nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2022‒01‒03
43 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Irrigation for Reducing Food Insecurity: The Case of Niger By Kafle, Kashi
  2. PCan water productivity improvements save us from global water scarcity?. Report of the workshop organized by the WASAG (Global Framework on Water Scarcity in Agriculture) Working Group on Sustainable Agricultural Water Use, Valenzano, Italy, 25-27 February 2020 By von Gnechten, Rachel; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; van der Bliek, Julie; Yu, Winston
  3. Are People Making Correct Choices? Drivers of Water Source Choices in Rural Jharkhand, India By Vanaja, Shiuli
  4. How Does Farmland Fragmentation Affect Collective Action in Rural Areas of China By Zang, Liangzhen
  5. How Responsive Are Nutrients in India? Some Recent Evidence By Jumrani, Jaya
  6. Changes in Agrarian Structure and Agricultural Development in Himachal Pradesh By Negi, Chander
  7. Marketed Surplus of Indonesian Rice Production By Rifin, Amzul
  8. Dairy value chains during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia: Evidence from cascading value chain surveys before and during the pandemic By Hirvonen, Kalle; Habte, Yetmwork; Mohammed, Belay; Tamru, Seneshaw; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Minten, Bart
  9. Farm Safety Net Payments and Risk Balancing in Ontario Beef Sector By Sarker, Rakhal
  10. Spatial Income Disparities and Agricultural Development in India By SJ, Balaji
  11. The Estimation of Farm Business Inefficiency in the Presence of Debt Repayment By West, Steele
  12. The Impact of Small- and Medium-Size Hydro-Power Plants on Farming in Rural Vietnam By Seewald, Eva
  13. Policy Choice with Multiple Policies and Goals By Martin, Will
  14. Valuation Method of Livestock Loss: Farm Level By Amaro, Ignacio Benito
  15. Ethanol Refineries and Local Land Use By Stevens, Andrew W.
  16. Vegetable value chains during the COVID- 19 pandemic in Ethiopia: Evidence from cascading value chain surveys before and during the pandemic By Hirvonen, Kalle; Mohammed, Belay; Tamru, Seneshaw; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Minten, Bart
  17. Performances économiques et environnementales des petites exploitations agricoles françaises By Pauline Lecole; Sophie Thoyer
  18. Understanding the effects of agricultural R&D investments on poverty and undernourishment in sub-Saharan Africa: A causal mediation approach By Benfica, Rui; Nin-Pratt, Alejandro
  19. The Fairtrade Social Premium and Its Implications for Rural Development By Sellare, Jorge
  20. Agricultural Export, Growth and the Poor in Africa: A Meta Analysis By David Adeabah; Simplice A. Asongu
  21. On Feta and Fetta: Protecting EU Specialty Foods Down Under By Huysmans, Martijn
  22. Environmental issues and export competitiveness in U.S. animal agriculture By Chen, Chen-Ti
  23. Prices, loans or ambiguity? Factors influencing groundwater irrigation adoption in Ethiopia By International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
  24. Do small food businesses enable small farms to connect to regional food systems? Evidence from 9 European regions By Paola Hernández; Francesca Galli; Paolo Prosperi; Šūmane Sandra; Dominic Duckett; Henrik Eli Almaas
  25. COVID-19 and the agri-food system in the United States and Canada By Weersink, Alfons; von Massow, Mike; Bannon, Nicholas; Ifft, Jennifer; Maples, Josh; McEwen, Ken; McKendree, Melissa; Nicholson, Charles; Novakovic, Andrew; Rangarajan, Anusuya; Richards, Tim; Rickard, Brad; Rude, James; Schipanski, Meagan; Schnitkey, Gary; Schulz, Lee; Schuurman, Daniel; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen; Stephenson, Mark; Thompson, Jada; Wood, Katie
  26. Solar-powered cold-storages and sustainable food system transformation: Evidence from horticulture markets interventions in northeast Nigeria By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Futoshi; Bawa, Dauda; Kamaldeen, Salaudeen O.; Edeh, Hyacinth O.; Hernandez, Manuel A.
  27. Economics of Index-based Flood Insurance (IBFI) By Malik, Ravinder Paul Singh; Amarnath, Giriraj
  28. Subnational public expenditures, short-term household-level welfare, and economic resilience: Evidence from Nigeria By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Balana, Bedru; Smart, Jenny; Edeh, Hyacinth; Oyeyemi, Motunrayo Ayowumi; Andam, Kwaw S.
  29. Women's Land Rights and Village Institutions in Tanzania By Garance Genicot; Maria Hernandez de Benito
  30. Gender dimensions of solid and liquid waste management for reuse in agriculture in Asia and Africa By Taron, Avinandan; Drechsel, Pay; Gebrezgabher, Solomie
  31. Input-Output Relationship and Economies of Scale in Agriculture: Empirical Evidence from Eastern up By Baliyan, Kavita
  32. Decentralized Targeting of Agricultural Credit Programs: Private versus Political Intermediaries By Pushkar Maitra; Sandip Mitra; Dilip Mookherjee; Sujata Visaria
  33. Determinants of Agricultural Diversification in Brazil: A Spatial Econometric Analysis By Jose Luis Parre; Andre Luis Squarize Chagas
  34. Beyond Ostrom: Randomized Experiment of the Impact of Individualized Tree Rights on Forest Management in Ethiopia By Takahashi, Ryo; Otsuka, Keijiro; Tilahun, Mesfin; Birhane, Emiru; Holden, Stein T.
