nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒08‒16
37 papers chosen by

  1. Developing Rapid Climate Decision Analysis Tool in Small-holder High-Value Crop Farming in Atok, Benguet By Domingo, Sonny N.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
  2. The impact of foreign direct Investment on the development of weather index insurance for low-income farmers in Southern Africa By Mathithibane, Mpho Steve
  3. Investing in risky inputs in Senegal: Implications for farm profit and food production By Goundan, Anatole; Faye, Amy; Henning, Christian H. C. A.; Collins-Sowah, Peron A.
  4. Impact of agriculture finance in modern technologies adoption for enhanced productivity and rural household economic wellbeing in Ghana: A case study of rice farmers in Shai-Osudoku District. By Teye, Evans Sackey; Quarshie, Philip Tetteh
  5. Agroecology and climate change rapid evidence review : performance of agroecological approaches in low- and middle- income countries By S. Snapp; Yodit Kebede; Eva Wollenberg; K.M. Dittmer; S. Brickman; C. Egler; S. Shelton
  6. Modeling interrelated inputs adoption in rainfed agriculture in Senegal By Goundan, Anatole; Sall, Moussa; Henning, Christian H. C. A.
  7. Marketing Practices and Financial Performance of Local Food Producers: A Comparison of Beginning and Experienced Farmers By Martinez, Steve W.; Park, Timothy
  8. Assessing the Resurgent Irrigation Development Program of the Philippines - Water Resources Component By Tabios, Guillermo Q. III; de Leon, Tomas Paolo Z.
  9. Climate variability and farm inefficiency: A spatial stochastic frontier analysis of Senegalese agriculture By Adjin, K. Christophe; Henning, Christian H. C. A.
  10. Economic incentives modify agricultural impacts of a regional nuclear war concerning food insecurity and famine By Hochman, Gal; Zhang, Hainan; Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Aleti, Saketh; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique Y.; Jagermeyr, Jonas
  11. The Gendered Effects of Climate Change: Production Shocks and Labor Response in Agriculture By Afridi, Farzana; Mahajan, Kanika; Sangwan, Nikita
  12. Managing the Water Crisis in Bundelkhand, India: A Governance Approach By Singh, Radhika; Joshi, Shail
  13. Estimating the impact of agricultural cooperatives in Senegal: Propensity score matching and endogenous switching regression analysis By Adjin, K. Christophe; Goundan, Anatole; Henning, Christian H. C. A.; Sarr, Saer
  14. How COVID-19 Affects Food Security in Indonesia By Mohamad Ikhsan; I Gede Sthitaprajna Virananda
  15. Protocol and statistical analysis plan - impact of environmental labelling on food choices: a randomized controlled trial in a virtual reality supermarket By Lucile Marty; Laura Arrazat; Gaëlle Arvisenet; Sophie Nicklaus; Stephanie Chambaron
  16. Scenarios for an impact assessment of global bioeconomy strategies: Results from a co-design process By Delzeit, Ruth; Heimann, Tobias; Schünemann, Franziska; Söder, Mareike
  17. Experimental Field Evidence of Common Pool Resources: The Water Judge in Bolivia By Javier Aliaga Lordemann
  18. What issues prevent the development of sustainable food value chains for Albanian traditional mountains products? By Florjan Bombaj
  19. Climate Change in Developing Countries: Global Warming Effects,Transmission Channels and Adaptation Policies By De Bandt Olivier; Jacolin Luc; Lemaire Thibault
  20. Concentration and Resilience in the U.S. Meat Supply Chains By Meilin Ma; Jayson L. Lusk
  22. The impact of climate legislation on trade-related carbon emissions, 1997–2017 By Eskander, Shaikh; Fankhauser, Samuel
  23. An Extreme Value Mixture model to assess drought hazard in West Africa By Abdoulaye Sy; Catherine Araujo-Bonjean; Marie-Eliette Dury; Nourddine Azzaoui; Arnaud Guillin
  24. Climate change, or climate shocks: What really triggers civil conflicts? By Khalifa, Sherin; Petri, Svetlana; Henning, Christian H. C. A.
  25. Environmental Justice By Julia M. Puaschunder
  26. Affordable Connectivity and Digital Entrepreneurial Ecosystem for Rural Africa By Odusola, Ayodele; Mekuria, Fisseha; Mzyece, Mjumo; Mfupe, Luzango
  27. Climate institutions in Brazil: three decades of building and dismantling climate capacity By Hochstetler, Kathryn
  28. An assessment of the economic values for visitors to natural areas By Jens Abildtrup; Johanna Breyne; Chaer Soraya
  30. Food Subsidies in General Equilibrium By Albert Jan Hummel; Vinzenz Ziesemer
  31. Social discounting and the equity premium By Spackman, Michael
  32. If climate change can trigger civil conflict, can good policy trigger peace? Empirical evidence from cross-country panel data By Khalifa, Sherin; Petri, Svetlana; Henning, Christian H. C. A.
