nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒06‒28
35 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Climate change adaptation strategies for Egypt’s agricultural sector: A ‘suite of technologies’ approach By Perez, Nicostrato D.; Kassim, Yumna; Ringler, Claudia; Thomas, Timothy S.; ElDidi, Hagar
  2. Climate change and Egypt’s agriculture By Perez, Nicostrato D.; Kassim, Yumna; Ringler, Claudia; Thomas, Timothy S.; ElDidi, Hagar
  3. Decomposing Weather Impacts on Crop Profits: the Role of Agrochemical Input Adjustments By Francois Bareille; Raja Chakir
  4. Understanding the factors that influence cereal-legume adoption amongst smallholder farmers in Malawi By Nindi, Tabitha
  5. Land scarcity and input intensification in smallholder irrigated agriculture in Egypt By Abay, Kibrom A.; El-Enbaby, Hoda; Abdelfattah, Lina; Breisinger, Clemens
  6. Trade, Value Chain Technology and Prices: Evidence from Dairy in East Africa By Liz Ignowski; Bart Minten; Johan Swinnen; Bjorn Van Campenhout; Senne Vandevelde
  7. Agricultural productivity and land inequality. Evidence from the Philippines By Bequet, Ludovic
  8. Technological innovation and sustainable intensification: Highlights, lessons learned, and priorities for One CGIAR By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  9. Do People Respond to the Climate Impact of their Behavior? The Effect of Carbon Footprint Information on Grocery Purchases By Toke R. Fosgaard; Alice Pizzo; Sally Sadoff
  10. Effect of Contract Farming in a Small Open Less-Developed Economy: A General Equilibrium Analysis By Bhattacharyya, Ranajoy; Das, Gouranga; Marjit, Sugata
  11. A review of the Ghana Planting for Food and Jobs program: 2017-2020: Implementation, impact, and further analysis By Pauw, Karl
  12. Globalization and Political Economy of Food Policies: Insights from Planting Restrictions in Colonial Wine Markets By Giulia Meloni; Johan Swinnen
  13. “It takes two†: Women’s empowerment in agricultural value chains By Ragasa, Catherine; Malapit, Hazel J.; Rubin, Deborah; Myers, Emily; Pereira, Audrey; Martinez, Elena M.; Heckert, Jessica; Seymour, Greg; Mzungu, Diston; Kalagho, Kenan; Kazembe, Cynthia; Thunde, Jack; Mswelo, Grace
  14. Governance of natural resources: Highlights, lessons learned, and priorities for One CGIAR By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  15. Selected legumes, roots & tubers and other cereals, February 2021 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  16. Gestion du risque climatique : les déterminants des stratégies d’adaptation des agriculteurs en Afrique Subsaharienne By Louise Ella Desquith; Olivier Renault
  17. Dietary transition and its relationship with socio-economic status and peri-urban obesity By Purushotham, Anjali; Aiyar, Anaka; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
  18. Commercialization of agricultural research and biotechnology stakeholder consultation workshops: Final report By Ahmed, Akhter; Bakhtiar, M. Mehrab; Ghostlaw, Julie; Parvin, Aklima; Khan, A. S. M. Mahbubur Rahman; Sultana, Nasreen; Siddique, Rezaul Karim; Kundu, Subrata Kumar
  19. Breaking down silos: On post-harvest loss interventions in Tanzania By Vandercasteelen, Joachim; Christiaensen, Luc
  20. Epidemiological factors and mitigation measures influencing production losses in cattle due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection: A meta‐analysis By Beate Pinior; Sebastien Garcia; Jean-Joseph Minviel; Didier Raboisson
  21. Earth, wind and fire: A multi-hazard risk review for natural disturbances in forests. By Félix Bastit; Marielle Brunette; Claire Montagne-Huck
  22. Market Power and the Volatility of Markups in the Food Value Chain: The Role of Italian Cooperatives By Hyejin Lee; Johan Swinnen; Patrick Van Cayseele
  23. Water Pricing and Affordability in the US: Public vs Private Ownership By Zhang, Xue; Rivas, Marcela Gonzalez; Grant, Mary; Warner, Mildred E.
