nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒04‒18
43 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Fifteen Years of Polish Agriculture in the European Union By Kapusta, Franciszek
  2. Mismeasurement and efficiency estimates: Evidence from smallholder survey data in Africa By Abay, Kibrom A.; Wossen, Tesfamicheal; Chamberlin, Jordan
  3. Return to quality in rural agricultural markets: Evidence from wheat markets in Ethiopia By Do Nascimento Miguel, Jérémy
  4. Other Gainful Activities Directly Related to the Agricultural Holding According to the Polish FADN By Cholewa, Izabela; Smolik, Adam
  5. Interested but Uncertain: Carbon markets and data sharing among US row crop farmers By Niles, Meredith; Han, Guang
  6. Agricultural R&D investments and policy development goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: Assessing prioritization of value chains in Senegal By Benfica, Rui
  7. The Competitiveness Outlook of the European Agriculture with the new Green Deal Policy By Ivo Horák
  8. “Farm To Fork” Strategy and Its Implications for the Development of the Beef Production Sector in Poland By Krzyżanowski, Julian
  9. Choosing oatmeal porridge and simmered mackerel improves life expectancy in PLOS Medicine: A modeling study By Drewnowski, Adam; Lara-Arevalo, Jonathan; Mendoza-Velazquez, Alfonso
  10. Beyond the Black Box: Towards a Systems Theory of Farming Family and Family Farm By Pietrzak, Michał; Ziętara, Wojciech
  11. Returns to R&D investment to inform priority setting in the One CGIAR and NARS By Nin-Pratt, Alejandro
  12. Using the Färe-Primont Index to Measure Changes in Total Factor Productivity of Dairy Farms By Świtłyk, Michał
  13. Exposure to Climate Shocks, Poverty and Happiness: The ”Three Little Pigs” Effect By Leonardo Becchetti; Sara Mancini; Sara Savastano
  14. Supply and Demand Situation and Prices on the Global and Polish Sugar Market By Chmielewski, Łukasz
  15. Estimating Ricardian Models with Repeat-Sales of Farmlands By Francois Bareille; Raja Chakir
  16. Conditions of Development of The Agricultural Biogas Industry in Poland in The Context of Historical Experiences and Challenges of The European Green Deal By Ignaciuk, Wiktor; Sulewski, Piotr
  17. Wages for Paid Labor, Farmers’ Own Labor Payment, and Production Efficiency in the Case of Polish Farms Classified by Types of Farming By Skarżyńska, Aldona; Abramczuk, Łukasz; Goławska, Monika
  18. Determining the Acceptable Price Level for Agri-Food Products and the Choice of the Processor By Rembisz, Włodzimierz
  19. By-product valorization strategies implemented by small Mediterranean olive oil farmers By Judit Manuel-I-Martin; Mechthild Donner; Ivana Radic; Yamna Erraach; Fatima El Hadad-Gauthier; Taoufik Yatribi; Feliu López-I-Gelats
  20. Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa Fragile States: Evidence from Panel Estimations By Mr. Rodolfo Maino; Drilona Emrullahu
  21. Profitability and Profit Efficiency of Catfish Fingerlings Production in Edo South, Nigeria By Ahmadu, Joseph; Odum, Emmanuel Egbodo Boheje; Osariemen, Faith Omoyemwen
  22. Energy efficiency and local rebound effects: Theory and experimental evidence from Rwanda By Munyehirwe, Anicet; Peters, Jörg; Sievert, Maximiliane; Bulte, Erwin H.; Fiala, Nathan
  23. The economic performance of transitional and non-transitional organic dairy farms: A panel data econometric approach in Brittany By Letort, Elodie; Ridier, Aude
  24. Comparative Assessment of Cow’s Milk Production and Its Prices in the Member States of the European Union By Stanuch, Marcin Józef; Firlej, Krzysztof Jan
  25. Web scraping of food retail prices: An analysis of internet food retail sales prices By Loy, Jens-Peter; Ren, Yanjun
  26. Segmentation of Households Taking Into Account Their Structure in Terms of Meals Waste By Tomaszewska, Marzena; Bilska, Beata; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta
  27. Economic complexity and environmental pollution: Evidence from the former socialist transition countries By Bucher, Florian; Scheu, Lucas; Schröpf, Benedikt
  28. Towards net zero emissions in Denmark By Andrew Barker; Hélène Blake; Filippo Maria D’Arcangelo; Patrick Lenain
  29. The impact of carbon pricing in a multi-region production network model and an application to climate scenarios By Frankovic, Ivan
  30. Determinants of under- and over- nutrition among reproductive-age women in Bangladesh: trend analysis using spatial modelling By Vatsa, Richa; Ghimire, Umesh; Yasmin, Khaleda; Hasan, Farhana Jesmine
  31. Sub-Saharan Africa: Building Resilience to Climate-Related Disasters By Ms. Pritha Mitra; Eric M. Pondi Endengle; Seung Mo Choi
  32. More Than Shelter: The Effects of Rental Eviction Moratoria on Household Well-Being By Xudong An; Stuart A. Gabriel; Nitzan Tzur-Ilan
  33. Do PTAs with environmental provisions reduce GHG emissions? Distinguishing the effectiveness of climate-related provisions By Sorgho, Zakaria; Tharakan, Joe
  34. The forgotten coal: Charcoal demand in Sub-Saharan Africa By Rose, Julian; Bensch, Gunther; Munyehirwe, Anicet; Peters, Jörg
  35. Processed Animal Protein as One of the Elements of the Policy for Reducing GMOs in the Feeding of Livestock By Dzwonkowski, Wiesław
  36. Peat replacement in horticultural growing media : availability of bio-based alternative materials By Hirschler, Olivier; Osterburg, Bernhard; Weimar, Holger; Glasenapp, Sebastian; Ohmes, Marie-Friederike
  37. Using outcome trajectory evaluation to assess HarvestPlus’ contribution to the development of national biofortification breeding programs By Douthwaite, Boru; Johnson, Nancy L.; Wyatt, Amanda
  38. Liquidity and Profitability of Meat Processing Enterprises in Poland By Szymańska, Elżbieta; Lukoszová, Xenie
  39. Disparities in Social Development of Rural Areas in the Context of Sustainable Development of Polish Voivodeships By Wyrwa, Joanna; Barska, Anetta
  40. Adaptive business arrangements and the creation of social capital: Towards small‐scale fisheries resilience in different European geographical areas By Paolo Prosperi; James Kirwan; Damian Maye; Emi Tsakalou; George Vlahos; Fabio Bartolini; Daniele Vergamini; Gianluca Brunori
  41. Do Standards Improve the Quality of Traded Products? By Carl Gaigné; Anne-Célia Disdier; Cristina Herghelegiu
  42. Of Shrimp and Men By Amanda De Pirro; Renaud Foucart
  43. Sickness, Accident, and Maternity Insurance For Farmers: A Need For Change By Podstawka, Marian; Podstawka Łukasz

  1. By: Kapusta, Franciszek
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to characterize: a) financial aid paid to farmers under the Common Agricultural Policy and sources of funds from 2004-2018; b) changes in agriculture in terms of: factors of production, cultivation area and production of the main crops in total and per capita, livestock farming and production of the main animal products in total and per capita, productivity (land, labor, and fixed assets), marketability and profitability (land, labor, and fixed assets), self-sufficiency in the production and consumption of: cereals, potatoes, cow’s milk, hen eggs, as well as meat and offal. The period of 2001-2003 was adopted as the base period for comparisons, i.e., three years before Poland’s accession to the European Union, while the last period was 2016-2018, due to the availability of verified statistical information; c) position of Polish agriculture in the EU from 2004-2005 (EU-25), as well as 2010 and 2019 (EU-28). The analysis showed positive changes in all the discussed issues, except for land management, whose exclusion from agricultural production requires urgent state interference to reduce the pace of this process. The position of Polish agriculture in the EU generally ranks proportionally to land resources or higher. However, it is weaker in the case of animal production compared with crop production. Trade turnover in agri-food products and a positive trade balance are systematically growing.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–12–23
  2. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Wossen, Tesfamicheal; Chamberlin, Jordan
