nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒01‒24
29 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Changes in household income, food consumption, and diet quality in urban and rural areas of Ghana during the COVID-19 crisis: Results of 2020 phone surveys By Ragasa, Catherine; Amewu, Sena; Asante, Seth
  2. Climate change and agricultural productivity in Myanmar: Application of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model By Henning Tarp Jensen; Marcus Keogh-Brown; Finn Tarp
  3. The demand for voluntary carbon sequestration: Experimental evidence from a reforestation project in Germany By Bartels, Lara; Kesternich, Martin; Löschel, Andreas
  4. The Differentiated Effects of Plot Sizes and Farm-Field Distances in Organic and Conventional Farming Systems: An Economic Analysis at Farm Level By Heinrichs, Julia; Kuhn, Till; Pahmeyer, Christoph; Britz, Wolfgang
  5. In-kind transfers, marketization costs and household specialization: Evidence from Indian farmers By Nicholas Li
  6. Detecting threshold effects in price transmission By Traore, Fousseini; Diop, Insa
  7. Adoption and Diffusion of Digital Farming Technologies – Integrating Farm-Level Evidence and System-Level Interaction By Shang, Linmei; Heckelei, Thomas; Börner, Jan; Rasch, Sebastian
  8. ICT and agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: effects and transmission channels By Edmond Noubissi Domguia; Simplice A. Asongu
  9. Impact of Information on Technical Efficiency of Agricultural Production in India By Aritri Chakravarty
  10. Gender Roles and Relationships: Khmer Ethnic Minority Women’s Participation in Water Management By Pham Tran Lan Phuong; Nguyen Van Thai
  11. The Effect of Amazon Deforestationon Global Climate Variables By Hildegart Ahumada; Magdalena Cornejo
  12. The Critical Role of Education and ICT in Promoting Environmental Sustainability in Eastern and Southern Africa: A Panel VAR Approach By Olatunji A. Shobande; Simplice A. Asongu
  13. COVID-19 Trade Actions and Their Impact on the Agricultural and Food Sector By Ahn, Soojung; Steinbach, Sandro
  14. Do female parliamentarians improve environmental quality? Cross-country evidence By Simplice A. Asongu; Raufhon Salahodjaev
  15. Implementing agricultural living labs that renew actors’ roles within existing innovation systems: A case study in France By Quentin Toffolini; Mathieu Capitaine; Mourad Hannachi; Marianne Cerf
  16. The Growing Preference for Chinese Arms in Africa: A Case Study of Uganda and Kenya By Munyi, Elijah
  17. The Islanders Small-Scale Fishermen Adaptation toward Climate Change Impacts in Malaysia By Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva; Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril; Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah
  18. The case of ‘double’ mining and conservation frontiers: evidence from DRC and Madagascar By Simpson, Fergus; Vuola, Marketta
  19. Stratégie collective logistique des agriculteurs : une difficile équation By Virginie Noireaux; François Cassière; Joseph Edzengte
  20. The Importance of Specification Choices When Analyzing Sectoral Productivity Gaps By Merfeld, Joshua D.; Brummund, Peter
  21. Food Security in the Context of COVID-19: The Public Health Challenge | The Case of the Republic of Mauritius By Isabelle Tsakok
  22. Upper Midwest Organic Farm Business Management 2020 Annual Report By Hadrich, Joleen; Van Nurden, Pauline; Roberts, M.L.
