nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒08‒09
forty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Revitalising the Agriculture Sector in India By VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA VARMA
  2. Tracking the U.S. Domestic Food Supply Chain's Freshwater Use over Time By Rehkamp, Sarah; Canning, Patrick; Birney, Catherine
  3. Barriers to Application of Weather and Climate Information in Smallholder Vegetable Farming in Benguet By Reyes, Celia M.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Agbon, Adrian D.; Olaguera, Ma. Divina C.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
  4. Agroecological strategies to safeguard insect pollinators in biodiversity hotspots: Chile as a case study By Patricia P.A. Henríquez‐piskulich; Constanza Schapheer; Nicolas Vereecken; Cristian Villagra
  5. Boosting Agricultural Productivity through Parcelization of Collective Certificate of Land Ownership Awards By Galang, Ivory Myka G.
  6. COVID-19 and Food Systems: Short- and Long-Term Impacts By OECD
  7. Growing More Rice with Less Water: The System of Rice Intensification and Rice Productivity in Vietnam By Guven, Cahit; Tong, Lan; Ulubasoglu, Mehmet
  8. Trends in Production Practices and Costs of the U.S. Corn Sector By Saavoss, Monica; Capehart, Tom; McBride, William; Effland, Anne
  9. Leading Issues and challenges in the Agriculture Sector of Kerala By Kumar B, Dr Pradeep Kumar B; Abraham, Dr.M P Abraham
  10. A System Innovation Approach for Science-Stakeholder Interface: Theory and Application to Water-Land-Food-Energy Nexus By Angelos Alamanos; Phoebe Koundouri; Lydia Papadaki; Tatiana Pliakou
  11. Land Tenure, Access to Credit, and Agricultural Performance of ARBs, Farmer Beneficiaries, and Other Rural Workers By Galang, Ivory Myka G.
  12. Development of Crop Climate Calendars for High-Value Crops in Atok, Benguet: Report from Preliminary Co-Learning and Co-Development Engagements with Agricultural Stakeholders in Benguet Province By Domingo, Sonny N.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
  13. Towards a More Sustainable Financing of Small Farmers and Fisherfolk's Agricultural Production By Baje, Lora Kryz C.; Ballesteros, Marife M.; Bayuday-Dacuycuy, Connie; Ancheta, Jenica A.
  14. Projecting Loan Demand from Small Farmers and Fishers in the Philippines By Ducanes, Geoffrey M.
  15. Assessing the Resurgent Irrigation Development Program of the Philippines: Synthesis Report By Inocencio, Arlene B.; Inocencio, Albert Dale
  16. Assessing the Resurgent Irrigation Development Program of the Philippines - Communal Irrigation Systems Component By Elazegui, Dulce D.; Luyun, Roger A. Jr.
  17. Water Allocation, Crop Choice, and Priority Services By Salanié, François; Zaporozhets, Vera
  18. Temperature, climate change, and fertility By Hajdu, Tamás; Hajdu, Gábor
  19. Barriers to Application of Weather and Climate Information in Cut Flower Production in Benguet By Reyes, Celia M.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Agbon, Adrian D.; Olaguera, Ma. Divina C.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
  20. COVID-19 Working Paper: Financial Assistance for Farm Operations and Farm Households in the Face of COVID-19 By Giri, Anil K.; McDonald, Tia; Subedi, Dipak; Whitt, Christine
  21. Measuring the Potential Impact of New and Reformulated Bread and Breakfast Cereal Products on Nutrient Intakes By Martinez, Stephen; Taylor, Christopher A.; Hooker, Neal H.
  22. International Food Security Assessment 2021-31 By Baquedano, Felix G.; Zereyesus, Yacob Abrehe; Valdes, Constanza; Ajewole, Kayode
  23. The Role of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries Organizations (ARBOs) in Agriculture Value Chain By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
  25. Assessing the Resurgent Irrigation Development Program of the Philippines - Institutional Arrangements for Irrigation Governance By Rola, Agnes C.; Olviga, Therese R.; Faderogao, Francis John F.; Faulmino, Chrislyn Joanna P.
  26. Digital bodies and digitalised welfare: North-South linkages in the politics of food assistance and social welfare By Jaspars, S.; Sathyamala, C.
  27. Assessing the Resurgent Irrigation Development Program of the Philippines - National Irrigation Systems Component By Clemente, Roberto S.; Fajardo, Arthur L.; Ureta, Julie Carl P.; Ballaran, Vicente G. Jr.; Baulita, Arman S.; Tapire, Kristel Camille J.
  28. Fighting Climate Change: The Role of Norms, Preferences, and Moral Values By Peter Andre; Teodora Boneva; Felix Chopra; Armin Falk
  29. The Unfinished Agenda of Trade Liberalization in Philippine Agriculture: Assessing the Impact of Reducing Tariff and Nontariff Barriers By Briones, Roehlano M.
  30. Urban green space qualities: An integrated approach towards GIS-based assessment reflecting user perception By Philip Stessens; Frank Canters; Marijke Huysmans; Ahmed Z. Khan
  31. Sugar market policies in the EU and international sugar trade By Berger, Jurij; Brümmer, Bernhard; Fiankor, Dela-Dem; Kopp, Thomas
  32. Value chains in public marine data: A UK case study By Claire Jolly; James Jolliffe; Clare Postlethwaite; Emma Heslop
  33. Agricultural Employment and the Rural Household: A Characterization for Selected Provinces in the Philippines By Briones, Roehlano M.
  34. Land Trades During the Bubble Period and the Results of Capital Gains/Losses (Japanese) By UNAYAMA Takashi; YOSHIKAWA Hiroshi
  35. The asymmetric effect of environmental policy stringency on CO2 emissions in OECD countries By Claudiu Albulescu; Maria-Elena Boatca-Barabas; Andra Diaconescu
  36. Long Term Cost-Effectiveness of Resilient Foods for Global Catastrophes Compared to Artificial General Intelligence Safety By Denkenberger, David; Sandberg, Anders; Tieman, Ross; Pearce, Joshua M.
  37. Did the Opening Up of Rice Importation in the Philippines Worsen Income Poverty and Inequality? A General Equilibrium with Microsimulation Approach By Briones, Roehlano M.
