nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒06‒14
forty-one papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Impact of climate smart agriculture on food security: an agent-based analysis By Alan Davide Bazzana; Jeremy Foltz; Ying Zhang
  2. Digitization and Development: Formalizing Property Rights and its Impact on Land and Labor Allocation By beg, Sabrin
  3. Has Global Agricultural Trade Been Resilient Under Coronavirus (COVID-19)? Findings from an Econometric Assessment By Arita, Shawn; Grant, Jason; Sydow, Sharon; Beckman, Jayson
  4. GMO in The Opinion of Farmers By Pogodzińska, Kinga
  5. Competitiveness of Polish Agriculture in The Context of Globalization and Economic Integration – Competitive Potential and Position By Pawlak, Karolina; Poczta, Walenty
  6. The role of space and time in the interaction of farmers' management decisions and bee communities: Evidence from South India By Steinhübel, Linda; Wenzel, Arne; Hulamani, Prashant; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Mason, Nicole M.
  7. Productivity of Production Factors in Polish Agriculture and in The Selected European Union Countries with Regard to The Common Agricultural Policy Payments By Ściubeł, Anna
  8. The Common Agricultural Policy post-2020: Views and recommendations from scientists to improve performance for biodiversity. Volume 2 - Annexes By Pe'er, Guy; Birkenstock, Maren; Lakner, Sebastian; Röder, Norbert
  9. Small French Farms and Employment: are they creating wage labour By Pauline Lécole
  10. The Common Agricultural Policy post-2020: Views and recommendations from scientists to improve performance for biodiversity. Volume 3 - Policy brief By Pe'er, Guy; Birkenstock, Maren; Lakner, Sebastian; Röder, Norbert
  11. The Evolution of The Agri-Food Sector in Terms of Economic Transformation, Membership in The EU and Globalization of The World Economy By Szajner, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Iwona
  12. The Common Agricultural Policy post-2020: Views and recommendations from scientists to improve performance for biodiversity. Volume 1 - Synthesis Report By Pe'er, Guy; Birkenstock, Maren; Lakner, Sebastian; Röder, Norbert
  13. Suitability of Complexity Economics for Long-Term Agricultural Policy-Making By Wieliczko, Barbara
  14. Problems and Prospects of Organic Production in Family Farming in Ukraine By Zolotnytska, Yuliia; Opalov, Oleksandr
  15. Speculation and price volatility in the coffee market By Aliaga Lordemann, Javier; Mora-García, Claudio; Mulder, Nanno
  16. ‘Rule-of-Thumb’ Instructions to Improve Fertilizer Management: Experimental Evidence from Bangladesh By Islam, Mahnaz; Beg, Sabrin
  17. Developing a national water security indicators framework in Kazakhstan By Dauren Oshakbaev; Zhanna Akisheva; Alexandre Martoussevitch
  18. Coping with seasonality in a quarterly CGE model: COVID-19 and U.S. agriculture By Peter B. Dixon; Maureen T. Rimmer
  19. Input use and output price risks: the case of maize in Burkina Faso By Le Cotty, Tristan; Maître d'Hôtel, Elodie; Ndiaye, Moctar; Thoyer, Sophie
  20. Influence of Climate Change on The Global Condition of The Environment and Agriculturein The Opinion of Rural Youthin The Podkarpackie Province By Woźniak, Marian
  21. Factor Relations in Agriculture – Conceptual Reasoning with Empirical Verification By Bezat-Jarzębowska, Agnieszka
  22. Purchasing and Selling Decisions of Beef Cattle Replacement Females By Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.; DeLong, Karen L.
  23. Procurement Price Level Acceptable to Both Farm Producers and Processors By Rembisz, Włodzimierz
  24. Agriculture and The European Green Deal By Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Prandecki, Konrad
  25. Pro-social Motivations, Externalities and Incentives By Raphael Soubeyran
  26. Designing an effective small farmers scheme in France with environmental and employment conditions By Pauline Lécole; Raphaële Préget; Sophie Thoyer
  27. Eco-Innovations as a Factor of Sustainable Development of Agriculture and Food Processing By Woźniak, Leszek; Woźniak, Grzegorz
  28. Are Transboundary Nature Protected Areas International Public Goods and Why People Think They Are (Not)? Hybrid Modelling Evidence from the EU Outer Borders By Sviataslau Valasiuk; Mikołaj Czajkowski; Marek Giergiczny; Tomasz Żylicz; Knut Veisten; Iratxe Landa Mata; Askill Harkjerr Halse; Per Angelstam
  29. The palm tree: A cropscape of monoculture and devouring carbon sinks By Edakunny, Preeti
  30. Agricultural Development Processes in The Context of Globalization Challenges and New Approaches to The Concept of Sustainable Development By Adamowicz, Mieczysław
  31. Unintended Consequences of Indian Groundwater Preservation Law on Crop Residue Burning By Meghana Agarwala; Shampa Bhattacharjee; Aparajita Dasgupta
  32. Trade, poverty and food security: A survey of recent research and its implications for East Africa By Huw Lloyd-Ellis; Ardyn Nordstrom
  33. Assessment of The Functioning of Farms In Less-Favored Areas and in Areas of Significant Natural Value (Lfa Specific Type Zone I) By Zieliński, Marek; Łopatka, Artur; Koza, Piotr
  34. Fragmented Landscape of European Policies in the Energy Sector: First-Mover Advantages By Kristina Govorukha; Philip Mayer; Dirk Rübbelke
  35. Bioeconomy as A Concept for The Development of Agriculture and Agribusiness By Adamowicz, Mieczysław
  36. How do Firms Respond to Long-term Political Tensions? Evidence from Chinese Food Importers By Li, Haoran; Wan, Xibo; Zhang, Wendong
  37. Changes in The Income Situation of Agricultural Holdings in The Light of The Polish FADN Observations from 2004-2018 By Kulawik, Jacek; Płonka, Renata; Wieliczko, Barbara
  38. Fossil fuel subsidy inventories vs. net carbon prices: A consistent approach for measuring fossil fuel price incentives By Böhm, Jens; Peterson, Sonja
  39. The role of business in constructing sustainable technologies: Can the Silicon Valley model be aligned with sustainable development? By Matthews, Nicholas; Stamford, Laurence; Shapira, Philip
  40. Trusted Brokers in Rural Land Markets: Parish Case Studies in Scotland By Kato, Yumi Isaka; Hubbard, Carmen; Garrod, Guy
  41. Input use and output price risks: the case of maize in Burkina Faso By Le Cotty, T.; Maître d'Hôtel, E.; Ndiaye, M.; Thoyer, S.

