nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒03‒21
34 papers chosen by

  1. The Green Deal: Towards Organic Farming or Greening of Agriculture? By Ziętara, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia
  2. Understanding the achievement of EU water policy objectives in agricultural landscapes: insights from the Institutional Design Principles and Integrated Landscape Management approaches. By Laurence Amblard; Carsten Mann
  3. Land Misallocation and Productivity By Chaoran Chen; Diego Restuccia; Raul Santaeulalia-Llopis
  4. Farm production diversity and women's dietary diversity: evidence from central Tunisia By Cédric Gaillard; Eric O. Verger; Sandrine Dury; Marie Claude Dop; Jalila El Ati; . Medina Study Group
  5. Rural-Urban Transition: A Challenge to Agricultural Productivity, Biodiversity and Food Security in Pakistan By Khan, Iqrar Ahmad
  6. Unit Costs and Income from Selected Products in 2019 – Research Results in the Agrokoszty System By Skarżyńska, Aldona
  7. Assessing Misallocation in Agriculture: Plots versus Farms By Fernando M. Aragón; Diego Restuccia; Juan Pablo Rud
  8. Impact of conflict-related violence and presence of armed groups on food security: Evidence from longitudinal analysis in Mali By Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Gelli, Aulo; Masset, Edoardo
  9. Long-Term Strategy for Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Poland By Zegar, Józef Stanisław
  10. Agricultural Export, Growth and the Poor in Africa: A Meta Analysis By David Adeabah; Simplice A. Asongu
  11. Drought exposure and accuracy: Motivated reasoning in climate change beliefs By Guglielmo Zappalà
  12. Determinants of Farm Income Diversification Among the European Union Countries By Skarżyńska, Aldona; Grochowska, Renata
  13. Will emerging local supply chains be resilient? By Claude Ménard
  14. Economic Situation of Organic Farms in Poland on the Background of the European Union By Sadowski, Arkadiusz; Wojcieszak-Zbierska, Monika; Zmyślona, Jagoda
  15. Complementarity of the Measures of the Common Agricultural Policy and the Cohesion Policy for Rural Development Between 2021 And 2027 in the Light of Programing Documents By Wasilewski Adam; Krzyżanowski Julian; Chmieliński Paweł
  16. Market Output as a Criterion for the Use of Agricultural Potential in Different Regions of Poland By Krasowicz, Stanisław; Matyka, Mariusz
  17. Accumulation and Depreciation in the Case of Individual Farms of the Polish FADN By Juchniewicz Monika; Podstawka Marian
  18. A socio-psychological approach for understanding and managing bycatch in small-scale fisheries By Booth, Hollie; Ichsan, Muhammad; Hermansyah, Rizky Fajar; Rohmah, Lailia Nur; Naira, Kusuma Banda; Adrianto, Luky; Milner-Gulland, E.J.
  19. The Role of Agribusiness in Polish Economy: An Analysis Based on the Input-Output Tables By Ambroziak, Łukasz
  20. Forest Income and Livelihoods on Pemba: A Quantitative Ethnography By Andrews, Jeffrey; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique
  21. Achieving food security in Ghana: Does governance matter? By Peter Asare-Nuamah; Anthony Amoah; Simplice A. Asongu
  22. Climate change and fiscal sustainability: risks and opportunities By Agarwala, Matthew; Burke, Matt; Klusak, Patrycja; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Volz, Ulrich; Zenghelis, Dimitri
  23. Designing locally-appropriate conservation incentives for small-scale fishers By Booth, Hollie; Ramdlan, M Said; Hafizh, Ayesha; Wongsopatty, Karto; Mourato, Susana; Pienkowski, Thomas; Adrianto, Luky; Milner-Gulland, E.J.
  24. The Issue of Stability of Revenue in Pig Production in Poland By Rembisz, Włodzimierz; Zawadzka, Danuta
  25. Who claims the rights to livestock? Exploring gender patterns of asset holdings in smallholder households in Uganda By Hillesland, Marya; Doss, Cheryl; Slavchevska, Vanya
  26. Food Service Industry Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic By Podstawka, Łukasz
  27. Present Bias Predicts Low Adoption of Profitable Technologies : The Case of Livestock Vaccination in Northern Laos By Creed, Christian
  28. A comprehensive economic examination and prospects on innovation in new grapevine varieties dealing with global warming and fungal diseases By Etienne Montaigne; Alfredo Coelho; Samson Zadmehran
  29. Physical risks from climate change faced by Japan's financial institutions: Impact of floods on real economy, land prices, and FIs' financial conditions By Takuro Ashizawa; Kakuho Furukawa; Ryuichiro Hashimoto; Yoshiyasu Koide; Tomomi Naka; Kenji Nishizaki; Nao Sudo; Genichiro Suzuki
  30. Burundi Farmers' Organizations in Tea Industry: What Issues, what solutions? By Eric Ndayisaba
  31. Rural Pension System and Farmers' Participation in Residents' Social Insurance By Xu, Tao
  32. The economics of global climate variability By Stainforth, David A.; Calel, Raphael
  33. Natural Resource Management and Nutrition Outcomes : A Quasi-experimental Evaluation of Fisheries Decentralisation in Laos By Chipperfield, Benjamin
  34. The contribution of bioenergy to the decarbonization of transport: a multi-model assessment By Florian Leblanc; Ruben Bibas; Silvana Mima; Matteo Muratori; Shogo Sakamoto; Fuminori Sano; Nico Bauer; Vassilis Daioglou; Shinichiro Fujimori; Matthew Gidden; Estsushi Kato; Steven Rose; Junichi Tsutsui; Detlef van Vuuren; John Weyant; Marshall Wise

  1. By: Ziętara, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia
    Abstract: The purpose of the research is to evaluate the socio-economic consequences of increasing the area of agricultural land under organic farming in Poland. Increasing the share of organic farms in agricultural land could lead to a reduced agricultural production, which would pose a threat to food security. Implementing the principles of an integrated and precise production system of a greater range comparing to organic farming could be a competitive solution that would contribute to achieving the environmental and climate protection objectives to a greater extent, while maintaining the existing production rate. The implementation of the objectives was based on a comparative method: the authors compareorganic farms in Poland and Germany with farms applying conventional agricultural production systems. The research results demonstrate that implementing the Green Deal assumptions related to reaching 25% of agricultural land under organic farming in Poland, while maintaining the existing trends, will lead to a drop in agricultural production by approximately 11%. A competitive solution is to allocate the CAP funds to support pro-environmental measures and programs in the case of all farms. Participation in such programs should be voluntary.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–09–23