  23. Integrated justice approach to land reform: Why is it important and how? By Bejeno, C.B.
  24. Principles and Tools to Foster Social Acceptability of Aquaculture Development By Pascal Raux; José Perez Agundez; Jean Emmanuel Rougier; Loeiza Lancelot; Audrey Barbe
  25. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Finland’s Information Economy Sector: A Supply Chain Perspective By Kuosmanen, Natalia; Seppälä, Timo; Ylhäinen, Ilkka
  26. Climate change and fiscal sustainability: Risks and opportunities By Matthew Agarwala; Matt Burke; Patrycja Klusak; Kamiar Mohaddes; Ulrich Volz; Dimitri Zenghelis
  27. Waifs and strays: property rights in late medieval England By Claridge, Jordan; Gibbs, Spike
  28. Political, Environmental And Social Determinants Of Pro-Environmental Behaviour In Russia By Elena V. Sautkina; Fatikha B. Agissova; Alexandra A. Ivanova; Kingsley S. Ivande; Veronika S. Kabanova; Natalia A. Patrakova
  29. Ecologically unequal exchange and uneven development patterns along global value chains By Althouse, Jeff; Carballa Smichowski, Bruno; Cahen-Fourot, Louison; Durand, Cédric; Knauss, Steven

  1. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Amewu, Sena; Asante, Seth
    Abstract: This study provides an assessment of changes in household income, livelihood sources, food consumption, and diet quality during the first months of the COVID-19 crisis in a sample of households drawn from both urban and rural areas in Ghana. Phone surveys were conducted in June 2020 with 423 urban consumers in Accra and with 369 small-scale crop and fish farmers in rural areas in six regions in middle and southern Ghana. Data was disaggregated by asset quintiles for both the urban and the rural samples. Reduction in incomes were reported by 83 percent of urban households in Accra, mainly due to business closures and lower sales from their trading enterprises. Most households, however, are showing resilience in terms of food consumption, with a majority of urban consumers surveyed maintaining their pre-COVID-19 level of food consumption; only 9 percent of urban consumers reported reductions in food consumption to cope with income loss due to COVID-19. For the respondents in the rural areas in middle and southern Ghana, 76 percent reported income loss, and all reported that their livelihoods had been affected. Thirty-four percent of 2020 minor season crop farmers experienced difficulty in selling their produce, and 43 percent of all sample crop farmers anticipated difficulties in accessing inputs in the 2020 major season, mainly fertilizers and agrochemicals. Of those growing fish, 53 percent experienced difficulty in accessing inputs, mainly feeds; 60 percent reported increased input prices; and 64 percent of those harvesting from March to June 2020 experienced difficulties in selling their fish because of lower demand, lower tilapia prices, and higher transportation costs. Despite farm and nonfarm income losses, a majority of households in the rural sample reported maintaining previous levels of diet diversity and food consumption - only 11 percent reported reducing their food consumption to cope with income loss. Several months into the COVID-19 crisis in Ghana, households in both rural and urban areas showed some resilience in terms of their agricultural production and food consumption. Regular monitoring is needed, however, especially if household savings start to dry up and coping mechanisms become more restrictive.
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; income; households; household income; food consumption; urban areas; rural areas; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; food security; diet; diet quality; phone survey
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Henning Tarp Jensen; Marcus Keogh-Brown; Finn Tarp
    Abstract: Myanmar is facing climate change (CC) induced changes to the productivity of their critically important rice sector over the coming century. Moreover, the recent five-year Myanmarese Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS) sets out a vision of achieving an '…inclusive, competitive, food and nutrition secure, climate change resilient, and sustainable agricultural system…' by 2030. In this paper, we investigate the productivity pillar of the ADS strategy.
    Keywords: Myanmar, Agricultural technology, Climate change, Agricultural productivity, Computable general equilibrium, Rice
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Bartels, Lara; Kesternich, Martin; Löschel, Andreas
    Abstract: With the increasing recognition of the use of reforestation measures as a complement to conventional carbon emissions avoidance technologies it is important to understand the market valuation of local forest carbon sinks for climate change mitigation. We conducted a framed-field experiment among a Germany-wide sample to provide a revealed preference study on the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for carbon sequestration through forests. Our particular focus is on the role of local co-benefits of climate protection activities. In addition, we add geo-data to our experimental data to analyze the impact of spatial variation on the individual WTP. We find that the WTP for carbon removal exceeds the WTP for mitigation efforts found in previous studies. While spatial distances does affect the likelihood to contribute to a local carbon sink, it does not affect the average amount given. Additional survey data finds that trust in forest measures is higher compared to mitigation via an emissions trading scheme, whichcould explain the comparably high WTP.
    Keywords: voluntary provision of environmental public goods,climate change mitigation,carbon sequestration,willingness to pay,co-benefits,revealed preferences,framed-field experiment
    JEL: Q51 Q54 C93 Q23 H41
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Heinrichs, Julia; Kuhn, Till; Pahmeyer, Christoph; Britz, Wolfgang
    Keywords: Farm Management, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2020–09–18
  5. By: Nicholas Li (Department of Economics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada)
    Abstract: I examine the effect of in-kind staple transfers on agricultural production in a setting where transactions with markets are costly for households and result in interlinked consumption and production decisions. The expansion of India’s Public Distribution system between 1993-2009 led to large variation in the quantity and value of staple grain transfers across households, districts and states. I find that increases in PDS quantities crowds out consumption from home production, decreases staple production, and leads to more market exchange oriented production. Effects are larger for households and districts that initially face higher market transaction costs or have less market-oriented production.
