nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒05‒17
24 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Is climate variability subversive for agricultural total factor productivity growth? Long-run evidence from sub-Saharan Africa By Bannor, Frank; Dikgang, Johane; Gelo, Dambala
  2. Institutional analysis defining the crucial factors for scaling low-emissions rice production: Evidence from Bangladesh By Vu, H. Trang; Nelson, Katherine; Samsuzzaman, Syed; Rahman, Saidur; Rashid, Mamunur; Salahuddin, Ahmad; Sander, Bjoern Ole
  3. La compétitivité du secteur agroalimentaire français face à la concurrence européenne et mondiale By Vincent Chatellier
  4. Adaptation to Climate Change among Farmers in Bulacan, Philippines By Peñalba, Ericson H.
  5. Climate risk coping strategies of maize low-income farmers: A South African Perspective By Mathithibane, Mpho Steve
  6. Landlords and sharecroppers in wine producing regions: Beaujolais, Catalonia and Tuscany, 1800-1940 By Simpson, James; Carmona, Juan
  7. Productions agricoles territoriales et marchés mondiaux By Vincent Chatellier
  8. Modeling and predicting agricultural land use in England based on spatially high-resolution data By W. Saart, Patrick; Kim, Namhyun; Bateman, Ian
  9. Climate change and household welfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: empirical evidence from Swaziland By Sam, Abdoul G.; Abidoye, Babatunde; Mashaba, Sihle
  10. Understanding spatial heterogeneity in GB agricultural land-use for improved policy targeting By W. Saart, Patrick; Kim, Namhyun; Bateman, Ian
  11. La place de l’UE et de la France dans l’internationalisation des marchés agricoles By Vincent Chatellier
  12. Private Input Suppliers as Information Agents for Technology Adoption in Agriculture By Dar, Manzoor; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; Wiseman, Eleanor
  13. La compétitivité des filières animales françaises face à la concurrence européenne et mondiale By Vincent Chatellier
  14. Wage-Setting Policies, Employment, and Food Insecurity: A Multilevel Analysis of 492 078 People in 139 Countries By Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Tarasuk, Valerie
  15. Heat and Hate: Climate Security and Farmer-Herder Conflicts in Africa By Eberle, Ulrich J.; Rohner, Dominic; Thoenig, Mathias
  16. Switching Beers? The Effects of Switching Costs on Prices and Profits in Competitive Markets By Xiaoyang He; Ralph Siebert
  17. Do Agrivoltaics Improve Public Support for Solar Photovoltaic Development? Survey Says: Yes! By Pascaris1, Alexis S.; Schelly, Chelsea; Rouleau, Mark; Pearce, Joshua M.
  18. Time is of the Essence: Climate Adaptation Induced by Existing Institutions By Antonio Bento; Noah S. Miller; Mehreen Mookerjee; Edson R. Severnini
  19. Climate change and insurance By Collier, Stephen J.; Elliott, Rebecca; Lehtonen, Turo-kimmo
  20. The Green Deal and the CAP: policy implications to adapt farming practices and to preserve the EU's natural resources By Hervé Guyomard; Jean-Christophe Bureau; Vincent Chatellier; Cécile Détang-Dessendre; Pierre Dupraz; Florence Jacquet; Xavier Reboud; Vincent Réquillart; Louis-Georges Soler; Margot Tysebaert
  21. Risk-Taking Adaptation to Macroeconomic Experiences: Theory and Evidence from Developing Countries By Remy Levin; Daniela Vidart
  22. Living standards shape individual attitudes on genetically modified food around the world By Levi, Sebastian
  23. Are small farms really more productive than large farms? By Fernando Aragón; Diego Restuccia; Juan Pablo Rud
  24. The competitiveness and attractiveness of the bovine sector in France By Vincent Chatellier; Christophe Perrot; Emmanuel Beguin; Marc Moraine; Patrick Veysset

  1. By: Bannor, Frank; Dikgang, Johane; Gelo, Dambala
    Abstract: It is expected that production in the agricultural sector will be significantly affected by climate change. Therefore, it is projected that countries with extreme climatic conditions will suffer a long-term decline in agricultural productivity beyond the short-term loss of production. Given the gross domestic product (GDP) value of agriculture in many sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the effects of climate change on agriculture are likely to permeate their economies. The long- and short-run effects of climate variability on agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) growth in 14 SSA countries are examined using panel data from 1995 to 2016. We employ a twofold approach. First, we use the Data Envelopment Approach (DEA) to calculate the Malmquist Index of Maize Productivity growth. Second, we apply a fully modified ordinary least square estimator and the Granger causality test in heterogeneous mixed panels to evaluate the long- and short-run impacts of climate variability on agricultural TFP development. The empirical results from the long-run analysis show that maize agricultural TFP is negatively associated with climate variability for only five countries. In the short run, our empirical estimation indicates no evidence of causality effect. To mitigate the negative long-run effects – and given that spending on R&D is found to produce negative effects in some of those five countries – policymakers should take immediate action to provide farmers with adequate and expeditious irrigation facilities, including the construction of dams to harvest and store rainfall water for future use.