  35. Towards sustainable ocean governance: A call for blue climate action in international development By Lehmann, Ina; Siebert, Michael; Högl, Maximilian; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina
  36. Economics of Index-based Flood Insurance (IBFI): scenario analysis and stakeholder perspectives from South Asia By Malik, Ravinder Paul Singh; Amarnath, Giriraj
  37. The emergence of collective action towards sustainable development: a Val Llech project in French Pyrenees By Azusa Osumi; Pierre Gasselin
  38. Economic evaluation of a farm-to-Special Supplemental Nutrition Programme for Women, Infants and Children intervention promoting vegetable consumption By Di Noia, Jennifer; Monica, Dorothy; Jensen, Helen H.; Sikorskii, Alla
  39. Trade policies have environmental implications By Li, Minghao; Zhang, Wendong
  40. How to Apply Excise Taxes to Fight Obesity By Mario Mansour; Mr. Philippe Wingender; Patrick Petit
  41. Anticipatory Cash Transfers in Climate Disaster Response By Ashley Pople; Ruth Hill; Stefan Dercon; Ben Brunckhorst
  42. The Effects of Climate Change on Income Inequality: Evidence from APEC Member Economies By Kim, Wongi
  43. Rural Labor and Long Recall Loss By Ambler, Kate; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Maredia, Mywish K.

  1. By: Kafle, Kashi
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315099&r=
  2. By: von Gnechten, Rachel; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; van der Bliek, Julie; Yu, Winston (International Water Management Institute (IWMI))
    Keywords: Water productivity; Water scarcity; Agricultural water use; Water allocation; Water accounting; Sustainable Development Goals; Water resources; Water management; Groundwater; Irrigation efficiency; Climate change; Water policies; Policy making; Farmers; Case studies
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:conprc:h050554&r=
  3. By: Vanaja, Shiuli
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315156&r=
  4. By: Zang, Liangzhen
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:314962&r=
  5. By: Jumrani, Jaya
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315296&r=
  6. By: Negi, Chander
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315389&r=
  7. By: Rifin, Amzul
    Keywords: Marketing, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315019&r=
  8. By: Hirvonen, Kalle; Habte, Yetmwork; Mohammed, Belay; Tamru, Seneshaw; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Minten, Bart
    Abstract: We combine in-person survey data collected in February 2018 with phone survey data collected in June and September 2021 to study how dairy value chains in Ethiopia have coped with the COVID-19 pandemic. Focusing on the major dairy value chain connecting farmers in North and West Shewa as well as peri-urban and urban producers in and around Addis Ababa to consumers in Addis Ababa, we applied a cascading survey approach in which we collected data at all levels of the value chain: dairy farmers, rural wholesalers, and urban retailers.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; food prices; milk products; food consumption; dairy farming; value chains; surveys; milk production; dairy prices; dairy farmers
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:esspwp:160&r=
  9. By: Sarker, Rakhal
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315321&r=
  10. By: SJ, Balaji
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315167&r=
  11. By: West, Steele
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315048&r=
  12. By: Seewald, Eva
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315004&r=
  13. By: Martin, Will
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315330&r=
  14. By: Amaro, Ignacio Benito
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:314995&r=
  15. By: Stevens, Andrew W.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315304&r=
  16. By: Hirvonen, Kalle; Mohammed, Belay; Tamru, Seneshaw; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Minten, Bart
    Abstract: We combine in-person survey data collected in February 2020 (i.e., just before the pandemic was declared) with phone survey data collected in March 2021 (i.e., one year into the pandemic) and August 2021 (i.e., approximately 18 months into the pandemic) to study how vegetable value chains in Ethiopia have coped with the COVID-19 pandemic. Focusing on the major vegetable value chain connecting farmers in East Shewa zone to consumers in Addis Ababa, we applied a cascading survey approach in which we collected data at all levels of the value chain: vegetable farmers, urban wholesalers, and retailers.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; food prices; vegetables; food consumption; value chains; surveys; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; vegetable production; vegetable prices
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:esspwp:159&r=
  17. By: Pauline Lecole (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sophie Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The small farm sector in France has been rapidly changing in the last decade. Case studies and statistical work indicate that a fringe of small farms are developing a business model radically different from conventional agriculture, based on more sustainable production systems and mobilizing innovative ways to create value added at farm level. Can this type of farm foreshadow a new model of agriculture, both economically viable and environmentally sustainable? Should it be better supported by agricultural policies? To respond to these questions, this article compares the economic and environmental performance of small French farms relatively to the performance of medium and large farms. Our analysis is based on 2018 data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and we use the small farm definition provided by the French farm union "Confédération Paysanne", which defends small-scale peasantry agriculture. Our results show that 55 % of small farms display greater environmental performance than the median environmental performance of the overall farm sector. Our central finding is that 13 % of small farms are both more environmentally and economically performant, in comparison to all farms. These environmentally and economically farms are run by younger farmers, mostly women. They are mostly organic and generate sufficient income per worker to ensure their short-term economic viability. However, subsidies from the Common agricultural policy (CAP) remain indispensable. A rebalancing of the allocation of CAP support, according to the number of workers, could help to ensure their long-term viability and would contribute to a performant small-holding innovative model of agriculture..