  38. Inattention vs switching costs: An analysis of consumers' inaction in choosing a water tariff By Heiss, Florian; Ornaghi, Carmine; Tonin, Mirco
  39. Energy footprints and the international trade network: A new dataset. Is the European Union doing it better? By Octavio Fernández-Amador; Joseph F. Francois; Doris A. Oberdabernig; Patrick Tomberger
  40. Empowerment of social norms on water consumption By Pedehour, Pauline; Richefort, Lionel

    Abstract: Route map to modernising and streamlining the agriculture sector in the country to achieve the following objectives 1. To double the agricultural production from the present level and achieve self-sufficiency in all food commodities and achieve 150% of actual consumption in India so that the remaining 50% can be exported or can be stored as buffer stock in the aftermath of famines or other unforeseen natural calamities. 2. To stop farmer suicides by increasing incomes 3. To generate rural employment and stop migration of people to urban areas 4. To modernise agriculture practices, harvesting technologies, marketing structure, procurement, storage facilities and public distribution system 5. To make every district of India self-sufficiency in food grain production in 80% of crops, each state in 90% of crops and country as a whole in 100 % of crops 6. To avoid cross-transportation of agricultural produce and thus reduce transport cost of agricultural produce. It benefits both farmers and consumers 7. To decrease farming input costs and increase minimum support price for all agriculture produce. 8. To gradually reduce dependence on chemical fertilisers and pesticides, and instead promote organic farming by using natural manures and pest control methods. 9. To ensure allocation of all agriculture subsidies only to real farmers and keep rich farmers away from subsidies. 10. To achieve food security, energy security and fodder security 11. To overcome hardships from monsoon failures and frequent floods with advanced water resources management on the ground and by using satellite technology 12. To provide marketing facilities for all agricultural produce 13. To create efficient mechanism to sanction insurance for damaged crops due to floods, famines, drought and cyclones.
    Keywords: Agriculture sector
    JEL: Q0 Q1 Q15 Q18 Q4 Q42
    Date: 2020–02–12
  2. By: Rehkamp, Sarah; Canning, Patrick; Birney, Catherine
    Abstract: The U.S. food system uses freshwater from both surface water and groundwater sources (both blue water) throughout the domestic food supply chain, from on-farm irrigation to water used in the home kitchen. In this report, we study water use in the U.S. food system in 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012 using the most recent benchmark economic datasets and an environmental input-output model. Our results show that blue water use has increased and decreased over the 4 time periods, but surface water is consistently the primary source of food-related water use. The U.S. food system used 34 trillion gallons of blue water in 2012, or 30 percent of the blue water used throughout the U.S. economy. We find that the majority of water use was in the crop and livestock production stages, although supply chain stages downstream from agriculture (processing and packaging, distribution and marketing, energy, and households) used 32 percent of the U.S. food system’s blue water in 2012. This research also considers specific food categories. In 2012, the fresh vegetable category required the most blue water at 5.14 trillion gallons.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–07–16
  3. By: Reyes, Celia M.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Agbon, Adrian D.; Olaguera, Ma. Divina C.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
    Abstract: Benguet province’s comparative advantage in the cultivation of high value crops such as cabbage, carrots, and potatoes are evident in the high volume of production experienced year on year. This may be attributed to the province’s favorable weather and climate. Climate change, however, may threaten the stability of the mountain farming systems in the coming years without proper measures for adaptation. This paper aims to understand the current barriers to the access and use of weather and climate information in agricultural decisionmaking as a means to cope with the changing climate. It was found that, while farmers see the value of using weather and climate information, there is a lack of localized weather and climate information applicable to the microclimate of Benguet. The provision of information must also be supported with other interventions, such as access to low cost credit, to provide the other lacking resources farmers need to enact the optimal decision alternative.
    Keywords: agriculture, high value crops, smallholder farming, weather and climate information, decision analysis
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Patricia P.A. Henríquez‐piskulich; Constanza Schapheer; Nicolas Vereecken; Cristian Villagra
    Abstract: Industrial agriculture (IA) has been recognized among the main drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change, and native pollinator decline. Here we summarize the known negative effects of IA on pollinator biodiversity and illustrate these problems by considering the case of Chile, a “world biodiversity hotspot” (WBH) where food exports account for a considerable share of the economy in this country. Most of Chile’s WBH area is currently being replaced by IA at a fast pace, threatening local biodiversity. We present an agroecological strategy for sustainable food production and pollinator conservation in food‐producing WBHs. In this we recognize native pollinators as internal inputs that cannot be replaced by IA technological packages and support the development of agroecological and biodiversity restorative practices to protect biodiversity. We suggest four fundamental pillars for food production change based on: (1) sharing the land, restoring and protecting; (2) ecological intensification; (3) localized knowledge, research, and technological devel-opment; and (4) territorial planning and implementation of socio‐agroecological policies. This approach does not need modification of native pollination services that sustain the world with food and basic subsistence goods, but a paradigm changes where the interdependency of nature and human wellbeing must be recognized for ensuring the world’s food security and sovereignty.
    Keywords: Agroecology; Apoidea; Pesticides; Sacrifice zones; Water deficit
    Date: 2021–06
  5. By: Galang, Ivory Myka G.
    Abstract: Farmers awarded with lands under a collective-Certificate of Land Ownership Awards (CCLOA) have been experiencing problems arising from the collective arrangement (e.g., boundary issues and disputes with other collective members). These issues discourage many farmers from making long-term investment decisions on their land, thereby resulting in lower productivity. With a strong directive from President Rodrigo Duterte, the Department of Agrarian Reform is currently committed to ensure the swift implementation of the Parcelization program, which aims to subdivide collectively-owned CLOAs, whose farmers are not engaged in collective farming. This paper aims to identify benefits and problems in relation to the subdivision of collective land titles. Based on findings of existing studies, individual land ownership has a positive impact on farmers’ decisionmaking and on his/her farming outcomes. Although limited in sample observations, the analytical exercise using Project ConVERGE’s survey data provided additional evidence favoring the acceleration of the subdivision of CCLOAs. It was also pointed out that while parcelization is being pursued, other rural development strategies, such as farm consolidation, could also be undertaken. For a faster and smoother implementation of parcelization program, it would be helpful to adopt a modern cadaster and record-keeping system and to improve agrarian justice delivery system of DAR. <p>Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: ARBO, agricultural productivity, land reform, Certificate of Land Ownership Award, CLOA, collective CLOA, individual CLOA, DAR
    Date: 2020
  6. By: OECD
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic placed unprecedented short-term stresses on food supply chains around the world. However, rapid responses by both private-sector actors and policy makers mostly managed to prevent severe disruptions. Yet, even before the outbreak of COVID-19, food systems were faced with a formidable “triple challenge” of simultaneously providing food security and nutrition to a growing global population, ensuring the livelihoods of millions of people working along the food chain from farm to fork, and ensuring the environmental sustainability of the sector. This paper discusses the stresses COVID-19 created in food supply chains and the remarkable resilience these supply chains have demonstrated in high-income countries, as well as specific impacts in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors and the importance of transparency in avoiding a COVID-19 induced food crisis. The paper concludes by discussing the long-term challenges for food systems, arguing that the unanticipated shock of COVID-19 strengthens the case for shifting from ‘business as usual’ policies to a more forward looking policy package for food systems.