  33. An inherited animus to communal land: the mechanisms of coloniality in land reform agendas in Acholiland, northern Uganda By Hopwood, Julian
  34. Supporting urban adaptation to climate change: what role can resilience measurement tools play? By Mehryar, Sara; Sasson, Idan; Surminski, Swenja
  35. Using Satellite Imagery and Deep Learning to Evaluate the Impact of Anti-Poverty Programs By Luna Yue Huang; Solomon M. Hsiang; Marco Gonzalez-Navarro
  36. Déterminants, hétérogénéité et soutien du revenu des agriculteurs français By Laurent Piet; Jean-Noel Depeyrot
  37. Promised land: settlement schemes in Kenya, 1962 to 2016 By Boone, Catherine; Lukalo, Fibian; Joireman, Sandra

  1. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
    Abstract: This paper discusses collected data and initial results in developing the rapid climate decision analysis tool applicable to smallholder high value crop farming in Atok, Benguet. The excel-based tool harnesses the knowledge of farmers and agricultural extension workers and aims to aid them in decisionmaking. Information gathered are yields, production costs and prices by crop, season and amount of rainfall. <p>The paper is part of the project titled, "Action ready climate knowledge to improve disaster risk management for smallholder farmers in the Philippines" that explores, among others, the context faced by farmers in making farm decisions, particularly those that are influenced by weather and climate information.
    Keywords: agriculture, climate information, weather information, smallholder farming, decision analysis, Rapid Climate Decision Analysis Tool
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Mathithibane, Mpho Steve
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on the growth of agricultural insurance markets for low-income farmers in Southern Africa for the period 2010 to 2020. Agricultural insurance products for low-income farmers are typically based on weather index insurance contracts. These insurance contracts are cost-effective responses to uninsured agricultural risk in developing economies, and are often considered part of effective ex-ante climate change adaptation strategies. The approach followed in this paper is to assess the extent of FDI transactional flows based on a literature review of past and present pilots as well as market-based weather index insurance schemes. The findings revealed that FDI is relatively low to support weather index insurance development and there exists massive scale for expansion and economic growth opportunities. The study advocates for an improved policy environment with a focus on increasing agricultural productivity among low-income farmers while promoting parallel climate change mitigation strategies, this is likely to have spill-over effects on the acceleration and development of appropriate insurance solutions.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, weather index insurance, Southern African Development Community, Southern African.
    JEL: Q14
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Goundan, Anatole; Faye, Amy; Henning, Christian H. C. A.; Collins-Sowah, Peron A.
    Abstract: While the productivity effects of the application of modern inputs, such as im- proved seeds or inorganic fertilizer, are well known, farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa tended to underinvest in purchased inputs. This underinvestment appears related to the unpredictable nature of agricultural production that is subject to risks and shocks. Farmers make production decisions before climatic and other shocks are realized. They, therefore, have no certainty about the outcome of their decisions. This makes investments in agricultural inputs very risky. This paper uses recent data for Senegal to identify the main drivers of the decision to purchase risky inputs (seeds and/or fertilizers), the level of investment and to quantify the impact of the use of risky inputs on household welfare. Using a Heck- man model, results show that the main drivers of the decision to purchase risky inputs include household composition, farmer organization, farm size, access to livestock income, and crop diversification. Drivers of the level of investment in risky inputs are gender, extension services, farm size, agricultural capital, and cropping patterns. Using an endogenous switching regression, we find a positive impact on the adoption of risky inputs on farm profit per hectare, and food available from production. The expected impact for non-adopters is found to be higher than that for adopters because they are involved in rice production (which is more responsive to inputs use) and in millet production (which is central for food security).
    Keywords: Risky inputs,purchased fertilizers,purchased seeds,household welfare,Senegal
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Teye, Evans Sackey; Quarshie, Philip Tetteh
    Abstract: Rural and agricultural finance innovations have significant potential to improve the livelihoods and food security of the poor. Although microfinance has been widely studied, an extensive knowledge gap still exists on the nuts and bolts of expanding access to rural and agricultural finance. This study uses focus group discussion, key informant interview, and quantitative household survey to explore how smallholders access credits and loans influence adoption of modern production technologies and what are perceived limitations to access these financial instruments in the Shia-Osuduku District in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The specific objectives of the study are; (1) to assess the challenges rice farmers face in accessing finance, (2) to determine if access to finance impacts the adoption of modern rice production technologies and (3) to determine whether loan investments in improved technologies increase productivity and income levels of farmers. The study noted that issues of mistrust for smallholder farmers by financial institutions act as barriers to facilitating their access to loans and credits. Banks and financial institutions relay their mistrust through actions such as requesting outrageous collateral, guarantors, a high sum of savings capital, and a high interest rate for agriculture loans, delays, and bureaucratic processes in accessing loans. The study suggested that enabling policy environment and frameworks with a supportive rural infrastructure such as warehouse receipt systems can significantly increase farmers' access to credit instruments for investment in modern technologies to increase agricultural productivity, which is essential to address food insecurities and rural poverty issues in Ghana.