  1. By: Alan Davide Bazzana (University of Brescia, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Jeremy Foltz (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Ying Zhang (Johns Hopkins University)
    Abstract: The study proposes an agent-based model to investigate how adoption of climate smart agriculture (CSA) affects food security. The analysis investigates the role of social and ecological pressures (i.e. community network, climate change and environmental externalities) on the adoption of physical water and soil practices as well as crop rotation technique. The findings reveal that CSA may be an effective strategy to improve the rural populations' well-being for farm households with access to capital, strong social networks and access to integrated food markets. The climate scenario simulations indicate that farmers adopting CSA fare better than non-adopters, although CSA adoption does not fully counterbalance the severe climate pressures. In addition, farmers with poor connections to food markets benefit less from CSA due to stronger price oscillations. These results call for an active role for policy makers in encouraging adaptation through CSA adoption by increasing access to capital, improving food market integration and building social networks.
    Keywords: Climate Smart Agriculture, Food Security, Agent-Based Modelling, Externality, Sustainable Development
    JEL: C63 O13 Q1 Q15 Q55
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2021.18&r=
  2. By: beg, Sabrin
    Abstract: I test the land and labor market effects of a property rights reform that computerized rural land records in Pakistan, making digitized records and automated transactions accessible to agricultural landowners and cultivators. Using the staggered roll-out of the program, I find that while the reform does not shift land ownership, landowning households are more likely to rent out land and shift into non-agricultural occupations. At the same time, cultivating households have access to more land, as rented in land and overall farm size increase. I construct measures of farmer-level TFP and marginal product of land, and demonstrate evidence of improved allocative efficiency as land is redistributed towards more productive farmers. Aggregate district-level production data suggest a reduction in the dispersion of marginal products of land and an improvement in productivity. The results have implications for both the allocation of land across farmers and the selection of labor into farming, demonstrating that agricultural land market frictions present a constraint to scale farming and structural change in developing countries.
    Keywords: Property Rights, Rural Mobility, Agricultural Land Markets, ICT in Development, Institutions, Misallocation
    JEL: O1 O10 O12 O13
    Date: 2021–01–29
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:108115&r=
  3. By: Arita, Shawn; Grant, Jason; Sydow, Sharon; Beckman, Jayson
    Abstract: Global agricultural trade, which increased at the end of 2020, has been described as being “resilient” to the impacts of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic; however, the size and channels of its quantitative impacts are not clear. Using a reduced-form, gravity-based econometric model for monthly trade, we estimate the effects of COVID-19 incidence rates, policy restrictions imposed by governments to curb the outbreak, and the de facto reduction in human mobility/lockdown effect on global agricultural trade. We find that while agricultural trade remained quite stable through the pandemic, the sector as a whole did not go unscathed. First, we estimate that COVID-19 reduced agricultural trade by the approximate range of 5 to 10 percent at the aggregate sector level; a quantified impact two to three times smaller in magnitude than our estimated impact on trade occurring in the non-agricultural sector. Reductions in human mobility and policy restrictive responses were the most evident drivers of trade losses. Second, we find sharp differences across individual commodities. In particular, we find that non-food items (hides and skins, ethanol, cotton, and other commodities), meat products including seafood, and higher value agri-food products were most severely impacted by the pandemic; however, the COVID-19 trade effect for the majority of food and bulk agricultural commodity sectors were found to be insignificant, or in a few cases, positive. Third, examining the effect across markets, we find mixed evidence that lower-income and least-developed countries’ trade flows were more sensitive to the pandemic. Fourth, we find evidence that trade flows adjusted to these disruptions over time. Finally, the pandemic also impacted the extensive margins of trade with more severe disruptions detected in air shipments. Findings from this study provide intriguing insights into the dimensions of global agricultural supply chains most resilient and most vulnerable to major global market disruptions.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iatrwp:311216&r=
  4. By: Pogodzińska, Kinga
    Abstract: The cultivation of genetically modified plants is controversial. In the Polish society, the opponents of GMOs are strongly lobbying against it, claiming that it is harmful, unnecessary and unethical. Experts in the field of biotechnology, however, state that there is no reason for concern and that genetic modifications provide undisputable benefits. The paper presents the opinions of 128 farmers from the Świętokrzyskie and Opolskie Provinces on GMO crops and food, which were compared with the assessments of experts in the field of biotechnology. On average, the research results showed a negative attitude of the respondents and a low level of knowledge about GMOs. Convinced of its harmfulness, the farmers expressed little interest in the cultivation of genetically modified crops, although being aware of the advantages of the modification (including resistance to pathogens, lower costs, better quality features). The farmers younger in age, better educated, and running larger farms showed greater openness to GMO cultivation. Lack of adequate knowledge and even false perceptions about GMOs in the small sample indicate the need for more extensive surveying of the farming community in Poland, as well as the need for a substantive discussion of the benefits and potential risks.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311265&r=
  5. By: Pawlak, Karolina; Poczta, Walenty
    Abstract: The aim of the research presented in this paper is to assess the competitive potential of Polish agriculture (potential competitiveness) and the competitive position of the Polish agri-food sector on the Single European Market (SEM) with reference to the global context. The conducted research has proven that Polish agriculture, while having significant production potential (potential competitiveness) on a European scale, is at the same time characterized by the significant structural deficiencies of this potential, which may adversely affect he competitive position of Polish agriculture in the future. Poland’s inclusion in the SEM area and the adoption of the rules of the Common Commercial Policy resulted in the creation and diversion of trade in agri-food products, and the comparative advantages achieved on the SEM became a source of favorable export specialization, allowing for relatively good use of the currently existing potential of agriculture and the food industry. This has resulted in the relatively good competitive position of the Polish agri-food sector on the SEM. However, in the long term, the ability to maintain or improve competitiveness in the future will be determined by competitive potential. The Polish agri-food sector has significant potential to increase exports and strengthen its competitive position (also on non-EU markets), provided that strong foundations for the sector are built, including an improvement in competitive potential.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311270&r=
  6. By: Steinhübel, Linda; Wenzel, Arne; Hulamani, Prashant; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Mason, Nicole M.