    Keywords: Aquaculture, Fisheries, Food security, Lockdown, Nutrition, Stockpiling, Supply chain resilience, Sustainability, Transparency
    JEL: L66 L81 L83 L91 Q17 Q18 Q22
    Date: 2021–07–27
  7. By: Guven, Cahit; Tong, Lan; Ulubasoglu, Mehmet
    Abstract: We study the effects of a large-scale System of Rice Intensification (SRI) program on the water productivity of rice in Vietnam by exploiting the provincial and time variations in SRI uptake and irrigation water supply over the period 2000–2012. Our findings document that the world’s second-largest rice exporter could produce four million tons of more rice with same water supply in the reasonably achievable case of 20% SRI uptake across its provinces. In addition, we find that SRI increases the output of other crops too, due at least partly to its possible water savings and soil nutrition preservation in rice production. Moreover, we show that SRI is more likely to be adopted in provinces with stronger quality of provincial institutions and weaker agricultural capital base. Numerous selectivity and randomization tests affirm that the water productivity effect of SRI is robust to selection in SRI uptake at province and district levels and addressing potential unobservables and omitted variables problems.
    Keywords: Agricultural Technology; SRI; Impact Evaluation; Water Productivity
    JEL: O13 O33 Q18 Q25
    Date: 2021–07–01
  8. By: Saavoss, Monica; Capehart, Tom; McBride, William; Effland, Anne
    Abstract: Corn for grain is a major field crop in the United States, with wide-ranging uses including animal feed, ethanol, food, beverages, industrial products, and exports. The costs and returns for corn for grain production in the United States have undergone numerous changes over the past several decades. Nationally representative data covering 1996–2018 reveals that over the roughly 20-year period, the U.S. corn industry has increased acreage planted to corn, achieved higher yields except during drought years, and increased overall productivity per planted acre. Concurrently, the real price of corn decreased from 1996 through 2005, climbed through 2012, and then declined again, leading to fluctuating net returns, which peaked in 2011. A combination of long-term factors has influenced demand for corn, including growing demand for feed to meet rising global meat consumption and expanding biofuel production, as well as periodic weather-related international production shortfalls and declining stocks, while weather, seed technologies, precision agriculture technologies, and irrigation were major factors that influenced the supply and cost of production.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Industrial Organization, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–07–16
  9. By: Kumar B, Dr Pradeep Kumar B; Abraham, Dr.M P Abraham
    Abstract: The paper deals with the performance of agricultural sector of Kerala and the major issues existing in it. The study is based on secondary data collected from different official sources. Rapid changes have occurred in the agriculture sector of Kerala in terms of land utilization pattern in favor of non-agriculture sector and cropping pattern in favor of cash crops. There has been decrease in both net area sown and gross cropped area resulting in decline in cropping intensity. Kerala has also witnessed a structural transformation in agriculture from food crop cultivation to cash crop cultivation. The high returns obtained from commercial crops and non-agriculture sector are found to be the principal reason for the change. Along with that the fragmentation of land holdings, the severe shortage of labor existing in agriculture and the resultant increase in labor cost have made farming an unprofitable activity. All these changes have landed the State in a situation of food insecurity. The study has advocated for a comprehensive agricultural development strategy for the state.
    Keywords: Structural change, food crop, cash crop, land utilization pattern, cropping pattern, labor shortage, and food insecurity
    JEL: Q10
    Date: 2021–05–08
  10. By: Angelos Alamanos; Phoebe Koundouri; Lydia Papadaki; Tatiana Pliakou
    Abstract: The Water-Food-Energy Nexus can support a general model of sustainable development, balancing resources with increasing economic/productive expectations, as e.g. in agriculture. We synthesize lessons from Greece's practical and research experience, identify knowledge and application gaps, and propose a novel conceptual framework to tackle these challenges. Thessaly (Central Greece), the country's driest region and largest agricultural supplier is used as an example. The area faces a number of water quantity and quality issues, ambitious production-economic objectives, continuous (historically) drought and flood events, conflicts, administrative and economic issues, under serious climate change impacts. A detailed assessment of the current situation is carried out, covering all these aspects, for the first time in an integrated way. Collaboration gaps among different stakeholders are identified as the biggest impediment to socially acceptable actions. For the first time, to our knowledge, the Nexus is set as a keystone to develop a novel framework to reverse the situation and achieve sustainable project planning under commonly acceptable long-run visions. The proposed framework is based on Systems' Theory, innovative principles, uses a multi-disciplinary platform to bring together all relevant key stakeholders, provides scientific support and commitment, and makes use of technological advances for the systems' improvement.
    Keywords: Water-Food-Energy Nexus, Thessaly, Greece, Systems Innovation Approach, scientific and stakeholder collaboration, framework development.