    Keywords: total factor productivity; climate variability; data envelope approach; fully modified ordinary least square; heterogeneous mixed panel.
    JEL: Q1 Q16 Q18 Q54
    Date: 2021–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:107590&r=
  2. By: Vu, H. Trang; Nelson, Katherine; Samsuzzaman, Syed; Rahman, Saidur; Rashid, Mamunur; Salahuddin, Ahmad; Sander, Bjoern Ole
    Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive institutional analysis to better understand the key conditions and incentives relevant for the uptake of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) – a climate-smart irrigation practice in Bangladesh. Practicing AWD in rice production can reduce water consumption by 30% and mitigate methane emissions by 30-70% without yield penalty. Primary research was conducted in Rangpur, Rajshahi, Mymensingh, and Sherpur Divisions. The analysis depicts the dynamic among the stakeholders involved in outscaling AWD using the Net-Map tool, and demonstrates the influence of irrigation management systems in the selected catchment areas and the impacts of AWD in rice farming. Findings reveal that AWD-practicing farmers, pump owners, and the Upazila Irrigation Committee are the three most powerful influencers for outscaling AWD. The pre-paid irrigation system significantly improves water efficiency and cost-effectiveness when practising AWD. Additionally, AWD leads to a lower frequency of pumping resulting in reduced costs compared to the continuous-flooding practice. Finally, the results guide the formulation of recommendations to create favourable conditions for AWD outscaling, which contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and advancing sustainable rice production in Bangladesh.
    Date: 2021–05–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:snq2u&r=
  3. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This conference (3 hours) entitled "The competitiveness of the French agrifood sector in the face of European and global competition" was carried out within the framework of the activities of the Pays de la Loire Economic, Social and Environmental Council (CESE). It addressed the following three points: 1) the main trends in French agriculture (land use; price volatility; evolution of agricultural production; development of organic farming; budget support; dynamics of farms and jobs) ; 2) competitiveness and agrifood trade in France; 3) the case of three animal productions (poultry sector; beef sector; dairy sector).
    Abstract: Cette conférence (3 heures) ayant pour titre « La compétitivité du secteur agroalimentaire français face à la concurrence européenne et mondiale » a été réalisée dans le cadre des activités du Conseil Economique, Social, et Environnemental (CESE) des Pays de la Loire. Elle a abordé les trois points suivants : 1) les principales tendances de l'agriculture française (occupation du territoire ; volatilité des prix ; évolution de la production agricole ; développement de l'agriculture biologique ; soutiens budgétaires ; dynamique des exploitations et des emplois) ; 2) la compétitivité et les échanges agroalimentaires de la France ; 3) le cas de trois productions animales (secteur avicole ; secteur bovin ; secteur laitier).
