nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒04‒25
29 papers chosen by

  1. Implications for Agricultural Producers of Using Blockchain for Food Transparency, Study of 4 Food Chains by Cumulative Approach By Ysé Commandré; Catherine Macombe; Sophie Mignon
  2. Income diversification and food security:evidence from Burkina Faso By Zoungrana, Amelie
  3. On the economic value of the agronomic effects of crop diversification for farmers: estimation based on farm cost accounting data By Sodjahin, Ibirénoyé Honoré Romaric; Féménia, Fabienne; Koutchade, Obafémi Philippe; Carpentier, Alain
  4. Digital transition and green growth in Chinese agriculture By Jean-Philippe BOUSSEMART; Zhiyang SHEN; Songkai WANG; Yu HAO
  5. How Specific Resilience Pillars Mitigate the Impact of Drought on Food Security: Evidence from Uganda By Sunday, Nathan; Kahunde, Rehema; Atwine, Blessing; Adelaja, Adesoji; Kappiaruparampil, Justin
  6. The digitalisation of agriculture: A literature review and emerging policy issues By Jonathan McFadden; Francesca Casalini; Terry Griffin; Jesús Antón
  7. La pandémie de Covid-19, l’économie agricole internationale et les filières animales : le cas de la Chine, des États-Unis et de l’UE [Covid-19, international agricultural economy and animal sectors: the case of China, the United States and the EU] By Vincent Chatellier; Jean-Marc Chaumet; Thierry Pouch
  8. Standardization of sustainable agriculture practices (Стандартизация на устойчиви земеделски практики) By Vasileva, Elka
  9. Economic Performance of Agriculture in the European Union Countries By Rađenović, Žarko; Krstić, Bojan; Marković, Milan
  10. Competition, Antitrust, and Agricultural Development in Asia By Balisacan, Arsenio
  11. What's in Store for Voluntary Agricultural Carbon Markets? By Alejandro Plastina; Oranuch Wongpiyabovorn; John M. Crespi
  12. Global Shipping Container Disruptions and U.S. Agricultural Exports By Carter, Colin A.; Steinbach, Sandro; Zhuang, Xiting
  13. Governance of agricultural knowledge and innovation system (AKIS) in Bulgaria By Bachev, Hrabrin
  14. Implications of the state assistance program in the province of Quebec: the case of lamb production By Mosadegh Sedghy, Bahareh; Tamini, Lota D.; Lambert, Remy
  15. The French animal sectors in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic By Chatellier, Vincent; Cadudal, François; Chotteau, Philippe; Duflot, Boris; Heydemann, Pascale
  16. Cumulative Climate Shocks and Migratory Flows: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Salvatore Di Falco; Anna B. Kis; Martina Viarengo
  17. What is Holding Back Milk Production Potential in Pakistan? By Abdus Sattar
  18. Policies to bolster trust in agricultural digitalisation: Issues note By Jonathan McFadden; Francesca Casalini; Jesús Antón
  19. Trademarks and Territorial Marketing: Retrospective and Prospective Analyses of the trademark Prodotti di Qualità By Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Manno, Roberto; Tappi, Marco; Lamonaca, Emilia
  20. Gendered Analysis of Food Security Gaps in Rural Nepal By Aryal, Jeetendra Prakash; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Gartaula, Hom Nath
  21. Sustainability in the cocoa-chocolate global value chain: From voluntary initiatives to binding rules? By Grumiller, Jan; Grohs, Hannes
  22. Knowledge and awareness of water quality protection issues within Local Authorities By Grilli, Gianluca; Curtis, John
  23. The urban food-water-energy nexus footprint model: An early application By Athauda, Nelsha; Zozmann, Heinrich; Maiwald, Linda; Klassert, Christian; Klauer, Bernd
  24. Assessing the impact environmental impact assessment in the textile and garment sector in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia and Viet Nam By Sharpe, Samantha.; Retamal, Monique.; Martinez Fernandez, Maria Cristina.
  25. Technical efficiency and equity effects of environmental payments in Ireland By Tovar Reanos, Miguel; Martinez-Cillero, Maria
  26. Why have Bordeaux wine prices become so difficult to forecast ? By Stephen Bazen; Jean Marie Cardebat
  27. Green Purchase Intention: An Investigation from Vietnamese Young Consumers By Ho, Thi Thu; Huynh, Cong Minh
  28. Taking climate action measuring carbon emissions in the garment sector in Asia By Sharpe, Samantha.; Dominish, Elsa.; Martinez Fernandez, Maria Cristina.