    Date: 2021–07–21
  11. By: Galang, Ivory Myka G.
    Abstract: Policymakers and donors have long viewed credit programs as salient means to develop the agriculture sector, especially the small-farm agriculture. Credit programs in the country have evolved from subsidized directed credit programs to a more market-based approach. There have been little to no studies that examine poor agricultural producers’ access to credit and how it affects agricultural performance, especially in the context of Agrarian Reform Beneficiary Organization (ARBO) members. This policy study utilized primary data from the Baseline Survey of Project ConVERGE, a project of the Department of Agrarian Reform, to analyze the borrowing incidence among ARBO member households, particularly those engaged in farm production. It appears from the results of the study that: membership in an ARBO is associated with better credit access; borrowing ARBO agricultural households are better off than nonborrowing ARBO agricultural households; and farmer associations/cooperatives are among the top sources of agricultural credit in the countryside aside from microfinance institutions; and Certificate of Land Ownership Award (CLOA)-holding ARBO agricultural households have higher borrowing incidence than the average ARBO agricultural households. Strengthening the capacity of credit retailers through trainings, especially in leadership and credit management, is needed to further improve their lending performance. <p> Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: credit, poor, CLOA, collective CLOA, individual CLOA, loan, formal credit, informal credit, agricultural households, DAR
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
    Abstract: Crop climate calendars augment traditional crop calendars by not only specifying planting and harvest schedules but also describing phenological states, cultivation practices and weather and climate requirements that any crop faces throughout a cropping season. The case to document this information in Benguet is compelling: The mountainous province experiences a unique microclimate and phenomena such as frost and hail and derives income from the cultivation of high value crops such as carrots, cabbage and potatoes amidst this. The researchers conducted focus group discussions with the municipal agriculturalists and farmer leaders in Atok, Benguet to understand their experiences and from there construct their crop climate calendar. The calendars produced in this exercise may serve as a solid foundation for the analysis of the community’s climate-sensitive agricultural decisions.
    Keywords: agriculture, crop climate calendar, high value crops, weather and climate information, decision analysis
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Baje, Lora Kryz C.; Ballesteros, Marife M.; Bayuday-Dacuycuy, Connie; Ancheta, Jenica A.
    Abstract: Cognizant of the value and contribution, as well as of the challenges in the agricultural finance, the government has intensified its lending programs designed to help the agricultural sector, specifically, the smallholders. Thus, affordable and easy access retail lending has intensified in recent years. Despite these efforts, significant problems remain. These include the lack of markets and low prices, which have significant implications on the overall repayment capacity and credit rating of the small farmer and fisherfolk (SFF). Indeed, these lending programs are unlikely to become successful if financing and production are not viewed in the bigger context of a value chain financing. Thus, this paper looks into the SFF’s financing ecosystem and provides recommendations on how the existing value chain financing can become more inclusive and sustainable. <p>Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agriculture, Philippines, agricultural financing, agricultural value chain financing, small farmer and fisherfolk
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Ducanes, Geoffrey M.
    Abstract: This study develops and applies a method for estimating loan demand from small farmers and small fishers (SFF) in the Philippines, and projects this demand into the future. The method uses a patchwork of data, but most importantly the Small Farmers and Fisherfolk Indebtedness Survey (SFFIS) and the Registry System for Basic Sectors in Agriculture, to estimate credit loan demand from SFF in 2017. It also uses inflation and projected (or targeted) sectoral gross value-added growth to project SFF loan demand into the future. The loan demand for SFF is estimated to be from PHP 172 billion (low estimate) to PHP 367 billion (high estimate) in 2021. This is projected to grow to PHP 201 billion (low estimate) to PHP 431 billion (high estimate) in 2024. <p>Moving forward, the study suggests that the estimation of loan demand from SFF can be facilitated if the sampling design of the SFFIS can be revised so as to be made representative nationally (and possibly even by region) using the most recent Census of Agriculture and Fishers as the sampling frame. To help small farmers and fisherfolk, the government should ensure there is adequate fund, whether from government or from formal private sources, to meet the loan demand of small farmers and fishers for purposes of production, while still maintaining prudence. This will not only help small farmers and fishers keep their head above poverty, but also help boost food security in the country given the continuing risks of supply chain disruptions. <p> Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agricultural credit, COVID-19, small farmers and fishers, credit demand estimation, credit demand projection, determinants of credit demand, logit regression, COVID-19 impact on credit demand
    Date: 2020
  15. By: Inocencio, Arlene B.; Inocencio, Albert Dale
    Abstract: This paper synthesizes the results and findings of the four component studies under the resurgent irrigation development assessment: the technical and institutional assessments of national and communal irrigation systems, the water resource assessment, as well as the governance components. This synthesis is structured according to the research questions posed to the component studies along the project cycle. The first two components provided technical and institutional evaluations of selected national and communal irrigation systems from Luzon to Mindanao from project identification to preparation, appraisal, and selection; to project implementation, operations maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation. The water resources component of the study assessed irrigation service areas as originally planned/designed and compared them to the actual service areas with respect to water availability, land use (including flood vulnerability), and status of irrigation facilities. The governance component, on the other hand, discussed and analyzed the governance mechanisms for the irrigation sector and the irrigation project from planning to monitoring and evaluation.
    Keywords: water policy, communal irrigation systems, water governance, technical and institutional assessments, irrigation management, national irrigation systems
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Elazegui, Dulce D.; Luyun, Roger A. Jr.
    Abstract: The project aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the government's irrigation program with focus on the technical, physical, and institutional aspects of performance of communal irrigation systems (CIS). <p>Using primary and secondary data collection, key-informant interview and focus group discussions with key actors, and walkthroughs to gauge the physical irrigation conditions, the study finds that, among others, majority of the sampled CIS are gravity systems, except in some provinces where there are more pump irrigation systems, coming from lakes, rivers, creeks, springs, runoff, and ground water. While some rivers tapped have adequate flows for irrigation even during the dry seasons, unreliable water supply is a major problem for majority of the CIS that tap water from less dependable water sources, such as small rivers and creeks, or rely on springs and runoff during long dry months. The study suggests that the presence of a dependable surface water source and a good shallow aquifer, as well as the soil type and its suitability to different type of crops, be used as major criteria for irrigation development. On the problem of water supply sources, there should be a concerted and united effort on the part of concerned government agencies and the academe to identify potential sites for diversion dams and storage reservoirs. The Free Irrigation Service Act should also clarify its provisions regarding CIS implementation, among others.
    Keywords: irrigation, agriculture, program assessment, communal irrigation systems, Free Irrigation Service Act, FISA
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Salanié, François; Zaporozhets, Vera
    Abstract: We analyze the problem of allocating irrigation water among het- erogenous farmers when water supply is stochastic. If farmers are risk-neutral, a spot market for water is e¢ cient; while the oft-used uniform rationing system is ine¢ cient, both ex-ante and ex-post. In- deed, we show that it leads farmers to overexpose to risk, thus making shortages more severe and more frequent in case of drought. We pro- pose instead a regulation by priority classes extending Wilson (1989), and we derive an e¢ ciency result. We characterize the set of farmers that would win or loose from such a reform. We also argue that a system of priority classes may be preferred to a spot market system, because scarcity is easier to manage ex-ante than ex-post, and because this system facilitates the supply of insurance to risk-averse agents.