    Abstract: CONTEXT Agricultural management systems of many smallholders in low and middle-income countries depend on services by pollinator populations. However, increased adoption of modern inputs and particularly the wide-spread use of agrochemicals threaten pollinators and smallholders' crop production. Understanding how farmers' use of modern inputs affects pollinator communities is, therefore, crucial for development efforts and the design and promotion of sustainable agricultural practices. OBJECTIVE We contribute to the still scarce literature on pollinator communities in low and middle-income countries by analyzing the link between the use of agrochemicals and wild bee populations in South India. Moreover, we capture temporal and spatial scaling in farm-pollinator relationships by explicitly analyzing effects of present, past, and neighboring agricultural management decisions on wild bee populations. METHODS Our empirical analysis is based on an interdisciplinary data set, combining information from pan trap experiments and a socio-economic survey of 127 agricultural plots in the rural-urban interface of Bangalore, India. We implemented a Poisson generalized linear model (GLM) to analyze factors influencing bee abundance and richness with a particular focus on the effects of farmers' management decisions. Present and past management were measured by the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation in 2018 and during the previous years respectively. By setting up spatial weight matrices, we derived a proxy for neighboring management decisions and were able to estimate potential spillover effects. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Our results suggest that agricultural intensification is associated with a decline of bee abundance and richness in our study area. Both time and space play important roles in explaining farm-bee interactions. We find statistically significant negative spillovers of pesticide use. With every addition percent of neighboring farmers using pesticides, bee abundance and richness decrease by up to 0.68 percent on the focal plot. Furthermore, smallholders' decisions to use chemical fertilizers and pesticides on their own plots significantly decrease the number of observed bees by about 20 percent. Also, every additional year of intensive past management reduces both bee abundance and richness by up to 8 percent. SIGNIFICANCE We provide new empirical evidence on farm-pollinator relationships in tropical low and middleincome countries. Based on our results, cooperative behavior among farmers and/or the regulation of agrochemical use seem to be crucial to moderate spatial spillovers of agricultural decision-making. Also, a rotation of extensive and intensive management seems to be an appropriate way to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on bee populations.
    Keywords: Bee communities,India,pesticides,spillovers,temporal and spatial scales
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:daredp:2103&r=
  7. By: Ściubeł, Anna
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to analyze the productivity of production factors of Polish and selected EU farms from 2004 to 2017, taking into account the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) payments, based on the literature. In the postaccession period, there was a marked increase in the efficiency of production factors on Polish farms. The average land, labor, and capital productivity indices from 2004 to 2017 were EUR 442.89/ha, EUR 4,774.35/AWU, and EUR 0.25/ EUR 1, respectively. In 2014, land productivity increased to EUR 1,591.3/ha and labor productivity to EUR 11,800/AWU, amounting to 68.8% and 28.6% of the EU-28 average, respectively, while capital productivity was higher (EUR 1.41/EUR 1) compared to the EU-28 average (EUR 1.29/EUR 1). The share of CAP payments in the income of the Polish farms in 2014 increased to 49.5%; however, this was still below the EU-28 average (61.1%). Regardless of the fact that the total factor productivity (TFP) remains lower in comparison to other EU countries, the increased efficiency of Polish farms in the post-accession period should be considered as significant.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311275&r=
  8. By: Pe'er, Guy; Birkenstock, Maren; Lakner, Sebastian; Röder, Norbert
    Abstract: Despite significant efforts, investments and some local successes, the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has not succeeded in halting the loss of farmland biodiversity. To address this (and other) weaknesses, the CAP post-2020 proposes a new "Green Architecture" comprising (inter alia) compulsory elements (enhanced conditionality through Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions - GAEC), voluntary Agri-Environment-Climate Measures (AECMs), and a new instrument called "Eco-schemes". Will this new Green Architecture, combined with a result-based orientation of the CAP, help address the biodiversity crisis? To provide science-based feedback on this proposal, more than 300 scientists from 22 Member States (MSs) have provided their expertise through 13 workshops that took place between October and December 2020, and a follow up online survey. The results are published in Thünen Working Reports with 3 volumes. The Thünen Working Paper 175 - Volume 1 contains all results of the workshops with experts' assessment. The present Thünen Working Paper 175 - Volume 2 contains all reports of the Member-State-Workshops as well as an overview of the experts' opinions on the Flagship-Eco-schemes proposed by the EU Commission. In addition, a policy brief on the results was published in Thünen Working Paper 175 - Volume 3.
    Keywords: CAP,Common Agricultural Policy,AECM,Eco-schemes,European Union,Biodiversity
    JEL: Q15 Q18 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:jhtiwp:1752&r=
  9. By: Pauline Lécole (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In this article, we highlight the structure of employment in the small French farms sector and we identify the characteristics of those that are conducive to the use of wage labour. For this purpose, we code labour regimes according to different types of workforce and propose a classification of small farms from the 2010 French agricultural census. It is shown that small farms with permanent waged workforce are mostly involved in high valueadded creation activities and are managed by trained farmers. However, we observe two main models: on the one hand, small farms with low recourse to family workforce (including that of the farmer). The proximity of job market and consumer market constitute an opportunity for these farms and the income earned off the farm have a positive impact on wage labour on the farm. On the other hand, small farms with significant recourse to family workforce complete their working time with permanent waged labour. It can reflect farmers' preferences for agricultural activity (chosen following a career change).
    Keywords: small farm,farm work,waged workforce,agricultural census
    Date: 2020–11–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpceem:hal-03027189&r=
  10. By: Pe'er, Guy; Birkenstock, Maren; Lakner, Sebastian; Röder, Norbert
    Abstract: Despite significant efforts, investments and some local successes, the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has not succeeded in halting the loss of farmland biodiversity. To address these weaknesses, the CAP post-2020 proposes a new "Green Architecture" comprising, inter alia, compulsory elements (enhanced conditionality through Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions - GAEC), voluntary Agri-Environment-Climate Measures (AECM), and a new instrument called "Eco-schemes". Will this new Green Architecture, combined with a result-based orientation of the CAP, help address the biodiversity crisis? To provide science-based feedback on this proposal, more than 300 scientists from 22 MSs have provided their expertise through 13 workshops that took place between October-December 2020, and a follow up online survey. The results are published in Thünen Working Paper 1751 comprising three volumes: Volume 1 is a synthesis of the results from all workshops and expert inputs as submitted through the online survey. 2 Volume 2 contains the full reports from all MS Workshops as well as all expert inputs regarding their opinions on the Flagship-Eco-schemes proposed by the European Commission. 3 Thünen Working Paper 175 - Volume 3 (this document) offers a policy brief summarizing the results. Although the Working Paper focuses on the proposed CAP's performance for biodiversity as a core topic, benefits for climate change mitigation and other environmental aspects were highlighted by workshop participants; and economic considerations were highlighted where relevant. [...]