  2. By: Laurence Amblard (Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Carsten Mann
    Abstract: The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in 2000 set the objective of protecting and restoring water bodies across Europe. Despite the implementation of multiple regulatory and incentive-based policies to achieve the EU WFD objectives, diffuse pollution from agriculture remains a major threat on water quality. Decentralized cooperation involving water suppliers and agricultural stakeholders for limiting diffuse pollution in drinking water catchments has been recently developing in the French and European contexts. These cooperative arrangements rely on self-regulation among the key actors (water suppliers, farmers and other stakeholders) and target specific areas such as water catchments or water protection zones. The paper aims to identify the drivers and barriers to the achievement of EU water policy objectives in the agricultural sector by adopting a landscape perspective on water quality management. We apply a conceptual framework combining the Integrated Landscape Management (ILM) and the Institutional Design Principles (IDP) perspectives to analyze cooperation initiatives involving water suppliers and agricultural stakeholders to protect drinking water catchments from agricultural diffuse pollution. Three cases representing different cooperation types and water catchment areas in rural landscapes in France were investigated on the basis of primary data collected at the local, water-basin and national levels. The results show that the success of multi-stakeholder collective action depends on both local factors such as the characteristics of the water resource and stakeholders (knowledge, resources, trust and social capital) as well as on factors linked to the EU and national water and agricultural policy frameworks. Besides the identification of the drivers and constraints on the implementation of EU water policy in agricultural landscapes, the analysis highlights the conceptual added value in combining the IDP and ILM approaches for understanding collective action processes for water pollution control at the landscape level.
    Keywords: EU Water Framework Directive,diffuse water pollution,institutional design principles (IDP),integrated landscape management (ILM),social-ecological systems,landscape perspective
    Date: 2021–05–19
  3. By: Chaoran Chen; Diego Restuccia; Raul Santaeulalia-Llopis
    Abstract: Using detailed household-level data from Malawi on physical quantities of outputs and inputs in agricultural production, we measure total factor productivity (TFP) for farms controlling for land quality, rain, and other transitory shocks. We find that operated land size and capital are essentially unrelated to farm TFP implying substantial factor misallocation. The agricultural output gain from a reallocation of factors to their efficient use among existing farmers is a factor of 2.8-fold nationwide and 1.8-fold within enumeration areas, the narrowest geographical category in our data. Constructing a panel to estimate household-farm productivity that controls for transitory variation such as potential measurement error, the agricultural output gain is still quite substantial, between 1.7 to 2.0-fold, while the pattern of misallocation of near zero correlation of inputs and productivity remains essentially the same. We also provide suggestive evidence of the connection between misallocation and land markets and illustrate how an efficient allocation can substantially reduce agricultural income inequality and poverty.
    Keywords: misallocation, land, productivity, agriculture, Malawi, micro data.
    JEL: O1 O4
    Date: 2022–03–04
  4. By: Cédric Gaillard (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Cirad-ES - Département Environnements et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Eric O. Verger (IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Sandrine Dury (Cirad-DG - Cirad Direction Générale - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Marie Claude Dop (NutriPass - Nutrition et Alimentation des Populations aux Suds - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier); Jalila El Ati (INNTA - Institut National de Nutrition et de Technologie Alimentaire (Tunis)); . Medina Study Group
    Abstract: In the context of studies on the effects of agricultural production diversity, there are debates in the scientific community as to the level of diversification appropriate for improving dietary diversity. In Tunisia, agriculture is a strategic sector for the economy and a critical pillar of its food sovereignty. Using instrumental variable methods to account for endogeneity, we have estimated the association between agricultural production diversity and women's dietary diversity among smallholder farming households in the Sidi Bouzid governorate (central Tunisia). Although we found a low level of agricultural production diversity and a fairly diversified diet among women, we observed a systematic weak positive association between five different indicators of agricultural production diversity and women's dietary diversity. We observed a stronger positive association between women's dietary diversity and women being more educated and households being wealthier. Neither diversity of food supplies in food markets nor market distance were associated with women's dietary diversity, whereas we observed a higher level of consumption of some products (dairy) when they were produced on the farm.