    Abstract: On assiste au renouvellement des petites exploitations agricoles. De plus en plus d'études de cas et travaux statistiques montrent qu'aujourd'hui certaines petites exploitations françaises s'inscrivent dans un modèle innovant et performant. Cet article compare les performances économiques et environnementales des petites exploitations, définies d'après les critères de la Confédération Paysanne, avec celles des moyennes et grandes exploitations du RICA. On montre que 55 % d'entre elles sont relativement plus performantes sur le volet environnement que l'ensemble des exploitations. 13 % sont même doublement performantes. Elles sont dirigées par de jeunes chefs, majoritairement des femmes, souvent en agriculture biologique, et dégagent un revenu par actif suffisant pour se maintenir. Les aides de la PAC sont cependant indispensables. Un rééquilibrage des aides par actif pourrait assurer la viabilité des petites exploitations à long terme, et contribuer à développer un modèle de petites exploitations innovantes et performantes..
    Keywords: economic performance,environmental performance,FADN,small farms,petites exploitations agricoles,performance économique,performance environnementale
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03440213&r=
  18. By: Benfica, Rui; Nin-Pratt, Alejandro
    Abstract: This analysis explores the relationship between agricultural R&D investments and rural poverty reduction, and the prevalence of undernourishment in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It uses a panel data set of internationally comparable poverty dis-aggregated by urban and rural areas, country level undernourishment, and ASTI data on R&D investments and derived indicators. The study uses agricultural R&D knowledge stocks (KS) to account for the lagged effects of research through depreciation and gestation period of investments, and applies causal mediation analysis to assess the impact of KS on poverty and hunger and measure the relative contribution of KS-induced agricultural productivity growth on those outcomes. Evidence suggests that, while SSA growth in KS has been relatively slow, it helped reduce rural poverty and undernourishment – the percentage point reduction in rural extreme and moderate poverty of a 1% annual increase in KS is 0.218 and 0.146 percentage points per year, respectively. Mediation analysis indicates that a fifth of the KS effect on extreme rural poverty, and a quarter of the KS effect on moderate rural poverty, can be attributed to KS driven gains in agricultural labor productivity. Likewise, KS growth reduces undernourishment – a 1% annual increase in KS leads to a drop of 0.132 percentage points per year in the prevalence of undernourishment, with about 40% of that effect mediated through gains in agricultural land productivity. These results indicate that KS supports poverty and hunger reduction through benefits on-farm and beyond it. They also suggest that there is room for strengthening the role of R&D KS productivity enhancing innovations. Given the current low levels of investments in R&D and resulting KS, increasing its levels will be critical, but that alone is not sufficient. Policy makers will have to rethink the way the innovations from R&D get scaled up and pay attention to the necessary complementary policies and investments that enable a sustainable pathway leading to greater productivity growth and development impacts.
    Keywords: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; research; development; agricultural research; poverty; investment; malnutrition; agriculture; knowledge; rural areas; knowledge stocks; mediation; undernourishment
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2048&r=
  19. By: Sellare, Jorge
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315006&r=
  20. By: David Adeabah (Legon, Ghana); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have examined the role of agricultural export in economic growth in Africa. The literature, however, provides conflicting results about the agricultural export-led growth hypothesis. In this study, we aim to examine the impact of agricultural export on economic growth by performing a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis finds significant presence of negative publication bias in the literature. Using mixed-effect multilevel meta-regression, we find that after correction for publication bias, the average agricultural export elasticity to economic growth is 0.763 for the poor in Africa. Interestingly, agricultural export is growth for the rich in Africa, although the elasticity of GDP is 0.043. These results are consistent with the agricultural export-led growth hypothesis. The implication is that export promotion should be targeted at agricultural output in low-income and lower middle-income countries whereas upper middle-income countries in Africa may focus on non-agricultural export.