  29. Innovation, growth and the transition to net-zero emissions By Stern, Nicholas; Sivropoulos-Valero, Anna Valero

  1. By: Ysé Commandré (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier); Catherine Macombe (UMR ITAP - Information – Technologies – Analyse Environnementale – Procédés Agricoles - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Sophie Mignon (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier, Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Nîmes)
    Abstract: In agro-food, Blockchain has been recently implemented in order to improve transparency. Blockchain raises great expectations of data decentralization and better efficiency-cost ratio, integration speed, and data protection that appear as promises of gains in all areas. The fundamental assumption was that transparency prevents or reduces illegitimate forms of power. However, discussions are emerging about how digitization is likely to exacerbate power inequalities in food systems, as transparency can become tyrannical when it contributes to the proliferation of audits, evaluations, and assessment measures. The objective of this research is to contribute by providing knowledge about the implications of this digitization for farmers. For a first exploratory study, we conducted 53 interviews with actors of digitalization of agri-food, and we used 9 press releases, 3 webinars, and 1 article published in a specialized French journal. These materials evoke 12 different agro-food chains recently equipped with blockchain in France. From this pool of chains, we focused on four through in-depth analysis of interviews and literature readings using NVivo software. The first results highlight that the use of blockchain for transparency rarely delivers on its promises. Blockchain tends to centralize control since few actors have access to the distributed ledger, and the visibility brought to farmers, at the consumer level, tends to become a form of control. While blockchain seems to provide some benefits to producers, it raises the issue of overloaded technology and the problem of their data privacy.
    Keywords: blockchain,food chain,transparency,panopticon,food governance,food discourse,farms,farmers
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Zoungrana, Amelie
    Abstract: While food insecurity is a significant public health issue, addressing it is hampered by the fact that there exists substantial variation in food security across households conditional on economic resources. Food insecurity has attracted much attention from policy makers in developing world as well as in Burkina Faso, however it remains a veritable challenge. Accounting for potential endogeneity of income diversification, an IV Probit and IV Poisson models using control function approach explore the relationship of income diversification and food security status of households in Burkina Faso. We also state mean Decomposition to examine the differential of food consumption score by agro-ecological zones. We used nationally representative data from Harmonized Household Living Conditions Survey (HHLCS) over 6,010 households. The findings revealed that about 21% of households are food insecure. We find also that increases in income diversification is positively associated with household food consumption score, household dietary diversity and household food expenditure share meaning that household’s livelihood diversification is considered as household ‘resilience tool and is very relevant to improve the household’s food security status. In addition, the age of the household head, the marital status and education level, the household size, the existence of permanent market, agricultural cooperative and women group in the community are important socio-economic variables in determining food security status in this study. According to findings, there exists differences in food consumption across the agro-ecological zones and between rural and urban households. These results suggest expanding income source opportunities is likely to enhance household diet diversity in Burkina Faso, while making progress towards other social and development goals. However, it is also necessary to push consumption patterns in some zones through climate resilience, infrastructures improvement (roads and transportation costs) and through commodities price control.
