities and 7.1% of that of global emissions.
    Keywords: agriculture production efficiency; regional cooperation; stochastic frontier model; emission reduction; Asian subregions
    JEL: F53 O47 O53 Q15 Q56 R11
    Date: 2022–01
  11. By: Kamiar Mohaddes; Ryan N. C. Ng; M. Hashem Pesaran; Mehdi Raissi; Jui-Chung Yang
    Abstract: We investigate the long-term macroeconomic effects of climate change across 48 U.S. states over the period 1963.2016 using a novel econometric strategy which links deviations of temperature and precipitation (weather) from their long-term moving-average historical norms (climate) to various state-specific economic performance indicators at the aggregate and sectoral levels. We show that climate change has a long-lasting adverse impact on real output in various states and economic sectors, and on labour productivity and employment in the United States. Moreover, in contrast to most cross-country results, our within U.S. estimates tend to be asymmetrical with respect to deviations of climate variables (including precipitation) from their historical norms.
    Keywords: climate change, economic growth, adaptation, United States
    JEL: C33 O40 O44 O51 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022
  12. By: Dadasaheb G. Godase; P. R. Sheshagiri Rao; Anil Gore
    Abstract: This paper seeks to develop a strategy based on analytics, for an individual Indian farmer to tackle market price fluctuations. The idea is to select a month (or a week or a day) on which to take the produce to market for a good return on the sale. The choice is based on the history of price data and associated variability. Market-wise price data for the last decade or so are used. These ideas are applied to three vegetable crops, tomato, onion, and coriander for some markets in the state of Maharashtra. It is proposed that similar work should be done crop-wise and market-wise for different parts of India by local academic groups from any of the subjects such as statistics, analytics, data science, agriculture, business management, commerce, and economics. The objective is to mitigate the adverse impact of price fluctuation on farmers.
    Date: 2022–03
  13. By: Shane Francis Conway; Maura Farrell; John McDonagh; Anne Kinsella; John R. Baker
    Abstract: Conway et al. draw on a baseline analysis of International FARMTRANSFERS Survey data obtained from the Republic of Ireland and the state of Iowa to identify and compare rates and patterns of succession and older farmers' similarities and/or differences in attitudes and intentions towards retirement. Overcoming the farming community's stalwart persistent adherence to traditional succession and retirement practices, which effectively obstructs farmland transfer to the next generation, is a pressing matter for contemporary generational renewal in agriculture policy.
    Date: 2022–03
  14. By: GURRIA ALBUSAC Patricia (European Commission - JRC); GONZALEZ HERMOSO Hugo (European Commission - JRC); CAZZANIGA Noemi; JASINEVIČIUS Gediminas; MUBAREKA Sarah; DE LAURENTIIS Valeria; PATINHA CALDEIRA Carla; SALA Serenella; RONCHETTI Giulia; GUILLEN GARCIA Jordi; RONZON Tevecia (European Commission - JRC); M'BAREK Robert (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The EU Biomass Flows tool is a visualisation, in the form of Sankey diagrams, of the flows of biomass for each sector of the bioeconomy, from supply to uses including trade. It displays the harmonised data from the various Joint Research Centre (JRC) units contributing to the BIOMASS Assessment study of the JRC. The diagrams enable deeper analysis and comparison of the different countries and sectors across a defined time series.The first version of the tool was published in 2017 and has been used in multiple research activities and publications. A new version was released in 2020 on new software. This new version offers improved analysis capabilities and a better user experience, as well as increased granularity of data for some biomass types. It relies on the methodology to extract and integrate data developed for the first biomass visualisation tool.In the past years, we have continued to improve on the data and design of the EU Biomass Flows tool. The most important changes of this new release will be focused on four areas: migration to EU27 aggregation, redesign of the flows for woody biomass Update of the data with the latest available years and visualisation of food waste flows.