  24. Inclusive and efficient value chains: Highlights, lessons learned, and priorities for one CGIAR By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  25. On the cost-effective temporal allocation of credits in conservation offsets when habitat restoration takes takes time and is uncertain By Drechsler, Martin
  26. Financial Development, Human Capital Development and Climate Change in East and Southern Africa By Olatunji A. Shobande; Simplice A. Asongu
  27. Social protection for agriculture and resilience: Highlights, lessons learned, and priorities for One CGIAR By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  28. No country is an island: international cooperation and climate change By Ferrari, Massimo; Pagliari, Maria Sole
  29. Universal Public Distribution System: Food Mountains and Pandemic Hunger in India By Narayan, Swati
  30. Signs of recovery: Patterns of livelihoods and food security before and during COVID-19 in rural Bangladesh By Ahmed, Akhter; Bakhtiar, M. Mehrab; Gilligan, Daniel; Hoddinott, John F.; Roy, Shalini; Anowar, Sadat; Ghostlaw, Julie; Thai, Giang
  31. Evaluation of Alternative Power-to-Chemical Pathways for Renewable Energy Exports By Rasool, Muhammad; Khalilpour, Kaveh; Rafiee, Ahmad; Karimi, Ifthekar; Madlener, Reinhard
  32. Palm oil in milk: how the European Union strengthens its presence on the West African dairy market by selling a milk powder substitute By Christian Corniaux; Vincent Chatellier; Djiby Dia; Guillaume Duteurtre
  33. Impact of COVID-19 on Egypt’s dairy and artichoke value-chains: Qualitative findings from rapid value chain assessments By Abdelaziz, Fatma; Abay, Kibrom A.; El-Enbaby, Hoda; Breisinger, Clemens; Kurdi, Sikandra
  34. COVID-19 in rural Malawi: Perceived risks and economic impacts round 2 By Ambler, Kate; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Maredia, Mywish K.; Mockshell, Jonathan
  35. Characteristics of Companies involved in the Fairtrade Platform By Jan Salamoun

  1. By: Perez, Nicostrato D.; Kassim, Yumna; Ringler, Claudia; Thomas, Timothy S.; ElDidi, Hagar
    Abstract: Climate change negatively affects Egypt’s agriculture sector. This brief summarizes the results of a modeling exercise to examine a range of climate change adaptation approaches to counteract agricultural productivity declines. Rather than simulating a single technology, a ‘suite of technologies’ approach was used. For several food crops, none of the technology suites, individually or in combination, are shown to counteract the adverse impacts of climate change. For these crops, which include maize, oilseeds, pulses, and sugar, even stacking of technologies will not return productivity to pre-climate change levels. However, for fruits and vegetables, potatoes, rice, and wheat, crops less adversely affected by climate change, increased investments in climate changeresponsive crop traits, soil fertility improvement, water management, crop protection, or a combination of these technologies can counteract the adverse impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity. From a policy perspective, strong cooperation with the rest of the world on climate change adaptation will ultimately benefit Egyptian consumers. Doing so will reduce disruption of global food markets, which is of particular importance for countries, like Egypt, that are well integrated into those markets. In particular, Egypt’s economy and all Egyptian consumers benefit from the importation of lower-value, high water-consuming cereals under the hotter and drier conditions that can be expected in Egypt in the future due to climate change.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, climate change, agriculture, agricutural sector, agricultural productivity, food production, food prices, technology, suite of technologies
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Perez, Nicostrato D.; Kassim, Yumna; Ringler, Claudia; Thomas, Timothy S.; ElDidi, Hagar
    Abstract: With climate change, Egypt’s already arid climate will face even higher temperatures and lower rainfall over key agricultural areas, requiring further urgent adaptation investments. Data from three general circulation models of climate were used to better understand the likely effects of climate changes on Egypt’s agricultural sector. The findings show largely adverse biophysical effects of climate change by 2050. Compared to a no-climate change scenario, yields for food crops are projected to decline by over 10 percent by 2050 due to higher temperatures and water stress as well as increased salinity of irrigation water. The highest biophysical yield declines are estimated for maize, sugar crops, and fruits and vegetables. Moreover, due to the country’s dependence on food imports, Egypt is not only affected by climate change impacts at home, but also by impacts in other food producing countries. Climate change-induced increases in food prices will reduce Egypt’s food import demand, while also dampening demand for Egypt’s exports. The implications for Egypt are tighter food markets with both reduced domestic production and increased difficulties to import food making it more difficult to augment domestic food supplies. This situation suggests the need for investments in climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector. Global cooperation to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is also warranted given the high cost to Egypt’s society from adverse climate change impacts worldwide.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, climate change, agriculture, agricultural sector, agricultural productivity, food production, food prices, policies
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Francois Bareille (Paris-Saclay University, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Economie Publique, 78850, Thiverval-Grignon, France); Raja Chakir (Paris-Saclay University, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Economie Publique, 78850, Thiverval-Grignon, France)
    Abstract: The costs of climate change borne by agriculture are critically dependent on farmers’ adaptation. In this paper, we investigate how farmers adjust their input mix in response to weather fluctuations during the growing season using individual panel data from Meuse (France) between 2006 and 2012. Specifically, we consider weather and price information to estimate structural models of profit-maximizing farmers with crop-specific yields and input-crop-specific demand functions, conditionally on farm and annual fixed effects. The results show that weather fluctu-ations affect crop yields but that farmers adapt their fertilizer and pesticide applications. We use our estimates to simulate the impacts of a climate change scenario: we show that farmers in Meuse would increase fertilizer applications by 2.60% but reduce pesticide applications by6.92% under an RCP 4.5 scenario in 2050. These adjustments limit the negative direct impacts of climate change on plant growth, though heterogeneously among crops. In total, the added value of the agricultural sector is likely to reduce by 3.02%. Society could benefit from adaptation as the reduction in damage due to agrochemicals’ negative externalities represents twice the market costs borne by the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Variable input, Growing season adjustments, Short-term adaptation, Structural econometrics
    JEL: Q12 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2021–06
  4. By: Nindi, Tabitha
