nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒03‒14
33 papers chosen by

  1. Drivers and consequences of tenure insecurity and mechanisms for enhancing tenure security: A synthesis of CGIAR research on tenure security (2013-2020) By McLain, Rebecca
  2. Dietary change and food demand in urbanizing Bangladesh By Ecker, Olivier; Comstock, Andrew R.
  3. The impact of climate change on grape yields in Australia By German Puga; Kym Anderson; Firmin Doko Tchatoka
  4. The impacts of rural outmigration on women’s empowerment: Evidence from Nepal, Senegal, and Tajikistan By Slavchevska, Vanya; Doss, Cheryl R.; Hillesland, Marya; Mane, Erdgin
  5. COVID-19 Working Paper: U.S.-Mexico Agricultural Trade in 2020 By Zahniser, Steven
  6. Does industrial water pollution impede agriculture? Evidence from rice farming in China By Sébastien Marchand; Maimouna Barro; Huanxiu Guo
  7. Climate change adaptation of Austrian farms By Zeilinger, Julian; Niedermayr, Andreas; Quddoos, Abdul; Kantelhardt, Jochen
  8. Mind the adoption gap: Findings from a field experiment designed to scale up the availability of fodder shrub seedlings in Malawi By Hughes, Karl; Kulomo, Decolius; Nyoka, Bestari
  9. Direct payments and on-farm employment: evidence from a spatial regression discontinuity design By Zimmert, Franziska; Zorn, Alexander
  10. Sustainability assessment of the food supply chain from a food manufacturing perspective By Küchler, Rebekka; Herzig, Christian
  11. The impact of growing season temperature on grape prices in Australia By German Puga; Kym Anderson; Firmin Doko Tchatoka
  12. Le commerce agroalimentaire et les filières animales : quelques éléments de cadrage By Vincent Chatellier
  13. How Do Agro-Pastoral Policies Affect the Dietary Intake of Agro-Pastoralists? Evidence from Niger By Christophe Muller; Nouréini Sayouti
  14. L'agriculture française à la croisée des chemins. Compétitivité sur les marchés - Performances économiques des exploitations - Future PAC, diversité des attentes et défi générationnel By Vincent Chatellier
  15. Digital tools and agricultural market transformation in Africa: Why are they not at scale yet, and what will it take to get there? By Abay, Kibrom A.; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Chamberlin, Jordan; Kassim, Yumna; Spielman, David J.
  16. Food policy measures in response to COVID-19 in Central Asia and the Caucasus: Taking stock after the first year of the pandemic By Djanibekov, Nodir; Herzfeld, Thomas; Arias, Pedro Marcelo
  17. The role of land use in climate change – from CO2 source to cost-efficient mitigation By Anderl, Thomas
  18. Fiscal policies to promote environmentally sustainable food production and consumption: A scoping review protocol By Bell, Brooke Marie; Nyhan, Kate; Dubrow, Robert; Bell, Michelle; Irwin, Melinda L.; Ferrucci, Leah M.
  19. Exploring gender, tenure security, and landscape governance approaches and findings: Lessons from eight years of research By Kristjanson, Patricia; Larson, Anne; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
  20. Promoting Agroforestry in Rwanda: the Effects of Policy Interventions Derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour By Noeldeke, Beatrice
  21. Gender dynamics in value chains By Pyburn, Rhiannon; Stoian, Dietmar; Quintero, Sandra
  22. When Quality Management Helps Agri-food Firms to Export By Charlotte Emlinger; Karine Latouche
  23. A climate classification of the world's wine regions By German Puga; Kym Anderson; Gregory Jones; Firmin Doko Tchatoka; Wendy Umberger
  24. Climate change and economic activity: Evidence from US states By Kamiar Mohaddes; Ryan N. C. Ng; M. Hashem Pesaran; Mehdi Raissi; Jui-Chung Yang
  25. Cumulative Climate Shocks and Migratory Flows: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Di Falco, Salvatore; Kis, Anna B.; Viarengo, Martina
  26. Organic Feed Grains and Livestock: Factors That Influence Outcomes in Thinly Traded Markets By Hadachek, Jeffrey; Saitone, Tina L.; Sexton, Richard J.; Raszap Skorbiansky, Sharon; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Effland, Anne
  27. Risks on global financial stability induced by climate change: the case of flood risks By Antoine Mandel; Timothy Tiggeloven; Daniel Lincke; Elco Koks; Philip Ward; Jochen Hinkel
  28. Biofuel Technologies and Policies By Janda, Karel; Benes, Ondrej
  29. COVID-19 Working Paper: COVID-19 and the U.S. Meat and Poultry Supply Chains By Vaiknoras, Kate; Hahn, William; Padilla, Samantha; Valcu-Lisman, Adriana; Grossen, Grace
  30. Digitalization, traceability and Supply Chain Performance in social improvement logistics: the case of Bienestarina distribution, Colombia By Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu; Amir Hasnaoui; Joelle Morana; Feizar Rueda
  31. Empirical analysis of the anthropogenic pressure on the mangrove blue carbon-economic growth relationship By Gasmi, Farid; Recuero Virto, Laura; Couvet, Denis
  32. Gender, demand for agricultural credit and digital technology: Survey evidence from Odisha By Kramer, Berber; Pattnaik, Subhransu; Ward, Patrick S.