    Keywords: Bioeconomy, biomass, Sankey, agriculture, forestry, woody biomass, fisheries and aquaculture, biofuels, waste, supply and use
    Date: 2022–03
  15. By: Ahmad Zubir Ibrahim (Institute of Local Government Studies, School of Government, Universiti Utara Malaysia Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - This study aims to determine the low-income group in rural areas to food access. This study also determines the main source of choice for this group to get food. Methodology - This study was conducted in Baling, Sik, and Padang Terap districts in Kedah. There is 200 respondent involved in this study. Findings - The results showed that 97.87% of low-income households in Baling, 82.36% in Sik, and 71.43% in Padang Terap had low food access status and were prone to food deserts areas. Low -income households in the area prefer grocery stores for food access over supermarkets. A large number of low-income households access food at the supermarket once a month causing geographical factors. Novelty - In conclusion, policymakers need to determine the measurement and assessment of food deserts in rural areas in Malaysia. Kedai Rakyat 1 Malaysia (KR1M) and the KedaiRuncit Transformation Program (TUKAR) can be re-implemented with the improvement of their implementation structure to improve food access in rural areas. Type of Paper - Empirical."
    Keywords: Food Access; Low-Income Households; Food Deserts; Rural Area; Kedah
    JEL: D13 D14 D19
    Date: 2021–12–31
  16. By: DI MARCANTONIO Federica (European Commission - JRC); SOLANO HERMOSILLA Gloria (European Commission - JRC); CIAIAN Pavel (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The aim of this report is to provide insights into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on operators in the agri-food supply chain in the European Union (EU). The analyses are based on a survey carried out among business operators and umbrella organisations between July 2020 and January 2021. Overall, the survey includes responses from 280 business operators and 199 umbrella organisations across the EU. The focus of the survey is on identifying the specific difficulties faced by operators in the agri-food chain in the EU during the first lockdown period (i.e. when there were various measures restricting movements of people, increased border controls between Member States, and the shutdown of non-essential parts of the economy) and the subsequent ‘deconfinement’ period as lockdown eased (i.e. as the quarantine, movement restrictions and border controls were progressively lifted). It also identifies the most pressing bottlenecks and measures undertaken to mitigate the impact of the pandemic in various areas of business activity, and future expectations about business continuity.
    Keywords: Food chain, COVID-19 pandemic, survey, EU
    Date: 2022–03
  17. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: In the 21st century Africa is in the top levels of hunger and malnutrition in the world that is unharmonious with the vision of the African Union. Hunger and malnutrition is a common matter in almost all African countries and recently it is appeared to be increasing in most of the countries of the continent. Security of food and nutrition is a fundamental right of every people. But many people of Africa are deprived from this right. About one-third of African children is undersized in their growth and suffers from various physical and mental complexities. The UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 aims to end all forms of hun¬ger and malnutrition globally by 2030, but Africa is off track. It is estimated that about 200 million people of Africa are undernourished. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has worsened the African food and nutrition security system in the long-term. The pandemic has thrown the continent in serious uncertainty to the implementation of the SDG 2. Food production of this continent should be increased with the proportional to the increased populations. This study tries to discuss the food and nutrition situation of Africa and provides a constructive guideline to overcome it.
    Keywords: Africa, COVID-19 pandemic, food security, hunger, nutrition
    JEL: I3 I32 O4
    Date: 2022–01–05
  18. By: Soumya Sasidharan (Ph.D. Scholar, School of Business, P O BOX: 345050, MAHE, Dubai, DIAC, UAE Author-2-Name: V.K. Ranjith Author-2-Workplace-Name: Professor, Manipal Institute of Management, MAHE, Manipal, India Author-3-Name: Sunitha Prabhuram Author-3-Workplace-Name: Associate Professor, School of Business, PO BOX: 345050, MAHE, Dubai, DIAC, UAE Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - Sustainable insurance is the new concept that emerges in the current state, that every country adopting now. The objective of the study is to identify the insurance industry's role and contribution to promoting environmental sustainability. To outline sustainable insurance and sustainable/green products and services. Methodology – This paper explores the contribution of the insurance industry and its role in promoting environmental sustainability and social development. This is a theoretical paper, focused on the secondary sources of data from research publications, websites, books, journals, and articles. To achieve the objectives, this study will critically review previous literature and assess contemporary views from different perspectives. Findings – Various insurers are frequently focusing on their progress, enhancing their share of the market, and maintaining better risks to achieve marketplace success. Insurers should always be on the lookout for new ways