    Keywords: Food security, Household’ livelihood sources, Instrumental Variable, Control Function approach, Mean Decomposition, Burkina Faso
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2022–03–10
  3. By: Sodjahin, Ibirénoyé Honoré Romaric; Féménia, Fabienne; Koutchade, Obafémi Philippe; Carpentier, Alain
    Abstract: Despite many benefits provided by diversified cropping systems, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the economic relevance of their effects, mainly due to lack of information on the dynamics of farmers’ crop acreages. Our article contributes to fill this gap and, thereby, to shed light on a pair of apparently contradictory facts. European farmers tend to stick to specialized crop acreages despite agronomic experiments tending to show that crop diversification could reduce chemical input uses while maintaining or even enhancing arable crop yield levels We provide estimates of the effects of previous crops and crop acreage diversity on yield and chemical input use levels based on a sample of 769 arable crop producers covering the Marne département in France from 2008 to 2014. Our farm level dataset combines cost accounting data, information on crop sequences as well as detailed soil and weather data. Our estimation approach relies on yield functions and input use models defined as systems of simultaneous equations. These models feature farm specific random parameters for accounting for unobserved heterogeneity across farms and farmers as well as for accommodating input use endogeneity in the considered empirical crop yield functions. We estimate pre crop and crop acreage diversity effects for four major crops in the area. Pre crops effects on yields are estimated relatively accurately and are generally consistent with the rankings provided by crop production experts. Estimated pre crop effects on input uses are small and insignificant from a statistical viewpoint despite our large sample, suggesting that pre crops don’t impact much chemical input requirements or/and that farmers tend to downplay these effects when deciding their chemical input use levels. Our results also show that crop acreage diversity positively impacts yield levels and tend to induce reductions in pesticide uses, herbicide uses in particular. Overall, our results demonstrate statistically significant though economically limited effects of pre crops and crop acreage diversity on crop gross margins. They also suggest that policy measures aimed to foster crop diversification are unlikely to significantly reduce chemical input uses on major crops if they are not supplemented by measures specifically aimed to reduce the uses of these inputs.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Production Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–03–01
  4. By: Jean-Philippe BOUSSEMART (Univ. Lille, CNRS, IESEG School of Management, UMR 9221 - LEM - Lille Économie Management, F-59000 Lille, France); Zhiyang SHEN (School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing, China); Songkai WANG (School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing, China); Yu HAO (School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing, China)
    Abstract: As the primary industry in an economy, sustainable agricultural growth has attracted much attention from researchers and policy-makers worldwide. Digitalization reform and information technology greatly impact agriculture, rural areas, and farmers, improving high-quality development and green growth in the agricultural sector. Based on a measure of digitalization and a green productivity indicator, this paper investigates the impact of internet development on the economic and environmental performance of Chinese agriculture. Based on a measurement of digitalization and a green productivity indicator, this paper investigates the environmental performance and its relationship with internet development in the Chinese agricultural sector. The empirical results suggest that substantial green growth is observed in Chinese provincial agriculture, which is largely motived by technological progress. Internet popularization and digital technology indeed promote sustainable development in agriculture. Furthermore, the corresponding policy implications are provided to create a new path for steady growth in Chinese agriculture.
    Keywords: : Green growth; Internet development; Digitalization; Agricultural productivity
    JEL: O13 O47 P28
    Date: 2022–04
  5. By: Sunday, Nathan; Kahunde, Rehema; Atwine, Blessing; Adelaja, Adesoji; Kappiaruparampil, Justin
    Abstract: ABSTRACT Uganda continues to be prone to climate shocks especially drought which has adverse impact on food security. This paper studies household resilience capacities with special focus on how different resilience capacities mitigate the impact of drought on food security. The study follows the TANGO framework and two-step factor analysis to construct resilience capacity indexes. It employs a panel data from the Uganda National Panel Surveys (UNPS) undertaken between 2010/11 and 2018/19, spanning five waves. To minimize the bias arising from subjective self-reported drought shock, we introduce an objective measure of drought from the global SPEI database into the UNPS data. We also control for attrition bias by controlling for attrition hazard estimated from the attrition function. Our analysis reveals that households in Uganda exhibit significantly low and nearly static resilience capacities. This implies majority of households in Uganda remain highly susceptible food insecurity in the event of severe drought. The study shows that building resilience capacities is an effective way of protecting households from such devastating situation. In this regard, adaptive capacity is found to be the most effective in mitigating the effect of drought on food security. Transformative capacity and absorptive capacities possess limited mitigating power. Based on significant components from each of the capacities, we recommend investing in early warning systems and wide dissemination of climate related information to enhance preparedness adaptation, encouraging and supporting formation and sustainability of informal institutions at local levels, enhancing access to communal resources, improved infrastructure and agriculture extension services by the most vulnerable groups.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–08–02
  6. By: Jonathan McFadden (University of Oklahoma); Francesca Casalini (OECD); Terry Griffin (Kansas State University); Jesús Antón (OECD)
    Abstract: Digitalisation offers the potential to help address the productivity, sustainability and resilience challenges facing agriculture. Evidence on the adoption and impacts of digital agriculture in OECD countries from national surveys and the literature indicates broad use of digital technologies in row crop farms, but less evidence is available on uptake for livestock and speciality crops. Common barriers to adoption include costs (up-front investment and recurring maintenance expenses), relevance and limited use cases, user-friendliness, high operator skill requirements, mistrust of algorithms, and technological risk. National governments have an important role in addressing bottlenecks to adoption, such as by ensuring better information about costs and benefits of various technologies (including intangible benefits such as quality of life improvements); investing in human capital; ensuring appropriate incentives for innovation; serving as knowledge brokers and facilitators of data-sharing to spur inclusive, secure and representative data ecosystems; and promoting competitive markets.
