nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒02‒21
thirty-six papers chosen by

  1. Does the uptake of multiple climate smart agriculture practices enhance household savings, food security and household vulnerability to climate change? Insights from Zimbabwe By Boscow Okumu; Herbert Ntuli; Edwin Muchapondwa; Gibson Mudiriza; Alfred Mukong
  2. Interventions for inclusive and efficient value chains: Insights from CGIAR research By de Brauw, Alan; Bulte, Erwin
  3. Climate-smart crop insurance to promote adoption of stress-tolerant seeds: Midterm findings from a cluster randomized trial By Cecchi, Francesco; Chegeh, Joseph; Aredo, Samson Dejene; Kivuva, Benjamin; Kramer, Berber; Waithaka, Lilian; Waweru, Carol
  4. Benefits and costs of EU marketing standards for agri-food products By RUSSO Carlo; SANSONE Marcello; COLAMATTEO Annarita; PAGNANELLI Maria Anna; TWUM Kyei Edward
  5. Costing healthy diets and measuring deprivation: New indicators and modeling approaches By Pauw, Karl; Ecker, Olivier; Thurlow, James; Comstock, Andrew R.
  6. Potential impact of dietary changes on the triple challenge facing food systems: Three stylised scenarios By Grégoire Tallard; Marcel Adenäuer; Koen Deconinck; Gaëlle Gouarin
  7. Exploring small scale irrigation-nutrition linkages By Choufani, Jowel; Bryan, Elizabeth; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Ringler, Claudia
  8. Is agricultural insurance fulfilling its promise for the developing world? By Kramer, Berber; Hazell, Peter; Alderman, Harold; Ceballos, Francisco; Kumar, Neha; Timu, Anne G.
  9. Gendered perceptions in maize supply chains: Evidence from Uganda By Van Campenhout, Bjorn; De, Anusha
  10. CGIAR research on agricultural insurance: Past achievements and future research priorities By Kramer, Berber; Ceballos, Francisco; Hazell, Peter; Timu, Anne G.
  11. Climate change, agriculture, and potential crop yields in Central Asia By Thomas, Timothy S.; Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Robertson, Richard D.; Nazareth, Vijay; Ilyasov, Jarilkasin
  12. The relationship between household gender attitudes and women’s poultry production: Evidence from Burkina Faso By Leight, Jessica; Martinez, Elena M.; Heckert, Jessica; Gelli, Aulo
  13. How might gender norms mediate the benefits of higher coffee production in Uganda? By Doan, Miki; Hoffmann, Vivian
  14. Recall Bias Revisited: Measure Farm Labor Using Mixed-Mode Surveys and Multiple Imputation By Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Carletto, Calogero
  15. Securing food for all in Bangladesh: Synopsis By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  16. Low-cost products in the internationalization of agri-food markets: The case of European exports of milk powders to West Africa By Christian Corniaux; Guillaume Duteurtre; Djiby Dia; Vincent Chatellier
  17. Soil carbon sequestration by agriculture: Policy options By Ben Henderson; Jussi Lankoski; Eimear Flynn; Alastair Sykes; Florian Payen; Michael MacLeod
  18. Harmonizing and reducing trade distorting domestic support: An analysis of the impacts of new domestic support disciplines at the WTO By Glauber, Joseph W.; Laborde Debucquet, David; Piñeiro, Valeria
  19. Income, subsidies and the future CAP: focus on French farms specialised in field crops and ruminant livestock By Vincent Chatellier; Cécile Detang-Dessendre; Pierre Dupraz; Hervé Guyomard
  20. Tenure security research: Key findings and lessons learned By McLain, Rebecca
  21. Covid-19, international agricultural economy and animal sectors: the case of China, the United States and the EU By Vincent Chatellier; Jean-Marc Chaumet; Thierry Pouch
  22. Digital management of irrigation water and agriculture: Transparency and accountability towards resilience and sustainable development By Angelos Alamanos; Phoebe Koundouri; Lydia Papadaki; Tatiana Pliakou
  23. A general framework for the generation of probabilistic socioeconomic scenarios and risk quantification concerning food security with application in the Upper Nile river basin By Phoebe Koundouri; Georgios I. Papayiannis; Achilleas Vassilopoulos; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
  24. Will emerging local supply chains be resilient? By Claude Ménard
  25. Entry and Spatial Competition of Intermediaries: Evidence from Thailand’s Rice Market By Bunyada Laoprapassorn
  26. Subjective well-being and climate change: Evidence for Portugal By Ary José A. Souza-Jr.
  27. The sensitivity of the income of French farms to a reorientation of aid under the future post-2023 CAP By Vincent Chatellier; Cécile Detang-Dessendre; Pierre Dupraz; Hervé Guyomard
  28. Agri-food trade in the EU and France between 2000 and 2020 By Vincent Chatellier; Thierry Pouch
  29. Protection of Geographical Indications at E.U. Level By Mihai Dorel Vlad; Sara Vlad
  30. Zero Carbon Supply Chains: The Case of Hamburg By ITF
  31. Artificial Intelligence and Food Industry By Sonal Pandey
  32. Climate Change and Economic Activity: Evidence from U.S. States By Mohaddes, K.; Ng, R. N. C.; Pesaran, M. H.; Raissi, M.; Yang, J-C.
  33. Risks on global financial stability induced by climate change: the case of flood risks By Antoine Mandel; Timothy Tiggeloven; Daniel Lincke; Elco Koks; Philip Ward; Jochen Hinkel
  34. Leveraging food systems for poverty and malnutrition reduction By Ahmed Raza; Fábio Veras Soares
  35. Seed systems and markets: Reflection on policy progress and political economy By Spielman, David J.
  36. Including agricultural water management in the governance and sustainable development of rural territories By Mathieu Boche (AFD),; Julien Burte (CIRAD) et; Meriem Jouini (FUNCEME)

  1. By: Boscow Okumu; Herbert Ntuli; Edwin Muchapondwa; Gibson Mudiriza; Alfred Mukong
    Abstract: Climate change and variability poses a significant hindrance on agricultural productivity. The adverse effects are particularly concerning in many African countries that rely more on rainfed subsistence agriculture for livelihood. The promotion of climate smart agriculture technologies as a pathway to enhancing food security, farmer’s welfare, and providing climate adaptation and mitigation benefits is one of the several interventions aimed at improving agricultural productivity. However, there has been a dearth of evidence on the determinants of adoption of climate smart agriculture practices as well as the impact of climate smart agriculture practices on food security and household welfare. This paper contributes to this knowledge gap by using the probit model to explore the drivers of uptake of climate smart agriculture practices and the inverse probability weighting regression model and the instrumental variable approach to assess the impact on food security and household savings and household vulnerability. We find that the adoption of climate smart agriculture practices among smallholder farmers is influenced by land ownership, climatic variables, land terrain, and household sociodemographic characteristics. The study further revealed that adoption of climate smart agriculture practices leads to reduction in household savings and household vulnerability but leads to improved food security. The findings suggest the need to promote climate smart agriculture practices aimed at livestock management, enhanced agricultural extension work and reduced resource constraints that inhibit farmer’s capacity to adopt complementary practices among others.