to set themselves apart from the competition. The implication for insurers is that their actions matter a lot when it comes to environmental issues and providing green insurance solutions can open new business opportunities for the industry. The answer may lie in marketing new products related to potential climate change and the corresponding sustainability/green insurance. Novelty – Sustainable insurance is aimed primarily at developing innovative or green products and services, reducing risk, improving company efficiency, and supporting environmental, social, and financial sustainability. There hasn't been a general overview of the role of insurers in enhancing environmental sustainability and social development done yet. Theoretically, our work aids policymakers and other stakeholders in better understanding the role of insurers in enhancing environmental sustainability and social development. Type of Paper - Review"
    Keywords: Insurance, Sustainability, Green insurance, Green products and services, Sustainable Development
    JEL: G20 G22 G23
    Date: 2021–12–31
  19. By: Imbulana, Sachithra Madhushani (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Community-based reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment plants provide an interim solution for producing safe drinking water for the endemic areas of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in the rural dry zone of Sri Lanka. RO-treated groundwater diminishes the progression of CKDu; thus, proper maintenance of these RO plants is indispensable to protect public health. We investigated the quality characteristics of groundwater in the endemic areas of CKDu; the performance, operations, and maintenance (O&M) of the existing RO plants; and the socioeconomic background of the RO plants. We analyzed feedwater (i.e., groundwater) and treated water from 32 RO plants in Anuradhapura District, comprising 27 in the CKDu high-risk (HR) region and five in the low-risk (LR) region, to establish the major chemical and biological water quality parameters. The alkalinity, hardness, and microbiological parameters in groundwater exceeded the maximum allowable levels (MALs) for drinking in all the study areas. Additionally, the total dissolved solids (TDS) and magnesium exceeded the MALs exclusively in the HR areas. The quality and the chemical composition of groundwater did not indicate significant seasonal differences. The elevated occurrence of magnesium-predominant hardness and ionicity in groundwater showed a significant relationship with the incidence of CKDu. All the RO plants achieved high removal rates (> 90%) for excessive chemical constituents in groundwater, but the recovery rates were slightly low (~ 46%). The current disinfection practices in the RO plants were insufficient to ensure the microbial safety of the product water. The low demand for product water, scarcity of groundwater, lack of technical capacity of the local communities, poor maintenance practices, and unplanned brine removal were the key issues concerning RO plant O&M. Unless properly handled, the lack of rules and regulations for RO water treatment in the CKDu-endemic region could lead to numerous environmental and public health issues in the future.
    Keywords: chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology; community-based water supply; groundwater; reverse osmosis; water quality
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2022–04–01
  20. By: Carozzi, Felipe
    Abstract: Vacant, previously-developed land in cities can generate negative externalities on surrounding areas, and is often the target of policies to promote re-development. This paper provides estimates of the price sensitivity of land re-development, a crucial parameter for the success of these policies. My estimates measure how prices affect long-run conversion of unused or underused previously developed land in England. The empirical strategy uses school test scores and admission district boundaries in a boundary discontinuity design to generate variation in housing demand that is orthogonal to re-development costs. Results show that the probability of re-development is effectively sensitive to housing prices. Estimates indicate that a 1% increase in prices leads to a 0.07 percentage point reduction in the fraction of hectares containing brownfield land. Price differences or substantial subsidies could lead to a significant amount of re-development in the long run. This is confirmed by observed land use changes between 2007 and 2011 being disproportionately concentrated in high price areas.
    Keywords: land re-development; Brownfields; land supply
    JEL: R14 R31
    Date: 2020–05–01
  21. By: Yongyang Cai (The Ohio State University); William Brock; Anastasios Xepapadeas
    Abstract: We compute regional social cost of carbon (SCC) in the face of climate change impact on the rate of growth of regional GDP under cooperation and noncooperation between regions with climate feedbacks and heat transfer present or missing. Climate damage to economic growth poses serious challenges for many countries, particularly in the tropic region. We find that in the presence of climate damage to economic growth, regional SCC is high in either a cooperative world or a noncooperative world, implying that it is optimal for each region to choose stringent climate policies. Moreover, relatively to cooperation, noncooperation reduces GDP of countries in both the high northern latitudes and the tropic region while the loss for the developing countries in the tropic region is significant. Our results are robust with different modeling of the climate impact.