    Keywords: Competitiveness,Agricultural trade,Agricultural production,Compétitivité,Agriculture,Commerce agricole,Production agricole
    Date: 2020–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03209847&r=
  4. By: Peñalba, Ericson H.
    Abstract: The vulnerability of the Philippines to climate change and variability has been highlighted by its exposure to severe weather-related conditions. Farmers are particularly vulnerable to such adverse effects given their limited adaptive capacity. In this regard, this study examines the local adaptation experiences and practices of farmers in a second-class farming municipality. It is then based on the assumption that a lay understanding of how farmers perceive and adapt to climate change can be used to provide implications for enhancing their adaptive capacity. Using a combination of qualitative data from key informant interviews and focus group discussion and secondary data from government agencies, this paper reveals that farmers perceive serious health and livelihood risks despite having limited knowledge of how climate change occurs. They recognize that changes in climate conditions have caused considerable effects to temperature and rainfall which, in turn, have posed serious challenge to water supply. Their farming activities are also at risk from interrelated impacts such as damage to crops, pest infestation, and decrease in rice yield. Hence, they consistently employ common adaptation measures as direct responses to climate variability such as the planting of new crop varieties, use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, use of technology in farming, and diversification of household income. However, the lack of financial resources hinders them from utilizing new adaptation techniques and technologies, which they perceive to be more appropriate and beneficial. These results suggest a more conscious effort of transforming coping strategies to short-term climate variability into adaptation measures to long-term climate changes.
    Date: 2019–06–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:s8ahz&r=
  5. By: Mathithibane, Mpho Steve
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of climate risk coping strategies of smallholders in a South African perspective. A quantitative research approach was followed using surveys to collect primary data from participants in key maize producing provinces of South Africa. The results analysed employing multinomial regression, show that reduction of crop production in times of uncertainly is the most preferred coping mechanism. The study further revealed that farmers who use crop insurance have the highest level of preparedness to manage weather risk. The findings contribute to advancing knowledge, guiding policymakers and increasing efficiencies of risk mitigation efforts especially climate risk solutions in the context of climate change and persistent drought affecting South African farmers.
    Keywords: Risk management, risk coping, risk mitigation, smallholder farmers
    JEL: Q14
    Date: 2021–05–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:107677&r=
  6. By: Simpson, James; Carmona, Juan
    Abstract: The growing success of small family farms in Europe before 1930 was found alongside large estates. Tenanted estates enjoyed the advantages of the greater incentives of family farmers to maximize their production, and the economies of scale for marketing, credit or technical improvement of large exploitations. A particular case is the tenanted estates specialized in the production and marketing of wine and using sharecropping contracts. Technical changes, the increasing of scale economies in wine production, and the impact of Phylloxera after 1870 had an impact in the nature of the contract as landlords increasing the control on production. This paper compares the three specific cases of Beaujolais, Catalonia and Tuscany, where tenanted wine producing estates were common throughout this period, and the responses of owners and settlers to these changes in the long term.
    Keywords: Winegrowers; Wine History; Sharecropping
    JEL: Q15 Q13 N54 N53 D23
    Date: 2021–05–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cte:whrepe:32582&r=
  7. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The title of this one-hour conference was "Territorial agricultural production and world markets: between global dynamics and meeting local expectations". It addressed the following three points: 1) a strongly growing world food demand; 2) an internationalization of agri-food markets; 3) a French agriculture under competitive pressure.
    Abstract: Cette conférence (1 heure) avait pour titre «Productions agricoles territoriales et marchés mondiaux : entre dynamiques globales et satisfaction des attentes locales ». Elle a abordé les trois points suivants : 1) une demande alimentaire mondiale en forte croissance ; 2) une internationalisation des marchés agroalimentaires ; 3) une agriculture française sous pression concurrentielle.
    Keywords: Food challenge,Competitiveness,Agricultural trade,Agricultural production,Défi alimentaire,Compétitivité,Agriculture,Commerce agricole,Production agricole
    Date: 2020–11–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03209649&r=
  8. By: W. Saart, Patrick (Cardiff Business School); Kim, Namhyun (University of Exeter Business School); Bateman, Ian (University of Exeter Business School)
    Abstract: This paper addresses various statistical and empirical challenges associated with modelling farmers' decision-making processes concerning agricultural land-use. These include (i) use of spatially high-resolution data so that idiosyncratic effects of physical environment drivers, e.g. soil textures, can be explicitly modelled; (ii) modelling land-use shares as censored responses, which enables consistent estimation of the unknown parameters; (iii) incorporating spatial error dependence and heterogeneity, which leads to accurate formulation of the variances for the parameter estimates and more effective statistical inferences; and (iv) reducing the computational burden and improving estimation accuracy by introducing an alternative GMM/QML hybrid estimation procedure. We also provide extensive evidence, which suggests that our approach can construct more accurate land-use predictions than existing methods in the literature. We then apply our method to empirically investigate how the climatic, economic, policy and physical determinants influence the land-use patterns in England over time and spatial space. We are also interested in examining whether environmental schemes and grants have assisted in freeing up land used for arable, rough grazing, temporary and permanent grasslands and converting it to bio-energy crops to help to achieve deep emission reductions and prepare for climate change.