    Keywords: Climate Smart, food security, savings, Vulnerability
    JEL: Q01 Q18 Q54 O13
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: de Brauw, Alan; Bulte, Erwin
    Abstract: Efforts to promote the development of agricultural value chains are a common element of strategies to stimulate economic growth in low-income countries. Since the world food price crisis in 2007-2008, developing country governments, international donor agencies, and development practitioners have placed additional emphasis on making agricultural value chains work better for the poor. As value chains evolve to serve new markets, they tend to become less inclusive. For example, if a market for high quality rice arises within an economy, it is inherently easier for traders who sell rice to retailers to source that high quality rice from larger farms that are better able to control its quality than from dozens of smallholder farms. As a result, the normal path of value chain evolution can be biased against smallholders; hence, it is important to understand what types of interventions can make value chains more inclusive while also making them more efficient. In this brief, we summarize studies on five types of value chain interventions that were supported by the CGIAR’s Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) through its Flagship 3 on Inclusive and Effective Value Chains. Figure 1 illustrates a “typical†agricultural value chain, including the five intervention types (in orange). These include interventions that attempt to deal with multiple production constraints; certification; contract farming; public-private partnerships; and “other†services related to trading and marketing agricultural products. Apart from the last category, these interventions all involve production. This reflects the fact that smallholder producers can be considered, in some ways, the weakest link in evolving agricultural value chains (de Brauw and Bulte 2021). Hence, it is sensible to target interventions either at or close to smallholders. However, in some cases, the best way to overcome smallholder constraints may be to help actors at other points in the value chain overcome constraints. Many interventions share a focus on reducing transaction costs to promote smallholder market integration. Ideally, interventions increase both efficiency and inclusion, but we observe that such win-win outcomes are rare. Trade-offs appear to be more common than synergies, and some value chain interventions involve clear winners and losers.
    Keywords: WORLD; value chains; public-private partnerships; inclusion; smallholders; policies; certification; contract farming; intervention; agricultural value chains; farmers
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Cecchi, Francesco; Chegeh, Joseph; Aredo, Samson Dejene; Kivuva, Benjamin; Kramer, Berber; Waithaka, Lilian; Waweru, Carol
    Abstract: Too often, smallholder farmers suffer severe financial consequences from extreme weather events, pests, and disease; and climate change will increase the frequency at which natural hazards occur. This poses a threat to livelihoods not only ex post, by reducing agricultural output and inducing farmers to sell their assets, keep children out of school or borrow at high rates; but also ex ante, by discouraging farmers from investing in high-return practices and technologies (Elbers et al., 2007). Innovative solutions are needed to help marginalized farmers prepare for these natural hazards. One solution, building upon decades of agricultural research for development, can be found in the breeding of crop varieties that are more tolerant to weather shocks, pests and disease. The resulting improvements in seed technology offer promising pathways to improve farmers’ adaptive capacity, crowd in investments in agriculture, and thereby enhance agricultural productivity (Emerick et al., 2016). At the same time, stress tolerance is not a bullet-proof solution against all hazards. Farming is risky by nature, and improved stress-tolerant varieties will not shield farmers from more severe hazards, or from risks for which stress tolerance was not an explicit breeding objective. Drought-tolerant varieties are, for instance, not necessarily disease tolerant as well. Improving resilience in the face of climate change will require a more complete solution, in which farmers invest in stress-tolerant varieties to reduce their exposure to moderate, manageable risks, whilst accessing other types of solutions, including financial services, to protect their livelihoods from more severe and catastrophic production risks. This project note describes the findings from a research program in Kenya that aims to design, implement, and evaluate more complete risk management solutions; in particular, a solution that promotes stress-tolerant crops and varieties using an innovative picture-based crop insurance (PBI) product. The note first describes this intervention and the study designed to measure its impacts, followed by an overview of key findings at midline. This will include insights on the scalability of picture-based claims settlement, opportunities for more gender-responsive program design, and demand for the insurance product. We conclude by describing key challenges faced whilst implementing these solutions and providing an outlook for the future.
    Keywords: KENYA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; insurance; seeds; smallholders; climate-smart agriculture; climate change; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; risk; risk management; agricultural insurance; crop insurance; mobile telephones; technology; Picture-Based Crop Insurance (PBI); smartphones
    Date: 2021
  4. By: RUSSO Carlo; SANSONE Marcello; COLAMATTEO Annarita; PAGNANELLI Maria Anna; TWUM Kyei Edward
    Abstract: This Report summarizes the findings emerging from the online workshop on ‘Marketing Standards: Benefits and costs of EU marketing standards for agri-food products’ which was organized by the Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development (DG-AGRI) and Joint Research Centre (JRC) on September 9th 2021. The discussion revolves around three main issues regarding the EU marketing standards: i) Do the benefits from current regulation exceed the costs? ii) What are the implications of EU regulations for international trade and producers? and iii) What are the possible effects of a change in regulation, updating EU marketing standards to promote a sustainable agrifood system and adjust to changes in consumer preferences and technology?