  33. The Relationship Between Disability Insurance Receipt and Food Insecurity By Barbara A. Butrica; Stipica Mudrazija; Jonathan Schwabish

  1. By: McLain, Rebecca
    Abstract: Research since the 1990s highlights the importance of tenure rights for sustainable natural resource management, and for alleviating poverty and enhancing nutrition and food security for the 3.14 billion rural inhabitants of less-developed countries who rely on forests and agriculture for their livelihoods. Which rights or combination of rights an individual, household, or community has affects whether they have access to land and resources, as well as how those can be used and for how long. Equally important is the degree to which landholders perceive their tenure to be secure. Landowners are more likely to engage in land and resource conservation if they perceive that the likelihood of losing their land or resource rights is low. Between 2013 and 2021, the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) supported researchers to explore the drivers of tenure insecurity and their consequences, as well as mechanisms that can enhance tenure security. Their work focused on rights held by individuals and households as well as collectively held rights. Studies found that tenure insecurity has a variety of negative consequences for natural resource management, agricultural productivity, and poverty reduction, but the sources of tenure insecurity differ for men and women, and for individual, household, and collective lands. Statutory recognition of customary rights, multistakeholder processes such as for land use planning, and organized social alliances such as Indigenous Peoples’ groups have emerged as important mechanisms for securing rights or enhancing access to collectively held lands. Long-term partnerships, ongoing engagement, and training for multiple actors at multiple scales increases the likelihood of successful implementation of tenure reforms. Further research on tenure security can contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, especially by clarifying how customary tenure can provide security and how tenure affects decision-making in multistakeholder platforms.
    Keywords: WORLD; gender; land tenure; tenure security; land rights; forest land use; sustainability; governance; collective tenure
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Ecker, Olivier; Comstock, Andrew R.
    Abstract: Poor-quality diets are one of the leading causes of malnutrition and common non-communicable disease. In this study, we use nationally representative household survey data and food demand system estimations to analyze dietary change and changing consumer preferences for different foods in the context of urbanization in low- and middle-income countries. We estimate and compare income and price elasticities of total food demand and the demand for 15 food groups in rural, urban, and city areas of Bangladesh for 2010 and 2016. We then use Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition regressions to explore how much of the observed food consumption changes can be explained by changes in revealed consumer preferences vis-Ã -vis changes in household income and food prices. The results show that Bangladeshi diets shifted from coarse to refined rice, and consumer preferences for vegetables and pulses were relatively low, contributing to worsening dietary quality. On the other hand, the consumption of nutritious, animal-source foods including fish, poultry, and eggs increased due to high consumer preferences and declining food prices-partly thanks to governmental production support. Regarding the dietary implications of rapid urbanization, the analysis suggests that rural consumers’ diets will largely follow the trajectory of urban consumers in Bangladesh.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; nutrition; malnutrition; households; food consumption; diet; urbanization; food prices; healthy diets; maternal and child health; models; demand; dietary change; food demand; demand system
    Date: 2021
  3. By: German Puga (Centre for Global Food and Resources, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia); Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia); Firmin Doko Tchatoka (School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to estimate how climate change could affect grape yields in Australia.
    Keywords: impact of weather, climate change, grape production
    JEL: Q11 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Slavchevska, Vanya; Doss, Cheryl R.; Hillesland, Marya; Mane, Erdgin
    Abstract: Using primary survey data collected in Tajikistan, Nepal and Senegal, three countries with high male outmigration rates, this study analyzes the impacts of migration on the empowerment of women who remain in rural areas. The study uses indicators from the Abbreviate Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (A-WEAI) to measure women’s empowerment in five domains (decision-making autonomy around agricultural production, resources, control over income, group membership and workload) and instrumental variable approaches to address the endogeneity between the migration of a family member and women’s empowerment. It finds that male outmigration leads to women’s empowerment in agriculture in some domains and disempowerment in others. In Tajikistan, where women start with low levels of empowerment, women in households with a migrant are more likely to be involved in decisions in productive activities on the household farm, control income, own assets and achieve workload balance than women in non-migrant households. In Nepal and Senegal, women start at higher levels of empowerment and we see fewer differences in their empowerment based on whether they live in a migrant-sending household. The impacts of migration on empowerment depend on the context, whether the household receives remittances or owns land, and women’s position within the household.