    Date: 2021–08–01
  5. By: S. Snapp (Michigan State University [East Lansing] - Michigan State University System); Yodit Kebede (UMR Eco&Sols - Ecologie fonctionnelle et biogéochimie des sols et des agro-écosystèmes - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CIAT - International Center for Tropical Agriculture [Colombie] - Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research [CGIAR]); Eva Wollenberg (University of Vermont [Burlington]); K.M. Dittmer (CIAT - International Center for Tropical Agriculture [Colombie] - Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research [CGIAR]); S. Brickman (University of Vermont [Burlington]); C. Egler (University of Vermont [Burlington]); S. Shelton (University of Vermont [Burlington])
    Abstract: Agroecology is increasingly seen as being able, or even necessary, to transform food systems (HLPE 2019). The Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) and the CGIAR Research Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) commissioned this rapid evidence-based review to assess the quality and strength of evidence regarding (i) the impact of agroecological approaches on climate change mitigation and adaptation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and (ii) the programming approaches and conditions supporting large-scale transitions to agroecology and transitions. The review also aims to identify knowledge gaps critical to understand and inform future public and private investment in research, development, and deployment of agroecological approaches. The focus here is on the science of agroecology at the field and landscape level, not on social movement, value chain or business aspects. We use the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 10 elements of agroecology with the Gliessman (2016) framework to identify agroecology practices (transition level 2) and agroecology systems (transition level 3). To assess evidence related to agroecology's climate change outcomes we conducted a systematic literature review of i) synthesis papers and ii) primary empirical studies related to nutrient and pest and disease management. For the latter we documented the presence of evidence for climate change outcome indicators, but not the magnitude or direction of the change. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with representatives from 12 organisations supporting or implementing on-the-ground agricultural development programmes to better understand the feasibility of scaling out agroecology.
    Keywords: MONDE
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Goundan, Anatole; Sall, Moussa; Henning, Christian H. C. A.
    Abstract: The adoption of certified seeds and chemical fertilizers is central for African agri- culture which is characterized by very low productivity. This paper analyzes the technology adoption of certified seeds and inorganic fertilizers for two central crops in Senegal: rice and groundnut. The joint adoption of these two technologies is modeled in the presence of production risk using a flexible bivariate probit model. A recent agricultural survey, representative country-wide, collected in 2017 is used for our application. Descriptive statistics confirm the low rate of agricultural technology adoption. In the rainfed system, the average inorganic fertilizer used is about 28 kg/ha. The analysis reveals that in rural Senegal de- cisions to adopt certified seeds and inorganic fertilizers are interrelated for both rice and groundnut systems. For the rice system, a heterogeneous dependency is revealed, while for groundnut technology adoptions, a homogeneous correlation is found. Production risk is found to have a significant impact on technology adoption. We also found that determinants of individual technologies and their joint adoption vary widely across crops. However, the main determinants of technology adoption in rainfed agriculture in Senegal include cooperative membership, access to extension services, access to credit, education, family size, and farm size.
    Keywords: Fertilizer use,certified seeds,joint technology adoption,rainfed agriculture,Senegal
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Martinez, Steve W.; Park, Timothy
    Abstract: Local foods are a small but growing share of U.S. agriculture. Marketing channels for local foods include direct sales to consumers (e.g., farmers’ markets, on-farm stores, or pick-your-own stores), grocery stores, restaurants, schools, wholesalers, and food hubs. Local food sales may provide finan-cial benefits to beginning and more experienced farmers compared to farmers who market through traditional channels. This report evaluates the characteristics, production, and marketing practices, and financial performance of local food producers with varying levels of farming and direct marketing experience.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Industrial Organization, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2021–08–10
  8. By: Tabios, Guillermo Q. III; de Leon, Tomas Paolo Z.
    Abstract: This study assesses the irrigation service areas of Angat-Maasim River Irrigation System (AMRIS) and Pampanga Delta Irrigation Systems (PDRIS) benchmarked against design area water availability, land use (including flood vulnerability), and status of irrigation facilities using resource assessment and watershed and irrigation modeling. The study finds that irrigation area of AMRIS fell below design area due to urbanization, lowered height of Bustos Dam, complicated by competing use of water for hydropower. Likewise, the PDRIS system only realized half of the target irrigation service area due to urbanization, flooding, and the low diversion dam height of Cong Dadong Dam. Among others, the study recommends conduct of periodic appraisal or assessment of the efficiency of irrigation water delivery operations through hydraulic model simulations to maintain and upgrade the irrigation facility as needed.
    Keywords: irrigation system, , irrigation water delivery operation, hydraulic model simulation
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Adjin, K. Christophe; Henning, Christian H. C. A.
    Abstract: This paper aimed to analyse Senegalese farmers' technical efficiency in the context of climate variability and spatial heterogeneity. To achieve this, firstly using simulated data, we evaluated the newly developed spatial stochastic frontier estimation technique based on skew-normal distributions. Secondly, using cross-sectional survey data we conducted an empirical analysis for 4423 Senegalese farm households. Simulation results show that the estimation approach used is appropriate and produces consistent results with large sample sizes, although it might suffer from a "starting values" problem. Empirical findings reveal that agricultural production in Senegal mostly depends on the allocated area and it is highly affected by climatic factors such as rainfall and temperature. Moreover, within a radius of 4 km, the technical efficiency of farms appears to be significantly affected by unobserved spatial features. Furthermore, this farm's technical efficiency can on average be increased by 20%, when accounting for spatial heterogeneity.