    Abstract: Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is commonly characterized by high levels of technical inefficiency. However, much of this characterization relies on self-reported input and production data, which are prone to systematic measurement error. We theoretically show that non-classical measurement error introduces multiple identification challenges and sources of bias in estimating smallholders’ technical inefficiency. We then empirically examine the implications of measurement error for the estimation of technical inefficiency using smallholder farm survey data from Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. We find that measurement error in agricultural input and production data leads to a substantial upward bias in technical inefficiency estimates (by up to 85 percent for some farmers). Our results suggest that existing estimates of technical efficiency in sub-Saharan Africa may be severe underestimates of smallholders’ actual efficiency and what is commonly attributed to farmer inefficiency may be an artifact of mismeasurement in agricultural data. Our results raise questions about the received wisdom on African smallholders’ production efficiency and prior estimates of the productivity of agricultural inputs. Improving the measurement of agricultural data can improve our understanding of smallholders’ production efficiencies and improve the targeting of productivity-enhancing technologies.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; TANZANIA; EAST AFRICA; MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; smallholders; measurement; errors; efficiency; field size; surveys; data; DNA fingerprinting; agricultural production; technical inefficiency estimates
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Do Nascimento Miguel, Jérémy
    Abstract: In many Sub-Saharan countries, farmers cannot meet the growing urban demand for higher quality products, leading to increasing dependency on imports. While the literature has focused on production-side constraints to enhancing smallholder farmers’ output quality, there is scarce evidence of market-side constraints. Using a unique sample of 60 wheat markets in Ethiopia, I examine the relationship between the price obtained by farmers and the quality supplied. Using objective and precise measures of observable (impurity content) and unobservable (flour extraction rate and moisture level) quality attributes, no evidence was found of a strong correlation between the two, suggesting that observable attributes cannot serve as proxies for unobservable ones. Transaction prices further reflect this, indicating that, markets only reward quality attributes that are observable at no cost. However, these results hide cross-market heterogeneity. Observable quality attributes are better rewarded in larger and more competitive markets, while unobservable attributes are rewarded in the presence of grain millers and/or farmer cooperatives on the market site. Both regression and machine learning approaches support these findings.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; markets; rural areas; agriculture; wheat; crops; quality; models; prices; smallholders
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Cholewa, Izabela; Smolik, Adam
    Abstract: Over the years, we can observe that farmers take up other gainful activities directly related to the agricultural holding (OGA), which affects their economic results. The aim of the study is to show the importance and specificity of OGA in the case of Polish farms. OGA are presented on the basis of data from individual farms of the Polish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) dated 2019 (1086 holdings). The analysis groups farms by types of farming, economic size classes, and FADN regions. The majority of farms with OGA are farms with agricultural production as core activity. Most of the farms with OGA are small in terms of area and economic class, and specialized in field crops. The output from OGA in the examined group of farms amounted to an average of PLN 12,295 per farm. The most common type of OGA is services using farm equipment and processing of agricultural products. The research results presented in the paper indicate that OGA is a phenomenon that may gain in importance and significantly affect farmers’ income.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2021–12–23
  5. By: Niles, Meredith; Han, Guang
    Abstract: The potential for farmers and agriculture to sequester carbon and contribute to global climate change goals is widely discussed, including more recently, through voluntary carbon markets operated through private or public entities. Despite growing interest, there is currently low participation in agricultural carbon markets and limited understanding of farmer perceptions and willingness to participate. Furthermore, farmer concern for data privacy may complicate participation in agricultural carbon markets that necessitates farmer data sharing with multiple entities. Here we address these current gaps through a farmer survey of row crop farmers in 27 U.S. states and use multinomial logit models to predict drivers for participating in a carbon market. We find that the majority of farmers are aware of carbon markets and would like to sell carbon credits, but express high uncertainty about carbon market information, policies, markets and cost impacts. Just over half of farmers indicated they would share their data for education (57%), developing tools and models (54%) and improving market and supply chains (51%). However, only a minority of respondents were willing to share their data with public organizations (45%), private organizations (38%), and government organizations (29%). Farmers that wanted to participate in carbon markets (as compared to those that did not), were more likely to have higher farm revenues, identify as Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC) farmers, be more likely to share their data with private organizations, more likely to change farming practices, and have more positive perceptions of the impact of carbon markets on farm profitability. These results suggest a general interest in carbon market participation, but identify clear need for increasing technical information for farmers, and addressing farmer concerns around data privacy and sharing to facilitate greater participation in carbon markets.
    Date: 2022–03–02
  6. By: Benfica, Rui
    Abstract: This paper looks at the prioritization of agricultural value chains (VCs) for the allocation of R&D resources that maximize development outcomes (poverty, growth, jobs, and diets). Considering that growth in VCs affects those various outcomes differently, as expansion pathways result in the diverse use of production factors and inputs, trade-offs from linkages across sectors, and changes throughout the agri-food system, this analysis uses (i) the RIAPA dynamic computable general equilibrium model to identify which agricultural VCs, when expanded through TFP growth, provide the strongest effects on the development outcomes of interest; (ii) the perpetual inventory model (PIM) to represent the lagged effect of research through knowledge stocks of agricultural R&D investments; and (iii) information on the elasticities of VC agricultural activity TFP with respect to agricultural R&D knowledge stocks, to discuss the VC priority allocations of R&D resources in Senegal. Results indicate that no one VC (crop- or livestock-related) is the most effective at improving all development outcomes. When accounting for policy preferences that attribute relative priority weight to development objectives, results (based on a ranking scale) indicate that R&D investments for maximizing development objectives can be most effective in Senegal’s VCs for traditional export crops (growth, diets, jobs, and to some extent poverty), groundnuts (poverty, diets, and jobs), rice (poverty and jobs), poultry/eggs (diets and jobs), sorghum/millet (poverty and growth), and cattle (diets and growth). Other promising VCs with potential effects at scale if strategically targeted include vegetables (poverty, diets, and jobs), oilseeds (poverty and growth), and fruits (diets and jobs). While these results can inform strategies aimed at improving multiple development outcomes, future modeling needs to focus on deepening the standardization and integration of R&D investments costs into the framework, disentangle the relevance of different types of R&D investments sources, and bring together other factors and complementary agrifood system investment dimensions relevant to sustainable and inclusive agricultural VC growth.