    Keywords: Agro-environmental policy, land-use, multivariate Tobit, system of censored equation, spatial model, error component model.
    JEL: C13 C21 C23 C34 Q15 Q53
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdf:wpaper:2021/7&r=
  9. By: Sam, Abdoul G.; Abidoye, Babatunde; Mashaba, Sihle
    Abstract: The fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and several studies suggest that climate change is expected to increase food insecurity and poverty in many parts of the world. In this paper, we adopt a microeconometric approach to empirically estimate the impact of climate change-induced hikes in cereal prices on household welfare in Swaziland (also Kingdom of Eswatini). We do so first by econometrically estimating expenditure and price elasticities of five food groups consumed by households in Swaziland using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS), based on data from the 2009/2010 Swaziland Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Second, we use the estimated expenditure and compensated elasticities from the AIDS model, food shares from the household survey, and food price projections developed by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to estimate the proportionate increase in income required to maintain the level of household utility that would have prevailed absent an increase in food prices. Our results show increases in cereal prices due to climate change are expected to double extreme poverty in urban areas and increase poverty in rural areas of the country to staggering levels - between 71 and 75%, compared to 63% before the price changes. Income transfers of between 17.5 and 25.4% of pre-change expenditures are needed to avoid the welfare losses.
    Keywords: climate change; welfare; extreme poverty; demand system; Swaziland
    JEL: Q54 Q56 O13 O15 C34 D12
    Date: 2021–04–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:106700&r=
  10. By: W. Saart, Patrick (Cardiff Business School); Kim, Namhyun (University of Exeter Business School); Bateman, Ian (University of Exeter Business School)
    Abstract: Today, one of the biggest challenges facing the UK is the new target set when the nation became first major economy to pass net zero emissions law, which requires the country to bring all greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by 2050. On the one hand, there are already a few ideas about how we should farm and use land in order to deliver such a target. On the other hand, the government has a new strategy which is to pay farmers for providing public goods, especially for climate change mitigation through the reduction and storage of greenhouse gas emissions. The most critical task is to find a solution to such a question as \How should public spending on farm public goods be allocated?" In this paper, we argue that formulating an effective subsidy scheme cannot focus on the public need alone, but should also take into consideration what farmers must endure and the opportunities they must forgo. This requires a good understanding about the generating process behind the spatial heterogeneity of agricultural land-use at a _ne spatial scale. We aim to provide government and its agents with decision support for policy making post-Brexit in two directions. Firstly, we employ detailed spatial resolution data and establish a new statistical tool that can help: (i) to effectively capture the spatial heterogeneity of agricultural land-use, (ii) to disentangle the contributions of terrain formulations, environmental characteristics, climatic conditions, policies, and other legacy and agglomeration effects in the generating process of the land-use patterns, and (iii) accurately gauge their relative importance across different regions of GB for more targeted subsidies schemes. Secondly, we employ our new method and provide policy advice and evaluation.
    Keywords: Agro-environmental policy, land-use, multivariate Tobit, system of censored equation, spatial model, error component model.
    JEL: C13 C21 C23 C34 Q15 Q53
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdf:wpaper:2021/8&r=
  11. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This one-hour conference was entitled "The place of the EU and France in the internationalization of agricultural markets". It addressed the following three points: 1) international trade in agri-food products; 2) the EU's agri-food trade; 3) France's agri-food trade.
    Abstract: Cette conférence (1 heure) avait pour titre «La place de l'UE et de la France dans l'internationalisation des marchés agricoles ». Elle a abordé les trois points suivants : 1) le commerce international de produits agroalimentaires ; 2) le commerce agroalimentaire de l'UE ; 3) le commerce agroalimentaire de la France.