    Keywords: Marketing standards, food chain, EU regulation, European Green Deal, Farm to Fork Strategy
    Date: 2022–01
  5. By: Pauw, Karl; Ecker, Olivier; Thurlow, James; Comstock, Andrew R.
    Abstract: One of the greatest global challenges today is ensuring widespread availability and equitable access to affordable, nutritious foods produced in an environmentally sustainable manner. A rich literature exists around the definition of a healthy diet and the drivers of dietary change. We contribute to this literature by proposing a new quantifiable diet deprivation measure estimated from standard household consumption and expenditure surveys. The Reference Diet Deprivation (ReDD) index measures the incidence, breadth, and depth of diet deprivation across multiple, essential food groups in a single indicator. Although useful as a standalone measure, we show how ReDD can be integrated into an economywide model to examine changes in household diet quality under different simulation scenarios. Using Nigeria as case study, hypothetical agricultural productivity growth scenarios reveal that dairy, pulses, fruit, and red meat value chains have the greatest potential to reduce overall diet deprivation in Nigeria per unit of GDP growth generated, while productivity growth in more widely consumed crops such as cereals and root crops do little to improve diet quality. These findings have implications for the prioritization of agricultural development initiatives aimed at improving the quality of diets. More generally, the integration of a diet quality indicator in an economywide model allows for a deeper understanding of the drivers of dietary change.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; diet; dietary guidelines; consumer behaviour; modelling; dietary diversity; food prices; value chains; diet quality; diet deprivation; affordability of healthy diets; dietary change; economywide modeling
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Grégoire Tallard; Marcel Adenäuer; Koen Deconinck; Gaëlle Gouarin
    Abstract: A shift towards healthier diets is expected to address the challenge of providing food security and nutrition for a growing global population. This report explores whether such a shift would also have positive effects on the other two challenges food systems face: supporting livelihoods for those working along the food supply chain and contributing to environmental sustainability. The report finds that aligning diets with World Health Organisation guidelines on sugar and fat consumption would have the expected positive effect on nutrition and food security, and would also positively affect environmental sustainability. The effect on livelihoods along the food value chain, however, would overall be negative. The magnitude of the trade-offs and synergies are greater when fat consumption is reduced, as opposed to sugar consumption, because actual consumption levels of fat are further away from WHO recommendations.
    Keywords: Dietary recommendations, Food security, Overweight, Sustainability, Undernourishment
    JEL: C53 I10 Q01 Q02 Q54
    Date: 2022–01–19
  7. By: Choufani, Jowel; Bryan, Elizabeth; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Ringler, Claudia
    Abstract: The evidence on the potential for agricultural interventions to contribute to improved nutrition has grown considerably over the past decade (Ruel et al., 2018). Numerous studies have explored both positive and negative effects of agriculture on nutrition and health (Ruel and Alderman, 2013; Herforth and Harris, 2014; Masset et al., 2012; Hoddinott, 2012). However, as an important and growing component of agriculture, smallscale irrigation has not yet been given the attention it deserves. The Innovation Laboratory for Small Scale Irrigation (ILSSI) set out, among others, to fill the evidence gap on irrigation-nutrition linkages. Domènech (2015) describes several potential pathways through which irrigation can influence food security, nutrition, and health outcomes, including 1) a production pathway, 2) an income pathway, 3) a water supply pathway, and 4) a women’s empowerment pathway. To illustrate these pathways, we adapted the agriculturenutrition framework of Herforth and Harris (2014) to include irrigation (Figure 1), while also noting a fifth, negative pathway that links irrigation to water pollution and disease via the application of fertilizers and pesticides and via supporting vector-borne diseases, such as malaria or schistosomiasis, respectively (Passarelli et al., 2018).
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, GHANA, WEST AFRICA, TANZANIA, irrigation, nutrition, innovation, agriculture, intervention, empowerment, gender, women, women's empowerment, small scale irrigation
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Kramer, Berber; Hazell, Peter; Alderman, Harold; Ceballos, Francisco; Kumar, Neha; Timu, Anne G.
    Abstract: Agricultural insurance has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Innovations in agricultural index insurance have raised expectations that the private sector can overcome shortcomings associated with more traditional indemnity-based products like multi-peril crop insurance, and contribute to strengthen agricultural risk management at scale across developing countries. This paper updates previous reviews on agricultural insurance but differs in that it goes beyond the prognosis that recent innovations can help make insurance more commercially viable. As such, it addresses two important challenges that have received limited attention. First, it distinguishes different types of farm households and recognizes that many are excluded from the insurance market, describing additional innovations that can help make insurance more accessible to these excluded groups. Second, it acknowledges that insurance for catastrophic risks is unaffordable for most farmers and summarizes new developments in disaster assistance and safety net programs that can provide broader protection against these risks.
    Keywords: agricultural insurance; technology; innovation; social safety nets; disasters; literature reviews; technological innovations; disaster assistance
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Van Campenhout, Bjorn; De, Anusha
    Abstract: In situations with imperfect information, the way that value chain actors perceive each other is an important determinant of the value chain's structure and performance. Inaccurate perceptions may result in inefficient value chains, and systematic bias in perceptions may affect nclusiveness. In a case study on perceptions in Ugandan maize supply chains, a random sample of farmers were asked to rate upstream and downstream value chain actors-agro-input dealers, traders, and processors-on a set of important attributes that included ease of access, quality of services rendered, price competitiveness, and overall reputation. These value chain actors were then tracked and asked to assess themselves on the same set of attributes. We find that input dealers, traders, and processors assess themselves more favourably than farmers do. We also focus on heterogeneity in perceptions related to gender and find that for self- assessments, the gender of the value chain actor does not matter. However, the difference between how actors assess themselves and how farmers perceive them is larger for male than for female farmers, as female farmers appear to rate dealers, traders, and processors signicantly higher in several dimensions. The gender of the actor being rated does not affect the rating they receive, and gender-based homophily among women is not present in rating behaviour.
    Keywords: UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; gender; maize; supply chains; women; value chains; farmers; trade
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Kramer, Berber; Ceballos, Francisco; Hazell, Peter; Timu, Anne G.
    Abstract: KEY MESSAGES • A recent external review of IFPRI’s research on agricultural insurance found that, since 2009, IFPRI has made important contributions to the literature on factors constraining farmers’ demand for agricultural insurance and on gender inclusiveness of insurance and, since 2015, has focused more specifically on developing new forms of insurance that can reduce basis risk at the farm level and make insurance more attractive to farmers. • IFPRI’s work on flexible insurance contracts, picture-based insurance, and bundling agricultural insurance with credit, seeds, and other agricultural services shows that well-designed insurance can significantly improve on standard index products, increase demand among smallholders, and lead to greater use of bundled inputs like improved seeds and climate-smart farming practices. • ILRI’s long-term success with its index-based livestock insurance (IBLI) product illustrates that an action-oriented approach aimed at working with strong implementing partners on the ground ensures that, when a product is successful, it has the potential to scale up quickly, leading to significant development impacts. • Important knowledge gaps that warrant further CGIAR research include: 1) segmenting product design and marketing strategies for different target groups, such as sustainable commercial insurance and inclusive insurance; 2) the value and optimal design of programs and policies to remove tail-end catastrophic risks, and of insurance more broadly within a more holistic risk management framework; and 3) cost-benefit analyses around the net social benefits of insurance subsidies, and how these subsidies can best be designed and targeted to achieve their purposes.