    Keywords: in-kind; transfers; food; agriculture; specialization; trade; production; household; India
    JEL: O12 O13 H53
    Date: 2022–01
  6. By: Traore, Fousseini; Diop, Insa
    Abstract: The analysis of price transmission plays a key role in understanding markets integration. This helps identify the nature of the relationship between geographically distant markets and cross-commodity price transmission, as well as the impact of liberalization policies and the identification of regions exposed to systemic shocks. This technical note contributes to the debate between symmetric and asymmetric price transmission and proposes to present the traditional and new approaches for detecting threshold effects in price transmission while focusing on their advantages and limitations. There is no one-size-fits-all method to detect threshold effects in price transmission. Experts need to select a combination of elements (context of study, the economy under consideration, data availability…) to justify the relevancy of their choice. Beyond the presentation of the methods for detecting thresholds in price transmission, we perform an application in the case of the rice market in Senegal. The results support the evidence of an asymmetric price transmission between world and domestic prices in the short-run and a symmetric transmission in the long-run.
    Keywords: prices, threshold prices, price transmission, markets, models, econometric models, agriculture, TAR model, MTAR model, agricultural markets
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Shang, Linmei; Heckelei, Thomas; Börner, Jan; Rasch, Sebastian
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2020–09–18
  8. By: Edmond Noubissi Domguia (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study contributes to the extant literature on the nexus between information and communication technologies (ICTs) and agriculture. Despite increasing attention on the subject, existing studies are sparse on the channels through which ICTs affect the agricultural sector. We use a stochastic impact model extended to the population, affluence and technology regression model to assess both the impact and transmission of ICTs on agriculture in 18 sub-Saharan African countries. The empirical results show that ICT use measured by Internet, mobile and fixed-line telephone penetration boosts the agricultural sector enormously. In addition, the mediation analysis reveals that ICTs not only have a direct positive effect on agriculture but also a positive indirect effect through its impact on financial development and trade openness and a negative indirect effect through energy consumption. However, the total effect is positive and shows that ICTs are supporting the development of the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa. To enhance the positive effects of ICTs on agriculture, governments should design policies to improve access to credit for the private sector, promote liberalization, and provide financial incentives for the development of green and less expensive agricultural technologies.
    Keywords: ICT, agriculture, Sub-Saharan Africa, transmission channels, mediation
    Date: 2022–01
  9. By: Aritri Chakravarty (BASE University, Bengaluru)
    Abstract: This paper tries to estimate the impact of information use on technical efficiency of agricultural production in India using propensity score matching method. The study utilises cross-sectional data from the 70th Round of NSSO on Situation Assessment Survey of Farmers (2012-13). Technical efficiency is calculated using a novel technique by Cherchye, (2013) that acknowledges the presence of multiple outputs, output-specific inputs and joint inputs in the data. The results of propensity score matching method show that users of information have a slightly higher efficiency than non-users but the impacts vary largely across different sources of information. The findings hint at a source effect working at large that tends to dampen the true effect of information. Using information from private sources has the largest impact while media has a smaller impact. Public sources don’t show a statistically significant impact, may be due to constraints like lack of infrastructure, manpower and monitoring. Nevertheless, it does not undermine their importance but suggests that they might work through indirect channels that require further exploration.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Information Use, Technical Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis, Propensity Score Matching JEL Classification- D24, Q12, Q16
    Date: 2022
  10. By: Pham Tran Lan Phuong; Nguyen Van Thai
    Abstract: O Lam Commune in Tri Ton District, An Giang Province in Vietnam experiences serious water shortages all year round, especially in the dry season. Moreover, owing to its mountainous topography, the local people, especially women, face numerous challenges in accessing water for domestic use. Unfortunately, although women are globally considered the main actors in water management, they are often excluded from planning, formulating, and implementing management policies. This study, therefore, examined gender issues in relation to water use and management of Khmer men and women in four villages of O Lam Commune. Interviews, focus group discussions, and Participatory Rural Appraisal tools were conducted in Phuoc Loc, Phuoc Loi, Phuoc Tho, and Phuoc Long villages. The results reveal the relationship between gender roles and the physical environment, particularly upland rice farming systems. Women primarily manage water in the household; consequently, lack of access to water affects them more significantly than men. Furthermore, since they travel longer distances and carry heavy loads of water, they spend more time collecting water. This reduces the time they have to fulfill their reproductive roles and partake in income-generating activities. In addition, women face several barriers that limit their participation in decision-making in water management projects. These barriers include traditional norms that assign and expect men to be the dominant decision makers; high illiteracy levels among women; and women’s lack of time to participate in water-related project activities due to their reproductive and productive roles, such as labor inputs in agriculture. This study recommends that water-related policies and projects should ensure gender equality in increasing access to water resources and building capacity training programs. Women’s participation in water-related activities will enhance their knowledge and provide them with various platforms to share their perspectives on water use and management.