    Keywords: Competitiveness,Agricultural trade,Agricultural production,Compétitivité,Agriculture,Commerce agricole,Production agricole,France
    Date: 2019–09–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03209407&r=
  12. By: Dar, Manzoor; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; Wiseman, Eleanor
    Abstract: Information frictions limit the adoption of new agricultural technologies in developing countries. Most public-sector interventions to eliminate these frictions target information directly at select farmers. We show that an information intervention targeted at private input suppliers increases farmer-level adoption by over 50 percent compared to this public-sector approach. These newly informed suppliers become more proactive in carrying the new variety, informing potential customers, and in increasing adoption by those most likely to benefit from the technology. They do so in a long-term perspective of reputation building and business development.
    Keywords: Agriculture; learning; Privatization; Technology adoption
    JEL: O13 O30
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:15584&r=
  13. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Animal products represent only 16% of world trade in agri-food products. They make a positive contribution to the European Union's trade balance (+33.9 billion euros in 2019), mainly thanks to the dairy and pork sectors. With a trade balance in animal production of around €4.2 billion in 2019, France is only in seventh place among European countries, far behind the Netherlands (€13.7 billion). With a deficit in value in three sectors (pork, poultry and sheep/goat), since the end of milk quotas in 2015, France has recorded a significant decline in its trade balance in dairy products with EU partner countries (in parallel with a stability in its milk production); the rise in demand in Asian countries, especially China (infant milk), has, however, partially offset this decline. In the beef sector, the great diversity of finished products, the increased communication on "eating French" and the decline in domestic consumption are now a brake on the development of imports. This observation does not apply to the poultry sector where imports of standard chicken cuts from northern EU countries have increased considerably, in parallel with growing domestic demand. In the sheep sector, which has historically had a large deficit (57% self-supply rate in 2019), the decline in individual consumption (halved since 1990) is a particular concern for the industry. In the pork sector, France's trade balance is in deficit in value and slightly positive in volume; imports from Spain weight heavily and the spectacular increase in Chinese imports, following the African swine fever crisis, has benefited France little overall (at least compared to Spain and Germany).
    Abstract: Les produits animaux représentent que 16% du commerce mondial des produits agroalimentaires. Ils contribuent positivement à la balance commerciale de l'Union européenne (+33,9 milliards d'euros en 2019), principalement grâce aux secteurs laitier et porcin. Avec une balance commerciale en productions animales de l'ordre de 4,2 milliards d'euros en 2019, la France n'arrive qu'en septième position des pays européens, très loin derrière les Pays-Bas (13,7 milliards d'euros). Déficitaire en valeur dans trois filières (porcine, avicole et ovine-caprine), la France a enregistré, depuis la fin des quotas laitiers en 2015, un recul important de son solde commercial en produits laitiers avec les pays partenaires de l'UE (parallèlement à une stabilité de sa production de lait) ; l'essor de la demande dans les pays asiatiques, surtout en Chine (lait infantile), a cependant contrebalancé, pour partie, ce recul. Dans le secteur de la viande bovine, la grande diversité des produits finis, la communication renforcée sur le « manger français » et la baisse de la consommation intérieure constituent aujourd'hui un frein au développement des importations. Ce constat ne vaut pas pour le secteur avicole où les importations de poulets standards en découpes en provenance des pays du nord de l'UE ont considérablement augmenté, ce parallèlement à une demande intérieure en croissance. Dans le secteur ovin, historiquement très déficitaire (57% de taux d'auto approvisionnement en 2019), la baisse de la consommation individuelle (division par deux depuis 1990) est un point particulièrement préoccupant pour les acteurs de cette filière. Dans le secteur porcin, le solde commercial de la France est déficitaire en valeur et légèrement positif en volume ; les importations en provenance de l'Espagne pèsent lourdement et l'augmentation spectaculaire des importations chinoises, suite à la crise liée à la peste porcine africaine, a globalement peu bénéficié à l'hexagone (du moins comparativement à l'Espagne et à l'Allemagne).