    Keywords: Africa; export-led growth; agricultural export; meta-analysis
    JEL: C10 C40 I30 N50 O55
    Date: 2021–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exs:wpaper:21/082&r=
  21. By: Huysmans, Martijn
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:314978&r=
  22. By: Chen, Chen-Ti
    Abstract: United States’ animal agriculture experienced dramatic structural changes over the last three decades. As technology advances, the industry has featured the growing prevalence of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) that can keep animals in confined spaces and feed them at a lower cost than historical practices. Higher productivity and lower operating costs also help the U.S. livestock sector enhance its competitiveness in international markets. However, concentrated feeding also concentrates pollution externalities. Manure, a byproduct of CAFOs, contains high nutrient contents and is a major source of water pollution. In addition, recent trade disputes have created significant challenges for U.S. livestock producers.This dissertation contains three essays studying these two pressing issues confronting U.S. animal agriculture: (1) the environmental externalities from industrialized animal farms and the effectiveness of environmental regulations on CAFOs; and (2) the competitiveness of the U.S. livestock sector in the international markets.Chapters 1 and 2 provide the general introduction to the dissertation, and the background on environmental regulations in U.S. animal agriculture and the development of the industry.Chapters 3 and 4 together examine the effectiveness of the Clean Water Act (CWA) regulations, administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on CAFOs. In 2003, EPA significantly increased the stringency of its CWA regulations of animal operations above a certain size threshold, and thus designated as CAFOs. However, empirical evidence has documented that such size-based regulations incentivize operations to downsize to the regulatory threshold to avoid compliance, raising concerns about the effectiveness of the regulations.Chapter 3 proposes a theoretical framework adapted from Garicano et al. (2016) to study the effects of size-based CWA regulations on CAFOs. The model highlights an important adverse consequence of size-based regulations: less productive operations may be better off reducing their operational sizes to legally avoid compliance obligations. Downsizing leads to output losses that increase in compliance costs. This result suggests that both the cost-effectiveness and environmental benefits of the CAFO regulations may be overestimated by the EPA.Chapter 4 empirically investigates whether water quality around CAFOs has improved since the EPA updated the regulations in 2003. Using data from Iowa, the chapter studies water quality impacts of the CWA updates on CAFOs. Estimates show that ammonia-nitrogen concentration, a key surface water pollutant from animal agriculture, downstream of a hog CAFO decreases 4 to 6 percentage points on average after the regulation updates. The effects are the largest during high precipitation months, providing suggestive evidence the regulations reduce onsite spillage and over-application of manure to nearby fields.Chapter 5 shifts the focus to trade issues in the U.S. livestock industry. The chapter examines the long-run impacts of trade shocks on U.S. beef competitiveness, using the export bans imposed on U.S. beef exports following the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in December 2003 in the U.S. Results show that the U.S.’s comparative advantage in beef has not recovered to its pre-outbreak level, and that the U.S. would have maintained its comparative advantage had the BSE event not occurred. This study sheds light on the implications of recent trade disputes for U.S. farmers.Chapter 6 summarizes the previous sections and discusses future research moving forward.
    Date: 2021–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202101010800009480&r=
  23. By: International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
    Keywords: Groundwater irrigation/Farmer-led irrigation/Water pricing/Loans/Pumps/Private ownership/Groundwater extraction/Boreholes/Wells/Water drilling/Solar energy/Irrigated land /Climate change/Forecasting/Policies/Hunger/Smallholders
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:polbrs:h050809&r=
  24. By: Paola Hernández (MED - Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development - University of Évora [Portugal]); Francesca Galli (University of Pisa - Università di Pisa); Paolo Prosperi (CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes, UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, University of Pisa - Università di Pisa); Šūmane Sandra; Dominic Duckett (The James Hutton Institute); Henrik Eli Almaas
    Abstract: For small farms across Europe, connecting to small food businesses offers a significant route to market. We analyse survey data from 85 small food businesses in nine European regions and explore the enabling and limiting conditions around this connectivity. We show how connectivity depends on context-based interrelationships among food system actors and consider the effects of these relations on small farm integration. Results show stronger connections when small food businesses are themselves farm-based. Weaker linkages are also apparent in the absence of public and social support. We argue that regional food systems can be enhanced by increasing small food businesses' capacity to source from small farms, with the added benefit of increasing the viability of these small businesses.
    Keywords: Small food business,Small farms,Food system approach,Integration,Localised food systems,INDUSTRIE ALIMENTAIRE,SYSTEME AGROALIMENTAIRE,TRES PETITE ENTREPRISE,APPROVISIONNEMENT,PME,PETITE EXPLOITATION AGRICOLE,PRODUCTION AGRICOLE,PRATIQUE COLLABORATIVE,ACCES AUX MARCHES,SYSTEME DE PRODUCTION LOCALISE,EUROPE
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03463710&r=
  25. By: Weersink, Alfons; von Massow, Mike; Bannon, Nicholas; Ifft, Jennifer; Maples, Josh; McEwen, Ken; McKendree, Melissa; Nicholson, Charles; Novakovic, Andrew; Rangarajan, Anusuya; Richards, Tim; Rickard, Brad; Rude, James; Schipanski, Meagan; Schnitkey, Gary; Schulz, Lee; Schuurman, Daniel; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen; Stephenson, Mark; Thompson, Jada; Wood, Katie
    Abstract: Agri-food supply chains in North America have become remarkably efficient, supplying an unprecedented variety of items at the lowest possible cost. However, the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and the near-total temporary loss of the foodservice distribution channel, exposed a vulnerability that many found surprising. Instead of continued shortages, however, the agri-food sector has since moved back to near normal conditions with prices and production levels similar to those typically observed in years prior to the pandemic. Ironically, the specialization in most food supply chains designed for “just-in-time†delivery to specific customers with no reserve capacity, which led to the initial disruptions, may have also been responsible for its rapid rebound. A common theme in assessing the impacts across the six commodities examined is the growing importance of understanding the whole supply chain. Over the longer term, a continuation of the pandemic could push the supply chain toward greater consolidation of firms and diversification of products given the increasing option value of maintaining flexibility. Other structural changes will be felt through input markets, most notably labour, as the trend toward greater automation will continue to accelerate as a response to meeting concerns about a consistent supply of healthy and productive workers. The economic fall out from the pandemic may lead to greater concentration in the sector as some firms are not able to survive the downturn and changes in consumer food buying behaviour, including movement toward online shopping and enhanced demand for attributes associated with resiliency, such as local. On the other hand, online shopping may provide opportunities for small producers and processors to shorten supply chains and reach customers directly. In the long term, COVID-19 impacts on global commerce and developing country production are more uncertain and could influence poverty reduction. While COVID-19's impacts on North American agriculture should have minimal effect on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through food prices, the ongoing global trends in trade and agribusiness accelerated by the pandemic are relevant for achievement of the SDGs.