    Keywords: Climate variability,Farm efficiency,Spatial heterogeneity,Senegal
    JEL: Q54 C21 D24
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Hochman, Gal; Zhang, Hainan; Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Aleti, Saketh; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique Y.; Jagermeyr, Jonas
    Abstract: A nuclear war using less than 1% of the current global nuclear arsenal could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history and large impacts on agricultural productivity. These e↵ects would be most severe for the first five years after the nuclear war and may last for more than a decade. This paper calculates how the price and availability of food worldwide would change by employing the Environmental Impact and Sustainability Applied General Equilibrium model. It evaluates how results depend on assumptions about how free trade would continue in a post-war economic environment. The results suggest that preserving the world trading system is key to preventing widespread food shortages as a thriving world trading system minimizes the costs born from disruptions to climate. The analysis shows that the regional nuclear war scenario would a↵ect regional food supply systems, especially in high latitude regions. Although the global average impact on wheat is only a few percentage points, the regional nuclear war leads wheat production in EU 28 countries to plumed, on average, by more than 15%. The model also suggests that regional impacts may result in a plausible domino e↵ect with substantial negative ramifications for local food supplies.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–08
  11. By: Afridi, Farzana (Indian Statistical Institute); Mahajan, Kanika (Ashoka University); Sangwan, Nikita (Indian Statistical Institute)
    Abstract: Climate change has increased rainfall uncertainty, leading to greater production risks in agriculture. We examine the gender-differentiated labor impacts of droughts resulting from lower precipitation using unique individual-level panel data for agricultural households in India over half a decade. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in individual responses, we find that women's workdays fall by 11% more than men's when a drought occurs, driven by former's lack of diversification to the non-farm sector. Women are less likely to work outside their village and migrate relative to men in response to droughts, and are consequently unable to cope fully with the adverse agricultural productivity shock. Our findings can be explained by social costs emanating from gender norms that constrain women's access to non-farm work opportunities. The results highlight the gendered impact of climate change, potentially exacerbating extant gender gaps in the labor market.
    Keywords: climate, drought, agriculture, labor, gender
    JEL: Q54 J16 J43 J60
    Date: 2021–07
  12. By: Singh, Radhika; Joshi, Shail
    Abstract: The Bundelkhand region in India has been dealing with a severe water crisis for the last two decades. This water crisis has received a significant amount of attention from the central government, media and academics. However, although multiple policies and acts have been passed, and extensive resources distributed, there has not been much improvement on the ground. This thesis analyzes the reasons behind ineffective water governance and implementation at all levels of government, and concludes that over-centralization of planning, crisis-response rather than long-term planning, and a lack of pragmatic planning are key to understanding the current situation. More generally, the disjointed nature of water governance in India has made it difficult for the public sector to carry out cohesive planning approaches. We suggest reforms that can be adopted, and consider the possible consequences to water management and planning if Bundelkhand were to become a separate state.
    Keywords: Bundelkhand, drought, water resource governance, water scarcity, agriculture, India, groundwater
    JEL: O13 O21 Q1 Q15 Q18 Q25 Q28 Q54 Q58 R5 R58
    Date: 2020–05–19
  13. By: Adjin, K. Christophe; Goundan, Anatole; Henning, Christian H. C. A.; Sarr, Saer
    Abstract: The recent renaissance of the Senegalese cooperative movement coupled with the revival of the agricultural sector motivated this study, which mainly aims to analyse the impact of farmer-based organization membership on household land productivity and net income. We combined the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method with an Endogenous Switching Regression (ESR) model to derive treatment effects of membership in these farmer organizations using national household-level survey data. Results exhibit consistency across estimations techniques. Estimates of both ESR and PSM models showed that membership in farmer organizations affects positively and significantly the household land productivity and net income. Moreover, findings show that membership has a heterogeneous impact. Households with the lowest probability to be members of farmer organizations have the highest impact. The effect of membership depends also on the specific type of organization.
    Keywords: Farmer organizations,impact evaluation,land productivity,household income,Senegal
    JEL: Q13 D04 Q15 Q12
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Mohamad Ikhsan (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia); I Gede Sthitaprajna Virananda (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia)
    Abstract: As in other countries, COVID-19 has created pressure on Indonesia’s food security through decreased income and reduced access, as well as increased transaction costs and uncertainty in the country’s food system. Before assessing these impacts of COVID-19, we highlight several key facts about Indonesia’s food system, including the high proportion of net consumers among farmers and the domination of informal small-medium enterprises in the supply chain. We then emphasize that food security is threatened by income shocks and purchasing power decline due to economic contraction, while effects on the supply side have been limited so far. While farmers’ terms of trade have increased throughout the pandemic, downstream food SMEs such as traditional food vendors are likely worse affected by COVID-19 restriction measures. On the labor market, we observe a substantial shift of workers to agriculture, accompanied by a deeper drop in the sector’s wage level compared to other sectors. Finally, we caution that risks to food security remain, especially as Indonesia faces new COVID-19 outbreaks post-Eid 2021, and outline policy recommendations related to social safety nets, supply chain resilience, and the use of technology.
    Keywords: Food Security — COVID-19 — Food Supply Chain — Food SMEs — Indonesia
    JEL: O13 Q18
    Date: 2021
  15. By: Lucile Marty (CSGA - Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation [Dijon] - UB - Université de Bourgogne - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Laura Arrazat (CSGA - Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation [Dijon] - UB - Université de Bourgogne - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Gaëlle Arvisenet (CSGA - Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation [Dijon] - UB - Université de Bourgogne - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sophie Nicklaus (CSGA - Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation [Dijon] - UB - Université de Bourgogne - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stephanie Chambaron (CSGA - Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation [Dijon] - UB - Université de Bourgogne - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: A 2-arm randomised control trial (with and without labels) will be conducted to test the effects of an environmental label on food choices in a virtual supermarket. A sample of 130 participants will take part in two shopping tasks: 1/ selection of 3 products to prepare a home-made dish, and 2/ selection of a ready-to-eat dish. These two tasks will be repeated for two scenarios: 1/ participants will be asked to select the foods for usual meals, and 2/ participants will be asked to select the foods for environmentally-friendly meals. This experimental design will allow to compare food choices in the presence vs. the absence of an environmental label and to investigate whether the label is informative and likely to help individuals to choose more environmental-friendly food options when explicitly asked to do so.