    Keywords: Barriers to adoption, Precision agriculture, Productivity, Risk management, Sustainability
    JEL: Q15 Q16 L79 Q12 O33
    Date: 2022–04–13
  7. By: Vincent Chatellier; Jean-Marc Chaumet; Thierry Pouch
    Abstract: [in French] In a context characterized by the existence of economic, social and environmental difficulties, this paper aims to present, in a synthetic way, a quantified inventory of the French cattle sector (milk and meat). It is based on the use of various sources of available information, including data from customs, the Farm Accounting Data Network and the Mutualité Sociale Agricole. The first two parts address the question of the dynamics of the dairy and beef markets (production, consumption and trade) by distinguishing successively between the external market (external competitiveness during the period 2000-2019) and the internal market (adequacy between supply and demand, end users of the products); a complementary analysis of the differentiation of supply makes it possible to address the place of the various signs of quality and new forms of commercial demarcation based on a reference to the territory. The last two parts deal with upstream players, focusing first on the competitiveness of French farms over the long term (1990-2018), then on jobs on farms (generational renewal, transformation of farm setting-up).
    Keywords: Covid-19, agriculture, agricultural economy, EU, China, USA
    JEL: Q12 Q17
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Vasileva, Elka
    Abstract: The report examines the mechanisms for standardizing sustainable agricultural practices, such as the emergence of responsibility towards the environment and society. They are defined as the voluntary commitments of various actors in the global value chain (producers, consumers, processors, retailers, etc.) and are usually structured around a particular agricultural product. The report analyzes Voluntary sustainable standards as viable business practices with the support of relevant stakeholders, including private sector, public sector and civil society actors. From the point of view of the concept of multi-model standardization, it has been concluded that these "de facto" standards seek solutions to specific problems related to the imposition of sustainable development in the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: standardization, multi-model standardization; sustainable agricultural practices, voluntary sustainable standards
    JEL: Q01 Q5 Q59
    Date: 2021–04–22
  9. By: Rađenović, Žarko; Krstić, Bojan; Marković, Milan
    Abstract: The aim of the research is to classify the European Union (EU) countries based on the progress in the economic performance of agriculture. The originality of the paper stems from the fact that a new set of indicators (in relative form) was used to identify the clusters. The following indicators are used to assess the economic performance of the EU agricultural sector (by cluster analysis) for two periods (2015–2017 and 2018–2020): total labor force input, real income of factors in agriculture per annual work unit, total agricultural output, gross value added of the agricultural industry, and animal output. The study confirmed that EU countries, according to changes in agricultural performance, differ significantly. They were grouped into four relatively homogeneous clusters according to their similarity, with a clear geographical dispersion for both analyzed periods. Identifying development disparities between EU countries can be useful in future redesigns of the Common Agricultural Policy measures in terms of increased support to certain members.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2022–03–28
  10. By: Balisacan, Arsenio
    Abstract: Competition law—also known as antitrust in some jurisdictions—has become part of governments’ policy arsenal to achieve efficient and welfare-improving market outcomes. From only a handful of economies in North America and Europe, the adoption of competition law and policy has spread rapidly to Asian economies since 1990. Like their Western counterparts several decades earlier, most Asian jurisdictions have exempted agriculture, albeit in varying degrees, from the prohibitions of competition law, such as those involving the exercise of market power by farmers’ associations. Public choice considerations suggest that the exemption serves as a countervailing force for the farmers’ comparatively weak position in the balance of political influence for agricultural policy and in bargaining power over the more concentrated wholesale-retail segments of the agri-food value chain. Farm heterogeneity and farm-operation consolidation, induced in part by the economy’s structural transformation, weaken the case for broad exemption.
    Keywords: Competition policy, competition law, antitrust, political economy, agricultural development, Asia
    JEL: K21 L40 O13 O53
    Date: 2022–03–30
  11. By: Alejandro Plastina (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University); Oranuch Wongpiyabovorn; John M. Crespi (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University)
    Abstract: Plastina et al. examine the formative voluntary market for agricultural carbon credits in the United States, which is characterized by a growing number of carbon initiatives testing multiple pilot programs pushing their own standards, and living off venture capital and angel investors. A report by the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes that agriculture has a larger potential than forestry in the United States to generate carbon credits, but only if carbon prices in the voluntary market reach $100 per credit.