    Date: 2022–02–07
  5. By: Khan, Iqrar Ahmad
    Abstract: Like elsewhere, migration-led peri-urban (rural clusters) growth of cities has been an important element of rural-urban transformation for centuries. However, only recently, in this process, the rural landscape also benefits from these changes, owing to better communication and market access. Peri-urban areas are consuming peripheral villages. This has put pressure on land and water resources putting environmental health at stake. Loss of biodiversity is imminent due to changing ecological frame conditions in an increasingly human-made environment. In many areas rural populations are also shifting away from traditional farming towards white-collar jobs. While this could have positive implications for the socio-economic structure of the society at large, it will also present new challenges for meeting the food and nutritional requirements of the population as a whole. New farming models and marketing innovations are required to meet increasing food demands and changes of consumption habits. This working paper describes the ongoing rural-urban transition and discuss the potential for carving new cropping systems and entrepreneurship options in newly formed agro-ecologies and semi-urban rural clusters of Pakistan. It is hoped that it will also help initiating further study and compilation of empirical evidence.
    Date: 2022–03
  6. By: Skarżyńska, Aldona
    Abstract: The main objective of the research was to assess the economic results of dairy cows, cattle for slaughter and porkers in 2019 depending on the scale of their production. The research was conducted on commercial farms, which sell their production. These farms were purposively selected from a representative farm sample that was in the field of observation of the Polish FADN system. Data describing the agricultural activities were collected in the AGROKOSZTY system, and then supplemented with data from the Polish FADN database. The results of the analysed production activities were influenced by production potential of farms, i.e. resources of land, labour and capital, their quality and the manner of use, but they were also dependent on external conditions (e.g. market). These impacts resulted in varying degrees of changes in the unit costs and price of products. In 2019, the income from the analysed production activities was within fairly wide limits. However, the positive impact of the size of the production scale was visible. In each group, there were farms where production was unprofitable, but in the case of large-scale production, the percentage of farms with an indicator below 100 was always the smallest.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Production Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–06–21
  7. By: Fernando M. Aragón; Diego Restuccia; Juan Pablo Rud
    Abstract: We assess the extent and cost of misallocation in agriculture in less-developed countries comparing the analysis at the plot and farm levels. Using detailed data from Uganda, we show that the plot-level analysis leads to extremely large estimates of reallocation gains, even after adjusting for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. These results reflect two empirical limitations of the plot as unit of analysis: excess measurement error and near constant returns to scale production estimates. We find limited evidence of substantial measurement error at the farm level.
    JEL: O11 O13 O4 O55 Q1
    Date: 2022–02
  8. By: Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Gelli, Aulo; Masset, Edoardo
    Abstract: We assess the impact of conflict exposure on households’ food security in rural areas of Mopti, Mali over the period 2012-17. Our main data source is a unique panel dataset of 1,617 households for which the baseline round was collected before the conflict broke out. We estimate the impact of conflict with a weighted difference-in-differences approach. We find that exposure to high level of conflict-related fatalities within a radius of 50km leads to a reduction of daily calorie intake per adult equivalent of 311 kcal (0.39 SD) and a reduction of dietary diversity score by one food group (0.56 SD). The presence of armed groups leads to lower dietary diversity (by 1.2 food group) but has no independent effect on calories. The negative impact of conflict on dietary diversity is concentrated on households with higher scores at baseline. We also estimate whether receiving food assistance mitigates the impact of conflict. We find that school-feeding protects households facing intense conflict by supporting calorie intake.
    Keywords: MALI; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; conflicts; armed conflicts; violence; food security; dietary diversity; armed groups; calorie intake
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Zegar, Józef Stanisław
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to outline the approach to developing a long-term strategy for sustainable development of agriculture in Poland. The author pre- sents the issues to be considered when pursuing such a strategy. It is limited to three issues: justification for agricultural transformation towards sustainability, approach to strategy pursuing and strategy outline. The analysis was made on the basis of literature and the author’s own reflections. It was found that the transformation of agriculture towards sustainability re- quires developing an appropriate long-term strategy, which in particular would create a framework for ongoing programs and policy interventions. When imple- menting the strategy – generational change – some objectives result directly from EU policy – in particular achieving climate neutrality and preventing biodiversity decline. Moreover, the objectives which cannot be ignored include soil fertility and food security. There is a need to develop scenarios for achieving these objec- tives with regard to the welfare and aspirations of the new generation, taking into account progress (innovation) and new demographic, climate, environmental, social, and cultural conditions at the national and international level.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2021–06–21
  10. By: David Adeabah (Department of Finance, Legon, Ghana); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have examined the role of agricultural export in economic growth in Africa. The literature, however, provides conflicting results about the agricultural export-led growth hypothesis. In this study, we aim to examine the impact of agricultural export on economic growth by performing a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis finds significant presence of negative publication bias in the literature. Using mixed-effect multilevel meta-regression, we find that after correction for publication bias, the average agricultural export elasticity to economic growth is 0.763 for the poor in Africa. Interestingly, agricultural export is growth for the rich in Africa, although the elasticity of GDP is 0.043. These results are consistent with the agricultural export-led growth hypothesis. The implication is that export promotion should be targeted at agricultural output in low-income and lower middle-income countries whereas upper middle-income countries in Africa may focus on non-agricultural export.