    Keywords: Integrated Assessment Model of climate and economy, spatial heat transport, regional social cost of carbon, carbon tax, Nash equilibrium, economic growth, climate feedbacks
    JEL: Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022–04–07
  22. By: Oranuch Wongpiyabovorn; Chad Hart (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University); John M. Crespi (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University)
    Abstract: Wongpayibovorn et al. examine the US fertilizer market, which, in 2021, was disrupted by extremely cold weather in Texas, Hurricane Ida, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The natural disasters in the southern part of the country paused the majority of fertilizer production, as 56% of ammonia production capacity is located in Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. The extreme weather not only directly impacted fertilizer production, but it also disrupted natural gas production, the major feedstock for nitrogen fertilizers.
    Date: 2022–03
  23. By: Wendong Zhang (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University); Abulena Basha
    Abstract: Zhang and Basha examine the Iowa and Midwest farmland markets, which have seen tremendous momentum over the past 18 months. Both the Iowa Land Value Survey and the Chicago Federal Reserve Bank's AgLetter show that average farmland values in Iowa rose 30% last year to the highest nominal values since the 1940s. However, in late March, the Federal Reserve Bank is expected to impose the first interest rate hike in three years, which will likely be the start of six-to-seven interest rate hikes over the next two years.
    Date: 2022–03
  24. By: Jonas Heckenhahn; Moritz A. Drupp
    Abstract: Discounting future costs and benefits is a crucial yet contentious practice in the appraisal of long-term public projects with environmental consequences. The standard approach typically neglects that ecosystem services are not easily substitutable with manufactured goods and often exhibit considerably lower growth rates. Theory has shown that we should either apply differentiated discount rates, such as a lower environmental discount rate, or account for increases in relative scarcity by uplifting environmental values. Some governments already integrate this into their guidance, but empirical evidence is scarce. We provide first comprehensive country-specific evidence, taking Germany as a case study. We estimate growth rates of 15 ecosystem services and the degree of limited substitutability based on a meta-analysis of 36 willingness to pay studies in Germany. We find that the relative price of ecosystem services has increased by more than four percent per year in recent decades. Heterogeneity analysis suggests that relative price changes are most substantial for regulating ecosystem services. Our findings underscore the importance of considering relative price adjustments in governmental project appraisal and environmental-economic accounting.
    Keywords: willingness to pay, discounting, relative prices, ecosystem services, substitutability, growth, cost-benefit analysis
    JEL: D61 H43 Q51 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022
  25. By: Lucas Sato (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: social protection; social insurance; rural development; agricultural workers; Near East and North Africa
    Date: 2021–03
  26. By: Oluc, Ihsan; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Can, Muhlis; Guzel, Ihsan; Brusselaers, Jan
    Abstract: There are many economic parameters that may affect environmental degradation. At the forefront of these parameters is the productive economic structures of the countries The present paper discusses the dynamic relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, economic growth and productive capacity index (PCI) for a panel of 38 OECD countries spanning the period 2000-2018. The empirical study applied PMG-ARDL approach, panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests the examine the short and long-run association between the variables. The cross-sectional dependence test of Pesaran (2004) revealed the use of the second generation panel unit root tests (CADF and CIPS). The cointegration relationships between the variables are proved using Westerlund and Pedroni cointegration tests. The estimated coefficients of PMG-ARDL revealed that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is established. Besides, the empirical findings obtained from long-run estimation confirm that productive capacity has a significant role on increasing environmental quality.
    Keywords: Product Capacity Index; CO2 Emissions; Economic Complexity; Economic Structure; Environment
    JEL: E2 F1 F14 Q5 Q54 Q55 Q57
    Date: 2022–03–25
  27. By: Phoebe Koundouri (Dept. of International and European Economic Studies, Athens University of Economics and Business); Georgios I. Papayiannis (Athens University of Economics & Business); Athanasios Yannacopoulos
    Abstract: Optimal sustainable management of natural resources has been one of the major lines of research in environmental economics at least for the last two decades. Several attempts have been made in order to describe in a quantitative fashion the notion of sustainability and distinguish management policies between sustainable and non sustainable ones. Important aspects of this task are (a) appropriate modeling of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the state of the system, including the sources of uncertainty affecting either directly or indirectly the problem at hand (e.g. climate conditions, population growth, biological evolution, etc), and (b) the development of appropriate criteria for evaluating the welfare of the system under study that guarantee sustainability and viability. In this chapter, we present and discuss popular and established optimization approaches for investigating policy selection problems within the sustainability framework, from the perspective of viability and optimal control theory.