    Date: 2020–12–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202012230800001781&r=
  26. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Futoshi; Bawa, Dauda; Kamaldeen, Salaudeen O.; Edeh, Hyacinth O.; Hernandez, Manuel A.
    Abstract: Modern cooling technologies that utilize renewable energy sources have been increasingly recognized as a promising tool to address a multitude of challenges emerging in progressively complex food systems in developing countries. When provided as cold-storages inside horticulture markets, cooling technologies can potentially contribute to improved quality of products and strengthened vertical linkages. Knowledge gaps about the actual impacts of these technologies in developing countries remain, especially in Africa south of Sahara (SSA). This study partly fills this knowledge gap by providing evidence from the evaluation of recent interventions in northeast Nigeria in which 7 small solar-powered cold-storages were installed across 7 horticulture markets. Combinations of difference-in-difference and variants of propensity-score-based methods suggest that using cold-storages significantly increased horticulture sales volumes and revenues of market-agents. Back-of-the-envelope calculations indicate that increased net revenues for market-agents may be sufficiently large to recoup the investments and operating costs of cold-storages within a reasonable time frame. Using cold-storage also reduced the share of food loss and lengthened the products' shelf-life, while raised prices received by both market-agents and farmers, which were associated with improved product quality, expanded value-adding activities by market-agents, and increased use of advance payments. We find no evidence of negative spillover effects inside horticulture markets. Finally, additional food-science experiments confirm that cold-storages preserve original physical and nutritional qualities of key horticultural products several days longer than products stored under ambient temperature.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; food systems; transformation; markets; solar energy; cold storage; sustainability; horticulture; food quality; food losses; market-agents
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2047&r=
  27. By: Malik, Ravinder Paul Singh; Amarnath, Giriraj
    Abstract: The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) has recently developed an innovative Index-based Flood Insurance (IBFI) product to facilitate the scaling of flood insurance particularly in vulnerable economies, to provide risk cover to poor farmers against crop losses that occur due to floods. While the product developed is technically very sound, the economics of such an intervention is important to ensure the large-scale acceptance and adoption of the product by different stakeholders and for its sustenance in the long term. This paper attempts at conducting an ex ante assessment of the economics of IBFI from the perspectives of the three main stakeholders: farmers, the insurance company and the government. The paper discusses the methodological challenges and data issues encountered in undertaking an economic analysis of such a product. The issues and processes involved have been empirically demonstrated using a theoretical case study based on a synthesis of information drawn from a host of sources and certain assumptions. Field-based data are now being collected and analyzed from the locations where IBFI has recently been piloted by IWMI. This will help in further refining the process of economic evaluation and identifying the experiences of different stakeholders.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Production Economics
    Date: 2021–11–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iwmwpb:316618&r=
  28. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Balana, Bedru; Smart, Jenny; Edeh, Hyacinth; Oyeyemi, Motunrayo Ayowumi; Andam, Kwaw S.
    Abstract: Public expenditures (PE) are critical for key public sector functions that contribute to development and welfare improvements, including the provisions of necessary public goods and the mitigation of market failures. PE in social sectors, such as health, education, and social welfare, and in agriculture have been increasingly recognized as potentially important for income growth, poverty reduction, fostering increased private investment, improved nutritional outcomes, and greater economic resilience. Furthermore, the importance of the impact of subnational PE on these outcomes has also been recognized, as appropriately decentralized PE systems can potentially achieve greater effectiveness by enabling public sector support that is tailored more to local needs. However, direct evidence of these developmental effects of decentralized PE in developing countries like Nigeria has been relatively limited. This study attempts to fill this knowledge gap by estimating the effects of shares of total subnational PE for agriculture, health, education, and social welfare, as well as PE size, on household-level outcomes using nationally-representative panel household data and both local government area and higher state-level PE data for Nigeria. We find that greater shares of total PE for agriculture, health, and social welfare, conditional on PE size, generally have positive effects on consumption, poverty reduction, and non-farm business capital investments. A greater share of total PE for agriculture benefits a broader range of outcomes than do greater shares of total PE for health and social welfare. These include improving certain nutritional outcomes, like household dietary diversity across seasons, and economic flexibility between farm and non-farm activities, which may be particularly important for building resilience in today’s rapidly changing socioeconomic environment due to shocks, including COVID19. Such multi-dimensional benefits of greater PE for agriculture are particularly worthy of attention in countries like Nigeria, which have historically allocated a lower share of total PE to agriculture than to health and other social welfare sectors and a lower share of total PE to agriculture compared to that allocated to agriculture in similar countries in Africa and elsewhere.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; public expenditure; expenditure; households; welfare; resilience; social structure; agriculture; flexibility; poverty reduction; household consumption; consumption; subnational public expenditures
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:nsspwp:68&r=
  29. By: Garance Genicot (Department of Economics, Georgetown University); Maria Hernandez de Benito (University of Alicante)
    Abstract: Strengthening women's ownership of and control over land is an important development goal. This paper studies the extent of women's land rights in rural Tanzania and how patrilineal norms affect them. We show that married women in rural Tanzania still own little land without their husbands and have limited rights over the jointly owned land. In Tanzania, an inherent tension lies in the recognition of customary laws that explicitly discriminate against women and statutory laws that establish equal rights for men and women. Customary patrilineal practices persist. In particular, we find that firstborn sons are expected to inherit more land than firstborn daughters, and widows' inheritance rights are affected by the gender of their children. We also show that women's tenure security in case of divorce or inheritance is fragile. In Tanzania, village institutions play a key role in the management of land rights and the mediation of land disputes. We find that members of village institutions have more pro-women views on land rights than the average household respondent. However, using randomized vignettes to measure gender bias, we show they do not always make gender-neutral recommendations in case of land disputes. Classification- O17, O12, D13, K11
    Keywords: Tanzania, Gender, Land Rights, Inheritance, Institutions, Vignettes
    Date: 2021–11–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:geo:guwopa:gueconwpa~21-21-21&r=
  30. By: Taron, Avinandan; Drechsel, Pay; Gebrezgabher, Solomie
    Abstract: This report examines social equality aspects related to resource recovery through solid waste composting and wastewater irrigation. The report shows that women are represented in greatest numbers at the base of the recycling chain, most often as informal waste pickers and as sorters of recyclables with limited access to resources and upward mobility. Despite a wide gender gap in the solid waste and sanitation sectors, women play a key role in both municipal waste reduction and food safety where irrigation water is unsafe. Analyzing the gender dimension is important for understanding household responses to recycling programs, differences between the formal and informal sectors as well as along the waste-to-resource value chain from collection to treatment and reuse. The report stresses the important role of women in household waste management, including waste segregation, and the power of women-dominated waste picker associations, where the informal sector plays an essential role alongside the formal sector.