    Abstract: Although sustainable intensification (SI) practices such as intercropping of cereals with legumes are believed to offer productivity benefits to farmers, the adoption of cereal-legume intercropping remains low in Malawi. We use dynamic programing to assess the impact of four key constraints that smallholder farmers face. These constraints are i) land, ii) labor, ii) input market access and iv) output market access. We use the model to evaluate farmers’ optimal production plans across six scenarios in which these constraints are relaxed and compare their production plans across these scenarios. The farmer’s decision process given these alternative scenarios is modeled to assess the impact of these constraints on SI adoption decisions. Our model preliminary results suggest that both resource (land and labor) and institutional constraints (access to input and output market) play a key role in influencing smallholder farmers’ SI adoption decisions. The model results help to illustrate how labor constraints, land constraints and limited access to input and output market affect smallholders’ adoption of cereal-legume intercropping in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, intensification, sustainability, smallholders, farmers, cereals, legumes, dynamic programming, agricultural production, risk, food prices, sustainable intensification, production risk
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; El-Enbaby, Hoda; Abdelfattah, Lina; Breisinger, Clemens
    Abstract: Increasing population pressure and population density in many African countries are inducing land scarcity and land constraints. These are expected to trigger various responses and adaptation strategies, including agricultural intensification induced by land scarcity, as postulated by the Boserup hypothesis. However, most empirical evaluations of the hypothesis come from rainfed agriculture and mostly from sub-Saharan Africa, where application of agricultural inputs remains historically low. Agricultural intensification practices and the relevance of the Boserup hypothesis in irrigated agriculture (and where application of improved inputs is high) remains unexplored. We investigate the implication of land scarcity on agricultural intensification and the relevance of the Boserup hypothesis in the context of Egypt, where agriculture is dominated by irrigation and input application rates are much higher than elsewhere in Africa. We find that land scarcity increases overapplication of nitrogen fertilizer relative to crop-specific agronomic recommendations. This implies that land constraints remain as important challenges for sustainable agricultural intensification. Finally, we find suggestive evidence that such overapplication of nitrogen fertilizers is not yield-enhancing, but, rather, yield-reducing. We also document that land scarcity impedes mechanization of agriculture.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, land resources, sustainability, smallholders, irrigated farming, agriculture, farming systems, intensification
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Liz Ignowski; Bart Minten; Johan Swinnen; Bjorn Van Campenhout; Senne Vandevelde
    Abstract: Agricultural value chains, particularly in the developing world, have been going through drastic changes over the past decades. Differences in world market participation and access to value chain technologies might however have resulted in uneven experiences across countries. In this paper, we explore their impact on prices in the value chain, using the example of two East African countries, Ethiopia and Uganda. We develop a conceptual framework and then validate the model using unique primary price data collected at several levels in the dairy value chains in both countries. We find that prices are overall significantly lower in Uganda than Ethiopia, reflecting their respective net exporting and importing status. Moreover, despite shorter value chains, we find much more significant effects of distances from the capital (the major end destination) on milk prices in Ethiopia than in Uganda. This is seemingly linked to the widespread presence of milk chilling centers in Uganda. While it has been shown that such technology is important for milk quality, we find here that they also have the added benefit to reduce the impact of farmer’s remoteness on prices and therefore allow for more geographically extended value chains.
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Bequet, Ludovic
    Abstract: This paper presents the first detailed empirical evaluation of the effect of genetically engineered(GE) crops on land inequality, using three waves of census data covering 21 years and 17 million plots in the Philippines. Exploiting exogenous variations in soil and weather characteristics leading to differences in potential gain from GE corn cultivation, I show that the introduction of this labor- saving technology in 2003 led to an increased in municipality-level landholding and land ownership inequality. This effect is partly driven by a relative increase in agricultural land, is stronger in municipalities that adopted modern agricultural practices later and where credit penetration is higher. While increased land inequality is associated with a higher level of terrorist activity, it does not seem to have any adverse effect on agricultural productivity or economic activity.
    Keywords: Land inequality, Agricultural technology, Land reform
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2021–06–10
  8. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: What are the key drivers of change in agrifood systems? What challenges do these drivers present to achievement of sustainable food and nutrition security at global, regional, and national scales? How can agricultural technologies, natural resource management practices, and investment in infrastructure address these challenges in ways that manage trade-offs, protect natural capital, and sustain the provision of ecosystem services? PIM researchers analyzed the consequences of a number of key drivers for the future development of food systems. The primary focus has been on climate change, population and income growth, food prices, and their combined effects on dietary preferences, health, and the environment, as well as on the role of changing technology and responses to investments in key components of the food system. A body of work comprised of ground-breaking original research and review studies was made possible by the successful building of a community of practice on foresight that brought together researchers across CGIAR with collaborators from academia and centers of excellence all over the world.
    Keywords: WORLD, capacity development, technology, innovation, food systems, policies, gender, women, agriculture, intensification, sustainable intensification, policy change,
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Toke R. Fosgaard (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Alice Pizzo (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Sally Sadoff (Rady School of Management, University of California, San Diego)
    Abstract: Food production is a primary contributor to climate change with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions varying widely across food groups. In a randomized experiment, we examine the impact of providing individualized information on the GHG emissions of grocery purchases via a smartphone app, compared to providing information on spending. Carbon footprint information decreases GHG emissions from groceries by an estimated 27% in the first month of treatment, with an estimated 45% reduction in emissions from beef, the highest emissions food group. Treatment effects fade in the longer-run along with app engagement. However, we find evidence of persistent effects among those who remain engaged with the app. Our results suggest that individualized carbon footprint information can reduce the climate impact of food consumption but requires sustained engagement.