    Keywords: Khmer ethnic minority women, women’s participation and decision-making, gender relations to water, reproductive and productive gendered roles, water management, gender equality, Vietnam
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Hildegart Ahumada (UTDT); Magdalena Cornejo (UTDT/CONICET)
    Abstract: We evaluate the effect of the Amazon deforestation on global climate variables: surface temperature, carbon dioxide and methane concentrations over the last fifty years. Our results show the Amazon deforestation effect on carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere since 1990. No similar effect is found for methane concentrations.
    Keywords: Climate change, deforestation, Amazon, gas emission
    Date: 2021–11
  12. By: Olatunji A. Shobande (University of Aberdeen, UK); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The struggle to combat climate change remains complex and challenging. Currently, two climate change approaches, namely, mitigation and adaptation, have been widely supported. These are empirical, requiring further explanation of the main drivers of carbon emissions. This research seeks to tackle this problem by providing a strategy to reduce climate change impacts. This study contributes to the existing empirical literature in several ways. It investigates whether education and information and communication technology (ICT) matter to promote environmental sustainability in the Eastern and Southern Africa. The empirical evidence is based on the third-generation panel unit root test and panel cointegration tests that account for the potential issue of structural breaks in the series. We further dissect the long and short run dynamics using the panel Granger causality approach. Our findings show the possibility of using education and clean technology investment in a complementary strategy for mitigating carbon emissions and promoting environmental sustainability in the sampled countries.
    Keywords: Environmental Sustainability; ICT; Education; Eastern Africa; Southern Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2022–01
  13. By: Ahn, Soojung; Steinbach, Sandro
    Abstract: This paper assesses the determinants of temporary non-tariff measures (NTM) in response to the coronavirus pandemic and their implications for agricultural and food trade. Using a control function approach, we show that economic and pandemic considerations played an essential role in implementing such NTMs. Relying on variation between treated and untreated varieties, we estimate a dynamic postevent trade response of 29.9 percent for import facilitating and -10.7 percent for export restricting NTMs. After revoking them, their trade effects fade away, implying that they were effective in achieving the set policy goals, causing only a limited degree of long-term trade disruptions.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Raufhon Salahodjaev (Tashkent, Uzbekistan)
    Abstract: This study explores the empowerment of women in politics on the environmental sustainability. Using data for the period 2015-2019 from 179 countries, we investigate the link between representation of women in parliament and the Environmental Performance Index (EPI). To explore the causal effect, we rely on gender quotas, language intensity and land suitability for agriculture as instruments for the share of women in parliament. Our results suggest that 10 percentage points increase in instrumented proportion of women in parliament leads to 7.1 points increase in the EPI. The results remain robust to a number of robustness checks.
    Keywords: environmental performance, women in parliament
    JEL: Q50 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2022–01
  15. By: Quentin Toffolini (Agronomie - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Mathieu Capitaine (Territoires - Territoires - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020] - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement); Mourad Hannachi (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marianne Cerf (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Living Labs are developed in widely diverse innovation domains, based on principles of users involvement and experimentation in 'real-world' contexts, inviting to question the various actors' roles within innovation systems. In the agricultural sector, the implementation of Living Labs may face incumbent routines for experimentation, actors' relationships, and information circulation, as 'users' are mostly farmers already embedded in innovation systems. How, beyond adhesion to inclusiveness principles, the actual practices related to an agricultural Living Lab development make possible to renew or redistribute actors' roles in the innovation process? To address this issue, we realized a case study, following the development of an agricultural Living Lab in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Region (France) by one year long immersion and participant observation. Our theoretical approach was to consider the Living Lab as a boundary object supposed to allow actors from different social worlds to work together in a new way, and relying on infrastructures in order to do so. We thus studied the intertwining between various rationales about the innovation model or the territory, the infrastructures on which the innovation process relied, and actors' roles construction. Our findings underline the divergent rationales conserved among the LIT's steering actors, associated with undefined roles, especially for farmers. We further show how these divergent rationales participated in maintaining existing infrastructures of the innovation system, preventing from effectively renewing actors' arrangements and respective roles. Among these, we describe the farmers' workshops, and the information sharing paths, both limiting the ownership of the process by non-incumbent actors. Complementarily to the distinctions of various roles in literature, we contribute to relate potentially neglected aspects of the Living Lab management (because not judged strategical) to the room for manoeuvre and possibilities for enactment of expected actors' roles. We finally discuss the relevant skills and their distribution among actors that our findings suggest for the development of an agricultural Living Lab within an existing innovation system.