    Keywords: agricultural insurance; research; livestock insurance; insurance; livestock; risk management; public policies; picture-based insurance
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Thomas, Timothy S.; Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Robertson, Richard D.; Nazareth, Vijay; Ilyasov, Jarilkasin
    Abstract: Agriculture in Central Asia is vulnerable to climate change due to rising aridity, declining availability of water resources for irrigation, and low adaptive capacity. We use climate data from CMIP5 with RCP8.5 for greenhouse gas emissions and the DSSAT crop model to investigate how yields of key crops in Central Asia will be affected by climate change. We distinguish changes in yields between spring and winter plantings, between irrigated and rainfed crops, and between crops grown with high and low amounts of fertilizer. The results suggest that countries (and areas within countries) that either have moderate summers or grow a number of crops in a relatively cold winter will benefit from climate change, while countries that grow many of the crops in the summer will experience losses.
    Keywords: UZBEKISTAN; CENTRAL ASIA; ASIA; climate change; agriculture; crops; modelling; yields; greenhouse gas emissions; land reform; crop modeling; DSSAT
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Leight, Jessica; Martinez, Elena M.; Heckert, Jessica; Gelli, Aulo
    Abstract: Enhancing women’s participation in agricultural production, including livestock production, has the potential to generate a range of benefits for rural households in the developing world. These benefits include enhanced economic welfare, investment in children’s health and nutrition, and empowerment for women. However, attitudes and norms may shape the ability of women to engage in a broader range of productive activities if those activities are not viewed as traditionally female domains. The attitudes of women themselves and their husbands may be particularly salient: if women do not view livestock production as an appropriate activity to pursue based on their perception of community norms, they may not be responsive to economic incentives designed to encourage their involvement. Similarly, if husbands do not view ownership and control over assets or the sale of agriculture as appropriate roles for their wives, it may be very challenging for women to maintain or increase their role in household agricultural production.
    Keywords: BURKINA FASO; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; poultry; gender; women; households; rural areas; livestock products; livestock; agricultural production; poultry production; gender attitudes
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Doan, Miki; Hoffmann, Vivian
    Abstract: Expanding coffee exports is a major goal of Uganda’s government. By focusing on this high-value crop, almost all of which is sold to higher-income countries, Uganda hopes to boost farmers’ incomes and increase the country’s foreign exchange earnings as well as its tax base (UCDA, n.d.). The average yield of smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda amounts to just third of the crop’s agronomic potential (Mongoya, 2018). The opportunity to increase yields – and thus the incomes of some of the world’s poorest farmers – by improving agronomic practices has spurred major philanthropic investment in coffee agronomy training in Uganda. However, gender norms and related constraints may affect how coffee income is distributed within households, and in this way erode the benefits this income brings to rural populations. In many settings, men have traditionally taken the lead role in production of cash crops grown for sale, while women have managed crops grown purely or primarily for subsistence (World Bank, FAO and IFAD, 2009). In this note, we describe results from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation of the Uganda Coffee Agronomy Training (UCAT) program, which aims to train 60,000 smallholder coffee growers over four years. For each cohort of farmers, the program lasts approximately two years, and is delivered through 22 training sessions held monthly for 11 months of the year.
    Keywords: UGANDA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; gender; women; coffee beans; agricultural production; surveys; households; income; coffee; Uganda Coffee Agronomy Training (UCAT)
    Date: 2021
  14. By: Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Carletto, Calogero
    Abstract: Smallholder farming dominates agriculture in poorer countries. Yet, traditional recall-based surveys on smallholder farming in these countries face challenges with seasonal variations, high survey costs, poor record-keeping, and technical capacity constraints resulting in significant recall bias. We offer the first study that employs a less-costly, imputation-based alternative using mixed modes of data collection to obtain estimates on smallholder farm labor. Using data from Tanzania, we find that parsimonious imputation models based on small samples of a benchmark weekly in-person survey can offer reasonably accurate estimates. Furthermore, we also show how less accurate, but also less resource-intensive, imputation-based measures using a weekly phone survey may provide a viable alternative for the more costly weekly in-person survey. If replicated in other contexts, including for other types of variables that suffer from similar recall bias, these results could open up a new and cost-effective way to collect more accurate data at scale.
    Keywords: farm labor,agricultural productivity,multiple imputation,missing data,survey data,Tanzania
    JEL: C8 J2 O12 Q12
    Date: 2022
  15. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; agricultural production; food production; food security; technology; poverty; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; rice; irrigation; fertilizers; intervention; water resources; water; seed; seeding; trade; value chains; food prices; onions; cash transfers; social protection; rural areas; violence; behavior change communication; intimate partner violence
    Date: 2021
  16. By: Christian Corniaux (UMR SELMET - Systèmes d'élevage méditerranéens et tropicaux - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Guillaume Duteurtre (ISRA - Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles [Dakar]); Djiby Dia (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The internationalization of agricultural markets is a process that has been underway for many decades, some areas of the planet having a greater potential for agricultural production than others, at least in proportion to their population. The development of trade in agricultural and agri-food goods, encouraged in particular by logistical progress and liberalization policies (lowering of customs duties), concerns low value-added products (low-cost) destined for the poorest countries on the planet. The following analysis focuses on one of these products, namely blends of milk powder and palm oil, where trade flows have been growing rapidly for about a decade. The focus is on imports from West African countries for this particular product, which are mainly supplied to the European Union (EU), where these products are not traded. This approach has three main objectives: to gain a better understanding of the internal and external logic behind the development of these flows; to quantify the importance of these trade flows and the potential substitution effects that they induce in terms of imported dairy products; and to discuss the implications that these imports may have for local dairy sector.
    Abstract: L'internationalisation des marchés agricoles est un processus engagé depuis de nombreuses décennies, certaines zones de la planète ayant un potentiel de production agricole plus important que d'autres, du moins au prorata de leur population. Le développement du commerce de biens agricoles et agroalimentaires, encouragé notamment par les progrès logistiques et les politiques de libéralisation (baisse des droits de douanes), porte pour une part sur des produits à faible valeur ajoutée (low-cost) destinés souvent aux pays les plus pauvres de la planète. L'analyse qui suit s'intéresse à l'un de ces produits, à savoir les mélanges de poudre de lait et d'huile de palme, dont les courants d'échanges augmentent rapidement depuis environ une décennie. Une focalisation est faite principalement sur les importations des pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest pour ce produit particulier, et dont les approvisionnements se font essentiellement dans l'Union européenne (UE), zone où ces produits ne sont pas commercialisés. Cette démarche poursuit trois objectifs principaux : mieux comprendre les logiques internes et externes qui sont à l'origine du développement de ces flux ; quantifier l'importance de ces courants d'échanges et des potentiels effets de substitution que ceux-ci induisent en termes de produits laitiers importés ; discuter des implications potentielles que ces importations peuvent avoir pour la filière laitière locale.