    Keywords: CAP,Common Agricultural Policy,AECM,Eco-schemes,Green Architecture,European Union,Biodiversity
    JEL: Q15 Q18 Q57 Q5
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:jhtiwp:1753&r=
  11. By: Szajner, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Iwona
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to contribute to the discussion and research devoted to the evolution of the agri-food sector in the period of systemic transformation, Poland’s membership in the European Union, and globalization of the world economy. The evolution of the Polish agri-food sector, which started in the first years of systemic transformation, intensified in the period of preparations for accession to the European Union (EU), and then stimulated by the processes of deepening economic and trade integration with the EU Member States and the global market, proves that this sector has undergone profound transformations. After joining the EU, the Polish food economy was co-financed with EU funds, which allowed for the acceleration of structural and modernization changes in the sector. Foreign direct investments also played a significant role in the process of strengthening the position of the Polish agri-food sector. However, the key factor in the sector’s development was the dynamic growth of agri-food exports, accompanied by the growing demand for food in the internal market. Due to changes in macroeconomic and market conditions, entities of the domestic agri-food sector will have to face new challenges in the future.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311269&r=
  12. By: Pe'er, Guy; Birkenstock, Maren; Lakner, Sebastian; Röder, Norbert
    Abstract: Despite significant efforts, substantial investments and some local successes, the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has not succeeded in halting the loss of farmland biodiversity. To address these weaknesses, the CAP post-2020 proposes a new "Green Architecture" comprising, inter alia, compulsory elements (enhanced conditionality through Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions - GAEC), voluntary Agri-Environment-Climate Measures (AECMs), and a new instrument called "Eco-schemes". Will this new Green Architecture, combined with a result-based orientation of the CAP, help address the biodiversity crisis? To provide science-based feedback on this proposal, more than 300 scientists from 22 Member States (MSs) have provided their expertise through 13 workshops that took place between October-December 2020, as well as a follow up online survey. The results are published as Thünen Working Paper 1751 comprising three volumes: Thünen Working Paper Vol. 1 (this document) contains a comprehensive synthesis of the results of the workshops alongside experts' assessments of the flagship Eco-schemes proposed by the European Commission. Thünen Working Paper Vol. 2 contains the full reports of the Member State Workshops (Annex I) and the inputs submitted by the experts' regarding their opinions on the Flagship-Eco-schemes proposed by the EU Commission (Annex II)2. A policy brief is published as Thünen Working Paper Vol. 33. Although the Working Paper focuses on the proposed CAP's performance for biodiversity as a core topic, benefits for climate change mitigation and other environmental aspects were highlighted by workshop participants; and economic considerations were highlighted where relevant. [ ...]
    Keywords: CAP,Common Agricultural Policy,AECM,Eco-schemes,European Union,Biodiversity
    JEL: Q15 Q18 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:jhtiwp:1751&r=
  13. By: Wieliczko, Barbara
    Abstract: The development of agricultural policy is becoming a more and more difficult task. The number of factors which should be taken into account continues to grow, while at the same time there is an increased diversification of agricultural needs as well as higher consumer and taxpayer expectations. In this situation, the approach to agricultural policy-making used so far does not function properly. The final shape of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in the new multi- annual financing frameworks of the European Union has not been fully established yet. The work has been prolonged for many reasons. The current European Commission pays much attention to environmental and climate challenges, proposing the implementation of the European Green Deal strategy. One of the key elements of this development concept is the “Farm to Fork” strategy, which indicates the directions of transformation of food systems in the EU. A question arises whether the proposed shape of the EU strategy for agriculture is optimal in terms of challenges faced by this sector. Complexity economics may be an answer to this question, as it offers an approach to policy-making based on the recognition of the complexity of socio-economic systems and their specific dynamics requiring a specific shape of actions taken by the state. The aim of the article is to present the complexity economics as an appropriate approach to agricultural policy-making in the context of many challenges faced by this sector and to indicate to what extent the current agricultural policy takes the indications of the complexity economics into account.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311259&r=
  14. By: Zolotnytska, Yuliia; Opalov, Oleksandr
    Abstract: The article reveals the problems of organic farming in Ukraine. The study showed that small producers, such as family farms, have the ability to produce organic products in accordance with the appropriate requirements. A SWOT analysis of the process of organic farming by a private peasant household was conducted as well as the main opportunities and threats, strengths and weaknesses of its functioning and development were identified. The strategy of development of the Ukrainian organic agriculture of family farms has been chosen. It will give the chance to pursue it further by means of strategic directions, such as: tax incentives for producers of organic products, implementation of the state program for sustainable development of rural areas, “green” tourism and rural cooperation, elimination of political levers of influence on the implementation of state agricultural policy, as well as implementation of the state program to support the development of advisory services in the field of organic production.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311267&r=
  15. By: Aliaga Lordemann, Javier; Mora-García, Claudio; Mulder, Nanno
    Abstract: Green coffee growers, most of whom are smallholders, have suffered from the significant volatility and fall in the international price of this commodity over the past decade. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors that drive price volatility, which has been studied extensively for other commodities but not for coffee. This study looks into the determinants of the conditional volatility of green coffee prices in three different markets: spot, futures and physical.
    Keywords: CAFE, PRECIOS, MERCADOS, COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL, ESPECULACION, ESTABILIZACION DE PRECIOS, COFFEE, PRICES, MARKETS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SPECULATION, PRICE STABILIZATION
    Date: 2021–05–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecr:col022:46923&r=
  16. By: Islam, Mahnaz; Beg, Sabrin
    Abstract: Heavy government subsidies have led to inefficient application and overuse of fertilizer in Bangladesh. This results in higher than optimal costs to farmers and environmental and public costs. In a randomized controlled trial, we provide farmers with a simple tool (leaf color chart) and basic `rule-of-thumb' instructions to guide the timing and quantity of urea (nitrogen) application. Treatment farmers reduce urea use by 8\% without compromising yield, suggesting significant scope for improving urea management. The results are mainly driven by farmers delaying urea application as returns to urea are low early on in the season and urea applied is likely to be wasted. Cost-effectiveness estimates suggest that each dollar spent on this intervention produces a return of \$2.8 dollars due to reduction of urea use over three seasons, as well as significant environmental benefits. We also find suggestive evidence that optimizing the timing of urea application affects farmers' yields, plausibly as the intervention allows farmers to reallocate urea application to times when returns to urea are highest.