    Keywords: living labs,stakeholderness,regional innovation system,infrastructures,role making processes,boundary object
    Date: 2021–12
  16. By: Munyi, Elijah
    Abstract: The past decade has seen a rise in the global share of Chinese defense sales – in this publication, Elijah N. Munyi looks at the implications for the African continent. Munyi examines the motivations for some African states' growing preference for Chinese arms with a particular focus on case studies conducted in Uganda and Kenya. Read on to find out how Prof. Munyi delves into the nuance behind the preferences for military procurement.
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva; Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril; Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah
    Abstract: Issues related to demand on deeper understanding on climate change adaptation ability, inadequate number of social studies, and the lack of studies on specific groups have prompted this study to assess the adaptation toward climate change among islanders small-scale fishermen (ISFM) in Malaysia. At the same time, it also intends to identify and rank order the aspect of adaptation abilities among ISFM in different areas/zones and to match the recommendation for the periodical remedial measure based on a different aspect of adaptation abilities. A set of questionnaires was developed based on the individual adaptive capacity framework on social adaptation to climate change developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Based on multi-stage simple random sampling, a total of 500 ISFM in four Malaysian islands, namely: Pangkor, Langkawi, Perhentian, and Redang, were chosen as respondents. Each island was represented by 125 small-scale fishermen. The fishermen surveyed had a high level of adaptation with regard to eight aspects. The highest mean score was recorded by “attachment to place,†followed by “attachment to occupation,†and then by “formal and informal networks.†In contrast, the fishermen showed a moderate level of adaptation with regard to eight aspects, with “business size and approach†having the lowest mean score, followed by “financial status and access to credit,†and “employability.†These results depict a strong sense of belonging and attachment to their residential area and fishing routines, and it demonstrate their strong social relationship with surrounding communities. Furthermore, results show that limited financial ability to survive, limited access to credit, and their inability to diversify their livelihood can obstruct them from responding effectively to the impacts of climate change. The study demonstrated the strengths and weaknesses of the ISFM’s adaptations to climate change. Based on their strengths and weaknesses, recommendations related to skill diversification, early warning systems, environmental conservation, strengthening internal and external social relationships, climate change training and awareness, and access to credit were suggested. These recommendations were formulated to guide them in generating well-planned and systematic adaptation options to deal with the threatening impacts of climate change.
    Keywords: small-scale fishermen, Malaysia, climate change adaptation
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Simpson, Fergus; Vuola, Marketta
    Abstract: This article contributes to the literature on commodity frontiers by providing evidence from locales where two different frontiers overlap. We focus on intersecting commodity frontiers produced through biodiversity conservation and mineral extraction that increasingly compete for control over land and resources. We frame commodity frontiers as organised through the territorialisation of rural landscapes via different types of protected areas (strict, flexible) and various scales of mining activity (artisanal, semi-industrial, industrial). With reference to case studies from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and northern Madagascar, we disaggregate the processes of territorialisation both at and between conservation and mining frontiers. It is argued that flexible approaches to protected area management and artisanal and semi-industrial modes of mining can be viewed as territorial adaptations to enable frontiers to co-exist where strict conservation and large-scale mining would otherwise exclude one-another. We conclude that contexts where state power is limited, and the boundaries between legal and illegal become blurred, are likely to be especially conducive to the emergence of double frontiers.