    Keywords: Field Experiment, Pro-environmental Behavior, Carbon Footprint, Food Consumption, Consumer Behavior
    JEL: C93 D11 D91 Q5
    Date: 2021–06
  10. By: Bhattacharyya, Ranajoy; Das, Gouranga; Marjit, Sugata
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyse the entry of a cash crop producing foreign Contract Farming (CF) subsector within the agricultural sector of a country. Entry requires a cash crop price that is substantially above the price of the food crop already being produced within the country. Entry of CF could cause ‘vanishing’ of the food-crop sector. We employ a variant of 3×3 mixed Specific Factor-Heckscher Ohlin general equilibrium model of production and trade where introduction of a new policy may lead to the emergence of a new cash-crop sector resulting in finite changes where we show the possibilities of sectoral diversification with combinations of contract farming vis-à-vis traditional agriculture under some plausible conditions. Such ramifications could (a) increase GDP; (b) give rise to adverse distributional consequences for labour, and land-owner; (c) reduce domestic production of food and increase food import and hence, (d) aggravate food insecurity. Thus, CF might imply a tradeoff between food insecurity, inequality and growth. However, either zero CF and extremely high CF are suboptimal and hence, CF cannot be substitute of non-CF agricultural sector producing Food crops. In fact, fallacy of composition shows that aggregate has a price effect so that food-crop sector never disappears. Our results seem to be consistent when compared to some empirically robust conclusions found in the literature and some secondary data available in the FAO website.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–06
  11. By: Pauw, Karl
    Abstract: This report examines the evolution of farm input subsidy programs in Ghana, with a focus on the Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ) initiative, which was introduced in 2017 and replaced the Fertilizer Subsidy Program (FSP) that was launched in 2008. A review of PFJ implementation reports and other official data sources reveal that information on general program features, such as beneficiary numbers, subsidized input quantities, and program budget is readily available and useful for understanding program design and implementation. National crop production estimates are also reported annually, and these provide evidence of rapid output growth in the agricultural sector, especially within the cereals subsector. However, the implementing agency, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA), lacks a system for closely monitoring and reporting PFJ program impacts at farm-level. Consequently, most of the published information on the marginal contribution of PFJ to national crop output is based on simulations, which make strong assumptions about seeding rates, fertilizer use by crop, and input use efficiency on beneficiary farms. With this drawback in mind, these simulations show that PFJ contributed substantially to crop output growth, a result which is not implausible considering the quantities of inputs provided, but one that requires further on-farm validation. Recommendations are offered around beneficiary targeting, interpretation of employment impacts, and the need for regular monitoring of farm-level impacts, all of which will help improve transparency of the program.
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; programmes; subsidies; fertilizers; farm inputs; crop production
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Giulia Meloni; Johan Swinnen
    Abstract: Globalization transforms not just the economics of production and exchange in the world, but also the political economy of public policies. We analyze how wine regulations, and more specifically planting rights restrictions, have been affected by globalization, in particular colonial expansions of wine producing empires. We study several historic cases and find that (a) planting right restrictions and compulsory uprooting of vineyards are introduced to deal with falling wine prices as colonial wine production takes off and expands; (b) that enforcement of the restrictions and uprooting was difficult and often imperfect; and (c) that there was a strong persistence of the policies: after their introduction the restrictions remain in place for a long time (often centuries) and they are only removed after major shocks to the political economy equilibrium.
    Keywords: colonial expansions; globalization; planting restrictions; regulation; wine history
    JEL: F68 L66 N40 N50 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Malapit, Hazel J.; Rubin, Deborah; Myers, Emily; Pereira, Audrey; Martinez, Elena M.; Heckert, Jessica; Seymour, Greg; Mzungu, Diston; Kalagho, Kenan; Kazembe, Cynthia; Thunde, Jack; Mswelo, Grace
    Abstract: This brief summarizes the recent assessment of the implementation of the Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education Training for Women Program (ATVET4Women) that aims to support women and their families with vocational training and market linkages in priority agricultural value chains (VCs). The ATVET4Women program has two main components: formal training and nonformal training. Formal training consists of a 2- or 3-year vocational and technical course at an agricultural training center (ATC) where students gain skills (and a diploma) for employment or entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector. Nonformal training provides farmers with 1 to 3 weeks of training on good production and business management practices.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; agricultural value chains; value chains; training; market access; vocational training; income
    Date: 2021
  14. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: What are the drivers and consequences of tenure insecurity? PIM research under Flagship 5 addressed drivers and consequences of tenure insecurity from three angles: women’s rights, individual or household rights, and collective rights (where ownership or long-term use and/or management rights have been recognized or devolved to communities to some extent). Individual and household rights focus on agricultural land; collective rights on forests, rangelands, and water; and women’s rights consider the full range of resources.
    Keywords: WORLD, capacity development, governance, natural resources, tenure insecurity, women, gender, tenure security, land rights, households, innovation, policies, multi-stakeholder processes, stakeholders,
    Date: 2021
  15. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, legumes, roots, tubers, cereals, prices, agricultural products, markets, food security, nutrition
    Date: 2021
  16. By: Louise Ella Desquith; Olivier Renault
    Abstract: AbstractThis article is a review of the literature on the determinants of farmers’ adaptation choice in sub-Saharan Africa. A set of studies has highlighted the existence of inequalities in adaptation at local level that suggests paying more attention to its micro determinants. Maddison (2007) emphasizes the importance of the perception of agricultural change in the adaptation process. Paradoxically, a recent literature shows that farmers have a good perception of climate change but do not really engage in adaptation strategies even when financial or institutional resources are not binding. This paradox suggests that beliefs, prone to develop in uncertain contexts, play an important role in the choice of adaptation. The specificity of the sub-Saharan households’ beliefs must be considered in policies aimed at developing adaptation.