    Keywords: Agri-food trade,West Africa,Dairy sector,Low-cost products,Commerce agroalimentaire,Afrique de l’Ouest,Secteur laitier,Produits low-cost
    Date: 2021–12–09
  17. By: Ben Henderson (OECD); Jussi Lankoski (OECD); Eimear Flynn (OECD); Alastair Sykes (Scotland’s Rural College); Florian Payen (Scotland’s Rural College); Michael MacLeod (Scotland’s Rural College)
    Abstract: Net soil carbon sequestration on agricultural lands could offset 4% of annual global human-induced GHG emissions over the rest of the century and make an important contribution to meeting the targets of the Paris Agreement. To harness this potential of the agricultural sector to positively contribute to the sustainability agenda, a package of policies is needed to enhance global soil carbon stocks. Such a package would include regulations to prevent the loss of soil carbon, knowledge transfer policies to promote “win-win” solutions, and additional incentives delivered via market-based policies. The latter will need to be supported by innovative contracting solutions to address concerns about the non-permanence of carbon stocks and to reduce transaction costs.
    Keywords: Climate change, GHG, Mitigation, Sequestration practices
    JEL: Q1 Q2 Q5 Q18 Q24 Q28 Q54 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2022–01–24
  18. By: Glauber, Joseph W.; Laborde Debucquet, David; Piñeiro, Valeria
    Abstract: The upcoming WTO Ministerial in November 2021 will once again provide WTO Members with an opportunity to address and reform agricultural domestic support. As pointed out in the Draft Chair Text on Agriculture of 29 July 2021, the Domestic Support pillar has been at the heart of the agricultural negotiations since their commencement in 2000, and, to date, has proven to be a challenging area to achieve consensus on how best to further reforms in that area. This paper examines three broad questions: First, what would be the effect on agricultural trade if Members were to fully utilize domestic support entitlements under the current Agreement on Agriculture. To study the role of existing policy space inherited from the Uruguay Round, we examine the impact of full utilization of domestic support entitlements on agricultural markets. Under the scenario, trade-distorting support would increase to USD 1.3 trillion, 5.5 times the level under the baseline scenario (USD 246 billion). Assuming full use of policy space, global agricultural production is projected to increase by 6 percent and global prices will drop by 8 percent, with all agricultural product prices showing declines. While farm income rises, a greater share of farm income comes from taxpayer resources, and the efficiency of additional transfers (ratio between increase in farmer income and taxpayer cost) is about 60 percent. The second objective of the paper is to discuss and analyze new disciplines that would further the re-forms accomplished under the Agreement on Agriculture by harmonizing support levels across Members and providing additional constraints to prevent Members from undermining these disciplines by concentrating support in a few commodities. The paper examines how these disciplines would affect production, prices, trade and farm sector income compared to a business-as-usual baseline. We find that using an overall concept of Overall Trade Distorting Support including all forms of trade-distorting measures, associated with amber and blue boxes, will have very negligible impacts on applied policies by 2030 and small effects on the agricultural markets overall. Extending this discipline to measures currently notified under Art. 6.2., the development box, will not put significant constraints on developing countries. Moving to this simplified and more transparent framework will require to define properly an anti-concentration clause, limiting the amount of payments that can benefit the producers of a specific commodity. Such feature will be quite important for sensitive commodities like cotton. Lastly, the paper examines how the proposed disciplines would affect agricultural markets under the alternative baseline that assumes that Members will utilize full entitlements under the current AoA. De-pending on the discipline scenarios, the potential subsidies increase will be reduced by USD 240 billion to USD 800 billion.
    Keywords: models; computable general equilibrium models; trade; WTO; agricultural trade; MIRAGRODEP; Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model
    Date: 2021
  19. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Cécile Detang-Dessendre (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Pierre Dupraz (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Hervé Guyomard (Services déconcentrés d'appui à la recherche Bretagne-Normandie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: Using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), this article first presents an overview of French agricultural incomes over the decade 2010-2019, notably of their heterogeneity according to production types, size and location. It illustrates their dependency on the various types of direct aids of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). On this basis, it then analyses the sensitivity of farm incomes to three scenarios for the restructuring of CAP direct aids. The first considers a change in the way coupled supports are granted to bovine productions. The second measures the impact of full convergence, at the national level, of the basic payment per hectare. The third discusses the impact of increasing the redistributive payment on the first hectares of each farm. The dependency of certain categories of farms, including ruminants and crops, on direct aids is high and has increased over the last decade. It makes any ambitious restructuring of CAP support economically and politically difficult while there is urgency to increase the climatic and environmental efficiency of this policy and agriculture.
    Abstract: En utilisant les données du Réseau d'Information Comptable Agricole (RICA), cet article propose, dans un premier temps, un panorama des revenus des exploitations agricoles françaises sur la décennie 2010-2019, et de leur hétérogénéité selon l'orientation productive, la taille et la localisation. Il illustre leur dépendance aux différentes aides directes de la Politique Agricole Commune (PAC). Sur cette base, il analyse ensuite la sensibilité des revenus agricoles à trois scénarios de réorientation des aides directes de la PAC. Le premier considère une modification du mode d'octroi des aides couplées aux productions bovines. Le second mesure l'impact de la mise en œuvre d'une convergence intégrale, à l'échelle nationale, du montant du paiement de base par hectare. Le troisième discute de l'impact d'un renforcement du paiement redistributif sur les premiers hectares de chaque exploitation. La dépendance aux aides directes de certaines catégories d'exploitations, dont celles de ruminants et de grandes cultures, est forte et s'est accentuée. Elle rend économiquement et politiquement difficile une réorientation rapide et ambitieuse des soutiens de la PAC alors qu'il y a pourtant urgence à accroître l'efficacité climatique et environnementale de cette politique et de l'agriculture.