    Keywords: Africa; export-led growth; agricultural export; meta-analysis
    JEL: C10 C40 I30 N50 O55
    Date: 2021–01
  11. By: Guglielmo Zappalà (Paris School of Economics and Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Despite scientific consensus, there is no unanimity among individuals in the beliefs about climate change and its consequences. Understanding how people form these beliefs and what drives their interpretation of climatic events is essential, especially in developing countries and among agricultural communities, which may most suffer the consequences of climate change. Using survey data from rural households in Bangladesh together with a meteorological measure of excess dryness relative to historical averages, this paper studies how long-term average exposure to dryness and short-term deviations shape beliefs of increase in droughts and the interpretation of drought events. To explore how agents interpret past droughts, I use an instrumental variable approach and investigate whether individual beliefs lead to distortions of objective information in an asymmetric manner. The results show that individuals' interpretation of droughts is biased in the direction of their prior beliefs, providing suggestive evidence of confirmation bias as a directional motivated reasoning mechanism. The findings highlight the need for models that account for behavioral factors to study climate change beliefs and their implications for effective communication and adaptation policies.
    Keywords: Beliefs, Climate change, Droughts, Expectation formation, Motivated reasoning
    JEL: D10 D80 Q12 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022–03
  12. By: Skarżyńska, Aldona; Grochowska, Renata
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to indicate the main factors influencing the diversification of farm income in the European Union countries. The analysis involved the production potential, production costs, and the impact of subsidies on income under the Common Agricultural Policy. The research covered farms keeping agricultural accounting in the EU-28 countries. The analysis used data for 2015-2017 and 2018, collected and processed under the FADN EU system. The analyses show that farms in the EU differed significantly in terms of the agricultural land area, the value of assets, technical equipment of work, and production intensity. It was estimated that the intensity was related to the production direction and land productivity. The income situation of farms was also significantly influenced by production efficiency. On average, from 2015-2017, the cost of EUR 1 production ranged between EUR 0.64 and 1.32, and in 2018 it was between EUR 0.64 and1.28. As a consequence, in many countries farm income depended solely on subsidies to operating activities. The research shows that subsidies eliminate the differences between countries at the level of income from production (without subsidies), which suggests a further need to continue to equalize the level of subsidies among the EU countries.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2021–06–21
  13. By: Claude Ménard (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 UFR02 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - École d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: In France, as in many other countries, one immediate impact of the coronavirus pandemic has been to give a strong impulse to the development of short supply chains in the agri-food sector, chains that are part of the more general hybrid type of organizational arrangements. This response to the pandemic resulted from changes in the strategy of producers as well as in demand from consumers. It raises a few questions to be developed below. First, was this reaction a response to disruptions in the existing long-distance (global) supply chains? Second, does it represent a significant part of the distribution network? Third, now that the pandemic is (slowly) regressing in Europe, do local supply chains look resilient or not? Although we are still far from benefiting of required data to substantiate the arguments, this short essay provides some food-for-thought on these three issues. A disruption in existing supply chains? The exponential development of long distance supply chains over the last decades benefited from radical innovations on the technological side and from the increasing demand for diversified agricultural products. On the technological side, containerization, controlled atmosphere, cargo sizes and speed, fuel efficiency and satellite navigation systems have considerably reduced freight costs, enabled long-distance sourcing, and allowed the diversification of the supply base of food for retailers and processors. On the demand side, new patterns of consumption have emerged, with buyers requesting an extended variety of products and becoming health and diet conscious so that they pay increased attention to quality.
    Date: 2020–09
  14. By: Sadowski, Arkadiusz; Wojcieszak-Zbierska, Monika; Zmyślona, Jagoda
    Abstract: Organic agriculture is a relatively new production system, which is growing in importance worldwide. As in all enterprises, economic results are important for organic farms. This article aims to determine the economic situation of organic farms against the background of conventional entities on the example of Poland by comparing production potential and relations between production factors, production volume, and the economic results. The analysis was based on the data of the Polish FADN. Since organic farms in Poland are subject to the special EU support, the economic results were presented in two variants, i.e. with and without subsidies for operating activities. Such an approach constitutes an attempt to assess to what extent the two analyzed groups (i.e. organic and conventional farms) can function on the market without public support. The analysis was conducted for two extreme periods, i.e. 2007-2009 and 2016-2018. The first one marks the moment of launching the first Rural Development Programme in Poland for a full seven-year implementation period. The year 2018 provides the latest data available. According to the results, organic farms have lower production potential than conventional farms and less favourable relationships between production factors. Yields and animal productivity are also lower. More importantly, they achieve much lower economic results, which are in large part generated by direct payments. In conclusion, the study showed a high production and income inefficiency of organic farms and their significant dependence on public support.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2021–06–21
  15. By: Wasilewski Adam; Krzyżanowski Julian; Chmieliński Paweł
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the complementarity of the Cohesion Policy and the Common Agricultural Policy in terms of their impact on the development of rural areas between 2021 and 2027. In their research, the authors paid particular attention to the distribution of support between the aforementioned policies in the context of social and economic problems occurring in rural areas. The empirical material consisted of literature on the subject and documentation related to the preparation and implementation of the analyzed policies. The analysis of documents, literature on the subject and practice indicates a growing need to demonstrate the complementarity of both policies in the process of programing individual development instruments, especially in the territorial dimension, where the separation of individual aspects of socio-economic life is extremely difficult, hence the need for a cross-sector approach, definition and response to local challenges.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2021–06–21
  16. By: Krasowicz, Stanisław; Matyka, Mariusz