    Date: 2022–03
  12. By: Carter, Colin A.; Steinbach, Sandro; Zhuang, Xiting
    Abstract: Containerized exports are significant for U.S. agriculture, especially for certain products, such as meat, tree nuts, and oilseeds. We assess the trade losses to U.S. agriculture arising from shipping container disruptions in 2021. We rely on a non-linear panel event study design to measure the dynamic treatment effects using both bills of lading and Census Bureau export data at the U.S. port level. Our findings are that the volume of U.S. containerized agricultural exports was 22 percent below the counterfactual level from May 2021 to January 2022, amounting to USD 10 billion in export losses. There were differences in the trade effects across geographic regions and product groups. We find that Western and Southern ports faced the brunt of export losses, with meat, edible fruits and nuts, oilseeds, and animal feed being the most affected.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–04
  13. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: Unlike in many other countries, in Bulgaria, there is no comprehensive analysis of the governance, state, efficiency and evolution of the system of Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System (AKIS). This chapter presents the results of a large-scale study on the governance, efficiency, and development of AKIS in Bulgaria. The Governance of AKIS includes diverse governing agents, and the variety of rules, mechanisms and modes for agents, and the process of governing, and the outcome (specific order and efficiency) of the governance. First, participants in the country’s AKIS and the type of their relations are specified. Second, a diagnosis of the state and trends in AR&D is made. Third, the governance of agrarian research in Bulgaria is unpacked. Forth, the state of the system of education and training of agricultural producers in the country is analyzed. Fifth, the governance of the system of advice and consultations in agriculture is assessed. Six, results of an expert assessment on the governance of AKIS in Bulgaria are presented. Finally, the results of SWOT analysis and presented, and development strategy and intervention needs for AKIS for the next programming period are specified. Modern scientific approaches of Comparative Data and Institutional Analysis, Gap Analysis, SWOT, Strategic Orientation, Experts Assessments, etc. are used to identify actors and relations, state and trends in development, assess Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, formulate adequate strategy, and specify overall and public intervention needs of AKIS in the country. The study is based on available data from statistical sources, official reports, fields surveys as well as assessments of a panel of leading experts in the area and stakeholders’ representatives. The study has found out that AKIS of the country consists of diverse and numerous organizations, for which activities and complex relations have no sufficient official or other reliable information. In the years of EU membership, the expenditures for ARD significantly decreased absolutely and relatively as a share in the total expenditures for R&D, which indicates diminishing importance and deteriorating financial, personnel, and material potential of the agrarian knowledge and innovation sector. Bulgarian AKIS demonstrates low resource endowment and efficiency, domination of outdated public institutions and undeveloped private sector, insufficient sharing of knowledge and innovations, slow and uneven application of modern technologies, varieties, production and management methods, digitalization, etc. in different types of farms, subsectors of agriculture and regions of the country. The lack of full data only partially can be compensated by experts’ assessments and it is necessary to carry out in-depth and representative surveys of individual components and the AKIS as a whole. Furthermore, it is necessary to institutionalize and regulate the collection of official statistics, reports, etc. information for the state and efficiency of that important system.
    Keywords: research, training, advisory, knowledge sharing, innovation, digitalization, agriculture, governance, modes, Bulgaria, CAP
    JEL: Q10 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2022–03
  14. By: Mosadegh Sedghy, Bahareh; Tamini, Lota D.; Lambert, Remy
    Abstract: This study investigated the impact of the Farm Income Stabilization Insurance (ASRA) on the adoption of price risk management strategies by lamb producers in the province of Quebec. This study employed a Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) process to model price risks. The results indicated that the application of the Farm Income Stabilization Insurance in Quebec generates crowding-out effects on price risk management strategies, which decreases the efficiency of this program. On the other hand, the product-specific nature of ASRA leads to some challenges such as a modification in the revenue distribution across the farm, increased production, increased indebtedness of farmers and the increased financial burden on governments’ shoulders. Finally, the results imply asymmetric impacts of negative and positive shocks generated by ASRA which result in an increasing risk-aversion of producers over the periods of decreased prices and a decreasing risk aversion over the periods of increased prices.