    Keywords: Technology Adoption, Farm Management, Environmental Economics, Resource Management
    JEL: H50 O12 O13
    Date: 2020–01–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:108117&r=
  17. By: Dauren Oshakbaev; Zhanna Akisheva; Alexandre Martoussevitch (OECD)
    Abstract: Water security is a matter of great national importance for Kazakhstan, with its Security Council meeting on 26 June 2019 devoted to “Ensuring Water Security”. This paper presents recent progress in Kazakhstan with regard to identifying water security priorities and establishing indicators to monitor and measure progress towards achieving water security. The paper also analyses those water security indicators that simultaneously relate to the “nationalised” Green Growth Indicators (GGIs) and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators that are relevant to water security, and also identifies opportunities for complimentary indicators to be developed to track the full suite of water security targets. The paper identifies remaining challenges for future work in this domain, including improving data collection and reporting; and integrating water security indicators into relevant policy documents, strategies and plans to secure the technical and political attention necessary to drive progress in this domain.
    Keywords: Kazakhstan, SDG indicators, water security, water security indicators, water-related green growth
    JEL: Q25 Q15 Q28 Q56 D78
    Date: 2021–06–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:envaaa:177-en&r=
  18. By: Peter B. Dixon; Maureen T. Rimmer
    Abstract: Most dynamic CGE models work with periods of one year. This limits their applicability for analyzing the effects of shocks that operate over a short period or with different intensities through a year. It is relatively easy to convert an annual CGE model to shorter periodicity, for example a quarter, if we ignore seasonal differences in the pattern of economic activity. But this is not acceptable for agriculture. This paper introduces seasonal factors to the agricultural specification in a detailed quarterly CGE model of the U.S. The model is then applied to analyze the effects of the COVID pandemic on U.S. farm industries. Taking account of the general features of the pandemic such as the reduction in household spending, we find that these effects are mild relative to the effects on most other industries. However, agriculture is subject to potential supply-chain disruptions. We apply our quarterly model to analyze two such possibilities: loss of labour at harvest time in Fruit & nut farms; and temporary closure of meat-processing plants. We find that these disruptions are unlikely to cause noticeable reductions in the supply of food products to U.S. households.
    Keywords: Quarterly CGE modelling seasonal factors in agriculture COVID pandemic supply-chain disruption U S agriculture
    JEL: C68 Q11 I19
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cop:wpaper:g-315&r=
  19. By: Le Cotty, Tristan; Maître d'Hôtel, Elodie; Ndiaye, Moctar; Thoyer, Sophie
    Abstract: We investigate whether the fluctuations of agricultural output prices may explain the low level of input use in Sub-Saharan Africa. We combine data on local maize prices and data on farmers' fertilizer use over the 2009-2011 period in Burkina-Faso to estimate a panel-tobit model of fertilizer use. We separate the predictable and unpredictable components of maize price fluctuations and find that fertilizer use decreases when maize price fluctuations increase, and more specifically when unpredictable price fluctuations increase.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–06–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:inramo:311226&r=
  20. By: Woźniak, Marian
    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to find out the opinions of rural youth regarding their awareness of climate change and the impact of this change on agriculture, and based on it, to determine whether these young people have adequate knowledge about global climate change. This goal results from the fact that the world is more and more severely affected by the effects of climate change associated with a more frequent occurrence of extreme weather phenomena, air temperature increase, periodic drought and heat waves, violent hurricanes or melting glaciers. These changes, which are already beginning to take a stage of crisis, are mainly associated with the emission of greenhouse gases, and above all carbon dioxide, for which humanity is primarily responsible. It is therefore necessary to increase the awareness of rural residents, starting with children and young people, who in the near future will steer the development of regions and the world, about how great a threat are progressive climate changes to them, agriculture, and consequently to food security and human health. Young people currently need appropriate support from scientists and teachers who will help them understand and realize how important and necessary it is to undertake adaptation measures related to eliminating threats resulting from climate change, growing plant species more resistant to climatic conditions, protecting biodiversity, and water resources, forests and soil. The article presents the causes and consequences of climate change in the light of research and public opinion, the impact of climate change on agriculture and the opinions of the surveyed rural youth from the Podkarpackie Province on contemporary climate change.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311264&r=
  21. By: Bezat-Jarzębowska, Agnieszka
    Abstract: The research presented in the paper allowed the author not only to fully recognize the correctness of production processes, but also determine the relations between production factors and production volumes (productivity and factor relations). Based on the adopted analytical assumptions and general conditions of farming processes in agriculture, the paper analyzes relations between production factors, i.e., the essence of production techniques. The research on relations between production factors is very complex, thus the paper focuses only on some areas of the issue, such as: labor productivity and its dependency on technical equipment of labor or agrarian structure (approximate land-labor ratio) and the dependency of capital-labor and land-labor ratios on production factors. The analysis is based on the principle of generality and the methodological approach for deduction is used in the paper. The empirical part of the paper uses the dataset for selected EU countries. It was concluded that the ( ) ratio, relatively to ( ) ratio, has a greater impact on the level of labor productivity. These conclusions may be significant for agricultural policy, since improving the agrarian structure does not seem to be a priority, whereas the technical equipment of labor seems to be more important. Thus, it is crucial to increase the involvement of the capital factor.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311276&r=
  22. By: Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.; DeLong, Karen L.
    Abstract: Production, management and marketing practices vary from one cow-calf producer to the next. However, many cow-calf producers face similar decisions that occur on a frequent basis. One such decision is when to sell and replace a beef cow. The objective of this work is to determine the most profitable age of replacement females to purchase and later sell considering pregnancy status and gestation (months bred). The intent of this publication is to provide information that will assist cow-calf producers in making investment decisions for their cow herd and positively contribute to long-term profitability. We hope this publication demonstrates the impact selecting replacement females and reproductive management can have on profits.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Marketing, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2021–05–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:311158&r=
  23. By: Rembisz, Włodzimierz
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that for a given procurement price there is a certain equality accepting mutual benefits for both farm producers and agri-food processors. This allows transactions to be made at the procurement price level which is allowable and mutually acceptable due to the benefits. The benefits do not have to be equal, hence the concept of acceptable inequalities. The paper shows the basis for expecting the procurement price level, and therefore the benefits from the producer’s and processor’s point of view. They result from their maximised goal functions. Both parties are price-takers for the procurement price established on the purchase market, with a reference to price determination at the administrative level. The hypothesis about the acceptable inequality is proven in logical and formal analysis with the use of algebra notations and rules. By and large, this has not been addressed in the literature.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311261&r=
  24. By: Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Prandecki, Konrad
    Abstract: Growing environmental and climate problems are forcing the search for effective solutions to economic activity, including agriculture. The popularization of relevant production practices and techniques is of great importance in this regard. The direction of European agriculture is of particular importance for solving environmental and climate problems. For years, strategies or sustainable development programs have been implemented, which, despite initiating the desired direction of changes, are still insufficient in terms of perceived needs. In December 2019, the European Commission issued a communication on the European Green Deal strategy, which was intended to launch further international action to achieve ambitious climate and environmental targets. The aim of the paper is to present the main issues related to the implementation of the European Green Deal strategy, including agriculture, and to outline the challenges facing it. The study used a review of literature and legal acts. The results of the study indicated the appropriateness of seeking further economic solutions consistent with the European Green Deal strategy. The goals included in the European Green Deal are very ambitious and will require a complex, multi-threaded approach to agricultural policy and a change in the attitude of farmers, i.e., greater consideration of non-production aspects of their activity, in particular in the field of environmental protection. At the same time, the European Green Deal should be assessed in a much broader sense than in terms of environmental requirements. The holistic nature of this document makes it a step towards building a new economy that takes into account the noneconomic consequences of the actions taken.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311273&r=
  25. By: Raphael Soubeyran (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how pro-social motivations shape the relationship between incentives and inequality. I consider a principal who offers individual rewards to a group of agents to induce them to exert effort and to coordinate at least-cost. The agents value the payoffs of the other agents, and they are averse to inequality. My analysis highlights that pro-social motivations have an a priori ambiguous effect on inequality in the reward distribution. Despite this initial ambiguity, I show that the rewards are more unequal and lower when the agents have pro-social preferences. The model delivers empirical implications for intervention programs supporting the adoption of new health or agricultural technologies.