    Keywords: SENEGAL; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; models; agriculture; investment; computable general equilibrium models; productivity; research; poverty reduction; agrifood systems; dietary diversity; agricultural value chains; value chains; diet; poverty; total factor productivity; knowledge stocks; agrifood system growth; job creation
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Ivo Horák (Department of Finance, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, ZemÄ›dÄ›lská 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: The working paper inquires into the topic of competitiveness of the European agricultural sector with regard on the new Green Deal Policy within the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that has been promoted as a core guidance to what agriculture in the European Union should look like in the up-coming years, providing a more thorough compliance with new environmental demands. The objective is to find a suitable methodology to analyze the possible impacts on the competitiveness of the European agriculture by implementing the new Green Deal standards.
    Keywords: Agriculture, International Competitiveness, Green Deal, Agricultural Economics
    JEL: Q10 Q17 Q18 Q57
    Date: 2022–04
  8. By: Krzyżanowski, Julian
    Abstract: The article deals with the “Farm to Fork” Strategy, which is the European Union document significant for the future of the Common Agricultural Policy and the effects of its implementation for the beef sector in Poland, as well as an important element of agri-food exports. The analysis uses a “desk research” study to consider the EU legal acts and strategic documents (including CAP Strategic Plan), as well as documents of Eurostat, international organizations (FAO, OECD), and industry organizations. The analysis was performed using an expert method. The study was limited to four groups of issues: greenhouse gas emissions, eco-schemes, antibiotics, and animal welfare. It was concluded that the actions specified in the strategy aimed at considering external costs of food production (particularly health and environmental) would inevitably result in an increase in its prices, because, according to the analyses, the costs even exceed the market value of food. So far, they have been covered by taxpayers, consumers, and other entities. In this situation, according to the Commission, it seems justified to gradually abandon the cheap food policy, which is justified in poorer countries.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–12–23
  9. By: Drewnowski, Adam; Lara-Arevalo, Jonathan; Mendoza-Velazquez, Alfonso
    Abstract: A recent paper in PLOS Medicine showed modeled gains in life expectancy following dietary shifts from a typical Western (TA) to a Feasible (FA) and an Optimal Diet (OD). A Food4HealthyLife calculator was provided on line. However, energy density data for 14 “representative” foods does not correspond to energy density data for 1151 foods in the same food groups from the USDA Department of Agriculture databases. The present recalculation shows that the FA and OD diet plans were lower in saturated fat and added sugar but were higher in energy and sodium, and entailed substantially higher daily diet cost, as based on 2021 national food prices used in the USDA Thrifty Food Plan. First, a diet plan of oatmeal porridge with water, simmered mackerel, half a boiled egg, milk 1%, fresh orange, mixed vegetables, chickpeas, and a handful of nuts and berries is not necessarily the same as a diet of whole grains, seafood, eggs and dairy, vegetables, fruits, nuts and legumes. Second, any well-meaning dietary advice needs to be accompanied by economic feasibility studies and estimates of diet cost. Clinicians, policymakers, and consumers need to understand not only the health impact but also the economic cost of dietary choices. Access to affordable nutrient rich foods is one of the social and political determinants of health.
    Date: 2022–03–03
  10. By: Pietrzak, Michał; Ziętara, Wojciech
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to present the need for a view of a family farm that is complementary to neoclassical economics and outline the framework concepts on which the future systems theory of family farms could be based. The article is a conceptual overview. The paper presents the development of economics and organization of farms. It was emphasized that in addition to the analytical approach, which today fits into the neoclassical mainstream of economic thought, the organic approach, which is related to the contemporary systems approach, was also important in the discipline. The authors presented two trends considered to be the foundation of the target theory of family farms: systems thinking and new institutional economics. An outline of the concept of a new approach to family farms is presented as a systemic whole connecting the family and its household involved in agricultural production, with the possibility of reducing internal transaction costs (agency costs) being an important attribute of this whole. Family farms still remain the predominant form of agricultural activity in Poland, Europe, and other continents. The family nature of the entities creates their specificity both in terms of goals and behaviors, which is difficult to reduce to the neoclassical model of firm, which seeks to maximize profits. What is needed is a holistic, systems approach complementary to the predominant neoclassical approach, considering close relations between the family and the agricultural production unit.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2022–03–28
  11. By: Nin-Pratt, Alejandro
    Abstract: The 2019 report of the Global Commission on Adaptation for accelerated action to adapt to climate change included a call for increased allocation of resources to international agricultural research. The production and adaptation challenges faced by agriculture will be most acutely felt in Africa and South Asia, focus regions of the CGIAR, the world’s largest public food systems research network. These challenges come at a time when the CGIAR is undergoing a transformation of its partnerships, knowledge, assets and global presence, emerging as One CGIAR, aimed at sharpening its mission and impact focus to 2030 and beyond, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. Evidence on the impacts of CGIAR research since the 1980s have consistently found high rates of return to investment. How could this evidence on the performance of the CGIAR and its partnership with NARS in developing regions be used to inform investment priority setting and to achieve the One CGIAR goals in the coming years? We used detailed R&D investment data from the CGIAR, NARS (ASTI) and evidence from the literature on returns to CGIAR investment by crop and region to develop and calibrate a model of R&D investment that allows us to conduct priority-setting analysis of alternative CGIAR investment across research activities and regions. The model developed can be linked to global partial equilibrium and economy-wide forward-looking models to analyze the effect of different CGIAR investment options under alternative future scenarios. We checked the plausibility of the results obtained by the model calculating the Benefit-Cost ratio of historical CGIAR investments and found that each dollar invested by the CGIAR between 1971 and 2018 returned almost 10 dollars in output as the result of increased productivity, which is within the range of returns found by most recent meta-analyses impact of CGIAR investment. An application of the model to SSA shows that the best results for the CGIAR are obtained from investments in cassava and potato in Southern Africa; yams, sorghum, cassava and groundnuts in West Africa; cassava in East Africa and groundnuts and shoats in the Sahel.