    Keywords: Climate change, Adaptation, Vulnerability, perceptions, beliefs
    JEL: Q54 D81 D83
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Purushotham, Anjali; Aiyar, Anaka; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
    Abstract: In 2015-16, India was the seventh-largest economy in the world and had more than 200 million people at risk for obesity. Overconsumption of calories from processed foods, an outcome of a country's dietary transition, is known to be an important mechanism that drives risks for obesity. Testing the relationship between processed foods, socio-economic status and obesity has not been possible thus far due to the limited availability of relevant micro-level data. In this paper, we use novel cross-sectional data from a primary socio-economic survey conducted in the rural-urban interface of Bangalore, a mega-city in India, to explore the role of dietary transition in obesity. We show that calories from semi- and ultra-processed foods are positively associated with the prevalence of obesity (Body Mass Index, BMI, =25) among women. Households in the lower-income group are at higher risk of obesity due to excess consumption of calories from semi-processed foods while ultra-processed foods are associated with obesity among higher income groups. We also find that excess consumption of semi-processed food calories is strongly associated with an increase in the prevalence of obesity among women who meet their recommended dietary allowance for calories. This suggests that there is a threshold effect before which consumption of calories from processed foods may improve BMI. Furthermore, in line with the literature, we show that labor-intensive physical activities seem to alleviate the effect of calories on obesity. The strength of the association between semi-processed foods and obesity reduces with occupations association with greater physical activity. Our study highlights how diet-related transitions during economic growth and urbanization impact different economic groups & the dual burden of malnutrition. Our results call for strategic interventions, that are focused on reducing obesity in India, to work on moderating the consumption of semi-processed foods among peri-urban households.
    Keywords: Obesity,dietary transition,structural transformation,rural-urban interface,urbanization,India
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Ahmed, Akhter; Bakhtiar, M. Mehrab; Ghostlaw, Julie; Parvin, Aklima; Khan, A. S. M. Mahbubur Rahman; Sultana, Nasreen; Siddique, Rezaul Karim; Kundu, Subrata Kumar
    Abstract: From December 6-10, 2020, USAID organized and IFPRI facilitated five virtual stakeholder consultation workshops on agricultural research and biotechnology, bringing together relevant stakeholders involved in crop and non-crop agriculture from Barishal, Cox’s Bazar, Dhaka, Jashore, and Khulna districts in southern Bangladesh. This format aimed to capture the views and perceptions of a range of relevant actors on the status, opportunities and challenges, and recommendations for improving agricultural research and biotechnology. This report presents the subjective views of participants who are affected by and have a stake in these discussions, from value chain actors who have had challenges cultivating certain varieties and raising certain breeds due to climate-related challenges to researchers who are developing new varieties and breeds accounting for these ground-level challenges. Although the authors have substantiated parts of this report with primary and secondary data sources, the major thrust of this report is to communicate perspectives as they were framed during the workshops. Although stakeholder responses reflect varying knowledge levels of biotechnology among participants, some of which may be convoluted or inaccurate, this report preserves the diversity of stakeholder input as an honest reflection of the opinions received.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; agricultural research; biotechnology; stakeholders; commercialization; agriculture; research; rice; farmers; workshops; value chains; private sector; crops
    Date: 2021
  19. By: Vandercasteelen, Joachim; Christiaensen, Luc
    Abstract: This research examines the effects of an intervention aimed at reducing Post-Harvest Losses (PHL) of maize growing farmers during their maize storage in Tanzania. Farmers were invited to attend a training on best practices in post-harvest maize management, and a randomized subset of trainees received the opportunity to buy an improved storage facility (silos) at a substantially discounted price. Data collected at 30 days and 90 days after harvest, however, do not point to significant impacts of the treatments offered to the farmers. Receiving training on best practices improved stated knowledge but training nor the opportunity to purchase an improved storage had a significant effect on maize storage and sales behavior, physical PHL during storage, or the quality of the stored maize. The research explores potential explanations and provides some policy recommendations for future learning and decision-making on how to address PHL issues in developing countries.
    Keywords: TANZANIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; postharvest losses; farmers; maize; training; policies; intervention; silos; storage; harvesting losses; post-harvest maize management
    Date: 2020
  20. By: Beate Pinior (Vetmeduni - University of Veterinary Medicine [Vienna]); Sebastien Garcia (IHAP - Interactions hôtes-agents pathogènes [Toulouse] - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Jean-Joseph Minviel (IHAP - Interactions hôtes-agents pathogènes [Toulouse] - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Didier Raboisson (IHAP - Interactions hôtes-agents pathogènes [Toulouse] - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées)
    Abstract: Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is associated with a loss in productivity in cattle farms. Determining which factors influence monetary losses due to BVDV could facilitate the implementation of mitigation measures to reduce the burden of BVDV. Mixed-effect meta-analysis models were performed to estimate the extent to which the costs of mean annual BVDV production losses per animal may be influenced by epidemiological factors such as BVDV introduction risk, initial prevalence, viral circulation intensity and circulation duration (trial 1). Additionally, changes in mean annual BVDV production losses per animal due to specific mitigation measures (i.e., biosecurity, vaccination, testing and culling, cattle introduction or contact with neighbouring cattle herds) were analysed (trial 2). In total, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis to assess mean annual BVDV production losses. The mean annual direct losses were determined to be euro42.14 per animal (trial 1). The multivariate meta-regression showed that four of the previously mentioned epidemiological factors significantly influenced the mean annual BVDV production losses per animal. Indeed, the per animal costs increased to euro67.19 when these four factors (trial 1) were considered as "high or moderate" compared to "low". The meta-regression analysis revealed that implementation of vaccination and biosecurity measures were associated with an 8%-12% and 28%-29% decrease in BVDV production losses on average, respectively, when simulated herds were compared with or without such mitigation measures (trial 2). This reduction of mean annual BVDV production losses per animal due to mitigation measures was partially counteracted when farmers brought new cattle on to farm or allowed contact with neighbouring cattle herds. The influencing mitigation factors presented here could help to guide farmers in their decision to implement mitigation strategies for the control of BVDV at farm level.