    Keywords: labelling,food choice
    Date: 2021–05–24
  16. By: Delzeit, Ruth; Heimann, Tobias; Schünemann, Franziska; Söder, Mareike
    Abstract: The replacement of fossil resources with renewable biomass in a bioeconomy is seen as a major contribution to climate change mitigation. This transformation will affect all members of society, making it crucial to consider the views of different stakeholders to ensure a socially acceptable transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy. To explore potential outcomes of bioeconomy strategies assuming different future pathways, a scenario analysis is a tool to inform decision-makers about policy impacts and trade-offs. The inter- and transdisciplinary research project 'BioNex - The future of the biomass nexus' is the first project to develop bioeconomy scenarios together with stakeholders from politics, industry, and civil society in an iterative co-design process. As a result, three storylines describing diverging potential global futures are developed and quantified: Towards sustainability, business as usual, and towards resource depletion. The futures are driven by different assumptions on climate policy, cropland expansion, productivity growth in agriculture, prices of fossil energy, and consumption behaviour. Additionally, in the co-design process, three bioeconomy policies are developed: policy as usual, stronger development of the bioeconomy, and no policies. Besides presenting the results of the stakeholder workshops, this paper evaluates the strengths and shortcomings of a stakeholder approach in terms of policy-oriented research. According to the experience made within this study, it provides valuable insights for researchers and funding authorities they can use to optimise the employment of stakeholder-based research approaches.
    Keywords: Co-design,scenario analysis,bioeconomy,modelling framework
    JEL: Q16 C83
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Javier Aliaga Lordemann (Senior Associate Researcher at INESAD)
    Abstract: Common pool resources (CPRs) are usually exploited one generation after another – often overexploited - meaning there is an intergenerational link between the consumers – e.g., water for farming activities. This key dimension is often not considered in theoretical or field experiments, due to the difficultly in approaching it. We want to overcome this barrier introducing the hypothesis of ‘’intergenerational altruism” for CPRs. The implication is that altruism reduce the exploitation of the natural resources, since the agents recognize that the exploitation not only creates negative externalities for their own generation, but also for all future generations. An alternative hypothesis is the ‘’intergenerational equity’’ where the agents restrain their consumption to equalize their income over time. To prove these hypotheses, we conducted a field experiment in four farming communities located in the Bolivian Department of Chuquisaca during the third quarter of 2019. We consider common water for farming activities as a CPRs, since these communities use this resource for several decades, the intergenerational link is evident. Our intergenerational field experiment includes four treatments based on the replacement rate of the resources – i.e., FAST, SLOW, RESTART or normal replacement, under one-shot non-cooperative game without feedback. We also introduce two variations, the possibility to accumulate water in a dam, which modify the availability of CPRs. Second, the possibility to manage the common farming water through the traditional social arrangement of the Water Judge, which is a representative member of the community delegated to solve problems related with water management, named SAT treatment. The results showed that our hypothesis was not probed since the intergenerational link does not mitigate the overexploitation of CPRs. Nevertheless, we also found that the “Water Judge” could be a cost-effective treatment in small farming communities.
    Keywords: Common pool resources, intergenerational altruism and equity, free riders .
    JEL: C72 C92 D62 Q20
    Date: 2021–01
  18. By: Florjan Bombaj (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Date: 2019–10–23
  19. By: De Bandt Olivier; Jacolin Luc; Lemaire Thibault
    Abstract: Using panel data covering 126 low- and middle-income countries over 1960-2017, we find that sustained positive temperature deviations from their historical norms have a non-linear negative effect on economic growth and growth per capita. A sustained 1°C temperature increase lowers real GDP per capita annual growth by 0.74–1.52 percentage points, irrespective of levels of development. We also find that temperature rise affects the households’ intertemporal trade-off between consumption and investment, since the share of private consumption in total value-added increases while the share of investment declines. A sectoral decomposition shows that the share of industrial value-added also declines. While the share of agricultural value-added increases, agricultural output and productivity declines. Taken together, our results suggest that global warming will reinforce development traps, hindering further adaptation to climate change, particularly in the countries with the lowest levels of income given their lower resilience and higher socioeconomic vulnerability.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Economic Growth, Adaptation, Developing Countries
    JEL: C33 E20 O11 O13 Q54
    Date: 2021
  20. By: Meilin Ma; Jayson L. Lusk
    Abstract: Supply chains for many agricultural products have an hour-glass shape; in between a sizable number of farmers and consumers is a smaller number of processors. The concentrated nature of the meat processing sectors in the United States implies that disruption of the processing capacity of any one plant, from accident, weather, or as recently witnessed – worker illnesses from a pandemic – has the potential to lead to system-wide disruptions. We explore the extent to which a less concentrated meat processing sector would be less vulnerable to the risks of temporary plant shutdowns. We calibrate an economic model to match the actual horizontal structure of the U.S. beef packing sector and conduct counter-factual simulations. With Cournot competition among heterogeneous packing plants, the model determines how industry output and producer and consumer welfare vary with the odds of exogenous plant shutdowns under different horizontal structures. We find that increasing odds of shutdown results in a widening of the farm-to-retail price spread even as packer profits fall, regardless of the structure. Results indicate that the extent to which a more diffuse packing sector performs better in ensuring a given level of output, and thus food security, depends on the exogenous risk of shutdown and the level of output desired; no horizontal structure dominates. These results illustrate the consequences of policies and industry efforts aimed at increasing the resilience of the food supply chain and highlight that there are no easy solutions to improving the short-run resilience by changing the horizontal concentration of meat packing.