    Keywords: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; SENEGAL; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; TAJIKISTAN; CENTRAL ASIA; ASIA; rural urban migration; gender; women; women's empowerment; decision making; households; rural areas; urban areas; migration; rural outmigration; Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Zahniser, Steven
    Abstract: Agricultural trade between the United States and Mexico underwent many changes in 2020 in the face of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Overall, U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico declined in April 2020 and did not recover until November 2020. Meanwhile, U.S. agricultural imports from Mexico declined in April and May 2020 before resuming their long-term upward trend. Beef and veal, cotton, and pork were the U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico with the largest decreases in export value between calendar years 2019 and 2020. The agricultural imports from Mexico with the largest increases in import value were tequila, fresh tomatoes, and beer. The economic downturn and shift away from food expenditures at hotels, restaurants, and institutional establishments because of the pandemic explain some of these changes. However, a larger set of supply and demand determinants was at play, including conventional factors unrelated to the pandemic, such as the long-term expansion of Mexico’s horticultural export sector and year-to-year changes in crop production.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Financial Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Relations/Trade, Productivity Analysis, Public Economics, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–02–28
  6. By: Sébastien Marchand (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Maimouna Barro (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Huanxiu Guo (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In the process of industrialization, relocation of manufacturing industries from urban to rural areas may have important implications for the rural environment and agricultural production. As a demonstration, the aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of wastewater from industrial firms on agricultural yields in rice farming of Jiangsu province, China. Using 2011-2015 panel data from both the China Rural Fixed Point Survey and the China Environmental Statistics Database between 2011 and 2015, we find that industrial wastewater significantly reduces rice yields. The econometric strategy implemented allows us to assume that this result reflects a causal and detrimental biological effect of wastewater on the growing process of the rice. These results highlight the need to better understand the conflicts between industry and agriculture at the local level in a context of rapid industrialization.
    Keywords: China,Rural environment,Rice farming,Industrial water pollution
    Date: 2020–06–17
  7. By: Zeilinger, Julian; Niedermayr, Andreas; Quddoos, Abdul; Kantelhardt, Jochen
    Abstract: Adaptation to climate change in agriculture is a key goal in order to mitigate its effects. The Ricardian method has been used extensively to account for adaptation within impact assessment. Yet, it follows the relatively strict assumption of farms being fully adapted to climate. Building on upcoming evidence of potential limitations of adaptation we relax this assumption and analyse climate change adaptation at the farm-level. Our findings overall depict under-adaptation to climate change of Austrian farms and therefore contradict the concept of full adaptation. Full paper is submitted elsewhere.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–11–18
  8. By: Hughes, Karl; Kulomo, Decolius; Nyoka, Bestari
    Abstract: While dairy production has the potential to diversify smallholder agriculture and increase incomes, there are multiple constraints. One is the consistent provision of quality feed. High protein, leguminous fodder shrubs—also referred to as Fodder Tree Technology (FTT)—can help address this constraint, yet adoption levels are generally low. Implemented in Kenya and Malawi, the Shrubs for Change (S4C) project is employing several approaches to address this situation, including those informed by behavioural science. Given that approximately 500 shrubs per cow are needed to generate enough leaf matter to bolster milk production, promoting FTT at scale necessitates the production, distribution, and successful planting of large numbers of shrub seedlings. We implemented a field experiment in Malawi’s Southern Region in late 2021 to test the effectiveness of a social learning intervention intended to motivate dairy farmers to significantly scale up the production of FTT seedlings. This intervention involved meeting with dairy farmers in 39 randomly selected milk production zones to review the numbers of seedlings being produced vis-à-vis local demand, coupled with the development of action plans to address identified production gaps. While we find that this intervention increased the setting up of private nurseries by 10% (p<0.05), it only increased overall seedling production by an average of 20 additional seedlings per dairy farmer (p>0.1). We offer several explanations for this lower than expected and statistically insignificant result, which point to the need for iterative rounds of engagement with farmers when supporting them to take up FTT and other complex agronomic and sustainable land management innovations.
    Date: 2021–12–16
  9. By: Zimmert, Franziska; Zorn, Alexander
    Abstract: Direct payments are regarded as a suitable instrument to safeguard jobs in the agricultural sector. However, empirical findings to date do not unambiguously support this expectation. We further empirically investigate this research question on dairy farms under weak identifying assumptions using a spatial regression discontinuity design. The Swiss direct payments system creates a discontinuous jump near the border of agricultural production zones for the amount of public subsidies a farm receives. We find that an additional CHF 50,000 can generate a job for a female family worker in the dairy sector. Male employment is not affected. These results show that direct payments can safeguard traditional family farming.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Political Economy, Research Methods / Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–11–18
  10. By: Küchler, Rebekka; Herzig, Christian
    Abstract: Sustainability assessment of the food supply chain and its members is instrumental in achieving a sustainable food future. Despite being influential members of the food supply chain, no comparison of sustainability frameworks from the supply chain perspective of food manufacturers has been conducted so far. This research investigates the suitability of seven sustainability frameworks for food manufacturing companies by evaluating their connectivity to the up- and downstream food supply chain as well as their food sector specificity. The findings show that none of the frameworks fulfils both food sector specificity and full integration into the up- and downstream supply chain, calling for further research on more harmonized and integrated sustainability assessment throughout the food supply chain.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Food Consumption / Nutrition / Food Safety, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–11–18
  11. By: German Puga (Centre for Global Food and Resources, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia); Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia); Firmin Doko Tchatoka (School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia)
    Abstract: Cross-sectional models are useful for quantifying the impact that climate or climate change may have on grape prices due to changes in grape quality. However, these models are susceptible to omitted variable bias. The aim of this study is to estimate the impact of growing season temperature (GST) on grape prices using cross-sectional data for Australia, while controlling for growing season precipitation, regional yield, variety, and other 103 characteristics that relate to the production system of the wine regions. We estimate this model using (area) weighted least squares and variables from a principal component analysis (PCA) to control for the characteristics that relate to the production system. This estimation strategy allows us to decrease omitted variable bias while avoiding multicollinearity and over-controlling issues. We show that failing to control for characteristics that relate to the production system overestimates the impact of GST and hence, climate change. This finding is confirmed by a LASSO model that also incorporates variables from the PCA, which we estimate as a robustness check using a cross-fit partialing-out estimator (double machine learning).