    JEL: Q15 Q25 D47
    Date: 2021–07–27
  18. By: Hajdu, Tamás; Hajdu, Gábor
    Abstract: This chapter reviews the empirical literature on the impacts of temperature and climate change on human pregnancies. The focus is on the quasi-experimental studies that use panel data, apply a fixed effect approach, and exploit the random year-to-year fluctuation in temperature. The insights that emerge from the review highlight that exposure to heat in the pre-conception period has detrimental impacts on fertility. In addition, heat during pregnancy increases pregnancy losses, leads to a reduction in gestational length, and lowers birth weight. Despite the growing empirical evidence on the subject, understanding the relationship between temperature and pregnancy-related outcomes is far from perfect. Importantly, the potential impacts of climate change are rarely quantified. The chapter outlines directions for future research.
    Keywords: temperature,climate change,fertility,pregnancy,health at birth,birth weight,pregnancy loss
    JEL: J13 Q54
    Date: 2021
  19. By: Reyes, Celia M.; Domingo, Sonny N.; Agbon, Adrian D.; Olaguera, Ma. Divina C.; Umlas, Anna Jennifer L.; Zuluaga, Katrina Mae C.
    Abstract: The province of Benguet holds a competitive advantage in the production of cut flowers because of its unique weather and climate; however, the access to and use of information on weather and climate phenomena in agricultural decision making is not guaranteed despite its provision. This presents a critical issue to examine given that the changing climate situation in the region could adversely affect production and living standards without reliable sources of information for the same. In this paper, the researchers thus aimed to explore the barriers in the applications of weather and climate information to cut flower production in Atok, Benguet. It was found that while barriers also exist on the side of hydrometeorological information producers’ dissemination of information, there also exist significant financial, infrastructural and capacity barriers that include lack of working capital to implement optimal decision alternatives dictated by adverse weather conditions, the lack of reliable phone service and power to disseminate and access the information, and the absence of forecasts translated into the vernacular or laymanized.
    Keywords: agriculture, Philippines, weather and climate information, Cut flower production, smallholder farming
    Date: 2020
  20. By: Giri, Anil K.; McDonald, Tia; Subedi, Dipak; Whitt, Christine
    Abstract: On March 13, 2020, the U.S. Federal Government declared a national emergency based on the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The Government’s response included providing assistance programs related to the economic impacts of COVID-19. This study estimates the total direct Government assistance to farm operations and farm households in calendar year 2020 from COVID-19 related programs, the Market Facilitation Program (MFP), and other existing Farm Bill (FB) programs. The insights from this study supplement the triannual U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS) farm income forecasts by providing stakeholders more forecasting details, including information regarding the distribution of Federal payments and eligibility. This working paper further documents methodologies relevant for a timely update of similar payments in the future. Using data from the Small Business Administration, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and multiple sources within USDA, we find $57.7 billion in total financial assistance was provided to farm operations and households in calendar year 2020. Programs specifically designed to address the economic impacts of COVID-19 in 2020 delivered an estimated $35.2 billion, the assistance provided under non-COVID-19 related programs (other than net indemnity payments) delivered an estimated $16.8 billion, and the net indemnity payments provided the remaining $5.7 billion
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Industrial Organization, Production Economics
    Date: 2021–07–22
  21. By: Martinez, Stephen; Taylor, Christopher A.; Hooker, Neal H.
    Abstract: Food composition databases are important tools for assessing the dietary status of consumers. Database updates are particularly challenging due to the dynamic nature of the food supply, as new products are constantly introduced to meet policy mandates, consumer demands, and health trends. Researchers responsible for maintaining and updating food composition databases may benefit from a better understanding of how foods in the food supply are changing to help assure database accuracy and adequacy. The growing popularity of whole-grain foods in response to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 has the potential to alter the nutritional contribution of two important sources of whole grains—breakfast cereals and bread products. This report integrates new product data with a national survey of dietary intake data to simulate select nutrient intakes over time, assuming new and reformulated breakfast cereals and breads fully replace available products. For most product-nutrient combinations, estimated nutrient intakes based on new products and nutrient values from USDA’s Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies grew closer over time or tracked similar patterns of nutrient consumption.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy, Public Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–07–16
  22. By: Baquedano, Felix G.; Zereyesus, Yacob Abrehe; Valdes, Constanza; Ajewole, Kayode
    Abstract: This report presents results from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Economic Research Service’s (ERS) International Food Security Assessment (IFSA) analysis, which uses a demand-driven framework that evaluates consumer responsiveness to changes in prices and incomes for 76 low- and middle-income countries. Reflecting 2021’s anticipated lower income levels, despite anticipated growth for most countries, the number of food insecure people is estimated at 1.2 billion, almost 291 million higher than in 2020. A sharp increase in global food security was experienced in 2020, as compared to 2019, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the additional food insecure people in 2021 are located in the Central and South Asia (64.1 percent or 186.8 million) sub-region—including India, which drives food security trends in the Asia region. While the Sub-Saharan Africa region is projected to account for 20.6 percent (60 million) of the additional food insecure population. The remaining additional 15.3 percent (44.7 million) food insecure people in 2021 are located in other Asian sub-regions, Latin America and the Caribbean, and North Africa. The prevalence of food insecurity in 2021 for the countries in the assessment is estimated at 30.8 percent of the overall population in the countries, an increase of 6.8 percentage points relative to the 2020 estimate. In 2031, the number of food insecure people is projected to decline from the 2021 estimate by 47.4 percent (637.7 million people), which is 14.0 percent of the projected population of the countries included in this assessment. Given the evolving nature of the impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic and the long-term effects on individual country economies, the estimation results presented in this report contain a high degree of uncertainty. It is important to note the projections do not consider the impacts of unknown future events—such as climate change, armed conflict, and political and economic instability.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Public Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2021–07–29
  23. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
    Abstract: This paper evaluates how agrarian reform beneficiary organizations (ARBOs) participate in the value chain; how they engage actors along the value chain; and what challenges do they face in the process. Farmer organizations, such as ARBOs, are important conduits for smallholders to participate, specifically in higher value chain. This strategy enables smallholders to pool resources, jointly carry out profitable activities, reduce risks and transaction costs, and operate on scale economies. However, many farmer organizations in the country have low level of organizational maturity and are mainly formed to access funding. Thus, smallholder participation in higher value chain is limited--the gains from value chain initiatives would impact only on a modest number of smallholders’ population and may not be sustainable in the long run. The paper suggests that farmer organizations and their participation in higher value chain can be improved by (1) enabling farmer members to commit to the organization through equity participation; (2) enabling farmer organizations to establish enterprises that will generate income for members; and (3) capacitating farmer organizations on building alliances/networking. <p>Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: value chain, agrarian reform, agriculture, farmer organizations, agrarian reform beneficiary organization, ARBOs
    Date: 2020
  24. By: Rani Dubey; Rekha Rani
    Abstract: It is critical for human beings to understand food related risks to preserve their health and the health food hygiene is vital to human of others beings therefore, knowledge and hygiene practice of food among food handlers are particularly important. Food poisoning is considered as one of the most food – related disease that takes lives, hospitalizes people and loses many society incomes. The burden of this problems varies and could affect all population in the developing countries. In a recent report of World Health Organization (WHO), kit was revealed that every year, 1.5 million cases of food borne disease reported in developing countries. Increasing the food hygiene knowledge of the food handlers, and implementing good hygienic practices remain the most effective strategies to control the burdens of foodborne diseases in any society. Food hygiene has a critical role in assuring that food stays safe at every stage of the food chain from production to harvest, processing, storage, distribution, all the way preparation and consumption, food hygiene knowledge is important as it help to protect consumer from the risk of food borne illness. It also helps to prevent consumers from risks of health related conditions such as allergy and even death. Key Words: food, hygiene, knowledge, practice