    JEL: L11 Q11 Q19
    Date: 2021–07
  21. By: Rani Dubey; Rekha Rani
    Abstract: ‘Food hygiene’ means all measures necessary for ensuring the safety wholesomeness and soundness of food at all stages from its growth, production, manufacture unit its final consumption. Young adults have inadequate knowledge about measures needed to prevent food borne illness. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of food hygiene awareness among secondary level students. Information concerning food hygiene awareness were collected using self administered questionnaire. A total 100 students participated in the study. It is critical for children to understand food related risks to preserve their health. The purpose of this study was to explore the inclusion of 13 to 19 years old students in food preparation activities and to determine their understanding of food related risks, food safety awareness and self reported practices in their domestic environment. Therefore the present study has made an honest attempt to study of food hygiene.awareness among secondary level students in Bulandshahar District of Uttar Pradesh state. Key Words: Food Hygiene, Awareness, Secondary level students. Policy
    Date: 2021–03
  22. By: Eskander, Shaikh; Fankhauser, Samuel
    Abstract: We present empirical evidence of the international emissions impact from climate change legislation in 98 countries between 1997 and 2017, using data from Climate Change Laws of the World. Unlike traditional measures of carbon leakage, we focus on net carbon imports, that is, the difference between consumption and production emissions. Using different estimation techniques, we estimate the impact on carbon intensity of two legislation variables, recent legislation (passed in the last 3 years) and older legislation (passed more than 3 years ago). We find that recent legislation reduces production emissions more than consumption emissions, while older laws have a bigger impact on consumption emissions. The combined effect of these changes on net carbon imports is very small. Overall, we find no evidence that domestic climate legislation has increased international carbon leakage over the past two decades. Indeed, in high-income countries the longrun leakage rate may even be negative.
    Keywords: climate change legislation; climate policy; carbon leakage; pollution havens; production emissions; consumption emissions; Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy; Strategic Research Fund; Faculty of Business and Social Sciences
    JEL: F18 K32 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2021–07–27
  23. By: Abdoulaye Sy (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Catherine Araujo-Bonjean (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Marie-Eliette Dury (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Nourddine Azzaoui (LMBP - Laboratoire de Mathématiques Blaise Pascal - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Arnaud Guillin (LMBP - Laboratoire de Mathématiques Blaise Pascal - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: A critical stage in drought hazard assessment is the definition of a drought event, and the measure of its intensity. Actually, the classical approach imposes to all climatic region the same set of thresholds for drought severity classification, hence resulting in a loss of information on rare events in the distribution tails, which are precisely the most important to catch in risk analysis. In order to better assess extreme events, we resort to an extreme value mixture model with a normal distribution for the bulk and a Generalized Pareto distribution for the upper and lower tails, to estimate the intensity of extreme droughts and their occurrence probability. Compare to the standard approach to drought hazard, which relies on a standardized precipitation index and a classification of drought intensity established from the cumulative standard normal distribution function, our approach allows the drought threshold and the occurrence probability of drought to depend on the specific characteristics of each precipitation distribution. An application to the West Africa region shows that the accuracy of our mixture model is higher than that of the standard model. The mixture performs better at modelling the lowest percentiles and specifically the return level of the centennial drought, which is generally overestimated in the standard approach.
    Keywords: Mixture model,Generalized pareto distribution,Drought,Extreme value theory
    Date: 2021–07
  24. By: Khalifa, Sherin; Petri, Svetlana; Henning, Christian H. C. A.
    Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of the impact of extraordinary climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict using cross-country panel data from Africa and the Middle East (1981 to 2015). We find that: (i) The estimated impact of climate shocks (mainly temperature effect) on economic growth rate and domestic food production ranges from 3 to 5% compared to the estimated impact of temperature growth 47%. (ii) We identified a direct impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict, where this impact is similar in magnitude to the negative impact of rainfall growth on conflict (3-4%). (iii) We confirmed the negative link between conflict and both economic indicators, conflict begets next conflict, the positive impact of good governance and polity IV estimates, and the freshwater availability on reducing the risk of conflict. Concluding that the main effect of climate comes from the temperature growth effects and it is not extreme shocks that drive economic declines, which indicates that the climate rather operates in a non-linear process.
    Keywords: Climate shocks,civil conflict,economic development
    Date: 2020
  25. By: Julia M. Puaschunder (The New School, Department of Economics, USA)
    Abstract: This article proposed three innovative and heterodox ways to aid understanding and unleashing a sustainable economy in Three Essays on Environmental Justice: First, behavioral insights are presented about real-world relevant, easily-implementable nudges to steer human into future-oriented discounting. Second, macroeconomic modelling highlights countries’ different economic prospects on a warming globe in order to find a redistribution of benefits and burdens of climate change to share the gains and losses of a warming globe equally within society, between countries and over time. Third, a creative financialization strategy is introduced in bonds that help weight the burden of climate change more equally between today’s and tomorrow’s society.