    Keywords: biosecurity,economic,epidemiology,eradication,vaccination
    Date: 2019–11
  21. By: Félix Bastit; Marielle Brunette; Claire Montagne-Huck
    Abstract: Natural disturbances are paramount in the development of ecosystems but may jeopardise the provision of forest ecosystem services. Climate change exacerbates this threat and favours interactions between disturbances. Our objective was thus to capture this dimension of multiple disturbances in forest economics through a literature review. We built a database that encompasses 101 English peer-reviewed articles published between 1916 and 2020. We looked at the relationships between six main natural hazards: fire, windstorm, drought, ice/snow, insects and pathogens/disease. Our results indicate that the most frequent pairs of hazards analysed together are “Wind-Insects” in Europe and “Fire-Insects” in North America. We observed that timber production is often the only ecosystem service considered. We show that most economic studies assume that natural hazards are independent of each other and could thus miss some of the effects of changing hazard regimes, contrary to ecology-oriented articles. Finally, we propose to refine current economic models by improving the modelling of natural hazards in order to find better-adapted silvicultural strategies in the future.
    Keywords: multi-hazard risk, interaction, economics, management, ecology, review, forest.
    JEL: D81 Q23 Q54
    Date: 2021
  22. By: Hyejin Lee; Johan Swinnen; Patrick Van Cayseele
    Abstract: Agricultural cooperatives have often been promoted as a way to increase their market power and to obtain stability of profit against uncertainty. This paper estimates the firm-level markups and markup volatility to identify the countervailing market power of cooperatives in the Italian fruits and vegetable sector and the dairy sector. We use the firm-level data of Italian firms for the period 2007-2014. We find that, overall, there is a tradeoff in cooperatives’ role between obtaining market power and stability. Farmer cooperatives in both sectors gain stability in their markups but their markups are lower, on average, than those for non-cooperatives. For processor cooperatives, the fruits and vegetable sector obtains more market power. This appears to arise from the product differentiation strategy of the processors cooperative.
    Keywords: Cooperatives, market power, firm-level markups, volatility
    JEL: L44 Q13 D23
    Date: 2021
  23. By: Zhang, Xue; Rivas, Marcela Gonzalez; Grant, Mary; Warner, Mildred E.
    Abstract: We examine the 500 largest community water systems in the US to explore if ownership is related to annual water bills and the percent of income that low-income households spend on water. Results show that, among the largest water systems, private ownership is related to higher water prices and less affordability for low-income families. In states with regulations favorable to private providers, water utilities charge even higher prices. Affordability issues are more severe in communities with higher poverty and older infrastructure. Water policy needs to address ownership and regulation and explore new mechanisms to ensure water affordability for low-income residents.
    Date: 2021–06–14
  24. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: At the start of CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) Phase 2 in 2017, and later during the priority-setting round in 2019, each of the PIM research areas (‘flagships’) formulated key research questions they aimed to answer and identified theories of change and pathways to achieve impact. In this series, we share highlights of what we have learned and achieved and suggest areas to be explored in the future.
    Keywords: WORLD, value chains, trade, farmers, food losses, food policies, policies, intervention, innovation,
    Date: 2021
  25. By: Drechsler, Martin
    Abstract: Tradable permits or offsetting schemes are increasingly used as an instrument for the conservation of biodiversity on private lands. Since the restoration of degraded land often involves uncertainties and time lags, conservation biologists have strongly recommended that credits in conservation offset schemes should awarded only with the completion of the restoration process. Otherwise, as is claimed, is the instrument likely to fail on the objective of no net loss in species habitat and biodiversity. What is ignored in these arguments, however, is that such a scheme design may incur higher economic costs than a design in which credits are already awarded at the initiation of the restoration process. In the present paper a generic agent-based ecological-economic simulation model is developed to explore different pros and cons of the two scheme designs, in particular their cost-effectiveness. The model considers spatially heterogeneous and dynamic conservation costs, risk aversion and time preferences in the landowners, as well as uncertainty in the duration and the success of restoration process. It turns out that, especially under fast change of the conservation costs, awarding credits at the initiation of restoration can be more cost-effective than awarding them with completion of restoration.
    Keywords: agent-based modelling, conservation offsets, ecological-economic modelling, habitat restoration, uncertainty
    JEL: Q15 Q57
    Date: 2021–04–03
  26. By: Olatunji A. Shobande (Business School, University of Aberdeen, UK); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Africa is currently experiencing both financial and human development challenges. While several continents have advocated for financial development in order to acquire environmentally friendly machinery that produces less emissions and ensures long-term sustainability, Africa is still lagging behind the rest of the world. Similarly, Africa's human development has remained stagnant, posing a serious threat to climate change if not addressed. Building on the underpinnings of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis on the nexus between economic growth and environmental pollution, this study contributes to empirical research seeking to promote environmental sustainability as follows. First, it investigates the link between financial development, human capital development and climate change in East and Southern Africa. Second, six advanced panel techniquesare used, and they include: (1) cross-sectional dependency (CD) tests; (2) combined panel unit root tests; (3) combined panel cointegration tests; (4) panel VAR/VEC Granger causality tests and (5) combined variance decomposition analysis based on Cholesky and Generalised weights. Our finding shows that financial and human capital developments are important in reducing CO2 emissions and promoting environmental sustainability in East and Southern Africa.