    Keywords: omitted variable bias, climate impact, grape quality, grape price, climate change
    JEL: Q11 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2021–11
  12. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Keywords: Compétitivité,Agriculture française,Echanges,Production agricole,Productions animales
    Date: 2021–02–11
  13. By: Christophe Muller (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nouréini Sayouti (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PASEL - Projet d’appui au secteur de l’élevage)
    Abstract: Agricultural policies in poor rural developing countries typically aim at improving household nutrition by raising households' agricultural profit and presumably their dietary intake as a consequence. However, it is not clear how much of the impact of these policies goes through profit in practice. If the proportion is large, this would confirm the policy orientation and direct the attention of policy makers toward the different financial incentives. Even full activity substitution may occur, which may transform households' lifestyles and access to nutrient sources and thereby affect their nutrition. If, in contrast, the policy impact does not go through profit, then the policy perspective should be adjusted, and a thorough examination and monitoring of its other channels of influence should be undertaken. Using statistical mediation analysis, we investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of agricultural policies directed toward pastoralist households on their dietary intake in terms of these direct and indirect (through profit) effects. Based on an agro-pastoral survey conducted in Niger in 2016, the effects of extension services associated with better access to markets are found to be channeled mostly through pastoral profits, while this is not the case for private veterinary services and low-cost livestock feed programs. Extension services may foster specialization in cattle and sheep raising, which incentivizes households to switch toward a nomadic lifestyle and limits their access to cereals, a valuable source of calories. As a result, extension services are found to damage their calorie intake.
    Keywords: Agro-pastoral policies,Mediation analysis,Agricultural household models,Niger
    Date: 2020–04
  14. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Keywords: Compétitivité,Agriculture française,Echanges,Production agricole,Productions animales
    Date: 2021–12–02
  15. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Chamberlin, Jordan; Kassim, Yumna; Spielman, David J.
    Abstract: Despite enthusiasm on the potential of digital innovations to transform agricultural markets in Africa, progress made thus far has been limited to small-scale experiments that often fail to scale up. Realizing the full potential of digital innovations—tools, technologies, applications, and services—in Africa requires not just further development of these solutions at meaningful scales, but also more nuanced evidence from both successful and unsuccessful scaling efforts. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical evidence on the transformative potential of digital innovations for African agricultural markets with an in-depth examination of solutions that have been rolled out to date in the continent. Specifically, the review addresses the following questions: (i) how can digital innovations improve the functioning of agricultural markets in Africa? (ii) what explains the apparent failure of most pilots to scale up? (iii) what is required to realize their full potential? and (iv) what are the emerging risks and opportunities associated with these digital innovations for agricultural marketing? Although our review of the landscape and literature on market-focused digital innovations in Africa identifies several reasons to remain optimistic, the prevailing disconnect between pilots and scale-ups merits further evaluation. In particular, there is a need for more systematic assessments of both successes and failures at different stages of piloting and scaling of digital solutions.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; digital technology; innovation; agriculture; markets; retail markets; market information services; digital divide; risk; food security; welfare; households; resilience; social protection; social safety nets; market information
    Date: 2021
  16. By: Djanibekov, Nodir; Herzfeld, Thomas; Arias, Pedro Marcelo
    Abstract: Despite initial concerns of catastrophic outcomes, the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting lockdown measures did not severely affect regional agriculture in Central Asia and the Caucasus. They did, however, affect food supply chains in terms of demand and logistics. Food prices were volatile throughout 2020 and particularly high in countries with currency depreciation. However, the on-going COVID-19 pandemic as a human and health crisis presents an ever increasing risk to the economies of Central Asia and the Caucasus. The global implications of the pandemic, combined with a decline in oil and gas exports and migrant remittances, could impede recovery and undermine economic stability in the region. Policymakers should avoid disrupting domestic food supply chains and placing barriers to trade through export bans and quotas. At the same time, they must ensure food security and reduced price volatility through diversified trade networks. Deeper domestic value chains and efficient management of public and private food stock reserves will better prepare countries to face the continuing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Better-informed and targeted policy responses to a pandemic require improved national systems of nutrition research and monitoring, and timely availability of data not only relating to production but also to other levels of the agrifood chain.