    Keywords: WORLD; agricultural productivity; research; agricultural research; cost benefit analysis; CGIAR; knowledge; stocks; returns; investment
    Date: 2022
  12. By: Świtłyk, Michał
    Abstract: The aim of the research was to assess the changes (in dynamic terms between 2008 and 2017) in the productivity of farms specializing in milk production with the use of the Färe-Primont aggregated total factor productivity index. The total factor productivity index was divided into the efficiency change index and technological change index. The research was conducted with the use of a data panel consisting of 730 farms per annum. Data were acquired from the Polish FADN. The research adopted the dairy farm model consisting of 1 output (Y) and 9 (X) inputs. The model of dairy farm adopted for calculation purposes was a minimum input farm, assuming variable returns to scale (VRS). Between 2008 and 2017, the Färe-Primont total factor productivity index decreased by 28% (0.720). Changes in the total factor productivity index (dTFP) were affected by a 21.6% (1.216) increase in technological changes and a 40.8% (0.592) decrease in efficiency changes (dTFPE). The research results demonstrate that the key source of productivity in Poland is the technological progress, while the efficiency changes contributed to a decrease in the Färe-Primont total factor productivity index. The larger the economic size of the farm, cow herd size, agricultural area, total labor input (AWU), and cow milk yield, the greater the changes in the Färe-Primont total factor productivity index.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–09–23
  13. By: Leonardo Becchetti (CEIS & DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Sara Mancini (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Sara Savastano (CEIS & DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" and IFAD)
    Abstract: We evaluate the impact of climate shocks on household subjective wellbeing on a sample of farmers in a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) of the Pacific (the Solomon Islands). We find that both subjective (self-assessed exposure to climate shocks) and objective (past cumulative extended dry spells) environmental stress indicators significantly reduce respondent’s subjective wellbeing. Using the compensating surplus approach we calculate that this loss requires several years of crop income to be compensated. Subjective wellbeing is more severely impacted for farmers with poor dwellings (ie. with thatch walls, consistently with the well known Disney tale), below median income or durable asset and for farmers living more isolated and not being members of formal agricultural associations. Farmers hit by climate shocks experienced in significantly higher proportion nutrition problems in their households. These findings support the hypothesis of the strong interdependence between environmental and social shocks.
    Keywords: climate shock, subjective wellbeing, compensating surplus, small scale Pacific islands.
    JEL: I31 Q01 Q20
    Date: 2022–04–02
  14. By: Chmielewski, Łukasz
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to present the global and Polish sugar balance and the price situation. Several issues have been given particular attention. Firstly, the relationship between the production of sugar and bioethanol in Brazil and world sugar prices. Secondly, the relationship between Brazilian sugar and bioethanol exports and world sugar prices. Thirdly, the relationship between sugar prices in Poland and the world ones when the market support mechanisms at the EU level are in force and after they expire. The study used data from Statistics Poland, USDA-FAS, FAOSTAT, OECD-FAO, to name a few, and was based on correlation and linear regression analysis, as well as the Herfindahl-Hirschman index. The data analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the production and exports of sugar from Brazil, as well as between Brazilian exports and world sugar prices. The analysis also showed a greater correlation between food prices than sugar and oil price quotas. A much greater correlation was also observed between the selling and retail prices of sugar in Poland and the world sugar prices after the abolition of sugar production quotas and minimum prices for sugar beet in the EU, as compared to the period of application of the support mechanisms.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–12–23
  15. By: Francois Bareille (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Raja Chakir (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Ricardian analyses of farmland values have become a cornerstone of the literature valuing the impacts of climate change on agriculture. However, concerns about the lack of a formal econometric strategy to deal with omitted farmland characteristics have raised doubts about the identification of such impacts. This paper proposes an original method for estimating Ricardian models with plot fixed effects to control for confounding omitted variables. Specifically, we use plot-level repeat-sale data to investigate how differences in farmland prices are explained by differences in climate conditions between two sale dates in France from 1996 to 2019. We show that, in comparison to our repeat-Ricardian estimates, standard Ricardian analyses result in artificially low benefits of climate change. In particular, our repeat-Ricardian estimates indicate that hotter summers should benefit French agriculture, in complete opposition to our pooled Ricardian estimates or to the remainder of the literature. Our repeat-Ricardian results are robust to several specifications, length-definitions of climate and sub-samples. Our simulations suggest that the omitted variable bias in standard Ricardian analyses leads to an underestimation of the impacts of future climate changes of between 56% and 96%.
    Keywords: Adaptation,Global warming,Hedonic pricing analysis,Panel econometrics,Repeat sales,Climate Change
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Ignaciuk, Wiktor; Sulewski, Piotr
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the current development of the agricultural biogas industry in Poland and to indicate the key factors determining the possibility of popularizing this category of renewable energy in the coming years. The article is based on secondary data. The study uses statistical data on agricultural biogas production from the statistics of Eurostat, the Energy Regulatory Office, and the National Center for Agricultural Support. The S-C-P (Structure-Conduct-Performance) analysis was used to synthetically present the collected material and assess the situation of the Polish agricultural biogas industry. The agricultural biogas plants operating in Poland produced only about 325 million3 biogas in 2020, from which 689 GWh of electricity was generated. This constitutes a small part of the biogas potential of Polish agriculture (various studies indicate the potential in the range of 1.6-4.2 billion m3 of agricultural biogas from organic fertilizers produced on farms). Electricity obtained from agricultural biogas covers less than 0.4% of the domestic demand. Despite the ambitious plans created several years ago, the development of the agricultural biogas industry has been practically halted. The main reason for this is great dependence on the system of support with public funds. Further development of the biogas industry requires stable financial support. Despite negative historical experiences, it can be expected that the development of the industry will accelerate in the coming years. This is because agricultural biogas has many advantages relevant to the challenges of the European Green Deal. However, there is a need for raising the awareness among policymakers of the environmental and economic benefits resulting from the dissemination of agricultural biogas production.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–09–23
  17. By: Skarżyńska, Aldona; Abramczuk, Łukasz; Goławska, Monika
    Abstract: The aim of the research was to evaluate wages of wage earners and farmers’ own labor payment based on farm income in terms of various types of farming in Poland. The paper also examines the impact of subsidies on the payment of farmers’ own labor inputs and production efficiency. The research involved farms keeping accounting records, which were classified by the FADN methodology (TF8). The analysis uses standard results from 2010, 2015, and 2019 processed in the FADN EU system. Relatively low wages for wage earners were observed on farms specialized in permanent crops (EUR 2.12–2.76/hour) and horticulture (EUR 2.05–3.32/hour), and quite high on mixed farms (EUR 4.05–6.67/hour) and farms specialized in other grazing livestock (EUR 3.98–6.04/hour). Assuming wages for wage earners as the cost of one hour of farmers’ own labor, at the level of income without subsidies, farmers’ own labor was fully paid only on farms specialized in horticulture and granivores, as well as in 2010 and 2015 on farms specialized in permanent crops. On the other hand, income with subsidies ensured full payment of farmers’ own labor on farms specialized in horticulture and granivores; in 2010 on farms specialized in field crops, as well as in 2010 and 2015 on farms specialized in permanent crops and dairy cows. In the remaining cases (i.e., types and years), farmers’ own labor inputs were partially paid (from 22.2 to 96.9%). The research concerned commercial farms with market-oriented production. However, there are also farms in Poland, which are not so closely linked with market, therefore their economic situation may be much worse. As a consequence, their opportunities to generate income and pay for farmers’ own labor can be limited.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2022–03–28