    Keywords: Animal production,Competitiveness,Exports,Imports,International trade,EU,Productions animales,Compétitivité,Importations,Exportations,Commerce international,UE,France
    Date: 2020–05–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03213859&r=
  14. By: Reeves, Aaron (London School of Economics and Political Science); Loopstra, Rachel; Tarasuk, Valerie
    Abstract: Objectives. To examine the association between wage-setting policy and food insecurity. Methods. We estimated multilevel regression models, using data from the Gallup World Poll (2014–2017) and UCLA’s World Policy Analysis Center, to examine the association between wage setting policy and food insecurity across 139 countries (n = 492 078). Results. Compared with countries with little or no minimum wage, the probability of being food insecure was 0.10 lower (95% confidence interval = 0.02, 0.18) in countries with collective bargaining. However, these associations varied across employment status. More generous wage-setting policies (e.g., collective bargaining or high minimum wages) were associated with lower food insecurity among full-time workers (and, to some extent, part-time workers) but not those who were unemployed. Conclusions. In countries with generous wage-setting policies, employed adults had a lower risk of food insecurity, but the risk of food insecurity for the unemployed was unchanged. Wage-setting policies may be an important intervention for addressing risks of food insecurity among low-income workers.
    Date: 2021–03–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:4urcm&r=
  15. By: Eberle, Ulrich J.; Rohner, Dominic; Thoenig, Mathias
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of climate shocks on violence between herders and farmers by using geolocalized data on conflict events for all African countries over the 1997-2014 period. We find that a +1°C increase in temperature leads to a +54% increase in conflict probability in mixed areas populated by both farmers and herders, compared to +17% increase in non-mixed areas. This result is robust to controlling for the interaction between temperature and ethnic polarization, alternative estimation techniques, disaggregation levels, and coding options of the climatic/conflict/ethnic variables. We then quantify the impact on conflicts of projected climate change in 2040. We find that, in absence of mixed areas, global warming would increase total annual conflicts by about a quarter in whole Africa; when factoring in the magnifying effect of mixed settlements, total annual conflicts are predicted to rise by as much as a third. We also provide two pieces of evidence that resource competition is a major driver of farmer-herder violence. Firstly, conflicts are much more prevalent at the fringe between rangeland and farmland --a geographic buffer of mixed usage that is suitable for both cattle herding and farming but is particularly vulnerable to climate shocks. Secondly, information on groups' mobility reveals that temperature spikes in the ethnic homeland of a nomadic group tend to diffuse its fighting operations outside its homeland, with a magnified spatial spread in the case of conflicts over resources. Finally, we show that violence is substantially reduced in the presence of policies that empower local communities, foster participatory democracy, enforce property rights and regulate land dispute resolution.
    Keywords: Africa; climate change; farmer-herder conflict; nomadic; resource competition; Sahel; Temperature; Violence
    JEL: D74 N47 O13 Q34 Z13
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:15542&r=
  16. By: Xiaoyang He; Ralph Siebert
    Abstract: We consider a dynamic oligopoly on the beer market and study the differential effects of switching costs on product prices, market shares, and profits. Our demand estimation results show large differences in brand loyalty, and switching costs across customer income segments and beer brands. Our supply estimation results show that the low-quality firm experiences a higher competitive pressure on price since low-quality consumers are more price sensitive and switch more easily to the high-quality firm’s product than vice versa. The high-quality firm is better shielded from price competition, as its consumers are less likely to switch to the low-quality product.
    Keywords: consumer heterogeneity, differentiated products, dynamic oligopoly, dynamic pricing, loyalty, state dependence, switching costs
    JEL: L13 L25 L66 M21 M31
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9065&r=
  17. By: Pascaris1, Alexis S.; Schelly, Chelsea; Rouleau, Mark; Pearce, Joshua M. (Michigan Technological University)
    Abstract: Agrivoltaic systems allow for the simultaneous production of solar-generated electricity and agriculture. As the climate change related impacts of conventional energy and food production intensify, finding strategies to increase the deployment of solar photovoltaic systems, preserve agricultural land, and minimize competing land uses is urgent. Given the proven technical, economic, and environmental advantages provided by agrivoltaic systems, increased proliferation is anticipated, which necessitates accounting for the nuances of community resistance to solar development on farmland. Minimizing siting conflict and addressing agricultural communities’ concerns will be key in promoting public support for agrivoltaics, as localized acceptance of solar is a critical determinant of project success. This survey study assessed if public support for solar development increases when energy and agricultural production are combined in an agrivoltaic system. Results show that 81.8% of respondents would be more likely to support solar development in their community if it combined the production of both energy and agriculture. This increase in support for solar given the agrivoltaic approach highlights a development strategy that can improve local social acceptance and the deployment rate of solar photovoltaics. Survey respondents prefer agrivoltaic projects that a) are designed to provide economic opportunities for farmers and the local community b) are located on private property or existing agricultural land c) do not threaten local interests and d) ensure fair distribution of economic benefits. Proactively identifying what the public perceives as opportunities and concerns related to agrivoltaic development can help improve the design, business model, and siting of systems in the U.S.