    Keywords: Climate Bonds, Climate Change, Economics of the Environment, Ecotax, Environmental Justice, Environmental Governance, Fiscal Policy, Green New Deal, Monetary Policy, Multiplier, Sustainability, Teaching
    Date: 2021–05
  26. By: Odusola, Ayodele; Mekuria, Fisseha; Mzyece, Mjumo; Mfupe, Luzango
    Abstract: Innovation on sustainable ICT technologies to realize affordable broadband connectivity for rural and underserved communities is a crucial component of the effort to achieve the aim of “leaving no one behind by 2030” as championed by the United Nations. Digital connectivity and the creation of a digital entrepreneurial rural ecosystem (DERE) are two interconnected interventions necessary to achieve digital inclusion with rural communities as the main target. This paper defines the ecosystem components for the DERE, which include affordable broadband, sustainable business models and co-creation of relevant ICT services involving beneficiary rural communities. This framework presents a proof of concept on rural SMEs-driven digital inclusion being implemented at four sites in South Africa.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2021–08–10
  27. By: Hochstetler, Kathryn
    Abstract: What kinds of national climate institutions can solve the governance challenges that the Paris Agreement devolves to them? This article identifies three stages of climate institutions in Brazil, a major emitter of greenhouse gases through deforestation that managed to reduce such emissions for nearly a decade. It shows that a narrow definition of climate institutions that seeks purpose-built state institutions fails to capture important dynamics there, and that such institutions have little direct impact on outcomes. In Brazil’s political landscape, national presidents exercise a decisive influence on their climate ambitions and capacities. However, positive and negative feedback loops also brought some effective climate action from the layering of climate purposes into existing institutions, as well as through non-traditional institutions like private governance arrangements for agriculture.
    Keywords: climate change; climate institutions; Brazil; deforestation; Taylor & Francis deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–07–21
  28. By: Jens Abildtrup (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Johanna Breyne (Université de Liège - Gembloux); Chaer Soraya
    Date: 2021–05–12
  29. By: Rani Dubey; Sarita Soy
    Abstract: A sound mind in sound body” is well-known fact. A sound body is impossible without proper food and nutrition. Proper food and nutrition diet enhance “healthy mind in a healthy body”. Balanced food and nutritious food related to good health. The right kind of food plays important role in promoting good health of an individual. Healthy children have bright clear eyes smooth glossy hair, a clean and shining skin, well-developed muscles erect on well-formed sturdy bones. They also possess food stamina and physique are active mentally and physically have good endurance, vigour and vitality. They are very cheerful and good natured. Good food means good health. For the nutritional needs of the school going children is very important roles in education. Therefore, the present topic has made an honest attempt to the study the nutritional need. Key Words: Nutrition, Children, Development Policy
    Date: 2021–03
  30. By: Albert Jan Hummel; Vinzenz Ziesemer
    Abstract: The Atkinson-Stiglitz theorem on uniform consumption taxation breaks down if prices are endogenous. This paper investigates the implications for optimal food subsidies in China. To do so, we build a general equilibrium model where low-skilled workers have a comparative advantage in the production of food. Food subsidies raise the relative demand for low-skilled workers, which reduces the skill premium and indirectly redistributes income from high-skilled to low-skilled workers. We calibrate our model to match key moments from the Chinese economy, including sectoral production and spending patterns that we obtain from micro-level survey data. Our results suggest that general equilibrium effects rationalize food subsidies in the range 5%-12%.
    Keywords: uniform consumption taxes, general equilibrium effects, food subsidies
    JEL: E64 H21 Q18
    Date: 2021
  31. By: Spackman, Michael
    Abstract: There has been a forty-year divide in economics on the relevance to public funding of the equity premium (in particular, today, the consumption CAPM). The costs and benefits of public spending are often correlated with income, but conventional neoclassical analysis, applied by many governments, suggests that the cost of this systematic risk in publicly funded activities is usually trivial. On the other hand, it is often asserted that equity market premiums, which are very much higher than would be estimated from neoclassical analysis (the equity premium ‘puzzle’), should apply also to public funding. This paper, which aims largely to help government administrations, assembles a picture of the evolving research on and understanding of the premium. Public funding does incur social costs arising from the associated tax burden. There is, however, no evidence to support assertions that the equity risk premium anomaly is relevant to public funding. In any case, the cost of systematic risk in the benefits of public funding does not fall as an annual percentage rate to financiers, but as an absolute cost to public service beneficiaries.
    Keywords: climate change legislation; climate policy; carbon leakage; pollution havens; production emissions; consumption emissions; Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy
    JEL: N0 E6
    Date: 2021–07–28
  32. By: Khalifa, Sherin; Petri, Svetlana; Henning, Christian H. C. A.
    Abstract: Based on the analysis of a new cross-country panel data from Africa and the Middle East for the time period between 1981 and 2015, we show that reductions in per capita income growth rate or domestic food production induced by climate variation significantly increase the probability of civil conflict. A 10% reduction in economic growth or domestic food production leads to a 1.25% and 1.59% increase in the likelihood of civil conflict, respectively. Furthermore, we identify a direct link of climate on the incidence of civil conflict. Additionally, the level of democracy and good governance are good control variables. Regarding the Syrian conflict, when considering 2010 data, the increase in temperature growth explains around 30% of falling income growth as well as 85% of the shrinking food production index and in this way contributed to the onset of war. We explain the probability of ongoing conflict by 43-56%. The two strongest factors explaining the conflict are lagged conflicts and economic development. Adequate economic policies that are able to accelerate economic development, play a role in peace, and avoiding new conflicts.