  18. By: Rembisz, Włodzimierz
    Abstract: The purpose of the analysis presented in this paper is to answer why a specific price level of agri-food products is determined and accepted by both the consumer and processor, as well as by the agricultural producer and processor. An answer to this question requires presenting a number of equations and functional relationships based on specific assumptions, which is a formal and analytical method of analysis. This method is based on the assumption that the acceptance involves maximizing the goal function of the processor and the goal function of the consumer and agricultural producer simultaneously, as well as that there are conditions for competitive equilibrium on these markets. The essence of this method is the choice of the processor in terms ofprices on the agri-food market. The importance of the procurement price level forthe choice of the processor is presented in an unusual and new manner by conducting an advanced analysis. The basic result of the analysis is a mechanism to determine the acceptable price level for these entities on the agri-food market. This is determined by introducing the admitting inequalities, which specify the ratio of expectations of these entities to the market equilibrium price. The conclusion is that the price level is mutually acceptable because the goal functions of the entities have been carried out. The analysis is analytical and formal and has a theoretical and cognitive value. It may contribute to the theory of prices in the agri-food sector and the conditions for the choice of the processor.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2021–09–23
  19. By: Judit Manuel-I-Martin (UVic-UCC - Fundació Universitària Balmes); Mechthild Donner (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Ivana Radic (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro); Yamna Erraach (INAT - Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie); Fatima El Hadad-Gauthier (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro, CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); Taoufik Yatribi (ENA - Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture de Meknès); Feliu López-I-Gelats (UVic-UCC - Fundació Universitària Balmes)
    Keywords: olive sector,agricultural waste valorisation,Mediterranean region,Value chain,Circular economy,Business model,Circular business model,Innovation,By-product valorisation,HUILE D'OLIVE,SOUS PRODUIT D'HUILERIE,STRATEGIE,UTILISATION DES DECHETS,VALORISATION,PETITE EXPLOITATION AGRICOLE,ECONOMIE CIRCULAIRE,BIOECONOMIE,CATALUNA,ESPAGNE
    Date: 2021–07–06
  20. By: Mr. Rodolfo Maino; Drilona Emrullahu
    Abstract: Fragile states in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face challenges to respond to the effects of climate shocks and rising temperatures. Fragility is linked to structural weaknesses, government failure, and lack of institutional basic functions. Against this setup, climate change could add to risks. A panel fixed effects model (1980 to 2019) found that the effect of a 1◦C rise in temperature decreases income per capita growth in fragile states in SSA by 1.8 percentage points. Panel quantile regression models that account for unobserved individual heterogeneity and distributional heterogeneity, corroborate that the effects of higher temperature on income per capita growth are negative while the impact of income per capita growth on carbon emissions growth is heterogeneous, indicating that higher income per capita growth could help reduce carbon emissions growth for high-emitter countries. These findings tend to support the hypothesis behind the Environmental Kuznets Curve and the energy consumption growth literature, which postulates that as income increases, emissions increase pari passu until a threshold level of income where emissions start to decline.
    Keywords: climate change, fragile states, climate risk
    Date: 2022–03–18
  21. By: Ahmadu, Joseph; Odum, Emmanuel Egbodo Boheje; Osariemen, Faith Omoyemwen
    Abstract: This study used descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis, and stochastic profit function to analyze data collected from 120 catfish fingerlings producers in Edo State, Nigeria to examine the profitability and profit efficiency of their production. Results from the study show that catfish fingerlings production is a male dominated activity with a modal age of 21-40 years and 53.3% engaged full time as fingerlings producers. Clarias gariepinus was the dominant species used for fingerlings production. Producers earn a revenue of NGN 2,885,443.2 and make NGN 2,084,004.24 as net profit per production cycle 120,000 implying that catfish fingerlings production is a profitable venture in the study area. Labor cost, depreciation, and cost of transportation affected the profits of fingerlings producers positively in that they led to an increase in their normalized profit. About 70% of the catfish fingerlings producers operated above the mean efficiency value implying that most of the farmers were relatively efficient in profit making. Inadequate water supply, cost of feed, high cost of transportation, and inadequate funds were the major constraints faced by the respondents in the study area. Pest and disease outbreaks were not serious constraints. The study therefore recommends that causes of inefficiencies should be considered and treated so as to enhance higher efficiencies by catfish fingerlings producers and to operate at the optimum profit frontier. It is also recommended that solutions should be proffered to constraints to catfish fingerlings production by concerned authorities to make the venture sustainable in meeting with demands all year round.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–12–23
  22. By: Munyehirwe, Anicet; Peters, Jörg; Sievert, Maximiliane; Bulte, Erwin H.; Fiala, Nathan
    Abstract: Energy efficiency is a key component of climate policy. We study micro and macro rebound effects after the introduction of energy-efficient biomass cookstoves (EEBCs). We develop a model of biomass supply and demand in rural Africa. The impact of EEBCs is empirically explored in Rwanda where we randomly varied subsidy levels for EEBCs at the village-level. Demand is price elastic, so we exploit exogenous saturation variation to study local rebound effects. While adoption of EEBCs reduces household firewood consumption, we find no meaningful local rebound effects and identify conditions under which this finding generalizes to other settings - or not.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency,macro-rebound effect,technology adoption,improved cooking
    JEL: R13 D12 O13 Q28
    Date: 2022
  23. By: Letort, Elodie; Ridier, Aude
    Abstract: The economic performance of organic dairy farms, especially during the transitional period, is not consensus in economics studies, depending on the method used, the type of indicators, the nature and scale of the performance indicator, the geographical location. We compare the economic and financial performance of both conventional and organic dairy farms based on a mixed effect panel data model estimated on 1,016 farm micro-data collected between 2007and 2018 in two departments of Brittany. As in other studies, we find that the herd size influences positively all economic and financial indicators. Even if the growth in assets is heterogeneous among organic farms, it is higher than in other farms, which decreases their return on assets. Finally, even if they share the same objective of food autonomy and sparing variable expenses, dairy farms based on grassland production system do not exhibit the same performance dynamics as organic farms.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Production Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–04–08
  24. By: Stanuch, Marcin Józef; Firlej, Krzysztof Jan
    Abstract: The paper presents issues related to milk production in the Member States of the European Union. The conducted analysis and research cover the period from 2015 to 2019. The study evaluates milk production and milk prices and uses the linear Pearson’s correlation in order to find out whether there is a correlation between milk prices in the individual European Union Member States. The research demonstrated that the market value of milk produced in Poland increases every year and that there is a strong and very strong correlation between individual milk prices in the Member States amounting to 85% of all surveyed entities.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–09–23
  25. By: Loy, Jens-Peter; Ren, Yanjun
    Abstract: In this paper, we develop a theory of food retail promotional strategy. We test the theory using online food retail prices. A python code is applied to retrieve information from the web page is an online grocery outlet that belongs to the Bünting Group, a food retailer in North-West Germany. The promotional sales on show a complementary relationship between breadth and depth of sales, indicating that in order to attract consumers, stores raise both the number (breadth) and the depth of price promotions.