    Date: 2021–06
  25. By: Rola, Agnes C.; Olviga, Therese R.; Faderogao, Francis John F.; Faulmino, Chrislyn Joanna P.
    Abstract: This project aims to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the government's irrigation program. It focuses on technical, physical, and institutional aspects of performance of both national (NIS) and communal irrigation systems (CIS), and selected case studies. The governance component describes and analyzes the governance mechanisms of the entire irrigation project cycle from planning to monitoring and evaluation. It draws on the findings from the other studies within this project, while focusing on governance, particularly higher-level issues cutting across national and communal systems and also across the other water sector agencies. <p>Results of the study validated that irrigation development plan is fragmented both vertically and horizontally. Respondents from the national agencies all agreed that an integrated irrigation development plan is needed. Recommendations include the establishment of water resource and research centers in academes, to have a central body for data storage and analysis. An apex body to harmonize policies and programs across the water sector will also be ideal.
    Keywords: Institutional arrangements, irrigation governance, water governance, free irrigation policy, water rights, project cycle
    Date: 2020
  26. By: Jaspars, S.; Sathyamala, C.
    Abstract: This paper examines North–South linkages in the politics of contemporary food assistance and social welfare, and in particular the normalisation of poverty and humanitarian crisis caused by increased digitalisation, privatisation and individualisation of aid or welfare. Migrants and displaced populations are considered as extreme cases and we examine how these policies and practices are leading to the growth of a global precariat who are constantly on the edge of survival (or death). We use Sudan, India and the UK as case-study countries which have seen persistently high levels of acute malnutrition or rising levels of hunger (as in the case of the UK), as well as the introduction of new digital welfare systems. Digital practices often aim to improve access to food and form a key part of humanitarian and welfare assistance, thereby creating digital welfare states. In the past decade Sudan has seen a shift from emergency food aid to digital cash interventions, including the establishment of a new national cash-based Family Support Programme (FSP). India’s Public Distribution System (PDS) has been undergoing digital transformation since 2010. In the UK, welfare has been digital by default since 2012 and from 2016 assistance for asylum seekers is provided through biometrics and debit cards. The Covid pandemic has accelerated processes of digitalisation across all three countries. In this paper, we argue that digitalisation has not addressed hunger, but instead is likely to lead to exclusions and invisibility of the already politically marginalised groups. Additionally, a number of troubling political and economic questions linked to identity, surveillance and profit have been subsumed in the larger debate about efficiency and accountability in provisioning. On the other hand, evidence of protests and organised struggles indicates a growing opposition to the digitalisation of bodies and lives.
    Keywords: food assistance, food poverty, social welfare, PDS, cash transfer, digitalisation, digitisation, Sudan, India, UK
    Date: 2021–07–29
  27. By: Clemente, Roberto S.; Fajardo, Arthur L.; Ureta, Julie Carl P.; Ballaran, Vicente G. Jr.; Baulita, Arman S.; Tapire, Kristel Camille J.
    Abstract: This Project focused on the evaluation of National Irrigation Systems (NIS) in the Philippines which consisted of 22 NIS in Luzon and 17 NIS in Visayas and Mindanao and are represented by 151 Irrigators Associations (IAs). The overall objective is to evaluate the policy, programmatic, and institutional framework governing irrigation development and management for the main purpose of improving irrigation performance and productivity of irrigated lands. The methodological approach to meet the specific objectives consisted of data collection through site visits, field measurements, and Key Informant Interviews (KII) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). This Project focused on the evaluation of National Irrigation Systems (NIS) in the Philippines which consisted of 22 NIS in Luzon and 17 NIS in Visayas and Mindanao and are represented by 151 Irrigators Associations (IAs). The overall objective is to evaluate the policy, programmatic, and institutional framework governing irrigation development and management for the main purpose of improving irrigation performance and productivity of irrigated lands. The methodological approach to meet the specific objectives consisted of data collection through site visits, field measurements, and Key Informant Interviews (KII) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Results showed that siltation problems exist in canals of almost all NIS cases, causing reduced flow capacities that deprived the downstream portion from adequate water supply, among others. To improve performance of irrigation systems, good watershed management is needed as a preventive approach to address siltation of water courses and thus enhance water supply distribution. The National irrigation Administration (NIA) should allocate realistic resources for operation and maintenance to improve efficiency in water allocation and distribution from upstream to downstream users.
    Keywords: irrigation, national irrigation systems, program assessment, Philippine Resurgent Irrigation Development Program, National irrigation Administration
    Date: 2020
  28. By: Peter Andre; Teodora Boneva; Felix Chopra; Armin Falk
    Abstract: We document individual willingness to fight climate change and its behavioral determinants in a large representative sample of US adults. Willingness to fight climate change – as measured through an incentivized donation decision – is highly heterogeneous across the population. Individual beliefs about social norms, economic preferences such as patience and altruism, as well as universal moral values positively predict climate preferences. Moreover, we document systematic misperceptions of prevalent social norms. Respondents vastly underestimate the prevalence of climatefriendly behaviors and norms among their fellow citizens. Providing respondents with correct information causally raises individual willingness to fight climate change as well as individual support for climate policies. The effects are strongest for individuals who are skeptical about the existence and threat of global warming.