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Anderl, Thomas
    Abstract: The present studies focus on the land use contributions to industrial-age carbon emissions and future abatement potentials. A practicable estimation scheme is presented to transparently identify the driving terms behind past emissions and future mitigation possibilities. Regarding the major emissions sources, 10 % of total present CO2 emissions are possible in tail of primary forest clearing outside of wood consumption; 3 % are attributed to desertification and peat cultivation; on the opposite, 5 % are counteracted by sequestration from forest gain. Regarding mitigation, prudent land use has the potential to reduce more than 50 % of all present anthropogenic emissions at approximate zero costs. Prerequisite is that biomass be considered a scarce resource and therefore, carefully supported and solely used in high-efficiency applications.
    Date: 2022–01–05
  18. By: Bell, Brooke Marie; Nyhan, Kate; Dubrow, Robert; Bell, Michelle; Irwin, Melinda L.; Ferrucci, Leah M.
    Abstract: The objective of this scoping review is to examine food taxes and subsidies and their environmental outcomes by incorporating evidence from the peer-reviewed literature and evidence from the non-peer-reviewed or ‘grey’ literature, including policy documents/briefs, research reports, and white papers. The scoping review questions are: 1. What food taxes and subsidies have been studied in the context of environmentally sustainable food production or consumption? 2. What types of environmental outcomes were reported? 3. At what various levels (e.g., food production-, food outlet-, consumer-level) were the policies implemented? This is the final version of the scoping review protocol, published as a preprint to create full transparency about the scoping review process.
    Date: 2021–12–23
  19. By: Kristjanson, Patricia; Larson, Anne; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela
    Abstract: This brief synthesizes approaches and findings from gender research conducted by the CGIAR Program on Policy, Institutions, and Markets (PIM). The focus of this work is the governance of natural resources and policy and institutions for improved natural resources management. This body of research analyzes how tenure security affects sustainable management and how individuals, groups, and communities govern land, water, fish stocks, and forests. An important focus of this work involves the following questions: (1) who has what rights with respect to these resources (particularly for women and members of marginalized groups), (2) what are their roles in managing natural resources, and (3) what livelihood benefits do they receive? Without a contextualized understanding of these questions, policies and practices can inadvertently exclude women, reinforce historical practices of gender injustice, or introduce new inequalities that worsen natural resource management and poverty.
    Keywords: WORLD; gender; tenure; tenure security; landscape conservation; landscape; governance; research; women; role of women; natural resources management; livelihoods; policies; poverty; landscape governance
    Date: 2021
  20. By: Noeldeke, Beatrice
    Abstract: Although agroforestry offers multiple benefits, its adoption by small-scale farmers remains low in some regions in developing countries. Besides economic motives also intrinsic motivations can influence farmers’ behaviour. This study identifies farmers’ intrinsic drivers to adopt agroforestry based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Furthermore, it compares policy instruments which address the intrinsic drivers to promote agroforestry adoption. Specifically, an agent-based simulation model investigates whether the following interventions increase adoption intentions 1) an information campaign to spread awareness of agroforestry benefits to strengthen positive attitudes, 2) informing farmers about social norms to reinforce their perception of subjective norm, and 3) providing trainings to improve farmers’ perceived behavioural control. The research is applied to a case study in rural Rwanda. In line with the Theory of Planned Behaviour, a partial least squares structural equation model confirms that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control influence farmers’ adoption intention. The simulations demonstrate that all interventions significantly increase farmers’ intention to adopt agroforestry, but their effectiveness is rather small. The information campaign targeting attitude causes the strongest increase. The relatively weak effectiveness of the individual interventions can be enhanced by their combined implementation. Policy-makers who aim to raise low agroforestry adoption rates should consider strategies that target intrinsic drivers as alternatives to economic incentives.
    Keywords: Agroforestry; Innovation Adoption; Theory of Planned Behaviour; Policy Interventions; Small-scale Farming
    JEL: O13 O21 Q18
    Date: 2022–02
  21. By: Pyburn, Rhiannon; Stoian, Dietmar; Quintero, Sandra
    Abstract: Over the past 20 years, value chain development (VCD) initiatives and value chain research have increasingly integrated gender dimensions to allow for gender-differentiated employment and income opportunities and other benefits for women and men, and to address the exploitation of women’s labor (Pyburn and Kruijssen 2021). This research often addresses constraints to women’s participation in specific value chains, such as administrative procedures in transboundary fish trade (Ratner et al. 2018) or disproportionate harassment of women food traders by authorities in Nigeria (Resnick et al. 2019). This brief draws on research conducted under the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) to illustrate how VCD supports and constrains progress toward gender equality and women’s empowerment. In particular, the brief summarizes work from a portfolio of six PIM co-funded projects (2020–2021) on gender dynamics in value chains beyond the production node and single commodity analysis (Box 1), a book chapter in a CGIAR-wide gender publication (Pyburn and van Eerdewijk 2021), the Pro-WEAI (project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index) for Market Inclusion, and other gender-integrated value chain work within PIM (Crimi 2018; Vos and Pyburn 2021), and provides an outlook for future research.