    Keywords: e-food retailing,promotional sales,Germany
    Date: 2022
  26. By: Tomaszewska, Marzena; Bilska, Beata; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta
    Abstract: Not always do households manage purchased food efficiently, as evidenced by the scale of wasted food. As results from the PROM study on food waste, an average of 3.9 kg of food (including edible and inedible parts) was thrown away in a household per week. Understanding the determinants of household food waste is a key aspect to develop and implement education programs aimed at consumers. The aim of the study was to conduct segmentation and identify groups of consumers characterized by similar food handling, with particular emphasis on food waste. Segmentation conducted on a representative group of Poles over 18 years of age enabled the identification of five clusters. The identified groups of consumers differ in the following aspects: the number of adults, the number of children, a subjective assessment of the financial situation, the percentage of food expenses. It was found that cluster E, representing households with children, prepared meals at home most often. At the same time, persons from this group most often threw out wilted fruit and vegetables, as well as potatoes, rice, and pasta. Cluster D, declaring high food expenses (61-100%), at the same time much less frequently, compared to the other groups, used meat from soup, cooked potatoes, rice, and pasta to prepare other dishes. Cluster C, declaring the best financial situation, significantly more often used wilted vegetables and fruit to prepare other dishes. Cluster A, with the largest share in the sample (almost 70%), often formed the so-called homogeneous groups with other clusters. However, it also threw away cooked starch additives and wilted fruit and vegetables more often. It should be stated that it is necessary to take measures to reduce food waste in households.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–09–23
  27. By: Bucher, Florian; Scheu, Lucas; Schröpf, Benedikt
    Abstract: This study examines the link between economic complexity and environmental quality by exploiting the similar starting points of the former socialist transition countries after the fall of the iron curtain. We refer to the extended theories of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), stating that environmental pollution follows an inverted u-shaped course with respect to economic complexity. Using comprehensive data of 27 countries for the period 1995-2017, our results show that the EKC can be found for countries whose complexity rose over time. Additionally, since the results for production-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions are similar, we can discard emissions offshoring as a major explaining factor. Consequently, our findings suggest that more complex products are the drivers of the EKC. However, as the turning point is associated with high levels of pollution, our estimates imply that complexity may even exacerbate environmental issues in the short and middle run in less developed countries.
    Keywords: Economic Complexity,Environmental Kuznets Curve,Former Socialist States
    JEL: O44 P28
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Andrew Barker; Hélène Blake; Filippo Maria D’Arcangelo; Patrick Lenain
    Abstract: Denmark has been a frontrunner in policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and now plans to cut emissions by 70% by 2030 from 1990 levels and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. Such ambition induces halving emissions from 2019 levels and making the same emission abatement effort in ten years than the past thirty years. Cutting emissions at such fast pace will be challenging with substantial disruptions and macroeconomic consequences. A balanced mix of pricing policies, public investment, regulation and enabling policies should allow smoothing the potential economic and social shocks and accompanying the reallocation of resources.This paper investigates further sectoral climate strategies in Denmark. In the energy sector (electricity and district heating), past progress made to ramp up clean technologies provides a good blueprint to achieve further decarbonisation, but the focus will need to be put soon on lowering reliance on woody biomass. In the transport sector, emissions have continued to increase despite the shift to more fuel-efficient vehicles, highlighting the need for more transformative policies to expand alternatives to individual car uses. In agriculture, little has been done so far to cut emissions, especially from livestock. The sector is subject to leakage risks, but nonetheless should be encouraged to transform its practices. Helping farmers to monitor their GHG emissions should be combined with more stringent regulation.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Climate change adaptation, Climate change mitigation, Climate strategy, Denmark, Energy, Environmental taxation, Public policy, Transport
    JEL: H21 H23 H50 H54 Q52 Q53 Q54 Q55 Q56 Q15 Q42 Q43 Q48 R48
    Date: 2022–04–04
  29. By: Frankovic, Ivan
    Abstract: This paper builds on existing production network models to study the impact of global and sub-global carbon pricing. It uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to calibrate intersectoral trade between seven regions and 56 economic sectors per region as well as EXIOBASE's sectoral accounts of greenhouse gas emissions to calibrate emission costs per sector for a given carbon price. The latter taxes emissions associated with the intermediate and final demand of fossil fuels as well as other emissions inherent to production. The global setup of the model allows the international propagation of carbon prices to be analyzed along worldwide value chains. The simulated sectoral impacts of carbon taxes are highly heterogeneous across sectors and regions, with the agricultural, mining, fossil fuel processing and transport sector exhibiting the largest impacts across all regions. For several sectors in Germany and Europe, particularly manufacturing sectors, international spillovers from carbon pricing outside of Europe can be substantial and increase value added losses by up to 100% relative to the impact of European-only carbon prices. The paper furthermore outlines a simple approach for applying the sectorally disaggregated results to global climate scenarios.
    Keywords: climate scenarios,carbon pricing,input-output data,production network models
    JEL: D57 E23 H23 Q54
    Date: 2022
  30. By: Vatsa, Richa; Ghimire, Umesh (University of Minnesota); Yasmin, Khaleda; Hasan, Farhana Jesmine
    Abstract: Bangladesh is facing a double burden of malnutrition which varies spatially and is shifting rapidly over time. The current study aims to analyze the spatial and temporal dependence of under-and over-weight/obesity among Bangladeshi reproductive-age women. The nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys 2014 and 2017-18 were utilized to study the change in under- and over-weight among 15-49 years women. Bayesian geoadditive regression model was fitted to account for non-linear and linear effects of continuous and categorical covariates and accounted for spatial effects of geographical divisions. The prevalence of overweight/obese in rural, city corporation and other urban areas has increased significantly over the four-year period from 2014 to 2017-18. Women of the richer and richest categories were more likely to be overweight/obese. Women from Sylhet were more likely to be underweight in both years 2014 and 2017-18, however, the result was also significant for underweight in Mymensingh for the year 2017-18. Women in the Rajshahi and Khulna were more likely to be overweight/obese in 2014. Along with Khulna, women from Barishal and Chittagong were likely to be overweight/obese in the year 2017/18. Underweight and overweight are uneven across the country, with highly urbanized areas overburdened by overweight/obesity. Intervention targeting vulnerable age groups should be a high priority to deal with the increasing burden of obesity.
    Date: 2022–02–19
  31. By: Ms. Pritha Mitra; Eric M. Pondi Endengle; Seung Mo Choi
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of climate-related disasters on medium-term growth and analyzes key structural areas that could substantially improve disaster-resilience. Results show that (i) climaterelated disasters have a significant negative impact on medium-term growth, especially for sub-Saharan Africa; and (ii) a disaster’s intensity matters much more than its frequency, given the non-linear cumulative effects of disasters. In sub-Saharan Africa, electrification (facilitating irrigation) is found to be most effective for reducing damage from droughts while improved health care and education outcomes are critical for raising resilience to floods and storms. Better access to finance, telecommunications, and use of machines in agriculture also have a significant impact.
    Keywords: Climate change, Growth, Resilience building, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–02–25
  32. By: Xudong An; Stuart A. Gabriel; Nitzan Tzur-Ilan
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of 2020 COVID-19 rental eviction moratoria on household well-being. Analysis of new panel data indicates that eviction moratoria reduced evictions filings and resulted in redirection of scarce household financial resources to immediate consumption needs, notably including food and grocery spending. We also find that eviction moratoria reduced household food insecurity and mental stress, with larger effects evidenced among African American households. Findings suggest broad salutary effects of eviction moratoria during a period of widespread virus and economic distress.