    Keywords: Climate change, climate behavior, climate policies, social norms, economic preferences, moral values, beliefs, survey experiments
    JEL: D64 D83 D91 Q51 Z13
    Date: 2021–07
  29. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: Much progress has been made in pursuing liberalization of agricultural trade in the Philippines. However, some significant tariff and non-tariff barriers remain. This study evaluates the economic impacts of completing the agenda of policy reform by removal of these remaining trade barriers. Scenario analysis using computable general equilibrium modeling finds that trade liberalization is associated with a more rapid expansion in imports and a wider agricultural trade deficit; slower growth of agricultural GDP and wages; higher overall GDP and higher industry- fiscal position and national savings. Liberalization radically accelerates growth of imports for Hogs, and Sugar, while slowing down export contraction of Coconut, Banana, Mango, and most other exports. It slows down output growth of most import substituting goods, while accelerating output growth of export-oriented sectors. Trade liberalization also accelerates growth in per capita consumption, as well as total per capita expenditure. Lastly, it increases social welfare, though the gain is small in relation to base year expenditure. <p>Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: trade liberalization, agriculture, Tariffs, non-tariff barriers, computable general equilibrium modeling
    Date: 2020
  30. By: Philip Stessens; Frank Canters; Marijke Huysmans; Ahmed Z. Khan
    Abstract: For city dwellers urban green space is the primary source of contact with nature. Qualitative green space is increasingly perceived as an important factor for quality of life in urban areas and a key component of sustainable urban design and planning. In this study, the relation between different features of urban green spaces and perception of green space qualities was analyzed by combining the outcome of a survey on green space perception with GIS-based spatial metrics. A survey has been conducted among residents of the Brussels Capital Region and surroundings to assess the relative importance residents assign to different qualities of urban green spaces and how they value these qualities within visited spaces. Quietness, spaciousness, cleanliness and maintenance, facilities and feeling of safety are identified as important qualities of public green spaces, while naturalness, historical and cultural value are perceived as less important qualities. A GIS-based model was developed to infer naturalness, quietness and spaciousness as perceived by users of public green spaces from green space properties. Using variables describing biological value, land-cover composition, green space area and shape, good correlations were obtained between GIS-based assessment of naturalness and spaciousness and how green space users perceive these qualities. The model proposed may be useful for simulating green space development and improvement scenarios and assess their impact on perceived quality. Thus it may serve as a spatial decision support tool for improving the quality of urban green spaces.
    Keywords: Brussels; Ecosystem services; Environmental quality; GIS; Urban green space
    Date: 2020–02–01
  31. By: Berger, Jurij; Brümmer, Bernhard; Fiankor, Dela-Dem; Kopp, Thomas
    Abstract: In the EU, the 2017/18 sugar marketing year (MY) was the first with no production quota and most of the price support gone. The Uruguay round restrictions on sugar exports were also not binding anymore, making the EU a net exporter. In MY2018/19 the EU turned back into a net importer as domestic sugar production fell. Developments on the demand side have been much less dramatic as global sugar consumption kept growing. These market and policy trends lead to relatively low international prices between 2018 and 2020 before trending upwards in 2021. These low prices were at least partially transmitted to European markets. In a net-export situation and without export restitutions, international export prices would be the anchor for intra-EU price formation. Under these circumstances, the still present interventionist side of the EU's sugar market policy could easily be viewed as irrelevant for price formation within the EU. However, in the more realistic scenario of the EU being a net-importer, price formation will continue to be strongly affected by the existing import restricting policies. There has been no change in the EU schedule of bound tariffs for sugar since the formation of the World Trade Organisation. Other external sugar market policies of the EU are unilateral market access to the common market (i.e., EPA, EBA), tariff rate quotas (e.g., the Balkan and CXL preferences) and preferences granted under bilateral agreements. This report assesses how effective the EU trade policies regarding sugar have been for EU sugar imports and sugar prices within the EU, followed by resulting policy recommendations. [...]
    Date: 2021
  32. By: Claire Jolly (OECD); James Jolliffe (OECD); Clare Postlethwaite (National Oceanography Centre); Emma Heslop (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO)
    Abstract: Marine data play a crucial role for many scientific disciplines, as well as for very diverse operational services such as fisheries management, environmental planning, marine conservation, weather forecasting, or port management. The information derived from marine data is also increasingly finding its way into a wide and varied range of public policy arenas and private industries. Collecting, distributing and archiving public marine data provide benefits to society at large, however as with all public investments, assessments are needed to provide evidence to decision makers. Based on an original survey of UK marine data users, this paper explores pathways through which marine data are used and transformed into actionable information, creating systematised value chains for the first time. The analysis unveils trends in current marine data uses in the UK and key benefits of data uses. The paper lays the foundations for further OECD work with the marine data community.
    Date: 2021–07–30
  33. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: This study aims to address a gap in existing data and literature regarding the socioeconomic profile of agricultural workers within rural households. It implemented a survey collecting panel data on the full range of labor and economic activities of rural households with agricultural workers, including patterns of employment and seasonality; other relevant worker and household characteristics; and the community-level context. A socioeconomic profile of rural and agricultural workers was developed. Statistical analysis confirmed that individuals of working age are more likely to become an agricultural worker if they are male, older, less educated, and are in a barangay with better rural infrastructure and more remote from the urban center. Moreover, weekly working hours for agricultural workers is greater for younger workers, those better educated, and in barangays nearer the urban center. Several implications for policy and further research were stated.
    Keywords: human capital, gender, structural change, agricultural worker, rural employment, seasonality, agricultural wage, underemployment, rural infrastructure
    Date: 2020
  34. By: UNAYAMA Takashi; YOSHIKAWA Hiroshi
    Abstract: Land prices in Japan rose from a total of 1,327 trillion yen (1986) to 2,452 trillion yen (1990) during the Bubble period, but then fell to 1,300 trillion yen by 2003, which is about the same level as before the Bubble. During the period, households sold a total of 136 trillion yen of land on a net basis, while companies purchased 55 trillion yen. As a result, households that sold their land at high prices generated huge capital gains, while firms that purchased land during the period incurred huge capital losses due to the subsequent plunge in land prices. In this study, we will clarify what kinds of households sold land and what kinds of companies purchased land during the Bubble period. Capturing the size and distribution of the capital gains/losses generated is important in understanding the impact of the Bubble on the Japanese economy.