    Keywords: WORLD; gender; value chains; women's participation; smallholders; women's empowerment; gender responsive approaches; women
    Date: 2021
  22. By: Charlotte Emlinger (Virginia Tech [Blacksburg]); Karine Latouche (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: From the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy outbreak in the 90's to the milk powder scandal in China in 2008, food safety incidents have led to an increasing demand for traceability and safety of food products, from both consumers and distributors. Governments have answered to this demand by strengthening public regulation on their territory (see for example the European Community Regulation 178/2002 on food traceability) or by increasing the number of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) and Technical barriers to trade (TBT) at the border. The private sector also implemented several certifications to facilitate the standardization of safety and traceability (HACCP, ISO standards) or to manage the buyer-supplier relationship (IFS, BRC retailers standards). Therefore, the ability to make safe products, to ensure traceability and to have it recognized through certifications appears to be an essential element of the international competitiveness of agri-food companies. Even if these characteristics are not systematically observed by final consumers, they may help to access to markets with high levels of sanitary requirements or enable to benefit from international retailer networks. In this paper, we investigate the effects of firms' commitment to traceability and food safety on export performance. We rely on the presence of quality management and control personnel in agri-food firms to proxy their level of commitment to product reliability and safety issues. Quality management and control personnel ensure that the firms' goods are safe and reliable, that they meet customers' expectation and that they follow regulatory requirements. Quality managers are therefore major players in the firm's quality policy, both by preventing failure and by copying with those that do occur. They are key in the adoption of standards and in their maintenance. Working both with the firms' other employees and with external partners such as suppliers, customers, health inspectors or customs, they can lead to better export performance through four channels. First, the increase of product safety allowed by the implementation of quality systems limits consumers' exposure to potentially hazardous foods, and reduces recalls and consumers complains. Second, quality control and management may increase the effectiveness of operation and the efficiency of supply chains, through a better optimization of the processes, inducing higher productivity and a reduction of losses or products deterioration. Third, quality specialists help to comply sanitary, phyto-sanitary or technical legal requirements in destination markets, both by applying the necessary procedures, and by being able to provide evidence of compliance with the measures. Finally, better procedures and traceability can increase firms' reputation among buyers, whether they are intermediaries, retailers or final consumers. This confidence can come from a simple perception or from different certifications (such as HACCP, IFS or ISO), whose adoption is facilitated by the presence of qualified and specialized personnel. The firms' commitment in traceability and food safety may thus lead to a differentiation of products for the buyers' point of view. Of course, firms do not need to have a dedicated staff on quality management to be able to meet standards, implement traceability systems and have certifications. We can however expect that firms hiring specialized employees have stronger policy and capability on these issues, and consequently better export performance, that we test in this article. Using French administrative employee-firm-level data merged with French customs data, we measure the effect of firms' quality management system first on the intensive and extensive margins of trade, and second on trade unit values and perceived quality on foreign markets, using Khandelwal's methodology (Khandelwal, 2010). Focusing on a single country's exports allows us to control for foreign consumers' preferences for the different origins. We compare exports of firms with quality management personnel with exports of firms without this category of employees to a given destination, product (defined at the 6-digit code of the Harmonized System) and year. We furthermore explore whether these effects vary according to destination countries, depending on the level of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) applied at their border.
    Keywords: Export performance,Traceability and quality mangement,Firm level data,Quality management and control personnel
    Date: 2021–12–12
  23. By: German Puga (Centre for Global Food and Resources, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia); Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia); Gregory Jones (Abacela Vineyards and Winery, Roseburg OR, USA); Firmin Doko Tchatoka (School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia); Wendy Umberger (Centre for Global Food and Resources, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide, Australia)
    Abstract: Using a dataset with 16 climate variables for locations representing 813 wine regions that cover 99% of the world’s winegrape area, we employ principal component analysis (PCA) for data reduction and cluster analysis for grouping similar regions. The PCA resulted in three components explaining 89% of the variation in the data, with loadings that differentiate between locations that are warm/dry from cool/wet, low from high diurnal temperature ranges, low from high nighttime temperatures during ripening, and low from high vapor pressure deficits. The cluster analysis, based on these three principal components, resulted in three clusters defining wine regions globally with the results showing that premium wine regions can be found across each of the climate types. This is, to our knowledge, the first such classification of virtually all of the world’s wine regions. However, with both climate change and an increasing preference for premium relative to non-premium wines, many of the world’s winegrowers may need to change their mixes of varieties, or source more of their grapes from more-appropriate climates.