    Keywords: incentives,externality,principal,agents,coordination,pro-social preferences
    Date: 2021–04–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpceem:hal-03212888&r=
  26. By: Pauline Lécole (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Raphaële Préget (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sophie Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The small farm sector has long been neglected by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Since CAP support is mainly allocated through the first pillar budget on a per-hectare basis, small farms receive little or no direct income support. This situation is compounded by cumbersone administrative procedures which discourage small farmers from claiming the financial support they are entitled to, and by eligibility criteria which exclude part of the small farm sector from the CAP system. The 2014 CAP introduced the Small Farmers Scheme (SFS) offering small farms the option of an unconditional annual lump-sum payment per farm replacing the standard direct payments of the first pillar. This paper assesses the acceptability in France of a more sophisticated version of the 2014 SFS for the post-2020 CAP. We propose that this extended SFS include easily controllable conditions on environmental efforts and on salaried employment. The results of a discrete choice experiment conducted in France show that the principle of such extended SFS would be attractive to small farmers, especially market gardeners, and that the vast majority of respondents have a preference for an extended SFS incorporating an environmental condition.
    Date: 2020–11–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpceem:hal-03027230&r=
  27. By: Woźniak, Leszek; Woźniak, Grzegorz
    Abstract: Implementing the concept of sustainable development of the food economy requires profound and rapid changes in this area of economic activity. Following the current path may intensify the already existing problem of the declining biological and health quality of food. The aim of the paper is to define the essence and specificity of eco-innovations as a factor of sustainable development of agriculture and food processing. Bibliometric analysis based on a review of literature and an analysis of its content showed a systematic increase in the interest of scientists in the theory and practice of eco-innovations. They will be of particular importance in the evolution of food production and processing towards methods guaranteeing the highest biological and health quality of food products. The following conclusions can be drawn: the European food economy needs a paradigm shift, i.e. it is necessary to restore and use agricultural and processing methods which will allow the return to a high content of nutrients in food. This need stems both from the very low biological and health quality of many products and also from a need to protect the agricultural environment in an effective manner. A basic instrument fostering positive evolution is the use of eco-innovations, including solutions known as traditiovations; the objectives of the European Green Deal will strongly favor the support of eco-innovations in food production and processing.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311277&r=
  28. By: Sviataslau Valasiuk (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Forest-Landscape-Society Network); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Marek Giergiczny (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Tomasz Żylicz (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Knut Veisten (Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalleen); Iratxe Landa Mata (Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalleen); Askill Harkjerr Halse (Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalleen); Per Angelstam (Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: Former studies have shown that transboundary nature protected areas are not perceived as pure international public goods by citizens in neighbouring countries that share national parks. In this study, we assess what drives the valuation of nature protection on the other side of the border in two European transboundary nature areas, the Białowieża Forest and Fulufjället. Applying hybrid choice modelling, we account for people’s attitudes when eliciting their preferences towards transboundary nature protected areas, and examine the impact of attitudes on the degree to which those preferences are consistent with the international public good hypothesis. We found that the intention of visiting the foreign part of the transboundary area, appreciation of transboundary justice and altruism, were the main drivers, whereas suspicious attitude towards the neighbouring country, propensity to free-ride, and manifestations of ‘patriotism’ applied as international public good mitigators to a limited degree only. Value of an extending the protection regime abroad was still positive for Scandinavians, whilst for Polish and Belarusian respondents a policy aiming at extending the protection abroad would lead to loss of human welfare. Facilitating visits of the foreign part by enhancing cross-border access can be expected to shift peoples’ preferences towards transboundary co-operation.
    Keywords: International public goods, national parks, forest, transboundary nature protected areas, public preferences, willingness to pay, discrete choice experiment, hybrid modeling
    JEL: Q51 Q57 H41
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:war:wpaper:2021-09&r=
  29. By: Edakunny, Preeti
    Abstract: India accounts for 17 per cent of world palm oil consumption. Palm oil was initially considered a potential nutrition and environment solution that would replace fossil fuel and trans-fats in the nutrition chain. That promise of replacing fossil fuels and trans-fats is far from met; palm tree monoculture has led to devastation of rainforests in Indonesia and Malaysia, which together account for 85 of global palm oil production. Symmetrical rows of palm trees have replaced once-dense irreplaceable habitats of trees and plants. The initial deforestation was induced by European innovation and consumption. India and China have now outstripped European buyers as the main buyers of palm oil. The global cropscape of the palm is reviewed in this paper in the Indian context. Policy appears to encourage palm oil imports in the face of India’s dire agricultural landscape, with negative returns for farmers, a growing nutritionally bereft food chain and exponential deforestation of tropical forests in Indonesia and Malaysia. The paper explores the inherently economically and the socially destructive substitution of ethnically produced and consumed seed oils such as mustard, sesame and coconut. Small farm holdings comprise nearly 85 per cent of India’s total cultivated area. This paper studies the global supply chain of the palm seed oil that potentially has multi-pronged externalities of destruction of farm income in the importing nation, disruption of nutrition needs and augmenting global emissions through deforestation .