    Keywords: Eviction moratorium; consumption; food security; mental health; COVID-19
    JEL: G28 R30 I38
    Date: 2022–04–05
  33. By: Sorgho, Zakaria; Tharakan, Joe (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/CORE, Belgium)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the effectiveness on climate change mitigation of the environmental-related commitments contained in preferential trade agreements (PTAs). The starting question is does any PTA with environmental provisions reduce emissions? Because of a lack of detailed data on PTAs, the academic literature on the role of PTAs with environmental provisions (PTAwEP) in global climate governance remains limited. A novel and detailed database identifying nearly 300 different types of environmental provisions from more than 680 PTAs since 1947 allows us to distinguish the PTAs with climate-related provisions (PTAwCP) from those with provisions related to other environmental issues. Using panel data covering 165 countries over the period 1995 to 2012, controlling for endogeneity issues, our main result shows that PTAwCP statistically reduce the emissions while the effect of PTAs with provisions related to other environmental issues remains a negative but not significant on emissions. Our results suggest that it is rather the specific climaterelated provisions in PTAwEP that positively affect the environmental quality. Thus, to be effective in terms of mitigating climate change, PTAwEP should contain climate-related commitments.
    Keywords: Preferential trade agreements ; Climate-related provisions ; Environmental policy ; Greenhouse gases ; Global warming ; Climate change
    JEL: F13 F18 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022–01–01
  34. By: Rose, Julian; Bensch, Gunther; Munyehirwe, Anicet; Peters, Jörg
    Abstract: Charcoal is an important cooking fuel in urban Africa. In this paper, we estimate the current number of charcoal users and project trends for the coming decades. Charcoal production is often not effectively regulated, and it hence contributes to forest degradation. Moreover, charcoal has adverse health effects for its users. At the same time, charcoal constitutes an important income source in deprived rural areas, while the current alternative, gas, is a mostly imported fossil fuel. We find that 195 million people in sub-Saharan Africa rely on charcoal as their primary cooking fuel and gauge that another 200 million use charcoal as secondary fuel. Our scenarios suggest that clean cooking initiatives are outweighed by strong urban population growth and hence charcoal usage is expected to remain high over the coming decades. Policies should therefore target end-users, forest management, and regulation of charcoal production to enable sustainable production and use of charcoal.
    Keywords: Energy consumption,charcoal,Africa
    JEL: Q56 Q58 Q40 Q41 Q20 R11 O10
    Date: 2022
  35. By: Dzwonkowski, Wiesław
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to present various conditions and aspects of the use of processed animal protein (PAP) in the feeding of livestock in the perspective of lifting the 20-year ban on its use in feed and determining its role in the policy of reducing GMOs. The study analyzes the current legal status, as well as new conditions and requirements at each production stage, with the management of processed animal protein based on the relevant Polish and EU legal acts. It also determines the scale of production and directions of the current PAP management, as well as the price conditions of its potential use in feed production. In the analysis, in addition to the literature on the subject, the authors used mainly source data from the Chief Veterinary Inspectorate, Statistics Poland, and the Ministry of Finance. The analysis of organizational and production conditions led to the conclusion that the main problem may be to maintain the so-called species purity in the production of PAP and feed with its use, followed by cross-feeding (PAP from poultry in pig feed and PAP from pigs in poultry feed), and severe consequences in the event of detecting irregularities. Moreover, a limiting factor may be the high price in relation to other protein feeds and consumer expectations that the animal products offered for sale were produced without the use of animal feed. The role and importance of processed animal protein approved for feeding in the balance of high-protein feed raw materials is likely to be small, but every possibility of using domestic protein sources should be encouraged and exploited to reduce the use of imported GM feed and improve protein self-sufficiency. However, a larger scale of domestic use of this very valuable source of protein may require administrative action by introducing indicative targets for the substitution of imported GM feed with domestic protein sources.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–12–23
  36. By: Hirschler, Olivier; Osterburg, Bernhard; Weimar, Holger; Glasenapp, Sebastian; Ohmes, Marie-Friederike
    Abstract: Peat is a fossil material and is since decades the major growing media constituent for horticulture in Europe. Because of its climate impacts, some European countries developed national strategies to reduce peat use. A coordinated European action would bring fairer and more effective impacts than isolated national strategies. The replacement of peat is possible using alternative growing media constituents based on biomass. Potential limitations of the resource availability for the production of alternative growing media constituents is one of the major concerns of the growing media industry. Although this paper does not constitute a final evaluation, it aims to initiate further discussions and investigations on this aspect of peat reduction. We compare potential amounts for the supply and demand of raw materials for the production of wood fibres, composted bark, green compost and coir pith in European countries. Moreover, we discuss the economic and legal conditions for the availability of alternatives. Our findings suggest that the resource supply does not generally indicate a limitation to an extended use of alternative growing media constituents in Europe. In a maximal demand scenario, the amounts considered would also be sufficient to completely replace peat. However, in this scenario, the current supply for nationally sourced alternative materials could be scarce for some countries like the Netherlands or the Baltic States. Competition for wood resources, e.g., with the energy sector, could limit their use in the growing media sector. Moreover, the conditions set by the EU Fertilising Products Regulation (EU) 2019/1009 might hamper a large use of wood fibres as growing media constituent. For bark, green waste and coir by-products, an increased demand from the growing media sector may support mobilization of additional resources. For coir by-products, a future rise of the international demand might lead to a strong competition and an exhaustion of the world’s potential. Transportation costs play an important role for the access to biomass potentials. They could be reduced with the development of the infrastructure for processing available resources. Other growing media constituents like Sphagnum are not significantly used today but could represent additional potentials for the replacement of peat in future. In order to avoid displacement effects, the focus of peat substitution should be set on potential amounts of biomass that are currently not or not fully used, or the creation of new potentials.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2022–04–07
  37. By: Douthwaite, Boru; Johnson, Nancy L.; Wyatt, Amanda
    Abstract: While the key role that policy plays in sustainable development has long been recognized, rigorously documenting the influence of research on policy outcomes faces conceptual, empirical and even political challenges. Addressing these challenges is increasingly urgent since improving policies—broadly defined—is at the heart of the structural transformation agenda. This paper describes the use of a new evaluation method—outcomes trajectory evaluation (OTE), based on both evaluation and policy process theory—to explore the influence of HarvestPlus, a large and complex research for development program focused on improving nutrition, on a specific policy outcome, namely the establishment of crop biofortification breeding programs in national agricultural research institutes in Bangladesh, India and Rwanda. The findings support claims of significant HarvestPlus contributions to the establishment of the programs while also raising issues that need to be monitored moving forward to ensure sustainability. The paper also discusses the pros and cons of the OTE approach in terms of both methodological rigor and program learning. In particular, the fact that HarvestPlus is a long-running program allows us to reflect on how a “backward looking†approach such as OTE builds on and complements the more “forward looking,†theory of change-based approaches that informed HarvestPlus programming and evaluation during its earlier, highly-successful phases. Such a long-run perspective is rare in development evaluation and it offers important lessons for how to think about and plan for evaluation over the course of a complex agriculture research for development program.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; RWANDA; CENTRAL AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; biofortification; programmes; evaluation; sustainable development; theory-based evaluation; policy process evaluation; middle-range theory; capacity; social norms; outcomes trajectory evaluation (OTE)