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to present agricultural market output as a criterion for using agricultural potential in various regions of Poland. The analysis was conducted taking into account selected indicators characterizing the natural, agrotechnical, organizational, and economic conditions of agriculture in individual voivodeships. The average for Poland was used as the basis for comparisons. The basic sources of information were the statistical data of Statistics Poland, the research results of the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute in Puławy, and the research results presented in the literature. According to our hypothesis, the environmental, agrotechnical, organizational, and economic conditions determine the level and structure of agricultural market output in Poland as a criterion for using the agricultural potential in the regions. The research conducted so far shows that the impact of individual groups of conditions is clearly differentiated and visible in the production specialization and their share in agricultural market output in Poland. Regional diversification of agricultural market output in Poland should be basis for directing scientific research and advisory activities. It also reflects the regional differentiation of the effects of the EU Common Agricultural Policy.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–06–21
  17. By: Juchniewicz Monika; Podstawka Marian
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to identify and evaluate the development opportunities for farms in Poland in terms of area groups. The analysis covered the 2015-2019 period and was based on the results of individual farms keeping agricultural accounts under the Polish FADN. The paper determined the level and rate of accumulation, as well as the level of depreciation, taxes and fees, operating subsidies, and the ratio of operating subsidies to public accumulation and support that the farms receive under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The results indicate the financial and organizational diversity of the group of farms. Very small, medium-large, large, and very large farms had a positive accumulation rate. In this group of farms, the accumulation in terms of value covered the depreciation, and even in the case of large and very large farms it exceeded the depreciation. By contrast, small and medium-small farms were characterized by negative accumulation rates, which was associated with the lack of reproduction of fixed assets. These farms have no development opportunities. In conclusion, the ratio of subsidies to public accumulation is the most beneficial in the case of medium-large farms, where the ratio of subsidies to fiscal burden was over 20:1. Very small farms receive the least benefits under the CAP in terms of public accumulation. In this case, the ratio of subsidies to public accumulation is approximately 2:1 throughout the entire research period.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2021–06–21
  18. By: Booth, Hollie (University of Oxford); Ichsan, Muhammad; Hermansyah, Rizky Fajar; Rohmah, Lailia Nur; Naira, Kusuma Banda; Adrianto, Luky; Milner-Gulland, E.J.
    Abstract: Fisheries bycatch is the greatest threat to migratory, long-lived marine animals. Managing bycatch can be particularly problematic in small-scale mixed-species fisheries, where perceptions of target and non-target vary widely, and all catches have economic or subsistence value. Such fisheries are ubiquitous throughout the world’s oceans, and represent a cross-disciplinary challenge for biodiversity, food security and livelihoods. We offer a novel approach for addressing this challenge, drawing on well-established theories from behavioural and social sciences. We first typify bycatch as a spectrum rather than a clearly delineated component of catch, where the position of a species on this spectrum depends on fishers’ beliefs regarding the outcomes of bycatch-relevant behaviour. We then outline an approach to diagnose the underlying socio-psychological drivers of bycatch, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Finally, we illustrate the approach using an empirical case study, exploring fishers’ beliefs regarding bycatch-relevant behaviour for three endangered species in a small-scale gill net fishery in Indonesia. We show how a socio-psychological approach can help to identify conflicts and synergies between bycatch mitigation and fishers’ beliefs, thus informing more effective and socially-just interventions for marine megafauna conservation. We emphasize the need to understand human dimensions of bycatch, especially in SSFs, where technical fixes alone will be insufficient to change behaviour. Rather, interdisciplinary approaches are needed to align fishers’ needs with conservation objectives. Our spectrum and approach could be widely applied for disentangling drivers of bycatch in other SSFs, and designing interventions which support effective and equitable marine conservation.
    Date: 2021–11–15
  19. By: Ambroziak, Łukasz
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate changes in the role of agribusiness in the Polish economy, the relationships between various spheres of agribusiness and its links with othersectors of the national economy. The research was conducted on the basis of the input-output tables for 2005, 2010, and 2015 published by Statistics Poland. The analysis also confirmed most of the relationships formulated so far between the agribusiness development path and the level of economic development of a given country. From 2005-2015, the share of agri-business in creating the gross value added of the Polish economy decreased, similarly as the role of internal turnover in the material supply of agriculture, while the food sector became the leading link in the agri-food sector. The agri-business sector also showed strong links with the other sectors of the economy. The changes in the food economy were caused by the intensified relations of this sector with the other countries, which translated into benefits from the international division of labor.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–09–23
  20. By: Andrews, Jeffrey; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique
    Abstract: This paper offers a systematic approach to quantifying the socio-economic role of forests for 'forest-dependent' communities. Focusing on the island of Pemba (Zanzibar, Tanzania), we investigate how forest income contributes to livelihood portfolios, local inequality, and households' insurance against shocks. We also examine how forest income is affected by local institutions and household socio-demographics. We use a series of non-parametric measures in conjunction with multi-level Bayesian models supported by directed acyclic graphs to address these questions. On average, we find that 27% of household income comes from forests, with 83% of that value deriving from fuel products, and that 62% of the total value of forest products are harvested from the agroforestry scrub matrix. At the same time, forest income scales positively with income, forest-dependency scales negatively. Top income earners control ~4 times more forest income than low earners. However, when we consider forestry against other economic sectors, forest income reduces overall income inequality on the island. Despite forests being critical for the poor, we find it offers little insurance against shocks, especially for the vulnerable. In fact, in contrast to expectations, we find that the well-insured are the most likely to increase forest use in response to shocks. Regarding institutions, most forest products come from either government land or land owned by other private individuals, indicating weak tenure institutions on the island. Finally, young, poorly educated male-headed households, which are not integrated into markets, are the most likely to have high forest income. However, female-headed households are generally more dependent due to a lack of alternative income sources. Our results are encouraging as the use of tools from formal causal inference and detailed Bayesian modelling, in conjunction with a quantitative ethnography, build upon previous findings while improving our understanding of local socio-ecological systems.