    Keywords: Farm income,Direct aid and future CAP,Revenus agricoles,Aides directes et future PAC
    Date: 2021–12–10
  20. By: McLain, Rebecca
    Abstract: Tenure insecurity has a variety of negative consequences for natural resource management, agricultural productivity, and poverty reduction, but the sources of tenure insecurity differ for men and women, and for individual, household, and collective lands. Research supported through PIM has helped advance policy reforms that improve access to, and tenure security of, land and natural resources and has supported more equitable and sustainable use of resources in less developed regions. Statutory recognition of customary rights, multistakeholder processes such as for land use planning, and organized social alliances such as Indigenous Peoples’ groups have emerged as important mechanisms for securing rights or enhancing access to collectively held lands. Long-term partnerships, ongoing engagement, and training for multiple actors at multiple scales increases the likelihood of successful implementation of tenure reforms. Further research on tenure security can contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, especially by clarifying how customary tenure can provide security and how tenure affects decision-making in multistakeholder platforms.
    Keywords: WORLD; tenure; research; tenure security; policies; reforms; Sustainable Development Goals
    Date: 2021
  21. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jean-Marc Chaumet (CNIEL - Centre National Interprofessionnel de l'Economie Laitière [Paris]); Thierry Pouch (URCA - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, APCA - Assemblée Permanente des Chambres d'Agriculture)
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic is a major global event. A reflection on the first implications of this sanitary crisis for the world agricultural economy and the animal sectors of three geographical areas is proposed in this article. The agri-food systems have been strongly affected by this crisis, whose global economic impacts (a 3.5% drop in world gross domestic product and a 5.3% drop in international trade in goods between 2019 and 2020) are affecting the purchasing power of final consumers. However, they have resisted the crisis well, both in terms of supply (stability or slight growth in the volumes of meat and milk produced on a global scale) and trade. In 2021, the sharp rise in international prices for agricultural products and the rapid resumption of economic growth, particularly in the three zones more specifically studied here (China, the United States and the European Union), suggest that agriculture should remain under pressure from sustained world demand. More than Covid-19, the impact of African swine fever in China has had a major impact on international meat trade flows for several years. In addition, the growing Chinese appetite for dairy products is playing a central role in the development of international dairy markets, to the benefit of exporting areas including the EU and the US.
    Abstract: La pandémie de Covid-19 est un évènement mondial majeur. Une réflexion sur les premières implications de cette crise sanitaire pour l'économie agricole mondiale et les filières animales est proposée dans le cadre de cet article. Les secteurs agricole et agroalimentaire ont été fortement concernés par cette crise dont les impacts économiques globaux (baisse de 3,5 % du produit intérieur brut mondial et de 5,3 % des échanges internationaux de marchandises entre 2019 et 2020) affectent le pouvoir d'achat des consommateurs finaux. Ils ont cependant bien résisté à la crise, tant au niveau de l'offre (stabilité ou légère croissance des volumes produits de viandes et de lait à l'échelle mondiale) que du commerce. En 2021, la forte hausse des prix internationaux des produits agricoles et la reprise rapide de la croissance économique, notamment dans les trois zones plus spécifiquement étudiées ici (Chine, Etats-Unis et Union européenne), suggèrent que l'agriculture devrait rester sous la pression d'une demande mondiale soutenue. Plus que la Covid-19, l'impact de la peste porcine africaine en Chine a eu, depuis plusieurs années, des répercussions majeures sur les courants d'échanges internationaux de viandes. De plus, l'appétit croissant des chinois pour les produits laitiers joue un rôle central dans le développement des marchés laitiers internationaux, au bénéfice des zones exportatrices dont l'Union européenne et les Etats-Unis.
    Keywords: Agricultural economy,Animal sector,EU,USA,China,Covid-19,Economie agricole,Filières animales,UE,Etats-Unis,Chine
    Date: 2021–12–09
  22. By: Angelos Alamanos; Phoebe Koundouri; Lydia Papadaki; Tatiana Pliakou
    Abstract: This research reflects the outcomes from an ongoing project based on continuous collaboration (stakeholder engagement) and scientific support towards sustainable and resilient water management. A multi-disciplinary platform is used to bring together all relevant stakeholders of Thessaly, a Greek rural region facing multiple water management problems, historically. The problems, causes and potential solutions are analysed in a series of virtual meetings (March 2021 - June 2022) in order to develop business plan(s) for the improvement of the situation in multiple levels. A basic result from the project so far, a commonly acceptable measure, refers to the digital agriculture � irrigation water management, which has multiple benefits and enhances resilience to different future challenges. Such measures are supported by the international practice, research, and policy agendas: Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and interactive maps have been used successfully for agricultural monitoring and management in the context of informed decision-making (Jhariya 2019) and guidance for targeted measures (Mockler et al. 2016), while they support the use (and adaptation) of new technologies by multiple users (Mustafi et al. 2021). The main objective of this work is to analyse the multiple benefits of such digital management tools from a new perspective: as a means for transparency and accountability to speed up progress and support informed decisions, as resulted from a multi-disciplinary stakeholder group. The methodology developed and followed for this project, the way of reaching to common visions, and the proposed actions for the specific study area are the novel elements of this work.
    Date: 2022–02–10
  23. By: Phoebe Koundouri; Georgios I. Papayiannis (Athens University of Economics & Business); Achilleas Vassilopoulos; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
    Abstract: Food security is a key issue in sustainability studies. In this paper we propose a general framework for providing detailed probabilistic socioeconomic scenarios as well as predictions across scenarios, concerning food security. Our methodology is based on the Bayesian probabilistic prediction model of world population (Raftery et al [10]) and on data driven prediction models for food demand and supply and its dependence on key drivers such as population and other socioeconomic and climate indicators(e.g. GDP, temperature, etc). For the purpose of risk quantification, concerning food security, we integrate the use of recently developed convex risk measures involving model uncertainty (Papayiannis et al [8], [9]) and propose a methodology for providing estimates and predictions across scenarios, i.e. when there is uncertainty as to which scenario is to be realized. Our methodology is illustrated by studying food security for the 2020-2050 horizon in the context of the SSP-RCP scenarios, for Egypt and Ethiopia.
    Keywords: food security, probabilistic projections, risk quantification, shared socioeconomic pathways scenarios
    Date: 2022–01–25
  24. By: Claude Ménard (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 UFR02 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - École d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: In France, as in many other countries, one immediate impact of the coronavirus pandemic has been to give a strong impulse to the development of short supply chains in the agri-food sector, chains that are part of the more general hybrid type of organizational arrangements. This response to the pandemic resulted from changes in the strategy of producers as well as in demand from consumers. It raises a few questions to be developed below. First, was this reaction a response to disruptions in the existing long-distance (global) supply chains? Second, does it represent a significant part of the distribution network? Third, now that the pandemic is (slowly) regressing in Europe, do local supply chains look resilient or not? Although we are still far from benefiting of required data to substantiate the arguments, this short essay provides some food-for-thought on these three issues. A disruption in existing supply chains? The exponential development of long distance supply chains over the last decades benefited from radical innovations on the technological side and from the increasing demand for diversified agricultural products. On the technological side, containerization, controlled atmosphere, cargo sizes and speed, fuel efficiency and satellite navigation systems have considerably reduced freight costs, enabled long-distance sourcing, and allowed the diversification of the supply base of food for retailers and processors. On the demand side, new patterns of consumption have emerged, with buyers requesting an extended variety of products and becoming health and diet conscious so that they pay increased attention to quality.