    Keywords: Resource recovery; Resource management; Water reuse; Gender equity; Social equality; Waste management; Solid wastes; Liquid wastes; Agricultural value chains; Circular economy; Business models; Women's participation; Urban wastes; Household wastes; Faecal sludge; Waste collection; Recycling; Wastewater treatment; Organic wastes; Composting; Wastewater irrigation; Sustainable Development Goals; Health hazards; Sanitation; Community involvement; Social marketing; Entrepreneurs; Farmers
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:rerere:h050720&r=
  31. By: Baliyan, Kavita
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae21:315055&r=
  32. By: Pushkar Maitra (Monash University); Sandip Mitra (Indian Statistical Institute); Dilip Mookherjee (Boston University); Sujata Visaria (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: We conduct a field experiment in India comparing two approaches to appointing a local commission agent to select eligible smallholder farmers for a subsidized credit program: a private trader in TRAIL, versus a political appointee in GRAIL. Both schemes had similar loan take-up, repayments and similar treatment effects on borrowing and farm output, but farmers' profits increased significantly only in the TRAIL scheme. This is explained by a larger reduction in the unit costs of production. While there is evidence that the TRAIL agent selected farmers of higher productivity, differences in selection (on productivity or other relevant attributes) is unable to explain much of the observed differences in average treatment effects on farmer profits. We explain the larger treatment effects in TRAIL conditional on selection, as the result of the TRAIL agents' superior motivation and their capacity to offer treated farmers' business advice and lower their production costs.
    Keywords: Targeting, Intermediation, Decentralization, Community Driven Development, Agricultural Credit
    JEL: H42 I38 O13 O16 O17
    Date: 2021–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mos:moswps:2021-19&r=
  33. By: Jose Luis Parre; Andre Luis Squarize Chagas
    Abstract: This research has as main objective to analyze the behavior and the importance of agricultural diversification for Brazil, considering its States, for the period from 2002 to 2018. We will propose an analytical model to make it possible to identify the determinants of agricultural diversification in Brazil. Empirically, the study will proceed by estimating an SLX model using panel data and considering the spillover effects, highlighting the importance of location and neighborhood. The study's findings indicate a continued decline in crop diversity with a strong tendency to productive specialization in Brazilian agriculture, mainly in the states located in the Midwest and South regions of the country. The average rates of growth of the indexes presented negative values for the period of analysis: -0.41 % per year for the Simpson index, -0.58% per year for the Shannon index and -0.91% per year for the effective number of crops. It is important to note that some states are allocating practically the entire agricultural area to three or four dominant crops. As for the determinants of agricultural diversification, the results for 15 Brazil are in line with the specialized literature.
    Keywords: Agricultural diversity; agricultural diversification indexes; model SLX; panel data panel; public research
    JEL: Q15 Q18 C33
    Date: 2021–12–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:spa:wpaper:2021wpecon28&r=
  34. By: Takahashi, Ryo (Waseda University, Graduate School of Economics); Otsuka, Keijiro (Kobe University, Institute of Developing Economies); Tilahun, Mesfin (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Birhane, Emiru (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Holden, Stein T. (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: In this study, we argue that while community forest management is effective in protecting forest resources as argued by Ostrom, it may fail to provide proper incentives to take care of such resources because of collective sharing of benefits of forest management. This study proposes a mixed private and community management system as a desirable arrangement for timber forest management in Ethiopia, which is characterized by communal protection of community-owned forest area and individual management of individually owned trees. By conducting a randomized experiment in Ethiopia, we found that the mixed management system significantly stimulated intensive forest management activities, including pruning, guarding, and watering. Furthermore, the treated members extracted more timber trees and forest products, which are byproducts of tree management (thinned trees and pruned branches). In contrast, the extracted volumes of nontimber forest products unrelated to tree management (fodder and honey) did not change by the intervention.