    Keywords: Crowding-out effects; ASRA; lamb production; Asymmetric GARCH; risk aversion; decoupled payments; Quebec; Relative marginal risk premium; state assistance programs; price volatility
    JEL: D20
    Date: 2021–11–10
  15. By: Chatellier, Vincent; Cadudal, François; Chotteau, Philippe; Duflot, Boris; Heydemann, Pascale
    Abstract: This article presents an analysis of the economic situation of several animal sectors (cow's milk, beef, pork, poultry and horses) in France, two years after the start of the Covid-19 pandemic. Using the latest statistical data available for the period 2020 to 2021 and taking into account the historical trajectories followed, it seeks to highlight how this health crisis has had implications for production, prices, consumption, foreign trade and, in the case of the equine sector, various activities (horse betting, attendance at riding schools, etc.). The production of agricultural goods was generally little affected by the health crisis, as farmers continued to produce, sometimes despite certain difficulties (lack of manpower, temporary loss of outlets, etc.). Faced with a significant change in the structure of demand (increase in products purchased by households to the detriment of those favored in out-of-home catering), sudden measures imposed by the State and the difficulties sometimes encountered in maintaining the number of employees, processing actors were able to adapt quickly to enable them to supply consumers with the goods they demanded. Trade flows were also disrupted in 2020, before picking up again in 2021, following trends that are ultimately quite consistent with those seen before the crisis. Under the influence, on the one hand, of higher energy prices (even before the war in Ukraine which started on February 24, 2022) and, on the other hand, of fluctuating imports from China on the world markets, producer prices increased at the end of 2021 (with the exception of the pig sector), but this increase is counterbalanced by an increase in production costs. In the equine sector, turnover losses have been temporarily significant due to the strong interaction of this sector with the public. After the shock of 2020, and thanks to a strong adaptation of the actors, the activities are gradually resuming.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2022–04–14
  16. By: Salvatore Di Falco; Anna B. Kis; Martina Viarengo
    Abstract: We re-examine the effects of negative weather anomalies during the growing season on the decision to migrate in rural households in five sub-Saharan African countries. To this end we combine a multi-country household panel dataset with high-resolution gridded precipitation data. We find that while the effect of recent adverse weather shocks is on average modest, the cumulative effect of a persistent exposure to droughts over several years leads to a significant increase in the probability to migrate. The results show that more frequent adverse shocks can have more significant and long-lasting consequences in challenging economic environments.
    Date: 2021–04–08
  17. By: Abdus Sattar (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: In 2019, global milk production was 852 million tonnes, of which the share of cow and buffalo milk was 81 percent and 15 percent, respectively, while the combined share of goat, sheep, and camel milk was 4 percent (FAO, 2020). Pakistan was the third- largest milk producer in 2019, producing 57 million tonnes. In this figure, the share of buffalo and cow milk was 60 percent and 37 percent, respectively, while the combined share of goat, sheep, and camel milk was 3 percent in total
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Jonathan McFadden (University of Oklahoma); Francesca Casalini (OECD); Jesús Antón (OECD)
    Abstract: One important constraint to farmers’ adoption of digital technologies, beyond costs, relevance, user-friendliness, human capital requirements, and perceived technology risks, is farmers’ lack of trust in digital technologies. A number of issues underlie this lack of trust: 1) problems of data privacy, security, and confidence in data sharing; 2) cases of misaligned incentives of sellers and buyers of digital technologies; 3) difficulty in learning how to unwrap “black box” technologies; and 4) lack of standards for comparing and certifying the operation of digital technologies. Governments have several potential options to help bridge these trust gaps. These include encouraging firms to decouple their sales of problem assessment from sales of solutions; strengthening public sector extension services and farmers’ technological learning; facilitating the development of risk-sharing arrangements between technology providers and farmers; and exploring ways to promote the standardisation of evaluation and certification of digital agricultural technologies.