    Keywords: commodity frontiers; territorialisation; mining; conservation; Madagascar; DR Congo
    Date: 2021–12
  19. By: Virginie Noireaux (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020]); François Cassière; Joseph Edzengte
    Keywords: Stratégie collective logistique,chaine logistique amont,objet,frontière,agriculture
    Date: 2020–10–07
  20. By: Merfeld, Joshua D. (KDI School of Public Policy and Management); Brummund, Peter (University of Alabama)
    Abstract: A consistent finding in the development literature is that average non-farm labor productivity is higher than average farm labor productivity. These differences in average productivity are sometimes used to promote policies which advance the non-farm sector. In this paper, we analyze the importance of two specification choices when comparing productivity gaps, using detailed household panel data from Malawi. Importantly, we are able to calculate both average revenue products (ARPLs) – similar to most of the sectoral productivity gap literature – as well as marginal revenue products (MRPLs). We show that the choice of productivity measure combined with the choice of production function specification can lead to different sectoral productivity rankings. MRPLs from translog production functions suggest the household farm sector is more productive than the household non-farm sector, while MRPLs from a Cobb-Douglas and ARPLs from both a translog and a Cobb-Douglas find the opposite ranking.
    Keywords: non-farm production, agriculture, labor productivity
    JEL: J24 J43 O13 Q12 R23
    Date: 2021–11
  21. By: Isabelle Tsakok
    Abstract: Mauritius is a refutation of the proposition that food self-sufficiency at all costs is the way to achieve food security. Mauritius, a trade-dependent island economy, imports around three quarters of its food consumption. It is food self-sufficient in only local vegetables and fruits. Post-independence governments have succeeded in virtually eliminating extreme poverty. Mauritius has grown at an annual average of 5.3% or 4.4% in per-capita terms for decades, and has built a comprehensive social safety net and a public health system for universal healthcare. The food security of its people has thus vastly improved. Mauritius was a monocrop, agrarian, low-income country at independence in 1968: GNP/cap was around $260 . Today, it is classified as a high income country, with GNP/cap of $12,740 (2019) . It has no precious minerals like South Africa, or rich natural resources like its nearest African neighbor, Madagascar. The 1960 report to the government by Meade and Tittmuss held out bleak prospects for Mauritius. According to James Meade (1961), the “outlook for peaceful development [of Mauritius] is weak”
    Date: 2021–10
  22. By: Hadrich, Joleen; Van Nurden, Pauline; Roberts, M.L.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–07
  23. By: Bejeno, C.B.
    Abstract: The unjust (re)distribution of resources (in this case land) between and amongst classes and gender persists. Justice lens is explored here to better understand and intervene in the agrarian land concern. As oftentimes, gender justice on land is neglected or hardly advanced by the state, the social movement, and even by the women’s movement, the integrated justice approach is found here useful. In many experiences, including the Philippines, while peasant women lead and take the frontline roles in advancing land, the women’s strategic gender interests are, however, often neglected and overshadowed by class-based concerns. This paper argues that the class and gender-based land injustice are interconnectedly shaped by economic maldistribution, cultural misrecognition, and political misrepresentation. Thus, land question requires analyses and interventions that integrate the economic, cultural, and political aspects of justice or here coined as integrated justice approach. This approach becomes more relevant considering the on-going agrarian structure, which is often marred by violence from the opposing landlords and lack of political will from the agrarian program enforcers, operating through an outdated set of gendered norms and values.
    Keywords: Gender, integrated justice, land reform, (social) peasant movement, The Philippines.