    Keywords: Climate variation,economic growth rate,food production index,civil war
    Date: 2020
  33. By: Hopwood, Julian
    Abstract: Access to land for the Acholi people of northern Uganda still has much in common with understandings of the pre-colonial situation. This paper reflects on how collective landholding has faced over a century of hostile policy promoting land as private property. The notion of coloniality arises in this confrontation: the failure of communication ensuing from understanding Acholi social ordering in terms of false entities; and the foregrounding of land as object. The durability of colonial mechanisms emerges in processes such as the codification of the principles and practices of Acholi ‘customary land’. Pressure for land reform is driven by external bodies, UN agencies, donor governments and international NGOs, claiming to be seeking to protect the interest of the poor. Yet these offer no respite for the growing numbers of landless people - the colonial agenda appears to have its own momentum, serving no one’s interests. Meanwhile misunderstandings and misrepresentations of land holding groups entrenches the subaltern voicelessness of their members, isolating them from any support in dealing with the challenges of too many people on not enough land.
    Keywords: colonial durabilities; land; Uganda; Acholi; ES/P008038/1; Taylor & Francis deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–07–01
  34. By: Mehryar, Sara; Sasson, Idan; Surminski, Swenja
    Abstract: Cities are emerging as leading forces for climate change adaptation and resilience due to their financial, technological, and human capacities. Many approaches and tools have been developed and used over the last decades to measure climate resilience in cities and identify areas that need further intervention. In this study, we explore how and to what extent such tools can be or have been utilized by city-level actors to support their decision-making process for building climate resilience. To do this, we applied a document analysis of 27 tools developed for measuring urban climate resilience and supplemented it with 12 semi-structured interviews with local experts involved in implementation of these tools across the world. Our analysis shows that only 10 of these tools are designed to support implementing resilience actions while the rest mainly focus on sharing knowledge and raising awareness. We also observed a prevailing focus on evaluating coping capacities (as opposed to adaptive and transformative capacities) of cities against climate risks in such tools, which tends to trigger short-term solutions rather than long-term transformational adaptation strategies. Therefore, we argue that urban climate resilience measurement tools need to 1) support action implementation processes as much as assessing outcomes, and 2) consider the enabling environment for enhancing adaptive and transformative capacities as much as coping capacities of cities. Finally, we explore challenges and opportunities of resilience measurement practices for decision-making drawn from end-users’ insights.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–07–16
  35. By: Luna Yue Huang; Solomon M. Hsiang; Marco Gonzalez-Navarro
    Abstract: The rigorous evaluation of anti-poverty programs is key to the fight against global poverty. Traditional approaches rely heavily on repeated in-person field surveys to measure program effects. However, this is costly, time-consuming, and often logistically challenging. Here we provide the first evidence that we can conduct such program evaluations based solely on high-resolution satellite imagery and deep learning methods. Our application estimates changes in household welfare in a recent anti-poverty program in rural Kenya. Leveraging a large literature documenting a reliable relationship between housing quality and household wealth, we infer changes in household wealth based on satellite-derived changes in housing quality and obtain consistent results with the traditional field-survey based approach. Our approach generates inexpensive and timely insights on program effectiveness in international development programs.
    JEL: C8 H0 O1 O22 Q0 R0
    Date: 2021–07
  36. By: Laurent Piet (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jean-Noel Depeyrot
    Abstract: Une recherche financée par le ministère de l'Agriculture et de l'Alimentation a été commandée à l'UMR SMART-LERECO (INRAE), en 2019, afin d'analyser le niveau, la composition et l'évolution du revenu des agriculteurs français. Cette note en présente les principaux enseignements.
    Date: 2020–08–03
  37. By: Boone, Catherine; Lukalo, Fibian; Joireman, Sandra
    Abstract: Smallholder settlement schemes have played a prominent role in Kenya's contested history of state-building, land politics, and electoral mobilization. This paper presents the first georeferenced dataset documenting scheme location, boundaries, and attributes of Kenya's 533 official settlement schemes, as well as the first systematic data on scheme creation since 1980. The data show that almost half of all government schemes were created after 1980, as official rural development rationales for state-sponsored settlement gave way to more explicitly welfarist and electoralist objectives. Even so, logics of state territorialization to fix ethnicized, partisan constituencies to state-defined territorial units pervade the history of scheme creation over the entire 1962–2016 period, as theorized in classic political geography works on state territorialization. While these “geopolitics” of regime construction are fueled by patronage politics, they also sustain practices of land allocation that affirm the moral and political legitimacy of grievance-backed claims for land. This fuels on-going contestation around political representation and acute, if socially-fragmented, demands for state-recognition of land rights. Our findings are consistent with recent political geography and interdisciplinary work on rural peoples' demands for state recognition of land rights and access to natural resources. Kenya's history of settlement scheme creation shows that even in the country's core agricultural districts, where the reach of formal state authority is undisputed, the territorial politics of power-consolidation and resource allocation continues to be shaped by social demands and pressures from below.
    Keywords: Kenya; territorial politics; resettlement; political economy; land policy; ES/R005753/1; UKRI block grant
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–08

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.