    Keywords: Viticultural zoning, winegrape varieties, adaptation to climate change, cluster analysis, principal component analysis
    JEL: Q10 Q54
    Date: 2021–11
  24. By: Kamiar Mohaddes; Ryan N. C. Ng; M. Hashem Pesaran; Mehdi Raissi; Jui-Chung Yang
    Abstract: We investigate the long-term macroeconomic effects of climate change across 48 U.S. states over the period 1963 2016 using a novel econometric strategy which links deviations of temperature and precipitation (weather) from their long-term moving-average historical norms (climate) to various state-specific economic performance indicators at the aggregate and sectoral levels. We show that climate change has a long-lasting adverse impact on real output in various states and economic sectors, and on labour productivity and employment in the United States. Moreover, in contrast to most cross-country results, our within U.S. estimates tend to be asymmetrical with respect to deviations of climate variables (including precipitation) from their historical norms.
    Keywords: Climate change, economic growth, adaptation, United States
    JEL: C33 O40 O44 O51 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022–01
  25. By: Di Falco, Salvatore (University of Geneva); Kis, Anna B. (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva); Viarengo, Martina (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva)
    Abstract: We re-examine the effects of negative weather anomalies during the growing season on the decision to migrate in rural households in five sub-Saharan African countries. To this end we combine a multi-country household panel dataset with high-resolution gridded precipitation data. We find that while the effect of recent adverse weather shocks is on average modest, the cumulative effect of a persistent exposure to droughts over several years leads to a significant increase in the probability to migrate. The results show that more frequent adverse shocks can have more significant and long-lasting consequences in challenging economic environments.
    Keywords: climate shocks, rural-urban migration, economic development
    JEL: O15 O13 Q54
    Date: 2022–02
  26. By: Hadachek, Jeffrey; Saitone, Tina L.; Sexton, Richard J.; Raszap Skorbiansky, Sharon; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Effland, Anne
    Abstract: Even as organic products have become more widely available, most organic growers in the United States still participate in niche markets, with few buyers and sellers and few trades being executed at a given area or point in time, relative to conventional segments of the market. Despite an increase in both organic production and available information to support decision making, growers continue to face challenges related to the thinness of organic markets. This report examines organic dairy and beef markets, including major feed inputs, to assess the current competitive status of these markets. Specifically, in each market, this report considers factors fundamental to determining whether buyers and sellers can form long-term, mutually beneficial buyer/seller relationships that may limit thin market challenges that might otherwise arise.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, Industrial Organization, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Productivity Analysis, Public Economics, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2022–02–08
  27. By: Antoine Mandel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Timothy Tiggeloven (VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam]); Daniel Lincke (Global Climate Forum e.V.); Elco Koks (VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam]); Philip Ward (VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam]); Jochen Hinkel (Global Climate Forum e.V.)
    Abstract: There is increasing concern among financial regulators that changes in the distribution and frequency of extreme weather events induced by climate change could pose a threat to global financial stability. We assess this risk, for the case of floods, by developping a simple model of the propagation of climate-induced shocks through financial networks. We show that the magnitude of global risks is determined by the interplay between the exposure of countries to climate-related natural hazards and their financial leverage. Climate change induces a shift in the distribution of impacts towards high-income countries and thus larger amplification of impacts as the financial sectors of high-income countries are more leveraged. Conversely, high-income countries are more exposed to financial shocks. In high-end climate scenarios, this could lead to the emergence of systemic risk as total impacts become commensurate with the capital of the banking sectors of countries that are hubs of the global financial network. Adaptation policy, or the lack thereof, appears to be one of the key risk drivers as it determines the future exposure of high-income coun
    Keywords: Financial Stability,Climate Impacts,Flood Risks
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Janda, Karel; Benes, Ondrej
    Abstract: This paper deals with technological and legislation features of biofuels development. We look at all 2nd generation (2G) end products, the three major conversion pathways and especially the feedstock, with differentiates 2G biofuels from the conventional, 1G fuels. In the legislation and policies review we provide a timeline pointing out the major changes and policies, as well as brief comments on their applications. We look at biofuels policies for the three top player in biofuels production, the U.S., Brazil and the European Union. Because the 1st generation is strongly associated with the food-fuel debate we then focus on its link to the 2G as well, showing how these links are weaker and manageable, although with some challenges still present.