    Keywords: Model Uncertainty, Optimal Control, Robust Optimal Control, Sustainability, Viability Theory
    Date: 2022–04–13
  28. By: Shiiba, Nagisa (Asian Development Bank Institute); Maekawa, Miko (Asian Development Bank Institute); Vegh, Tibor (Asian Development Bank Institute); Virdin, John (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Ocean conservation and sustainable use cannot be pursued or achieved without consideration of the planetary impacts of climate change, and particularly the role of the oceans in both mitigation and adaptation. For this reason, the international community has increasingly committed to providing aid to help finance public goods for ocean conservation and climate action. Although many organizations have set up mechanisms to track both aid and climate finance, such trackers are usually not focused on financial flows related to ocean conservation and climate action. In the absence of such coordinated tracking and monitoring of aid, policy makers cannot assess the attention or priority of international funding mechanisms on oceans and ocean-related climate issues. As such, we aim to contribute to efforts to track aid for ocean conservation and climate action by providing a comprehensive baseline of international flows, by relevant global goal and target. We will build upon recent efforts that have established a baseline for international institutions operating at the global level. According to the data collected, we estimate that the cumulative public financing for ocean conservation and climate action grew from $579 million in 2013 to over $3.5 billion in 2019.
    Keywords: ocean financing; sustainability and climate change; international aid
    JEL: F35 F64 H84 Q54
    Date: 2022–03
  29. By: Zuzanna Bazychowska (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland); Aleksandra Parteka (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: This paper compares two alternative growth paths, assessing the effects on productivity of specialisation in natural resources (NR) and in technologically advanced products. The empirical analysis exploits product-level export data for 109 developing and 51 developed economies over the period 1996-2018. We document two distinct types of specialisation, based on exports either of natural resources or of technological products, and compare their role in productivity growth by GMM estimation of a conditional convergence model. In general, reliance on natural resource exports slows growth, but we find that the type of resources exported is important: fuel exports hamper growth while specialisation in metals enhances the catch-up in productivity. Technological specialisation, especially in products typical of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, reinforces productivity growth but does not affect the relationship between resources and productivity growth.
    Keywords: natural resources, technological specialisation, productivity growth, convergence
    JEL: O13 O47 O3 Q32
    Date: 2022–04
  30. By: Hung-Hao Chang; Chad Meyerhoefer
    Abstract: Farmers have higher rates of disability and illness than the general population and more volatile incomes due to frequent crop and livestock losses from extreme weather events. This raises concerns that sudden, weather-related drops in farm income could reduce access to health care for an already vulnerable population. We estimate the sensitivity of health care use to the loss in farm income brought about by natural disasters in Taiwan. To account for endogenous exposure to disaster risks, we estimate an instrumental variables model and find that farm income elasticities of demand for outpatient care and prescriptions range from 0.11 to 0.32. Reductions in health care use may be due, in part, to changes in time allocations within farm households.
    JEL: I1 Q12
    Date: 2022–04
  31. By: Sarangi, Gopal (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Offshore wind energy holds promising potential as an alternative source of energy for a country like India, which continues to be land deprived and faces increasing difficulty in acquiring land for energy. While some scholarly efforts have focused on India's context, there is a dearth of studies on the associated environmental and social challenges of such infrastructure deployment. We conduct a detailed assessment of the policy and institutional mechanisms governing the offshore wind energy in the country and identify the possible environmental and social impacts of such projects on the marine environment and livelihood of fishing communities in India. We use qualitative research approaches and various types of secondary information and data. The policy and institutional framework assessment reveals that, despite the creation of the required mechanism, significant gaps exist in the knowledge of such projects’ possible impacts through these policies and regulations. Impact mapping shows that offshore wind projects could adversely affect the marine ecosystem and marine biodiversity to varying degrees over their entire life. The impacts occurring during the construction and operation phases of the project cycle will be significant. Policy suggestions show that preparatory measures are necessary before the implementation of such projects.
    Keywords: offshore wind energy; environment; livelihood; India
    JEL: E20 O13 O18 Q42
    Date: 2022–03

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