    Date: 2022–02–06
  21. By: Peter Asare-Nuamah (UESD, Ghana); Anthony Amoah (UESD, Ghana); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study complements the extant literature by assessing the role of governance dynamics in food security in Ghana for the period 1980-2019. The empirical evidence is based on the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) technique and governance is categorized into: political (entailing political stability and voice & accountability), economic (consisting of regulatory quality and government effectiveness) and institutional (entailing corruption-control and the rule of law) governance dynamics. The study finds that the engaged governance dynamics improve food security in Ghana. Policy implications are discussed with specific emphasis on the sustainable development goals.
    Keywords: Governance; Vulnerability; Food security; Sustainable development
    JEL: I38 Q12 R20 O20 O55
    Date: 2021–01
  22. By: Agarwala, Matthew; Burke, Matt; Klusak, Patrycja; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Volz, Ulrich; Zenghelis, Dimitri
    Abstract: Both the physical and transition-related impacts of climate change pose substantial macroeconomic risks. Yet, markets still lack credible estimates of how climate change will affect debt sustainability, sovereign creditworthiness and the public finances of major economies. We present a taxonomy for tracing the physical and transition impacts of climate change through to impacts on sovereign risk. We then apply the taxonomy to the UK's potential transition to net zero. Meeting internationally agreed climate targets will require an unprecedented structural transformation of the global economy over the next two or three decades. The changing landscape of risks warrants new risk management and hedging strategies to contain climate risk and minimise the impact of asset stranding and asset devaluation. Yet, conditional on action being taken early, the opportunities from managing a net zero transition would substantially outweigh the costs.
    Keywords: climate change; net zero; productivity; sovereign debt; transition risk; ES/V002740/1
    JEL: H50 H60 H62 J24 N10 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2021–12–30
  23. By: Booth, Hollie (University of Oxford); Ramdlan, M Said; Hafizh, Ayesha; Wongsopatty, Karto; Mourato, Susana (London School of Economics and Political Science); Pienkowski, Thomas; Adrianto, Luky; Milner-Gulland, E.J.
    Abstract: Large, long-lived marine animals (‘marine megafauna’) play critical roles in ocean ecosystems, however, they are threatened by overfishing. Technologies and practices that reduce fisheries’ impacts on marine megafauna are well documented, yet less is known about how to encourage their adoption. This is particularly challenging in small-scale fisheries (SSFs), where endangered species can have important consumptive use values. We used a novel combination of methods – scenario interviews with contingent valuation (CV) – to investigate how incentive-based interventions might influence fisher behaviour and reduce mortality of Critically Endangered taxa (hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.) and wedgefish (Rhynchobatus spp.)) in two case study SSFs in Indonesia. Scenario interviews revealed that positive performance-based incentives were almost unanimously supported (98% and 96% of fishers would stop landing hammerheads and wedgefish, respectively). This is in contrast to 1% and 6% under a business as usual control scenario, and 52% and 46% in response to a regulation with a fine. Using CV, we estimated that an incentive-based scheme for catch mitigation of all hammerheads and wedgefish across both sites could cost US$71,620-298,820 annually, and save up to 18,500 hammerheads and 2,140 wedgefish relative to current catch baselines. This study provides empirical evidence that performance-based payments could offer a cost-effective, legitimate and socially-just approach for marine conservation in SSFs, and support “a sustainable and equitable blue economy” and “living in harmony with nature”. This is particularly important with the growing adoption of net-outcome goals for biodiversity, with studies such as this providing the basis for locally-appropriate investment ready schemes for bycatch-neutral seafood supply chains.
    Date: 2021–11–14
  24. By: Rembisz, Włodzimierz; Zawadzka, Danuta
    Abstract: Pig production is subject to fluctuations due to the pig cycle. These fluctuations cause that the supply of pork is either excessively high or too low in relation to a given demand assumed on the ceteris paribus principle. In the former case, the prices of pork, especially livestock, are high, and in the latter, they are low. As a result, the revenue of agricultural producers changes accordingly. It can be assumed that the negative revenue effects of the decrease in purchase prices are compensated by the positive effects of higher sales of porkers. Therefore, it is assumed that the volatility of revenues should be lower than that of both components. The purpose of this article is to verify this view, which can be regarded as a hypothesis. To be more exact, the paper attempts to answer the question whether there is volatility or relative stability of revenues in the pig market. This issue is important not only for the producers, but also for the agricultural policy. Using simple statistical methods, the authors evaluate the variability of revenues between 2005 and 2020, i.e. after Poland’s accession to the European Union. Recognizing that this was not a homogeneous period, the research also involved the revenues in two sub-periods, i.e. 2005-2012 and 2013-2020. The adopted assumption and the research hypothesis about the relative stability of revenue due to a certain interchangeability of the price level and the purchase volume were only quite incomplete for the period 2005-2012. For period 2013-2020, the analysis of charts, coefficients of variation and correlation gave different results that did not allow for confirming the assumption and hypothesis.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–06–21
  25. By: Hillesland, Marya; Doss, Cheryl; Slavchevska, Vanya
    Abstract: This study investigates the gendered patterns of livestock ownership in rural households in Uganda using a detailed data set with information on ownership, management, and decision-making across different types of livestock. Drawing on the bundle of rights frameworks developed by Schlager and Ostrom (1992) and Benjaminsen and Ba (2009), the analysis demonstrates the importance of going beyond considering ownership to also consider these other rights. We find that people may claim to be owners, but not to have the management or fructus rights, but also people may have these latter rights without claiming ownership. Using interviews from both the husband and wife in the household, we analyze the patterns of disagreement regarding claims to these rights and find substantial disagreement.