    Keywords: Financial Development; Human Capital; East and Southern Africa; Climate Change
    JEL: G21 I21 I25 O55 Q54
    Date: 2021–01
  27. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: How do social protection programs influence agricultural growth and nutrition, and what are the implications of this for program design? PIM research on the impact of social protection programs and complementary interventions for agricultural growth and nutrition made significant contributions to research and policy, including through impact evaluations of national food and cash transfer programs (e.g., the Takaful and Karama Program in Egypt, the Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia, and the Programme de Filets Sociaux “Jigisemejiri†in Mali), pilot studies (in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Tanzania, and Yemen), and policy papers and review studies covering many low- and middle-income countries. Social protection programs that provide cash or in-kind transfers alone often show limited short-term effects on agriculture or nutrition outcomes, although there is evidence of impacts of cash transfers alone on child nutrition in cases of extreme deprivation or when transfers are very large. The flagship’s research shows that social protection programs that bundle cash or in-kind transfers with high-quality complementary programming can generate large, significant improvements in agriculture and nutrition outcomes. Such complementary programming includes agricultural extension and nutrition behavior change communication (BCC).
    Keywords: WORLD, capacity development, social protection, agriculture, resilience, cash transfers, nutrition, intervention, gender, women, food security, child nutrition, policies,
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Ferrari, Massimo; Pagliari, Maria Sole
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the cross-country implications of climate-related mitigation policies. Specifically, we set up a two-country, two-sector (brown vs green) DSGE model with negative production externalities stemming from carbon-dioxide emissions. We estimate the model using US and euro area data and we characterize welfare-enhancing equilibria under alternative containment policies. Three main policy implications emerge: i) fiscal policy should focus on reducing emissions by levying taxes on polluting production activities; ii) monetary policy should look through environmental objectives while standing ready to support the economy when the costs of the environmental transition materialize; iii) international cooperation is crucial to obtain a Pareto improvement under the proposed policies. We finally find that the objective of reducing emissions by 50%, which is compatible with the Paris agreement's goal of limiting global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius with respect to pre-industrial levels, would not be attainable in absence of international cooperation even with the support of monetary policy. JEL Classification: F42, E50, E60, F30
    Keywords: climate modelling, DSGE model, open-economy macroeconomics, optimal policies
    Date: 2021–06
  29. By: Narayan, Swati
    Abstract: The latest National Family Health Survey (NFHS 5), indicates that even before the pandemic, child stunting in India was severe and has been deteriorating since 2015. But after the stringent lockdown, there has been an acute increase in impoverishment as governmental food policies have further exacerbated rather than mitigated inequalities. Families eligible under the National Food Security Act (NFSA, 2013) have been provided with double food grain rations during two waves of the pandemic. But nearly 45 percent of India’s population without these ration cards have been excluded from any additional food relief from the central government. Simultaneously, India’s food grain stocks in government granaries have accumulated manifold with two years of bumper harvests. Therefore, in light of the acute distress faced by marginalised communities due to the pandemic and unprecedented economic recession, this paper analyses the availability of adequate foodgrain stocks and contends that the time is ripe for the universal expansion of the public distribution system.
    Date: 2021–06–06
  30. By: Ahmed, Akhter; Bakhtiar, M. Mehrab; Gilligan, Daniel; Hoddinott, John F.; Roy, Shalini; Anowar, Sadat; Ghostlaw, Julie; Thai, Giang
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic compelled the Government of Bangladesh to impose policy measures to stop the spread of the virus. These efforts were critical for public health, but have led to serious disruptions in the economy and livelihoods. To document the experiences of Bangladeshi households during this time, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Cornell University conducted two rounds of socioeconomic phone surveys in rural areas of Bangladesh in June 2020 and in January 2021, and benchmarked them against data from in-person interviews carried out on the same households in 2019. Together, these surveys have tracked the experiences of Bangladeshi households in terms of unemployment, income loss, food insecurity, and coping mechanisms during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; rural areas; livelihoods; food security; policy; economic recovery
    Date: 2021
  31. By: Rasool, Muhammad (University of Technology Sydney, Australia); Khalilpour, Kaveh (University of Technology Sydney, Australia); Rafiee, Ahmad (Dana Cluster Pty Ltd., Sydney, Australia); Karimi, Ifthekar (National University of Singapore); Madlener, Reinhard (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN))
    Abstract: Over the last five decades, there have been a few phases of interest in the so-called hydrogen economy, stemming from the need for either energy security enhancement or climate change mitigation. None of these phases has been successful in a major market development mainly due to the lack of cost competitiveness and partially due to technology readiness challenges. Nevertheless, a new phase has begun very recently, which despite holding original objectives has a new motivation to be fully green, based on renewable energy. This new movement has already initiated bipartisan cooperation of some energy importing countries and those with abundant renewable energy resources and supporting infrastructure. For example, the abundance of renewable resources and a stable economy of Australia can attract investments in building these green value chains with countries such as Singapore, South Korea, Japan, and those even further distant like in Europe. One key challenge in this context is the diversity of pathways for the (national and international) export of non-electricity renewable energy. This poses another challenge, i.e., the need for an agnostic tool for comparing various supply chain pathways fairly while considering various techno-economic factors such as renewable energy sources, hydrogen production and conversion technologies, transport, and destination markets, along with all associated uncertainties. This paper addresses the above challenge by introducing a probabilistic decision analysis cycle methodology for evaluating various renewable energy supply chain pathways based on the hydrogen vector. The decision support tool is generic and can accommodate any kind of renewable chemical and fuel supply chain option. As a case study, we have investigated eight supply chain options composed of two electrolysers (alkaline and membrane) and four carrier options (compressed hydrogen, liquefied hydrogen, methanol, and ammonia) for export from Australian ports to three destinations in Singapore, Japan, and Germany. The results clearly show the complexity of decision making induced by multiple factors.