    Keywords: property regimes; individual rights commons; community forest management; RCT
    JEL: O13 P48 Q23 Q24
    Date: 2021–12–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:nlsclt:2021_006&r=
  35. By: Lehmann, Ina; Siebert, Michael; Högl, Maximilian; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina
    Abstract: The ocean is vital for life on earth and yet it is under serious threat from climate change and resource overexploitation. Environmental change in the ocean significantly undermines human livelihoods, especially in the developing and least developed countries where people are particularly vulnerable to climate change-related losses and damages. This Briefing Paper outlines challenges that people, development cooperation and policy face and suggests ways forward for sustainable ocean governance through sustainable resource use, comprehensive risk management and enhanced climate action. Life in the ocean is threatened in various ways by human activities. Climate change, as one severe consequence, leads to ocean warming and ocean acidification putting complex ecosystems and their sensitive species in danger. Such climatic impacts are exacerbated by pollution, especially plastic, and the overharvesting of many marine species. As a result of the confluence of these developments, many local coastal communities lose their livelihoods. At the same time, climate change increasingly threatens coasts through sea level rise, salinisation and growing frequencies of extreme weather events, such as floods and storms. This puts the 2.6 billion people living at or near the coasts at high risk; low-altitude small islands are expected to become uninhabitable within the next decades if current global warming trajectories continue. Furthermore, the ocean contributes to climate change mitigation because marine ecosystems absorb CO2. In response to these challenges, there is a need for sustained awareness raising on the importance of the ocean for development as well as for the need of enhanced international cooperation for joint action. Conscious politics, substantial action and financial resources are needed at multiple levels of governance, from empowering local stakeholders to developing locally sound solutions to political guidance through national and international policy-making processes. From a development policy angle, this Briefing Paper specifically suggests that current climate and biodiversity policy processes pay enhanced attention to the ocean under climate change, pollution and overexploitation stress. This should be guided by the overarching vision of a sustainable blue economy. More concrete reform needs are a stronger focus on responsible stakeholder inclusion at all levels in ocean governance in general, ranging from individual households to communities, private sector and governments; expansion of marine protected areas and promotion of marine and coastal nature-based solutions to complement sustainable blue economies while ensuring their inclusive and rights-based governance; support for sustainable small-scale fisheries and promotion of eco-friendly mariculture and aquaculture; expansion of the reach of the UNFCCC's Nairobi Work Programme and the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM) to oceans and coasts; and support for radical decarbonisation pathways and a carbon-neutral blue economy.
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:diebps:222021&r=
  36. By: Malik, Ravinder Paul Singh (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Amarnath, Giriraj (International Water Management Institute (IWMI))
    Abstract: The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) has recently developed an innovative Index-based Flood Insurance (IBFI) product to facilitate the scaling of flood insurance particularly in vulnerable economies, to provide risk cover to poor farmers against crop losses that occur due to floods. While the product developed is technically very sound, the economics of such an intervention is important to ensure the large-scale acceptance and adoption of the product by different stakeholders and for its sustenance in the long term. This paper attempts at conducting an ex ante assessment of the economics of IBFI from the perspectives of the three main stakeholders: farmers, the insurance company and the government. The paper discusses the methodological challenges and data issues encountered in undertaking an economic analysis of such a product. The issues and processes involved have been empirically demonstrated using a theoretical case study based on a synthesis of information drawn from a host of sources and certain assumptions. Field-based data are now being collected and analyzed from the locations where IBFI has recently been piloted by IWMI. This will help in further refining the process of economic evaluation and identifying the experiences of different stakeholders.
    Keywords: Economic analysis; Stakeholders; Disaster risk management; Farmers; State intervention; Flood damage; Crop losses; Compensation; Subsidies; Insurance premiums; Cost benefit analysis; Economic viability; Sustainability; Villages; Remote sensing; Datasets; Models; Developing countries; Case studies
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iwt:worppr:h050736&r=
  37. By: Azusa Osumi (University of Kagoshima); Pierre Gasselin (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study conditions of the early stage of collective action in the Val Llech project inspired by Biovallée de la Drôme, a territorial approach to ecological transitions. From interviews with key actors regarding their motivations and participation in the project, we examined which parts of their perception of the issues to be addressed in the associations are categorized into convergence, divergence, and contradictions. We subsequently identified how convergence has underpinned Val Llech's early collective action. We further examined the group's strengths and issues to be solved for the stabilization and future development of collective action.
    Keywords: Territorial developpement,Sustainable development,Early collective action,Sens commun
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03437296&r=
  38. By: Di Noia, Jennifer; Monica, Dorothy; Jensen, Helen H.; Sikorskii, Alla
    Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a farm-to-Special Supplemental Nutrition Programme for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) intervention to promote vegetable intake and the redemption of WIC vouchers for produce purchases at farmers’ markets.Design: An economic analysis was undertaken using data from a pilot of the intervention. Vegetable intake was assessed with a reflection spectroscopy device (the Veggie Meter® [VM]) and via self-report. Voucher redemption was reported by WIC. Total and per participant intervention costs and cost-effectiveness ratios (expressed as cost per intervention effect) were estimated in 2019 US dollars over a 6-month period from the perspective of the agency implementing the intervention.Setting: A large, urban WIC agency.Participants: Participants were 297 WIC-enrolled adults.Results: Post-intervention, VM scores, self-reported vegetable intake and voucher redemption were higher in the intervention as compared with the control study group. Over the 6-month period, intervention costs were $31 092 ($194 unit cost per participant). Relative to the control group, the intervention cost $8·10 per increased VM score per participant, $3·85 per increased cup/d of vegetables consumed per participant and $3·29 per increased percentage point in voucher redemption per participant.Conclusions: Intervention costs and cost-effectiveness ratios compared favourably with those reported for other interventions targeting vegetable intake in low-income groups, suggesting that the programme may be cost effective in promoting vegetable purchases and consumption. As there is no benchmark against which to compare cost-effectiveness ratios expressed as cost per unit of effectiveness, conclusions regarding whether this is the case must await further research.