    Keywords: Ethanol,Biodiesel,policies,technologies
    JEL: Q42 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2022
  29. By: Vaiknoras, Kate; Hahn, William; Padilla, Samantha; Valcu-Lisman, Adriana; Grossen, Grace
    Abstract: The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the U.S. meat industry in 2020 as social distancing and stay-at-home orders led to a decline in food-away-from-home (FAFH) purchases. In addition, worker illnesses at packing plants led to a slowdown in slaughtering and some plant shutdowns, particularly at pork and beef packing facilities, which caused problems for animal producers that had nowhere to send animals that were ready for slaughter. This paper uses data from a variety of sources to describe the changes to meat and poultry supply chains in 2020. At the beginning of 2020, cattle and hog slaughter rates were higher than in 2019, but they began to decline in April, reaching a low the week ending May 2, 2020, when slaughter for cattle and hogs was only 65 percent of that week’s 2019 slaughter. Slaughter rates rebounded by June, although a backlog of animals still needed to be processed. From mid-April to mid-June 2020, the fall in slaughter rates combined with an increase in retail demand drove a large margin between wholesale meat and livestock prices. Retail purchases of meat at grocery stores surged the week ending March 15, 2020, to 75 percent above that week’s 2019 meat sales. At the same time, food purchases at restaurants and other food-service establishments plummeted. High cold storage stocks of meat in early 2020 may have helped grocery retailers maintain high levels of sales during the supply disruptions in April and May 2020. Retail purchases remained higher for most remaining weeks of 2020 compared to 2019.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Health Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Public Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–02–03
  30. By: Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu (Excelia Group | La Rochelle Business School, CeRIIM - Excelia Group | La Rochelle Business School); Amir Hasnaoui (Excelia Group | La Rochelle Business School, CeRIIM - Excelia Group | La Rochelle Business School); Joelle Morana (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Feizar Rueda (Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas [Bogota])
    Keywords: Supply Chain Traceability,Social Improvement,Digitalization,Performance,Food assistance programs
    Date: 2021–09–29
  31. By: Gasmi, Farid; Recuero Virto, Laura; Couvet, Denis
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of economic growth in coastal economies with the purpose of highlighting the impact of human activity pressure on mangrove blue carbon (BC). We use a Bayesian Model Averaging-based estimation technique to fit alternative growth theories to 1960-2009 data on a BC sample of 23 coastal countries and a worldwide (WW) sample of 83 countries. In addition to having high mangrove blue carbon climate change mitigation potential, a representative country from the BC sample possesses features commonly associated with developing countries. Moreover, such a country’s natural capital per capita has decreased by more than 50% during the half-century span of our data and its dependence on natural capital is almost twice as high as that of its WW counterpart. We find that the neoclassical theory, through income and investment in physical capital, demography, macroeconomic policy, and natural capital theories perform well in explaining growth in BC countries. In contrast, investment in physical capital and proxies for the macroeconomic policy and natural capital theories are found not to be good predictors of growth when using the WW sample of countries. These results put the finger on the critical problem of existing and potential anthropogenic pressure that coastal areas with BC are and can be subject to due to land conversion for agriculture, aquaculture, farming and other run-offs, marine resources exploitation, uncontrolled sewage, marine resources direct exploitation, and coastal constructions and public works related to natural capital exports. This admittedly grim picture of the coasts draws attention to at least two policy questions, namely, whether central governments ought to give local policy makers and communities incentives to promote nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and the extent to which international financial institutions should provide financial support for such initiatives in developing countries.
    Keywords: Economic growth; coastal countries; mangrove blue carbon,;developing countries.
    JEL: O10 O13 Q20 Q22
    Date: 2022–02
  32. By: Kramer, Berber; Pattnaik, Subhransu; Ward, Patrick S.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the potential linkages between innovations in agricultural credit and women’s empowerment. We provide survey evidence of lower baseline demand for agricultural credit among women than men. When asked to imagine that their financial institution would use data on past cultivation through observations of smartphone and satellite imagery to review loan applications and insure loans, women reported significantly more often than men that this would increase (and not decrease) the likelihood that they would apply for loans, and their desired loan amounts increased significantly more than those of men. Moreover, we find that the gender gap in demand for agricultural credit is explained, in part, by differences in empowerment between women and men, suggesting that increasing women’s empowerment could help bridge gender gaps in credit access and utilization. Using a cluster randomized trial, we assess whether gender sensitization has an effect on women’s empowerment and demand for credit, but we do not find that gender trainings help shift women’s empowerment or demand for credit. We conclude that improving access to digital credit is not going to be sufficient to empower women. Instead, gender responsive or gender transformative programming is required to improve demand and create an enabling environment in which norms are changed and make it easier for women to take out agricultural credit.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; gender; demand; agricultural credit; credit; digital technology; surveys; microfinance; women's empowerment; digital credit
    Date: 2021
  33. By: Barbara A. Butrica; Stipica Mudrazija; Jonathan Schwabish
    Abstract: Retiring baby boomers are increasing the demand for Social Security Administration (SSA) services at a time when budget constraints and retiring staff are limiting its capacity to deliver these services. In theory, investing in web-based tools that people can use to serve themselves could help SSA meet the projected increases in demand, even with fewer staff. But, despite investments in tools with significant labor-saving potential, such as online benefit application, usage of these tools has stalled since 2016. This study of online claiming is based on a survey of older individuals who either claimed their Old Age and Survivor (OASI) benefit in the past five years or intend to claim within the next five years. The survey covered: 1) how they submitted (or intend to submit) their benefit application; and 2) how they communicated (or intend to communicate) with SSA during the process.
    Date: 2021–11

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.