    Date: 2019–12–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:k5gsn&r=
  30. By: Adamowicz, Mieczysław
    Abstract: The subject and aim of the paper is to present general trends of agricultural development, global conditions, and new concepts and forms of sustainable development. As part of the concept of sustainable development, which has been widely recognized as a development paradigm, in recent years we have seen the emergence of more than a dozen new proposals which modify or complement mainstream sustainable development. These concepts also apply to agriculture and rural areas. Based on an analysis of the literature, this paper presents selected concepts: the green economy, smart specializations, smart villages, the circular economy, responsible consumption and production, and the participatory economy. The role of international integration and EU authorities in disseminating these concepts as forms of innovation in the economic systems of the Member States of the European Union has been identified.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311274&r=
  31. By: Meghana Agarwala (Ashoka University); Shampa Bhattacharjee (Shiv Nadar University); Aparajita Dasgupta (Ashoka University)
    Abstract: Crop residue burning is a major concern for many countries since it leads to a deterioration of air quality, which has a number of health implications. This paper examines the unintended consequences of a policy aimed at improving the groundwater level on crop residue burning in India. The Preservation of Subsoil Water Act, 2009 was implemented in the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana in March 2009, and it bans the transplantation of paddy before mid-June to preserve groundwater. Theoretically, this leaves a short window of time for clearing the crop residue before the next crop and thus increases the likelihood of farmers adopting time saving methods like crop residue burning. Exploiting the spatial and temporal variation of the Preservation of Subsoil Water Act, we compare the bordering areas of Punjab and Haryana with that of the neighbouring states and find that the ban results in both delay and an increase in crop residue burning in the winter months. The findings have important implications for environmental policy design.
    Keywords: Crop Residue Burning, Groundwater, Water Policy, Waste Management, Air Pollution, India
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ash:wpaper:61&r=
  32. By: Huw Lloyd-Ellis (Queen's University); Ardyn Nordstrom
    Abstract: We survey the latest research on the linkages between international trade, regional integration, poverty and food security in developing economies and draw out its implications for East Africa and future research. While there is now an extensive literature on the impacts of trade reform on poverty outcomes, research on the actual and potential effects of trade and regional integration on food security is much more limited. This reflects inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of food security, substantial data limitations, and the complexity of food systems themselves. Nevertheless, we argue that there is an urgent need and considerable scope for further research on these linkages.
    Keywords: International trade, Food security, East Africa, Regional integration
    JEL: F13 Q17 Q18 I3 D63
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:qed:wpaper:1460&r=
  33. By: Zieliński, Marek; Łopatka, Artur; Koza, Piotr
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to characterize municipalities with a high share of LFAs (specific type zone I) as well as to assess the functioning of farms located in such municipalities against the background of analogous farms in non-LFA municipalities which kept accounts for the Polish FADN continuously in 2016-2018. The first part of the study describes the method of determining and characterizing areas with natural constraints (LFA) of specific type located in zone I in Poland designated by the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – NRI (IUNG-PIB) on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MRiRW) and the European Commission (EC). These areas were determined on the basis of the threshold values of the Nature and Tourism Index (WCPT) and the Index for the Valorisation of Agricultural Production Area (WWRPP). They have functioned in our country since 2019 and include 1233,7 thousand ha UAA. The second part of the study presents the functioning of farms located in municipalities with a high share of LFAs (specific type zone I) (at least 80% UAA LFA specific type zone 1 in total UAA) against the background of analogous farms in non-LFA municipalities that kept accounts for the Polish FADN continuously in 2016-2018. It was found that farms located in LFAs are characterized by lower capital value, older farm owners, and poorer quality of used soils. In addition, they incur lower costs per 1 ha of UAA, have worse production effects and lower factor productivity. Moreover, they have lower income per 1 ha of UAA, and thus smaller development opportunities.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311260&r=
  34. By: Kristina Govorukha; Philip Mayer; Dirk Rübbelke
    Abstract: In order to achieve the commonly agreed emission reduction target, the European Commission developed binding national targets for each member state until 2030 and called upon the member states to submit National Energy and Climate Plans to ensure increased transparency for the respective national targets and strategies. An analysis of these plans shows that some of the emission reductions set at the national level prescribe a more ambitious decarbonisation than the EU-wide limits. However, since a transformation to a climate-friendly system requires considerable investment, the question arises as to why some states apparently want to be in the vanguard. We find that countries may have an incentive to outperform other states in the development of a low-carbon electricity system in order to pass on part of the transformation costs to neighbouring countries.
    Keywords: electricity, utilities, thermal generation, unilateral action, climate policy
    JEL: C60 Q40
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9093&r=
  35. By: Adamowicz, Mieczysław
    Abstract: The subject of the paper is the concept of bioeconomy as a new, combined method to perceive the functioning of various sectors of the national economy producing and processing biological resources. Based on discussions in the literature and documents of the European institutions, bioeconomy has been presented as a theoretical concept and its essence and ways of defining the scope and size of bioeconomy, and the opportunities and risks associated with bioeconomy. The directions and areas of action as well as current strategies to support the development of sustainable bioeconomy and its relation to the circular economy model have been shown. Results from analyses show that bioeconomy is a promising concept for the development of agriculture, agribusiness, forestry, and other sectors producing and using bio-based raw materials. For making use of the real opportunities of bioeconomy, it is essential to have national and regional bioeconomy development strategies in place and to develop an efficient design and management system at the level of enterprises, sectors, and regional systems.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311272&r=
  36. By: Li, Haoran; Wan, Xibo; Zhang, Wendong
    Abstract: Political and economic tensions, which often jeopardize trade, are rising among the world’s major powers, and countries like China are more frequently using food-related trade actions to deal with deteriorating political relations. Previous literature largely focuses on how brief, short-lived political tensions affect bilateral trade; however, little is known about firm-level trade responses to long-termpolitical tensions. This paper investigates how importers respond to long-term political tensions by examining the six-year Norway-China political tensions that ended in 2016. In particular, we use an event study approach to examine China’s seafood importers’ responses to China’s 2010 sanction on Norwegian fresh salmon imports after Norway awarded Liu Xiaobo, a Chinese political dissident, a Nobel Peace Prize. Our results reveal firm-level responses at both the extensive and intensive margins. At the intensive margin, firms that imported Norwegian fresh salmon before the sanction saw a 20% persistent decline in their fresh salmon import value and an 80% decrease in import share of Norwegian fresh salmon products over our study period. At the extensive margin, we not only find a trade diversion effect on firms importing from other countries and less firms importing fresh salmon from Norway, but also a permanent "political hedging" effect with a 20% decline in the maximum import share from any particular country, even if not Norway. We also provide evidence of persistent sanction effects even after China-Norway relations unfroze. Our findings emphasize the need to consider the long-term sanction consequences in foreign policy using food-related trade sanctions.