    Date: 2021–05–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202105110700001799&r=
  39. By: Li, Minghao; Zhang, Wendong
    Abstract: US-China trade relations have implications for global nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses, and increasing blue water demand. The case shows that trade policy analysis needs to integrate environmental considerations.
    Date: 2021–08–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202108120700001837&r=
  40. By: Mario Mansour; Mr. Philippe Wingender; Patrick Petit
    Abstract: Fighting the obesity epidemic4 has so far proven a difficult challenge, given the diversity of natural and processed foods, the complexity of food supply chains, and the fact that targeting excessive caloric consumption is far trickier than reducing overall consumption (as for tobacco). Nevertheless, efforts to curb caloric intake are gearing up and the experience from tobacco control has drawn much attention on a potential role for excise taxes in fighting obesity. Many related questions have therefore been raised as part of the IMF’s capacity development work: Should excises on unhealthy food be used to fight obesity? If so, under what conditions? What are the product and market characteristics that would help identify the relevant tax bases and the rates at which to tax them? While acknowledging that the scientific evidence keeps evolving, this note summarizes the ongoing debate and practice on food excises and on their potential role as a policy tool to fight the obesity epidemic, with a view to assist policymakers in deciding whether to go forward, and if so, how.How to Apply Excise Taxes to Fight Obesity
    Keywords: health, obesity, excise taxes
    Date: 2021–12–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfhtn:2021/008&r=
  41. By: Ashley Pople; Ruth Hill; Stefan Dercon; Ben Brunckhorst
    Abstract: In the face of increasing climate volatility and stretched aid budgets, more effective ways to support households in times of crisis are needed. This paper examines the welfare impact of an anticipatory cash transfer provided to households forecasted to experience extreme floods in Bangladesh. Evidence on the impact of a one-off transfer in a disaster are limited, despite the widespread use of such transfers in crises, reflecting more broadly a dearth of evaluations in the humanitarian sector. To assess impact, we exploit administrative constraints experi-enced during the programme roll-out caused by the quick onset of the flood and restrictions on movement as a result of Covid-19, to compare treated households with otherwise comparable households which did not receive the cash transfer. We find that the anticipatory cash transfer was mostly spent on food and water, and that treated households were 36% less likely to go a day without eating during the flood. Three months after the flood, households that had received the transfer reported significantly higher child and adult food consumption and well¬being. They also experienced lower asset loss, engaged in less costly borrowing after the flood, and reported higher earning potential. Our results are robust to alternate control group defi¬nitions and model specifications. These benefits from the anticipatory cash transfer occurred before a traditional humanitarian response would normally arrive, highlighting the benefits of being early. We find that small changes in timing matter: receiving the cash a day earlier resulted in a small and marginally significant increase in welfare.
    Keywords: finance and microfinance; climate change; anticipatory humanitarian action
    JEL: D12 O12 Q54
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:csa:wpaper:2021-07&r=
  42. By: Kim, Wongi (Sungshin Women's University)
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates the dynamic effects of climate change on within-country income inequality. Using panel data of 17 APEC member economies, I estimate impulse responses via the local projection method. Temperature and precipitation shocks, defined as deviations of temperature and precipitation from their historical norms, are also exploited to measure country-specific climate change. The empirical results reveal the following. First, temperature and precipitation shocks deteriorate income inequality measured by the Gini index; these effects are long-lasting. Moreover, asymmetric effects exist: heatwaves and droughts more significantly increase income inequality than coldwaves and floods. Lastly, current redistribution policies do not seem to effectively mitigate those adverse effects. I also discuss implications of carbon pricing/tax and environmental taxes related to income inequality.
    Keywords: APEC; climate change; income inequality; redistribution policy
    Date: 2021–12–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ris:kiepas:2021_002&r=
  43. By: Ambler, Kate; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Maredia, Mywish K.
    Abstract: Commonly used data collection practices use annual recall to capture individuals’ labor activities over a year. However, long recall periods are likely to suffer from distortions and loss, particularly when work patterns are seasonal and informal. In a panel of rural households in Malawi, we use a survey experiment to test the effect of using long recall periods on the reported number of labor activities, labor supply, and types of work relative to those resulting from a set of shorter, quarterly interviews. We document large losses from the longer recall window, particularly on the extensive margin of labor supply with reductions of over 20%. These losses are greatest for periods furthest from the last survey round and are especially large among individuals whose labor supply is being reported for them, reaching as high as 50% losses for some outcomes. The composition of households’ primary respondents, predominantly male and older, as well as differential effects by age both suggest that use of long recall may lead to meaningful biases by both age and gender in resulting data.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–12–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midasp:316616&r=

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