    Keywords: UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; gender; livestock; smallholders; rural areas; households; ownership; gender asset gap; intrahousehold dynamics
    Date: 2021
  26. By: Podstawka, Łukasz
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to present the ways in which entrepreneurs in the food service industry react to the pandemic, evaluate the efficiency of their actions, and suggest the most effective solutions to the market disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. The study used the descriptive analysis method, Pearson correlation survey method, and logical inference. Based on literature analysis and observations, questions were formulated for a survey for Polish entrepreneurs in the food service industry. The sample of surveyed entrepreneurs was selected by systematic random sampling from a group of entrepreneurs who promoted their enterprises through social media channels between 2019 and 2020. Among the surveyed enterprises, there is a positive correlation with undertaking activities concerning online brand image development and satisfaction with profits. Introducing their own deliveries during the pandemic, food service enterprises showed a negative correlation with profit growth. Enterprises that chose not to run their own supply networks, but consistently develop their brand image online, showed a positive correlation with increased satisfaction with earned profits. Analyzing the results of the study one can find some correlations. Enterprises which do not run their own supply networks, but instead consistently work on their brand image in the network and cooperate with enterprises operating in accordance with the sharing economy model, are doing well in times of the crisis. Enterprises that conduct their activities in accordance with the described assumptions showed a strong positive correlation with increased satisfaction with their net income.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–06–21
  27. By: Creed, Christian (Monash University)
    Abstract: Can behavioural characteristics explain the low adoption of profitable technologies? We explore this question by quantifying the importance of present bias on cattle producers’ decision to vaccinate against foot-and-mouth disease, a simple and well-known technology that, despite its high returns, is largely overlooked. Our results show that producers who exhibit a stronger present bias are much less likely to vaccinate their cattle, an effect which is robust to a large set of control variables (including wealth and access to information), larger than the effect of any other observed covariate and insensitive to plausible assumptions about the importance of unobserved determinants of adoption. We discuss some of the potential implications of these results for the design of vaccine delivery and to other policies that aim to overcome self-control problems.
    Keywords: Technology Adoption ; Vaccination ; Present Bias JEL Classification: O10 ; O13 ; Q16
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Etienne Montaigne (Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Alfredo Coelho (Bordeaux Sciences Agro - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques de Bordeaux-Aquitaine); Samson Zadmehran (UPVM UM3 UFR4 - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier 3 - Faculté des Sciences sociales, des organisations et des institutions - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3)
    Abstract: The present study focuses on the assessment of the development perspectives of the new grape varieties that are resistant to fungal diseases and thus promote the reduction or the suppression of phytosanitary treatments. The study also discusses new grape varieties dealing with global warming. Our methods rely on direct surveys with researchers and stakeholders completed with a synthesis of the scientific literature and edited research programs. This approach proposes an explanatory and a comprehensive investigation. It includes an overview of the current state of the art of the supply of technology, the presentation of the strategies of the main actors and stakeholders involved in the innovation chain, a synthesis of the current scientific and technical controversies, and an analysis of the influence of the institutions and legislation. Furthermore, we provide an evaluation of the previous research program on new grape varieties of the French National Institute for Research in Agronomy (INRA) and of the outcome of the diffusion of new grape varieties implemented in the south of France. This analysis will allow us to discuss the conditions for the success of this innovation as a competitiveness factor.
    Keywords: innovation,resistant grapevines,wine chain,France,Montaigne,E.,Coelho,A.,Zadmehran,S. A Comprehensive innovation
    Date: 2021–12
  29. By: Takuro Ashizawa (Bank of Japan); Kakuho Furukawa (Bank of Japan); Ryuichiro Hashimoto (Bank of Japan); Yoshiyasu Koide (Bank of Japan); Tomomi Naka (Bank of Japan); Kenji Nishizaki (Bank of Japan); Nao Sudo (Bank of Japan); Genichiro Suzuki (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: This article overviews implications of physical risks from climate change to Japan's financial institutions (FIs), focusing on the impacts of floods on the real economy, land prices and FIs' financial conditions. Floods cause massive direct damage to human lives and material resources. The empirical analyses using Japan's data suggest that the indirect effect of such damage on the real economy, land prices, and FIs' financial conditions has not been sizable over the analysis period, as the effect diminishes over time with the progress of reconstruction. The long-term simulation using a medium-scale macroeconomic model that takes into consideration possible climate changes and increases in flood damage in the future, however, suggests that the indirect effect can have a non-negligible impact on real GDP and FIs' net worth going forward. The outlook for the physical risks is extremely uncertain, varying depending on multiple factors including the pace of transition to a de-carbonized economy and interactions between the global average temperature and the frequency and scale of disasters, as well as productivity of the economy.