    Date: 2021–10–22
  24. By: Pascal Raux (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); José Perez Agundez (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jean Emmanuel Rougier (LISODE); Loeiza Lancelot (AMURE - Aménagement des Usages des Ressources et des Espaces marins et littoraux - Centre de droit et d'économie de la mer - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UBO - Université de Brest - IUEM - Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - UBO - Université de Brest - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Audrey Barbe (LISODE)
    Abstract: Within the Blue Growth Strategy, aquaculture is perceived and quoted as a sector that has a high potential for sustainable jobs and growth and that has to be developed. Despite a strong initial growth at the beginning of the Blue Revolution, European aquaculture, and in particular marine fish farming, began to stall and stagnate. The new drivers initiated by the Blue Growth seem to have great difficulty in reversing that trend and progressing towards the stated objectives in terms of production volumes, in the light of the production statistics over the last decade. Marine socio-ecosystems are complex systems, they demonstrate non-matching scales, surprises (non-linearities), interconnection with other systems, memory effects, choke points and so on. This complexity calls for more integrated assessment through integration of existing knowledge: integration of sciences (among disciplines), integration of sciences and society, integration of sciences and policy and integration of uses. If some integrated assessment framework were developed such as the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries, and its counterpart for aquaculture the Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture, in practice they never really reach the required level of integration. In particular, by focusing on the ecological carrying capacity and leaving aside the social and institutional dimensions and especially the governance issues of these socio-ecosystems. While much effort has been put into technological innovations and the measure of their impact on farms, relatively little has been put into institutional innovations. But beyond of technical and profitability issues, social acceptability is now considered as one of the main bottlenecks to aquaculture development. As already underlined, existing assessment frameworks are not able to catch that key dimension of aquaculture development. There is then a need to propose and develop such an assessment framework of Social Acceptability (SA) of aquaculture development. In addition to the reviewing of existing frameworks and experiences in other industries, taking into account the complexity of marine socio-ecosystems, main drivers and bottlenecks to aquaculture development were identified to better understand the factors contributing to SA. Main bottlenecks are attached to the way aquaculture development was thought and implemented: forgetting the way of production to solely focus on the volume to produce; basing aquaculture development on scientific and technical expertise and imposing top-down projects developed «ex nihilo» without insights on local integration; implementing such projects based on communication approach by solely providing information without participatory processes and stakehoders engagement; misperceiving SA through the solely acceptability of the product and not the acceptability of the activity. All this leads to a series of adverse effects such as markets disconnection, vicious circle of unprofitability, lack of trust and confidence in aquaculture, fuzzy developments, contributing to aggravating factors of social unacceptability. The MedAID research project (, Mediterranean Integrated Aquaculture Development, financed by the H2020 EU program) worked in an attempt to integrate all these dimensions to support sustainable marine aquaculture development in the Mediterranean. It proposes an integrated framework to rethink the development of marine aquaculture in Europe and beyond, through the SA dimension as an integrating dimension. An assessment framework for SA of aquaculture development was developed and implemented over several case studies in the Mediterranean through the proposal of a 3 steps approach experimentation. Participatory approaches are at the core of the assessment framework and introduction and recommendations to these approaches are produced too, with references to existing tools. The implementation of the 3 steps approach to assess SA of aquaculture development underlined four main recommendations: 1) Support concertation, 2) Give importance to the adequacy between the territory and the project, 3) Value the benefits of the project and promote transparency and 4) Establish a framework that support aquaculture development and compliance to the development process. These recommendations finally appear as an essential prerequisite for a more peaceful, more virtuous and acceptable development that will drive back marine aquaculture to sustainability. A maybe not sufficient condition to sustainable aquaculture development but, a necessary one.
    Keywords: Aquaculture,Aquaculture development,Soacial Acceptability,Participatory Approach,Stakeholders Engagement,Drivers and Bottlenecks,Assessment,Social Ecological System,Governance
    Date: 2021–12–10
  25. By: Kuosmanen, Natalia; Seppälä, Timo; Ylhäinen, Ilkka
    Abstract: Abstract The environmental benefits and harms of information and communication technology (ICT) have been widely discussed in Finland since 2019. The climate impact of information and communication technology on the environment consists of three channels: procurement, the ICT sector’s own carbon footprint, and the impact on other sectors of the economy (incl. public sector). Indeed, focusing solely on one sector’s own emissions often leads to misleading conclusions about the industry’s carbon footprint. This study examines the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions in the ICT sector and its supply chains in 2008–2019. In addition, the study examines the countries from which greenhouse gas emissions in the ICT sector and its supply chain originate.
    Keywords: Information economy sector, Supply chain, Greenhouse gas emissions, Carbon neutrality
    JEL: L8 L82 L86 L94
    Date: 2022–01–04
  26. By: Matthew Agarwala; Matt Burke; Patrycja Klusak; Kamiar Mohaddes; Ulrich Volz; Dimitri Zenghelis
    Abstract: Both the physical and transition-related impacts of climate change pose substantial macroeconomic risks. Yet, markets still lack credible estimates of how climate change will affect debt sustainability, sovereign creditworthiness, and the public finances of major economies. We present a taxonomy for tracing the physical and transition impacts of climate change through to impacts on sovereign risk. We then apply the taxonomy to the UK’s potential transition to net zero. Meeting internationally agreed climate targets will require an unprecedented structural transformation of the global economy over the next two or three decades. The changing landscape of risks warrants new risk management and hedging strategies to contain climate risk and minimise the impact of asset stranding and asset devaluation. Yet, conditional on action being taken early, the opportunities from managing a net zero transition would substantially outweigh the costs.