    Date: 2021–06–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genstf:202106020700001118&r=
  37. By: Kulawik, Jacek; Płonka, Renata; Wieliczko, Barbara
    Abstract: The income of farmers and their families is the base for consumption, savings, and investment. However, apart from its level and adequate ratios to the income of the agricultural population, its stability is also important. This very thesis is the main axis of the analysis of the income situation of Polish farmers participating in the FADN from 2004 to2018. Its documentation is also one of the main aims of this paper. To do this from the right theoretical perspective, theinitial part of the paper presents the schemes of this income calculation and its determinants, as well as issues related to measuring income risk and the factors which affect it. Both static and dynamic approaches were used in this part of the paper. The other, thoroughly empirical and retrospective part of the paper focuses on the relationships between income and budget support, economic size, production type, and spatial location of agricultural farms. The importance of non-agricultural income was also shown, although relevant information in the FADN is not very extensive. The identification of the risk-income strategy should also be treated as a preliminary approach to the analyzed issue.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iafepa:311271&r=
  38. By: Böhm, Jens; Peterson, Sonja
    Abstract: Different reports including the broadly cited OECD fossil fuel subsidy inventory arrive at high monetary values of fossil fuel subsidies and suggest that phasing out these subsidies has a high potential to increase the efficiency of climate policies. We show that the inventory approach gives misleading information about this potential since there is little correlation with net carbon prices that actually reflect the stringency of climate policies. We use data on net fossil fuel taxation from the OECD's Taxing Energy Use report and augment it with data on subsidies and emission permits, to calculate national and sectoral net carbon prices for the top six emitters (China, US, India, Russia, Japan and Germany) and for Poland and Sweden, two European countries perceived as examples of opposing environmental policies. Our results show that in high-income countries, subsidies mainly relate to reduced fuel tax rates for certain uses, so that e.g. Sweden, for which the OECD inventory reports subsidies per ton of CO2 26 times higher than the US, has a 770% higher national net carbon price than the US. While Germany and Russia have similar subsidy levels in the OECD inventory, the national net carbon price in Germany is 50 €/tCO2, while producer subsidies lead to a negative net carbon price of -6€/tCO2 in Russia. Our results illustrate that raising taxes on fossil fuels will often lead to higher reported inventory subsidies. Inventory measures thus give little information about the efficiency of climate policy. Our analysis also shows the large differences in net carbon prices across countries and across sectors within countries. Net carbon prices should replace fossil fuel subsidies in the policy debates and become the basis for national energy tax reforms and international agreements on minimum carbon prices.
    Keywords: fossil fuel subsidies,carbon pricing,energy taxation,climate policy
    JEL: H2 Q48 Q54
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ifwkwp:2186&r=
  39. By: Matthews, Nicholas; Stamford, Laurence; Shapira, Philip (The University of Manchester)
    Abstract: Businesses are increasingly focussing their efforts on developing sustainable technological innovations. In doing so, they face obstacles in the systemic nature of innovation processes, the uncertain and ambiguous nature of sustainability, and in reconciling their business model and strategy with social and environmental value creation. This is particularly the case for those trying to emulate the so-called ‘Silicon Valley model’, which prioritises speed to deliver on its ambitious socially significant mission, relies on high-risk venture capital financing, and encourages flexibility and curiosity on the part of employees. This article uses data gathered during an action research case study to explore whether this much vaunted model could be better aligned with sustainable development. While, in this case, we find systemic and cognitive challenges to be currently precluding concerted action on sustainability, we also identify opportunities for greater alignment. Changes in the market and financial environment promise to provide new incentives for sustainability while the use of public deliberations such as citizen assemblies could help to reduce ambiguity. Complementary application of approaches like Constructive Sustainability Assessment within companies would allow business models to be more proactively and demonstrably aligned with employee values and ambitious sustainability missions.
    Date: 2021–05–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:sh9an&r=
  40. By: Kato, Yumi Isaka; Hubbard, Carmen; Garrod, Guy
    Abstract: This paper explores how social networks and government institutions work in rural land markets, with a special focus on the role of brokers. For this purpose, insights from New Economic Sociology (NES) and New Institutional Economics (NIE) are combined to build a theoretical framework, and a Social Network Analysis is applied to individual case studies. Specifically, two parishes in Scotland, where dynamic land pattern changes can be observed, were investigated. After the land market network for each parish was identified, the connections between actors were traced followed by in-depth interviews. The paper particularly examines the role of brokers in relation to the information flow and discusses their impacts on transaction costs in rural land markets. Preliminary results highlight the dominant channels in the market, i.e. informal networks with private agents involved, which support the NES position, as well as the work of a government matching scheme which reflects the NIE position. In both cases, the findings show that brokers can contribute to reducing the search and negotiation costs of land transactions through building trustworthy relationships with stakeholders.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc21:311215&r=
  41. By: Le Cotty, T.; Maître d'Hôtel, E.; Ndiaye, M.; Thoyer, S.
    Abstract: We investigate whether the fluctuations of agricultural output prices may explain the low level of input use in Sub-Saharan Africa. We combine data on local maize prices and data on farmers’ fertilizer use over the 2009-2011 period in Burkina-Faso to estimate a panel-tobit model of fertilizer use. We separate the predictable and unpredictable components of maize price fluctuations and find that fertilizer use decreases when maize price fluctuations increase, and more specifically when unpredictable price fluctuations increase. ....French Abstract: Nous analysons si les fluctuations des prix des produits agricoles peuvent expliquer le faible niveau d’utilisation des intrants en Afrique Sub Saharienne. Nous combinons des données sur les prix locaux du maïs et des données sur l’utilisation des engrais chimiques sur la période 2009-2011 au Burkina-Faso pour estimer un modèle tobit en panel d’utilisation d’intrants. Nous distinguons les composants prévisibles et imprévisibles des fluctuations des prix du mais et établissons que l’utilisation d’intrants diminue quand les fluctuations des prix du maïs augmentent, et que cet effet est lié à la composante imprévisible des fluctuations des prix.
    Keywords: FERTILIZER USE; PRICE RISK; MAIZE; INTENSIFICATION; SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA; UTILISATION D'INTRANTS; RISQUES DE PRIX; MAIS; INTENSIFICATION; AFRIQUE SUB SAHARIENNE
    JEL: Q12 Q13
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:umr:wpaper:202102&r=

This nep-agr issue is ©2021 by Angelo Zago. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at http://nep.repec.org. For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <director@nep.repec.org>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.