    Date: 2022
  38. By: Szymańska, Elżbieta; Lukoszová, Xenie
    Abstract: The research aimed to identify changes in the level of liquidity and profitability of meat industry enterprises and determine the relationship between liquidity and profitability in this industry. The authors made a hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between the liquidity and profitability of meat enterprises, which means that along with the increase in financial liquidity the profitability of enterprises increased. The research used information from meat processing and preservation companies, except poultry, employing more than nine persons. The analysis covered companies that were obliged to submit financial statements to the National Court Register. In 2007, there were 467 such enterprises in Poland and 316 in 2018. The descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and linear regression analysis were used in the data analysis. The analyses show that the number of meat businesses in Poland is decreasing as a result of their consolidation and winding-up due to the difficult financial situation. The average current liquidity ratio of the enterprises analyzed between 2007 and 2018 remained at a satisfactory level from 1.054 to 1.49. The research shows a significant correlation between current and quick liquidity ratios and returns on assets and equity. The highest level of correlation occurred between the quick liquidity ratio and the asset profitability ratio. The profitability of meat enterprises in the long term is associated with maintaining financial liquidity. In turn, maintaining the ability to meet current obligations requires a rational management of profit and working capital.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–12–23
  39. By: Wyrwa, Joanna; Barska, Anetta
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to assess disparities in social development of rural areas in Poland in the context of sustainable development. Social development is a multidimensional process; therefore, it requires a two-stage research procedure. The first stage consists in the analysis of the regional differentiation of the indicators for social development of rural areas in Poland in the context of implementing the concept of sustainable development, which is further divided into five social components. The second stage is a multidimensional assessment of disparities in social development of rural areas in Poland, carried out using a taxonomic measure of development. This measure enabled both classifying voivodeships in terms of the achieved level of social development of rural areas and identifying voivodeships with similar characteristics. The time scope of the analysis covered 2008 and 2018 , while the territorial scope covered 16 Polish voivodeships. The study has found a large regional differentiation in terms of social development of rural areas, which confirms the thesis on regional polarization discussed in the literature. It turns out that none of the regions can be regarded as a model example of social development. The results indicate the need for taking measures to reduce development disparities at the social level in rural areas between better and less developed voivodeships. This is necessary to counteract the exclusion of underdeveloped regions.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–12–23
  40. By: Paolo Prosperi (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro, University of Pisa - Università di Pisa , CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); James Kirwan (Countryside and Community Research Institute, University of Gloucestershire, Francis Close Hall Campus, Swindon Road, Cheltenham GL50 4AZ, UK); Damian Maye (Countryside and Community Research Institute, University of Gloucestershire, Francis Close Hall Campus, Swindon Road, Cheltenham GL50 4AZ, UK); Emi Tsakalou (Agricultural University of Athens); George Vlahos (Agricultural University of Athens); Fabio Bartolini (University of Pisa - Università di Pisa , DOCPAS - Department of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sciences, University of Ferrara); Daniele Vergamini (University of Pisa - Università di Pisa); Gianluca Brunori (University of Pisa - Università di Pisa)
    Abstract: European small-scale fisheries are confronted with several challenges, notably a decrease in the number of people engaged in capture fishing, growing competition from less expensive extra-EU markets, rising operational costs, strict regulations and the depletion of fishing stocks. Many small-scale fishers must adapt to change to maintain or increase their income using different business strategies. In this respect, we argue that new and diversified institutional arrangements combined with building social capital can help reach long-term economic sustainability for small-scale fisheries businesses, as well as the social-ecological resilience of coastal areas. In order to understand and analyse the multiplicity of strategies applied by small-scale fishers – including expansion towards non–productivist activities – this paper examines the role of new institutional arrangements based on small-scale, traditional, quality-orientated, multifunctional business strategies, as well as non-fishing activities. Using a case study approach, we analyse – in three different European fishery contexts (Greece, Italy, and the UK respectively) – how the interplay between building adaptive arrangements and the creation of social capital in selected small-scale fisheries provides relevant prerequisites for resilience.
    Keywords: Institutional arrangement,Non- productivism,Sustainable management,Primary producer,Small-scale fisheries resilience,Social capital,New business model,ACCORD COMMERCIAL,CAPITAL SOCIAL,RESILIENCE,PECHE ARTISANALE,INSTITUTION,DURABILITE,GRECE,ROYAUME UNI,ITALIE,EUROPE
    Date: 2022
  41. By: Carl Gaigné; Anne-Célia Disdier; Cristina Herghelegiu
    Abstract: We examine whether standards raise the quality of traded products by correcting market failures associated with information asymmetry on product attributes. Matching a panel of French firm-product-destination export data with a dataset on sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs), we find that such quality standards enforced on products by destination countries: (i) favor the export probability of high-quality firms provided that their productivity is high enough; (ii) raise the export sales of high-productivity high-quality firms at the expense of low-productivity and low-quality firms; (iii) improve the average quality of consumption goods exported by France. We then develop a simple new trade model under uncertainty about product quality, in which heterogeneous firms can strategically invest in quality signaling, to rationalize these empirical results on quality and selection effects.
    Keywords: firm exports, quality standards, information asymmetry, product quality, heterogeneity
    JEL: D21 D22 F12 F14
    Date: 2021
  42. By: Amanda De Pirro; Renaud Foucart
    Abstract: Building on a model of competition with endogenous product differentiation and using data from the shrimp aquaculture industry, we show how a cost-reducing innovation can hurt the profit of the innovator by decreasing product diversity and strengthening competition. In the late 1990s, a US governmental program designed a new pathogen-free breed reducing the production cost of white legs shrimp. This innovation gave a temporary boost to the profit of American producers, largely specialized in that variety. However, over time other countries abandoned their native production to adopt the new breed. In this phase of technological catch-up US producers thus not only lost their cost advantage, but also the market power derived from the pre-innovation product differentiation.
    Keywords: innovation, cost paradox, product differentiation, shrimp
    JEL: D43 F61 L1 L81 O3 Q22
    Date: 2022
  43. By: Podstawka, Marian; Podstawka Łukasz
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to present the subjective and objective aspects of sickness, accident, and maternity insurance for farmers. The study deals with the income and expenses of the Contribution Fund and their correlation with the amount of benefits paid. The study uses financial analysis methods, descriptive analysis methods, and logical inference. Results are presented in tabular form. Between 2009 and 2019, there was a decrease in the number of insured persons. The Contribution Fund has been increasingly financing tasks indirectly related to sickness, accident, and maternity insurance. The conducted assessment shows that the currently existing legal regulations concerning the first pillar of insurance risks by the Agricultural Social Insurance Fund (KRUS), i.e., sickness, accident, and maternity risks, specified in the Farmers’ Social Insurance Act, have become obsolete and require changes. The definition of an accident at work in agriculture requires a new regulation. It is about extending the scope of agricultural activity to include activities related to the processing of agricultural raw materials, provision of services, supervision and protection of property, and conducting non-agricultural business activities.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Public Economics, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2021–09–23

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