    Date: 2020–09
  25. By: Bunyada Laoprapassorn
    Abstract: How does the market power along the agricultural value chains mediate the effects of policies on the welfare of farmers? Using microdata on farmers and rice mills in Thailand, I document heterogeneity in the spatial density of rice mills. I further provide reduced-form evidence that a one standard deviation increase in local competition among rice mills leads to a 7.7% increase in farmer prices. Informed by the empirical findings, I propose and estimate a quantitative spatial model that accounts for the market power and entry-location choices of intermediaries. I then simulate two policy counterfactuals. I find that gains to farmers from a country-wide improvement in road infrastructure are regressive; the percentage increase in income of the top decile farmers is on average 11% larger than that of the bottom decile. Changes in the entry decisions of the rice mills further exacerbate the regressive effect, more than doubling the gap between the percentage change in income of the top and bottom decile farmers. The second counterfactual simulation shows that the market power of intermediaries could lead to a lower than socially optimal level of technology adoption among farmers.
    Keywords: Intermediaries; Spatial Competition; Trade costs
    JEL: D43 F12 L13 O13
    Date: 2022–01
  26. By: Ary José A. Souza-Jr.
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of air pollution, climate conditions, and extreme weather events on subjective well-being across the Portuguese regions through estimating an ordered probit model. The estimation applies data at the individual level from the 8th and 9th waves of the European Social Survey, along with an air quality indicator, environmental variables, national forest inventory, and a study about the possible future effects of the sea-level rise on vulnerable areas and people living therein. Even after controlling for socio-economic variables and personal traits, the results suggest the existence of differences between regional welfare levels. Air pollution has a negative impact on life satisfaction due to its bad impacts on health (aggravating the condition of individuals with heart and lung diseases). The paper’s key finding is to show that at the regional level, both past (forest fires) and «possible» future (floods due to sea-level rise) extreme weather events may impact the current welfare level. Also, assessments of implicit willingness do to pay demonstrate that climate change effects have a relevant impact on their quality of life nowadays.
    Keywords: climate, extreme, region, flood, fire.
    Date: 2022–02
  27. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Cécile Detang-Dessendre (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Pierre Dupraz (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Hervé Guyomard (Services déconcentrés d'appui à la recherche Bretagne-Normandie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: This article provides an overview of French agricultural incomes over the decade 2010-2019, notably of their heterogeneity according to production types, size and location. It illustrates their dependency on CAP budgetary support. On this basis, it analyses the sensitivity of incomes to different scenarios that modify the repartition of CAP direct aids. The first type of measures aims specifically at modifying the distribution of direct aids and incomes. Four simulations are performed corresponding to a measure in favour of small farms, alternative payment modalities for coupled aids to beef and dairy cattle, the full internal convergence of the basic payment per hectare, and a reinforcement of the redistributive payment on the first hectares. The second measures pursue climatic and environmental objectives but have also redistributive impacts. The first scenario corresponds to a transfer of 15 % of the budgetary envelope of the first pillar to climate and environmental measures and support for organic farming in the second pillar. The second scenario implements an eco-scheme targeted on the maintenance of permanent grasslands and the reduction of pesticide use.
    Abstract: L'article dresse un panorama des revenus des exploitations agricoles françaises sur la décennie 2010-2019, et de leur hétérogénéité selon l'orientation productive, la taille et la localisation. Il illustre leur dépendance aux soutiens budgétaires de la PAC. Sur cette base, il analyse la sensibilité des revenus à différents scénarios de réorientation des aides directes de la PAC en considérant deux types de mesures. Les premières ont pour objectif de modifier la répartition des aides directes et des revenus : sont alors simulés les impacts sur les revenus d'un dispositif en faveur des petites fermes, de modalités alternatives de versement des aides couplées aux exploitations de bovins-viande et bovins-lait, de la convergence interne intégrale du paiement de base, et d'un renforcement du paiement redistributif sur les premiers hectares. Les deuxièmes mesures poursuivent des objectifs climatiques et environnementaux dont il s'agit aussi d'examiner les conséquences sur les revenus : sont alors analysés deux scénarios correspondant, d'une part, à un transfert de 15 % de l'enveloppe budgétaire du premier pilier vers des mesures climatiques, environnementales et de soutien à l'agriculture biologique dans le deuxième pilier, et, d'autre part, à un éco-régime ciblé sur le maintien des prairies permanentes et la réduction des usages de pesticides.
    Keywords: CAP,National Strategic Plans (NSP),Income,Direct aids,FADN,PAC,France,Plans Stratégiques Nationaux (PSN),Revenu,Aides,RICA
    Date: 2021–12–09
  28. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Thierry Pouch (URCA - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, APCA - Assemblée Permanente des Chambres d'Agriculture)
    Abstract: World agri-food trade has been growing steadily for several decades under the influence of a growing demand for food, particularly in Asia and Africa, and of an unequal territorial distribution of agronomic and productive potential. With a trade balance in agri-food products of nearly 40 billion euros in 2020, and moreover an improvement compared to the period before the Covid-19 health crisis, the European Union (EU-27) has become a major player in this trade. At the same time, it is the world's leading exporter and importer. Within the EU, competition between Member States has been particularly fierce in recent years, to the detriment of France, whose agri-food balance is deteriorating. Using information from three databases (Baci, Comext and French Customs), an analysis of the main trade dynamics is conducted here for the agri-food sector over a 20-year period (2000 to 2020).