    Keywords: Hydrogen economy; renewable hydrogen vector; renewable energy utilisation; renewable energy supply chain; decision analysis cycle; expected levelised cost of hydrogen (ELCOH)
    JEL: Q40
    Date: 2021–05
  32. By: Christian Corniaux (UMR SELMET - Systèmes d'élevage méditerranéens et tropicaux - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Vincent Chatellier (INRAE, SMART-LERECO, Nantes); Djiby Dia (BAME, ISRA, Bel Air, Dakar); Guillaume Duteurtre (UMR SELMET - Systèmes d'élevage méditerranéens et tropicaux - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the recent boom in trade of blends of skimmed milk powder & palm oil between the European Union and West Africa. Due to tensions on international markets of milk ingredients, and in response to strong local demand for dairy raw materials, imports of these "fat-filled blends" in West Africa have exceeded purchases of milk powders. Imports of blends from the EU, in particular, have quadrupled since the 2000s, reaching 324,000 tonnes in 2019. Blends of skimmed milk powder & vegetable fats now account for 40% of the total value of imports of dairy products in the region. In this context, proper labelling and information to consumers are of particular importance to avoid unfair practices. Several associations and producers' organizations also question the underlying food and economic models with potential impacts on human health, environment and rural development. Due to the weak protection of local markets, these substitutes hamper the development of local dairy farming.
    Abstract: Cette communication s'intéresse à l'essor du commerce des mélanges de poudre de lait écrémé et de matières grasses végétales (MGV) entre l'Union européenne et l'Afrique de l'Ouest. En raison des tensions qui s'expriment sur les marchés internationaux et de la forte demande locale en matières premières laitières, les importations ouest-africaines de ces « mélanges MGV » ont dépassé les achats de poudres de lait. Les importations provenant de l'UE, en particulier, ont quadruplé depuis les années 2000, atteignant 324 000 tonnes en 2019. Les mélanges MGV représentent aujourd'hui 40% de la valeur totale des importations de produits laitiers dans la région. Sont débattus ici les enjeux en termes d'étiquetage et d'information des consommateurs associés aux risques de tromperies, ainsi que les modèles alimentaires et économiques sous-jacents. Nous montrons en particulier qu'en raison de la faible protection des marchés locaux, ces substituts de produits laitiers remettent en cause les perspectives de développement de l'élevage local.
    Keywords: Dairy sector,Milk quotas,Blends of skimmed milk powder and palm oil,EU,Africa,Exports,Imports,International trade,Secteur laitier,Quotas laitiers,Mélanges de poudre de lait écrémé et de matières grasses végétales,UE,Afrique,Exportations,Importations,Commerce international
    Date: 2020–12–02
  33. By: Abdelaziz, Fatma; Abay, Kibrom A.; El-Enbaby, Hoda; Breisinger, Clemens; Kurdi, Sikandra
    Abstract: The COVID-19 crisis is having strong impacts on the Egyptian economy, but these impacts differ strongly across sectors.1 Based on scenarios run using a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) multiplier model of Egypt’s economy, COVID-19 is estimated to have resulted in an 8.6 percent decline in Egypt’s GDP during the 4th quarter of FY 2019/20 (April to June). The services sector was hit hardest, falling by 10.9 percent, followed by industry, which contracted by 8.3 percent. Agriculture was the most resilient sector, although there are large differences in the relative impact of COVID across agricultural subsectors.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; value chains; dairy industry; models; artichoke; SAM multipliers; Social Accounting Matrix (SAM)
    Date: 2021
  34. By: Ambler, Kate; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Maredia, Mywish K.; Mockshell, Jonathan
    Abstract: This note summarizes perceptions of COVID-19 impacts and risks from a panel phone survey of rural households in eight districts in rural Malawi. While the results from the first round conducted in August 2020 were reported in a previous brief, this note will focus on the evolution of indicators from round 1 to round 2, conducted in November 2020. The sample comprises 833 households interviewed in both survey rounds. Two additional follow-up survey rounds are planned for 2021. The survey was originally designed to measure the seasonality of labor activities but was adjusted to assess COVID-19 impacts and perceptions in rural Malawi. Though initial concern of the impact of COVID-19 on Malawi was high at the start of the global pandemic, case numbers stayed relatively low through the end of 2020. Seven-day averages of 50-100 cases during the first survey round had dropped to under 5 in the fourth quarter of the year. Our analysis will examine how people’s perceptions evolved during this period of low infections.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; rural areas; risk; economic impact
    Date: 2021
  35. By: Jan Salamoun (Department of Trade, Tourism and Languages, Faculty of Economics, University of South Bohemia In České Budějovice)
    Abstract: Fair Trade is a business model whose basic idea and goal is greater fairness in international trade with the developing world. In particular, it offers fair trading conditions that do not exploit the grower but take into account his possibilities and production costs. It prides itself on the sustainability of trade and therefore supports environmental protection in the area. An integral part of this system is the involvement of businesses as intermediaries between producers and consumers. The companies enter business processes with a clear vision aimed at orienting themselves in the area of fair trading, while others consider this to be only an opportunity for visibility. For this reason, the idea of Fair Trade has its criticisms, and like all certifications, the Fairtrade have their shortcomings. Criticism is often based on ignorance of the thing or unrealistic ideas of "how it should be to make it work". At other times, criticism of the ethical concept overlaps with the rules of a particular certification, or it blames the system for misuse of the logo by some of the merchants. The article reveals some theoretical aspects and also deals with a selected sample of companies based on a quota selection from the set, which is part of the certification company Fairtrade Czechia and Slovakia. Based on the chosen methods, we answer the research question and the verified hypothesis.
    Keywords: Process Management, Business, Fairtrade, Sustainable Consumption, Certification
    JEL: Q01 M31
    Date: 2020–08

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