    Keywords: Climate change; Natural disaster; Physical risk; Financial stability
    JEL: E37 G21 Q54 R30
    Date: 2022–03–14
  30. By: Eric Ndayisaba (LAM - Les Afriques dans le monde - IEP Bordeaux - Sciences Po Bordeaux - Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Bordeaux - Université Bordeaux Montaigne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Tea is a very important economy in Burundi. Famers send their production to companies which transforms and exports it. This study concerns the issues of tea famer's organizations in the context of state monopoly and domination. First, it analyzes the failure of famer's appropriation during the development of the tea industry. This happened because the development tea policies about peasant's organizations did not correspond to the local realities. Secondary, this article proposes some solutions for more farmer's participation for a better future of this sector. It suggests the emergence of autonomous peasant associations.
    Keywords: Farming,Tea,Organization,Burundi
    Date: 2021–12–10
  31. By: Xu, Tao
    Abstract: As the ageing population and childlessness are increasing in rural China, social pensions will become the mainstream choice for farmers, and the level of social pensions must be supported by better social insurance. The paper compares the history of rural pension insurance system, outlines the current situation and problems, analyses China Family Panel Studies data and explores the key factors influencing farmers' participation through an empirical approach. The paper shows that residents' social pension insurance is facing problems in the rural areas such as low level of protection and weak management capacity, which have contributed to the under-insured rate, and finds that there is a significant impact on farmers' participation in insurance from personal characteristics factors such as gender, age, health and (family) financial factors such as savings, personal income, intergenerational mobility of funds. And use of the Internet can help farmers enroll in pension insurance. The paper argues for the need to continue to implement the rural revitalisation strategy, with the government as the lead and the market as the support, in a concerted effort to improve the protection and popularity of rural pension insurance.
    Keywords: Countryside; Rural pension system; Residents' social insurance; Rural revitalization; Family panel studies
    JEL: H5 H53 H55 J1 J2 J6 P2
    Date: 2021–11–20
  32. By: Stainforth, David A.; Calel, Raphael
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2021–12–15
  33. By: Chipperfield, Benjamin (Monash University)
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of a national fisheries decentralisation policy on the nutritional status of children in Lao PDR. Using a double robust estimator that combines propensity score and OLS regression, our results show that the causal impacts of this policy are heterogeneous and driven by nutritional gains among younger children living in villages that rely more heavily on natural resources, with girls benefiting more than boys. We identify higher consumption of fish as one mechanism that explains these gains. This change is not accompanied by greater allocation of time to fishing or investment in fishing assets, allaying fears that decentralisation of fisheries management may lead to over-exploitation of local resources. Our findings show that nationally implemented decentralised natural resources management policies can improve welfare.
    Keywords: Fisheries decentralisation ; Laos ; Height for age z-score JEL Classification: Q22 ; Q28
    Date: 2021
  34. By: Florian Leblanc (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ruben Bibas (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Silvana Mima (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Matteo Muratori (NREL - National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Shogo Sakamoto (Central Research Institute of Electrical Power Industry); Fuminori Sano (RITE, Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth); Nico Bauer (PIK - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research); Vassilis Daioglou (PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency); Shinichiro Fujimori (NIES - National Institute for Environmental Studies); Matthew Gidden (Climate Analytics - Partenaires INRAE, IIASA - International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [Laxenburg]); Estsushi Kato (IAE - Institute of Applied Energy); Steven Rose (EPRI - Electrical Power Research Institute - Electrical Power Research Institute); Junichi Tsutsui (Central Research Institute of Electrical Power Industry); Detlef van Vuuren (PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency); John Weyant (Stanford University); Marshall Wise (University of Maryland [College Park] - University of Maryland System)
    Abstract: The expected growth in the demand for mobility and freight services exacerbates the challenges of reducing transport GHG emissions, especially as low-carbon alternatives to petroleum fuels are limited for shipping, air and long-distance road travel. Biofuels can offer a pathway to significantly reduce emissions from these sectors, as they can easily substitute for conventional liquid fuels in internal combustion engines. In this paper we assess the potential of bioenergy to reduce transport GHG emissions through an integrated analysis leveraging various assessment models and scenarios, as part of the 33rd Energy Modeling Forum study (EMF-33). We find that bioenergy can contribute a significant, albeit not dominant, proportion of energy supply to the transport sector: in scenarios aiming to keep the temperature increase below 2°C by the end of the 21st century, models project that bioenergy can provide in average 42 EJ/yr (ranging from 5 to 85 EJ/yr) in 2100 for transport (compared to 3.7 EJ in 2018), mainly through lignocellulosic fuels. This is 9-62% of final transport energy use. Only a small amount of bioenergy is projected to be used in transport through the electricity and hydrogen pathways, with a larger role for biofuels in road passenger transport than in freight. The association of carbon capture and storage (CCS) with bioenergy technologies (BECCS) is a key determinant in the role of biofuels in transport, because of the competition for biomass feedstock to provide other final energy carriers along with carbon removal. Among models that consider CCS in the biofuel conversion process the average market share of biofuels is 21% in 2100, compared to 10% for models that do not. Cumulative direct emissions from the transport sector account for half of the emission budget (from 300 to 670 out of 1,000 GtCO2). However, the carbon intensity of transport decreases as much as other energy sectors in 2100 when accounting for process emissions, including carbon removal from BECCS. Lignocellulosic fuels become more attractive for transport decarbonization if BECCS is not feasible for any energy sectors. Since global transport service demand increases and biomass supply is limited, its allocation to and within the transport sector is uncertain and sensitive to assumptions about political as well as technological and socioeconomic factors.
    Keywords: Bioenergy,Transport sector,Lignocellulosic fuels,Climate mitigation,Integrated Assessment Models
    Date: 2022

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.