    Keywords: credence goods, Digital agriculture, learning, risk-sharing, standardisation
    JEL: Q16 D83 L15
    Date: 2022–04–13
  19. By: Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Manno, Roberto; Tappi, Marco; Lamonaca, Emilia
    Abstract: Trademarks are useful territorial marketing policies contributing to the economic growth of a certain region. However, the complexity of these strategies from a marketing and legal perspective requires a deeper understanding of the functioning of trademarks. We investigate these dynamics for the trademark “Prodotti di Qualità” (PQ), a territorial marketing initiative of Apulia Region (Italy) aiming at enhancing agri-food products with regulated high-quality standards, raising awareness among consumers and promoting marketing and sales of such products. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach to conduct a prospective analysis of marketing issues and a perspective analysis on legal issues. We conclude that, in face of some benefits for users in terms of reduced asymmetric information between consumers and producers, a stronger communication and promotion campaign would increase consumers’ awareness and producers’ confidence, also contributing to avoid the overlap of the PQ trademarks with other legal forms of labelling, such as geographical indications and certification trademarks. Policy interventions in this direction would be beneficial for the future development of the Apulian territorial marketing.
    Keywords: Brand, Geographical Indication, Intellectual Property, Public Policy, Quality Scheme, Region
    JEL: K11 M38 Q13 R58
    Date: 2022
  20. By: Aryal, Jeetendra Prakash (Asian Development Bank Institute); Rahut, Dil Bahadur (Asian Development Bank Institute); Gartaula, Hom Nath (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Gender studies on food security have often focused on the differences between male-headed households (MHHs) and female-headed households (FHHs). Hence, they have mostly ignored the possibility of food security gaps between the different types of FHHs, treating them as homogeneous. Therefore, using nationally representative data from Nepal and applying exogenous switching treatment effect regression models, we investigated whether food security differences exist between de facto FHHs (i.e., households managed by a woman whose husband is physically not present at home owing to work outside) and de jure FHHs (i.e., households managed by a single, widowed, or divorced woman). Contrary to the general hypothesis, we did not find any significant difference in the food security status between MHHs and FHHs. Nevertheless, we found that food security is significantly lower among de jure FHHs than among MHHs. More surprising, considering the common belief, is that the food security difference between de facto FHHs and de jure FHHs is larger than the difference between de jure FHHs and MHHs. It is possible to explain these gaps between MHHs and de jure FHHs by unobserved heterogeneity effects but not by treatment effects, while both treatment effects (i.e., differences in returns to their assets, such as participation in off-farm income) and unobserved heterogeneity effects explain the differences between de facto and de jure FHHs. The results have important policy implications, primarily because they reject the general notion that FHHs are less food secure, and strongly recommend a deeper investigation into the heterogeneity among FHHs. This has a crucial implication for designing government policy related to two important Sustainable Development Goals—gender equality and food security.
    Keywords: gender; food security; gender inequality; exogenous switching treatment regression; rural Nepal
    JEL: D10 I31 Q18 R20
    Date: 2022–04–01
  21. By: Grumiller, Jan; Grohs, Hannes
    Abstract: This policy note argues that the low income of cocoa farmers in the cocoa-chocolate global value chain (GVC) is not only a problem in itself, but also exacerbates social and environmental sustainability issues such as child labor and deforestation. The experience of the last two decades has highlighted that private-sector, private-public, and public initiatives were important, but - overall - had insufficient impact on the livelihood of the average cocoa farming household. During the last few years, a shift from voluntary initiatives towards binding rules has emerged in the context of debates on the Living Income Differential (LID) in producer countries and due diligence laws in consumer countries, creating a new window of opportunity. The policy note concludes that - in the current world market situation - higher producer income cannot be ensured without new pricing mechanisms.
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Grilli, Gianluca; Curtis, John
    Date: 2021
  23. By: Athauda, Nelsha; Zozmann, Heinrich; Maiwald, Linda; Klassert, Christian; Klauer, Bernd
    Abstract: [Background] The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development made the first call for the creation of sustainability indicators to measure the changes in the social, economic, political, and physical factors of sustainability. Different concepts of carbon (Rees, 1992) and water footprints (Hoekstra, 2011) have emerged as indicators that provide stakeholders with easily understandable information on the environmental effects of their resource consumption. However, footprint models are usually focused on measuring the extent to which a single resource is used which provides limited information on the interdependencies between intertwined resource systems. Resource systems are frequently integrated and dependent on each other. A particular example of this, which received significant attention in recent years, is the nexus between food, water, and energy (FWE) (Daher & Mohtar, 2012). One example out of many potential interdependencies among FWE resources is the impact of energy cost on irrigated agriculture, which can in turn affect the availability of certain food crops (Komendantova et al., 2020). Such interdependencies within the nexus have not received sufficient attention in research so far, despite their importance for finding pathways towards sustainable resource use. The Nexus Footprint is an emerging indicator (Maiwald, 2021; Shu et al., 2021; Wahl et al., 2021) that aims to quantify the intersections within the highly interconnected FWE web of a given region. The set of values comprising the Nexus footprint are the values for the direct consumption of food, water, and energy, as well as the water footprint of food, the water footprint of energy, the carbon footprint of food, and the carbon footprint of water. The purpose of the Nexus Footprint model is to provide values allowing stakeholders to identify and visualize trends in urban resource consumption as well as to provide a scientific basis for objective comparison (Wahl et al., 2021).