    Date: 2021–07
  35. By: Claudiu Albulescu (CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers); Maria-Elena Boatca-Barabas; Andra Diaconescu
    Abstract: This paper uses a quantile fixed-effect panel data approach to investigate how environmental policy stringency affects CO2 emissions in a set of 32 OECD countries from 1990 to 2015. This approach allows us to identify the asymmetric impact of policy stringency on emissions, considering the emission level recorded in each analysed country. More precisely, we posit that the effectiveness of environmental regulations and policies is influenced by the air pollution level. Our results show that an increase in policy stringency has a negative impact on emissions. As a new contribution, we show that environmental stringency has a more powerful impact in the countries with lower level of carbon emissions. This result is also recorded for the subset of EU member countries of the OECD. Moreover, we show that policy stringency measures only become effective after the implementation of the Kyoto agreement. Finally, the policy stringency effect is stronger for EU countries at high risk of missing the 20-20-20 target in terms of greenhouse gas emissions.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions,environmental policies,environmental Kuznets curve,pollution haven hypothesis,panel quantiles regression
    Date: 2021–07–28
  36. By: Denkenberger, David; Sandberg, Anders; Tieman, Ross; Pearce, Joshua M. (Michigan Technological University)
    Abstract: Global agricultural catastrophes, which include nuclear winter and abrupt climate change, could have long-term consequences on humanity such as the collapse and nonrecovery of civilization. Using Monte Carlo (probabilistic) models, we analyze the long-term cost-effectiveness of resilient foods (alternative foods) - roughly those independent of sunlight such as mushrooms. One version of the model populated partly by a survey of global catastrophic risk researchers finds the confidence that resilient foods is more cost effective than artificial general intelligence safety is ~86% and ~99% for the 100 millionth dollar spent on resilient foods at the margin now, respectively. Another version of the model based on one of the authors produced ~95% and ~99% confidence, respectively. Considering uncertainty represented within our models, our result is robust: reverting the conclusion required simultaneously changing the 3-5 most important parameters to the pessimistic ends. However, as predicting the long-run trajectory of human civilization is extremely difficult, and model and theory uncertainties are very large, this significantly reduces our overall confidence. Because the agricultural catastrophes could happen immediately and because existing expertise relevant to resilient foods could be co-opted by charitable giving, it is likely optimal to spend most of the money for resilient foods in the next few years. Both cause areas generally save expected current lives inexpensively and should attract greater investment.
    Date: 2021–07–28
  37. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: Tariffication of quantitative restrictions on rice imports was a key policy reform of the Duterte administration. This study reviews recent trends in the rice market, and assesses the poverty and distributional effects of rice tariffication using a computable general equilibrium model with microsimulation. Owing to the price difference between domestic prices in Philippines and exporting countries, imports of rice have surged under tariffication. As a result, domestic prices have fallen, though gross marketing margins have increased, amplifying the effect of the drop in retail prices on both wholesale prices and palay prices. The price and associated economic adjustments are expected to cause an increase in income poverty as conventionally measured. However, the increases are rather small, and would diminish over time. The value of the income loss suffered by the poor is far below what the amount provided by law to address problems in the rice economy with tariffication. <p> Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: poverty, trade liberalization, income distribution, microsimulation, Computable general equilibrium
    Date: 2020
  38. By: Heiss, Florian; Ornaghi, Carmine; Tonin, Mirco
    Abstract: This paper studies consumers' choice between two different water tariffs. We document a large inaction in a novel setting where customers face a binary decision and receive simple, detailed and personalized information about the financial savings they would obtain if they were to switch water tariff. Our empirical framework separates two sources of inertia: inattention and switching costs. The model estimates that half of the 50 thousand customers in our sample are not aware of the opportunity they are offered and that, conditional on paying attention, median switching costs are £89. A model where all customers are assumed to pay attention instead delivers implausibly high switching costs, with a median of £482. Looking at the characteristics of the households, our results confirm previous findings that areas where households have higher levels of education or the proportion of minorities is lower, display a higher responsiveness to potential savings. The new insight offered by our analysis is that it is the level of attention, and not the switching costs, that differ across levels of education and ethnicity. Our findings suggest that policies aimed at increasing attention can play a central role in fostering competition among suppliers and reducing inequalities.
    Keywords: inattention,switching costs,tariffs,water
    JEL: D12 L95 Q25
    Date: 2021
  39. By: Octavio Fernández-Amador; Joseph F. Francois; Doris A. Oberdabernig; Patrick Tomberger
    Abstract: Understanding the global energy network and the developments of energy efficiency is key to advance energy regulation and fight climate change. We develop a global panel dataset on energy usage inventories based on territorial production, final production and consumption over 1997-2014. We apply structural decomposition analysis to isolate energy efficiency changes and study the effectiveness of the European Union Energy Services Directive (2006/32/EC) on energy efficiency. High-income regions are net-importers of embodied energy and use a larger share of non-renewable energy than developing countries. The effectiveness of the Directive is mixed. The different ambition of national energy policies of the European Union members and some complementarity in supply chains underlie the different dynamics found. High-income countries share efficiency gains and changes in the mix of energy sources. These trends are not specific to the European Union. Energy policies in high-income countries are less effective for energy footprints. Our findings are indicative of energy leakage. Energy regulation should account for global supply chains and target energy footprints.
    Keywords: Energy usage, energy efficiency, energy footprints, renewable energy, MRIO analysis, Structural Decomposition Analysis, EU Energy Services Directive.
    JEL: F18 F64 O13 O44 Q40 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2021
  40. By: Pedehour, Pauline; Richefort, Lionel
    Abstract: This study develops a model of water extraction with endogenous social norms. Many users are connected by a unique shared resource that can become scarce in case of over-exploitation. Preferences of individuals are guided by their extraction values and their taste for conformity to social norms which provide incentives to follow others. As the main result of this study, the uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium is established under a sufficient condition. Afterward, some comparative statics analysis shows the effects of change in individual heterogeneous parameters, conformism, and density of the network on the global quantity extracted. Welfare and social optimum properties are established to avoid the tragedy of the commons and sub-optimal consumptions of water. Lastly, this theoretical framework is completed by extensions to highlight levers of water preservation, including the calibration of social norm incentives.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–07–29

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