    Abstract: Le commerce agroalimentaire mondial connait un développement soutenu depuis plusieurs décennies sous l'influence d'une demande alimentaire en croissance, notamment en Asie et en Afrique, et d'une répartition territoriale inégale des potentiels agronomiques et productifs. Avec un solde commercial en produits agroalimentaires de près de 40 milliards d'euros en 2020, de surcroît en amélioration par rapport à la période antérieure à la crise sanitaire de la Covid-19, l'Union européenne (UE-27) est devenue un acteur majeur de ce commerce. Elle cumule, en même temps, la première position mondiale tant des pays exportateurs et que des pays importateurs. Au sein de l'UE, la concurrence entre les Etats membres est particulièrement vive depuis quelques années, au détriment de la France dont le solde agroalimentaire se dégrade. En utilisant les informations issues de trois bases de données (Baci, Comext et Douanes françaises), une analyse des principales dynamiques commerciales est conduite ici pour le secteur agroalimentaire, et sur une période de 20 ans (2000 à 2020).
    Keywords: Agri-food trade,Exports,Imports,Competitiveness,EU,Commerce agroalimentaire,Exportations,Importations,Compétitivité,UE,France
    Date: 2021–12–09
  29. By: Mihai Dorel Vlad (Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University of Bucharest, Romania); Sara Vlad (Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University of Bucharest, Romania)
    Abstract: Already at the beginning of this century there is the impression that the protection of the source indications against false or misleading use is insufficient. In addition, the need to protect and encourage local, traditional production methods was highlighted. In France, the first statute was adopted which provided for the protection of geographical indications by a special title of industrial property, namely the designations of origin. Only products that meet quality standards are protected by designation of origin. Initially, the designations of origin concerned only wines and alcohol, but later, the concept of the designation of origin was extended to include other products (such as dairy products, especially cheese and butter), agricultural and vegetable products. Due to the success of French designations of origin, the same or a similar system was introduced in other countries, mainly in the wine and alcohol sector.
    Keywords: protection, geographical indication, Union law, copyright, legislation
    Date: 2021–06
  30. By: ITF
    Abstract: This report assesses the potential of zero carbon supply chains via a case study of the freight transport chain linked to the port of Hamburg. It analyses the initiatives taken by selected main stakeholders to decarbonise freight transport. In addition, it offers recommendations on how the move towards zero carbon supply chains could be accelerated.
    Date: 2021–06–28
  31. By: Sonal Pandey (Middlesex College, North America International Education, Warton School, PA, New Jersey, USA)
    Abstract: The potential role of Artificial Intelligence is becoming increasingly clear. To keep up with this enormous growth, manufacturers are looking for revolutionary manufacturing techniques, and one such example is the Emergence of AI. The usability of AI provides some form of interactivity between the system users and the system itself, hence enhancing usability. One of the basic human rights is the right to decide. Until now, I have made do with my own brains. If a human solution is forced on me, I can argue, but in the case of “absolute†artificial intelligence, I will be forced to accept. Do I need this? In my research article, I tried to focus on the pros and cons of the adoption of AI in the food industry. With the help of SWOT analysis there are beneficial suggestions about how the industry can check whether it is good for their unique industry requirement needs and how much is the reliability of AI implementation in the food industry. The objective of this research is to find out how AI is doing for the betterment of the food industry and is it good to implement/adopt.
    Keywords: AI, Food Industry, SWOT Analysis
    Date: 2021–06
  32. By: Mohaddes, K.; Ng, R. N. C.; Pesaran, M. H.; Raissi, M.; Yang, J-C.
    Abstract: We investigate the long-term macroeconomic effects of climate change across 48 U.S. states over the period 1963-2016 using a novel econometric strategy which links deviations of temperature and precipitation (weather) from their long-term moving-average historical norms (climate) to various state-specific economic performance indicators at the aggregate and sectoral levels. We show that climate change has a long-lasting adverse impact on real output in various states and economic sectors, and on labour productivity and employment in the United States. Moreover, in contrast to most cross-country results, our within U.S. estimates tend to be asymmetrical with respect to deviations of climate variables (including precipitation) from their historical norms.
    Keywords: Climate change, economic growth, adaptation, United States
    JEL: C33 O40 O44 O51 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2022–01–21
  33. By: Antoine Mandel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Timothy Tiggeloven (VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam]); Daniel Lincke (Global Climate Forum e.V.); Elco Koks (VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam]); Philip Ward (VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam]); Jochen Hinkel (Global Climate Forum e.V.)
    Abstract: There is increasing concern among financial regulators that changes in the distribution and frequency of extreme weather events induced by climate change could pose a threat to global financial stability. We assess this risk, for the case of floods, by developping a simple model of the propagation of climate-induced shocks through financial networks. We show that the magnitude of global risks is determined by the interplay between the exposure of countries to climate-related natural hazards and their financial leverage. Climate change induces a shift in the distribution of impacts towards high-income countries and thus larger amplification of impacts as the financial sectors of high-income countries are more leveraged. Conversely, high-income countries are more exposed to financial shocks. In high-end climate scenarios, this could lead to the emergence of systemic risk as total impacts become commensurate with the capital of the banking sectors of countries that are hubs of the global financial network. Adaptation policy, or the lack thereof, appears to be one of the key risk drivers as it determines the future exposure of high-income coun
    Keywords: Financial Stability,Climate Impacts,Flood Risks
    Date: 2021
  34. By: Ahmed Raza (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: Even though substantial progress has been achieved worldwide in reducing both poverty and malnutrition, much is yet to be done. There are signs that the progress made in both dimensions has stalled in recent years. This special issue of Policy in Focus is dedicated to answering a crucial question: How can a food systems approach be used to design and implement policies and investments that reach those most vulnerable to poverty, hunger, malnutrition and suboptimal diets?
    Keywords: food and nutrition security; food systems; poverty reduction
    Date: 2020–12
  35. By: Spielman, David J.
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, seed systems and markets in many sub-Saharan African countries have become a central topic in the public discourse around agricultural development. The issues are complex, and often shaped by the specific nature of the crop itself, the agroecology it is cultivated in, and the channels through which farmers obtain seed. What attracts less attention are the political economy factors that shape seed systems development. Not since an array of scholars working with the Institute of Development Studies published a deep and thoughtful volume on the Politics of Seed in Africa’s Green Revolution has the topic of political economy received such attention.
    Keywords: WORLD, seed systems, markets, policies, seed technology, agricultural research, political economy
    Date: 2021
  36. By: Mathieu Boche (AFD),; Julien Burte (CIRAD) et; Meriem Jouini (FUNCEME)
    Abstract: The sustainable development of a territory depends on the capacity of its actors to define, plan and finance actions that are part of a strategic vision promoted by a local authority and a locally legitimised institution. Establishing or strengthening inclusive territorial governance mechanisms helps to engage local actors in resource management, investment planning and conflict resolution. These mechanisms must be based on a system for producing and sharing knowledge about the territory and its resources.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–02–07

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.