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Sharpe, Samantha.; Retamal, Monique.; Martinez Fernandez, Maria Cristina.
    Abstract: Environmental regulations provide protection for both environmental assets and the livelihoods of communities that depend on these assets. The analysis evaluates the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) processes for proponents of industrial projects in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia and Viet Nam. The paper finds that enhanced environmental outcomes can be achieved by greater awareness among proponents of the links between environmental management (as facilitated by the EIA process) and sustainable development.
    Keywords: environmental protection, cloting industry, textile industry, pollution control
    Date: 2022
  25. By: Tovar Reanos, Miguel; Martinez-Cillero, Maria
    Date: 2021
  26. By: Stephen Bazen (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean Marie Cardebat (BSE - Bordeaux Sciences Economiques - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In an earlier article, we found that a univariate state space time series model estimated using the Kalman filter provided reasonably accurate monthly forecasts of generic Bordeaux red wine prices for the period up to 2016. We use the same model to forecast prices for the period 2017 to 2020, a period in which the market for this wine was subject to a number of demand and supply shocks. We find that the model's forecasts are poor from late 2018 through 2019 when the price collapsed from an all-time high and returned levels not seen since 2012. There is evidence of a structural break or regime change, and we explore the underlying reasons for this. The main one is the collapse in Chinese demand for Bordeaux wines which was brought about by a combination of shocks.
    Date: 2022–02
  27. By: Ho, Thi Thu; Huynh, Cong Minh
    Abstract: The present study attempts to examine the impacts of Environmental Concern (EC), Perceived Consumers Effectiveness (PCE), Attitude Toward Green Products (AGP), and Perceived Environmental Knowledge (PEK) on Green Purchase Intention (GPI) of the young people in provinces of Southeast Vietnam, including Binh Duong, Dong Nai, Long An, Tay Ninh, and Ho Chi Minh City. Results from a survey of 1,200 young respondents show that the AGP has the strongest impact on GPI, following by the PCE and the EC. However, the PEK has no significant impact on GPI. The findings provide empirical evidence for local governments and businesses to promote green consumption in the region.
    Keywords: Attitude toward green products; Environmental concern; Green purchase intention; Perceived consumers effectiveness; Perceived environmental knowledge.
    JEL: M11 M31 Q02 Q56
    Date: 2022–03–10
  28. By: Sharpe, Samantha.; Dominish, Elsa.; Martinez Fernandez, Maria Cristina.
    Abstract: This paper examines carbon emissions across the garment sector as counted using the two prominent methodologies for calculating emissions – the life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon accounting in line with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into where and why the carbon intensity of textiles and garments varies across the supply chain and where activities to decarbonize the sector should be prioritized.
    Keywords: environmental protection, clothing industry, textile industry, pollution control
    Date: 2022
  29. By: Stern, Nicholas; Sivropoulos-Valero, Anna Valero
    Abstract: The climate crisis and the global economic impact of the Covid-19 crisis occur against a background of slowing growth and widening inequalities, which together imply an urgent need for a new environmentally sustainable and inclusive approach to growth. Investments in "clean" innovation and its diffusion are key to shaping this, accompanied by investments in complementary assets including sustainable infrastructure, and human, natural and social capital which will not only help achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions, but will also improve productivity, living standards and the prospects of individuals. In this article, we draw on the theoretical and empirical evidence on the opportunities, drivers and policies for innovation-led sustainable growth. We highlight the importance of a coordinated set of long-term policies and institutions that can enable and foster private sector investments in clean innovation and assets quickly and at scale. In doing so, we draw inspiration from Chris Freeman's work on the system-wide drivers of innovation, and his early vision of achieving environmental sustainability by reorienting growth.
    Keywords: innovation; sustainable growth; net-zero transition; clean technology; ES/S001735/1
    JEL: O31 O33 O38 O55
    Date: 2021–06–01

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.