    Keywords: Sovereign debt, climate change, net zero, transition risk, productivity
    Date: 2021–09
  27. By: Claridge, Jordan; Gibbs, Spike
    Abstract: This article provides new insights into long-standing debates on lord-tenant relations in medieval England and how they were negotiated through the manorial court. We examine an institution, which we term the stray system , that facilitated cooperation between lords and tenants to manage stray livestock. Specifically, we argue that the stray system is a clear example of a public good. In this context, the system was a social benefit provided by lords to their tenants as a collective. In a world where most of the population was dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, any potential damage to a crop would have been of real concern. However, in managing the threat of wandering livestock, the property rights of owners had to be clearly protected to avoid disputes over ownership. The manorial court's management of strays provided an institution to resolve these countervailing pressures. Ultimately, that system helped to protect a community's arable land—the most vital source of income for lords and tenants alike—while simultaneously assuring the property rights of those who had lost important capital assets in the form of livestock.
    Keywords: CUP deal
    JEL: N43 N33
    Date: 2021–11–24
  28. By: Elena V. Sautkina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Fatikha B. Agissova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Alexandra A. Ivanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Kingsley S. Ivande (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Veronika S. Kabanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Natalia A. Patrakova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In the context of global environmental and climate change caused by human impact, the study of pro-environmental behaviour and its determinants is important. At present, research on determinants of pro-environmental behaviour in Russia is sparse. Our study addresses this evidence gap and looks at the political, environmental and social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. Adult participants (N=462, mean age = 36.73 years, SD = 11.77, 56.7% females) took part in an online survey measuring personal values, environmental motivation, environmental concern, connectedness to nature, institutional trust, political values, populism, patriotism and pro-environmental behaviour. The results show that different types of pro-environmental behaviour are predicted by different variables. Despite this, some common patterns emerge. The strongest predictor of all behaviour types was integrated regulation, the most autonomous form of environmental motivation. Hedonic values negatively predicted all pro-environmental behaviour, except resource conservation. For waste management and social behaviour, some environmental predictors had very high explanatory power, while for resource conservation, sustainable purchasing and climate relevant actions, a greater number of predictors with low explanatory power was observed
    Keywords: pro-environmental behaviour, values, attitudes, knowledge, motivation, patriotism, trust, Russia.
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2021
  29. By: Althouse, Jeff; Carballa Smichowski, Bruno; Cahen-Fourot, Louison; Durand, Cédric; Knauss, Steven
    Abstract: The ecologically unequal exchange (EUE) literature has provided ample empirical evidence for asymmetric transfer of material and energy resources from low-income to high-income countries. However, research has not been able to clearly specify the causal mechanisms driving these processes. This paper relates participation in global value chains (GVCs) to development patterns and ecologically unequal exchange. We conduct a principal components analysis and a clustering analysis along six dimensions (GVC participation, GVC value capture, investment, socioeconomic development, domestic environmental impact and international environmental balance) for 133 countries between 1995 and 2015. We find three social, ecological, productive development and GVC insertion patterns: “curse of GVC marginalization”, “ecologically perverse upgrading” and “reproduction of the core”. While our results confirm the asymmetry in ecological degradation between high-income and low-income economies shown by EUE, they support the existence of alternative mechanisms to account for it. We argue that environmental asymmetries are driven in large part by differences in how countries articulate within GVCs, and therefore cannot be ascribed to relations of ecologically unequal exchange, alone. Countries with a higher capacity to capture value from GVC participation (“reproduction of the core”) are able to displace environmental impacts to countries facing a trade-off between the positive socio-economic impacts of rapid GVC integration and ecological degradation (“ecologically perverse upgrading”). GVC marginalization, in turn, constitutes a barrier to socio-economic benefits and to imported ecological degradation. However, the lack of diffusion of more ecologically-efficient processes through GVCs has a negative impact on domestic ecological degradation for countries of the “curse of GVC marginalization” group.
    Keywords: Global Value Chains; Ecologically unequal exchange; Development patterns
    Date: 2022–01–18

This nep-agr issue is ©2022 by Angelo Zago. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.