    Date: 2021–05–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:efasx&r=
  18. By: Antonio Bento; Noah S. Miller; Mehreen Mookerjee; Edson R. Severnini
    Abstract: In the absence of first-best climate policy, we demonstrate that existing government institutions and policy established for reasons unrelated to climate change may induce climate adaptation. We examine the impact of temperature on ambient ozone concentration in the United States from 1980-2013, and the role of institution-induced adaptation. Ozone is formed under warm temperatures, and regulated by the Clean Air Act institution. Adaptation in counties out of attainment with air quality standards is 107 percent larger than under attainment, implying substantial institution-induced adaptation. Furthermore, local beliefs about climate change appear to reinforce adap- tive behavior, suggesting a nontrivial role in second-best climate policy.
    JEL: D02 H23 K32 P48 Q53 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:28783&r=
  19. By: Collier, Stephen J.; Elliott, Rebecca; Lehtonen, Turo-kimmo
    Abstract: This special collection examines insurance as an increasingly central mechanism in shaping how the effects of climate change are transforming local economies and ways of life. The papers study a range of exemplary cases, ranging from agricultural micro-insurance in development policy and regional sovereign risk facilities in the Caribbean to public and private insurance in the United States. This framing essay situates these papers in a longer tradition of scholarship on the government of risk and security. It also describes three themes that run through the papers: the economization of climate change; the moral economy of risk and responsibility; and the plasticity of insurance as an abstract technology that may be taken up in various governmental assemblages, in the name of various political projects.
    Keywords: climate change; risk society; insurance; Taylor & Francis deal
    JEL: F3 G3
    Date: 2021–04–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:110452&r=
  20. By: Hervé Guyomard (Services déconcentrés d'appui à la recherche Bretagne-Normandie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Jean-Christophe Bureau (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Cécile Détang-Dessendre (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement); Pierre Dupraz (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Florence Jacquet (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Xavier Reboud (Agroécologie [Dijon] - UB - Université de Bourgogne - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Vincent Réquillart (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Louis-Georges Soler (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Margot Tysebaert (AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: The June 2018 CAP proposals are only marginally consistent with the ambitions of the Green Deal. This is also the case of the regulation revisions being adopted by either the Council or the European Parliament in October 2020. Making EU agriculture consistent with the Green Deal but would require a whole food chain policy that encompasses more stringent instruments on the supply side and extensive changes in eating patterns.
    Abstract: Les propositions de la PAC de juin 2018 ne sont que marginalement cohérentes avec les ambitions du Green Deal. C'est également le cas des révisions du règlement qui seront adoptées soit par le Conseil, soit par le Parlement européen en octobre 2020. Rendre l'agriculture européenne cohérente avec le Green Deal nécessiterait une politique de l'ensemble de la chaîne alimentaire qui englobe des instruments plus stricts du côté de l'offre et des changements importants dans les habitudes alimentaires.
    Keywords: CAP,Green Deal,European agriculture,PAC,Agriculture européenne
    Date: 2020–11–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03219169&r=
  21. By: Remy Levin (University of Connecticut); Daniela Vidart (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: How do lifetime experiences of macroeconomic risk shape attitudes towards risk? We study this question theoretically and empirically for individuals in developing countries. We build a Bayesian model of choice in which agents’ risk attitude adapts to their evolving beliefs about background risk. Our model predicts that risk aversion will increase monotonically in the variance of the background risk, and will decrease convexly in the mean. We test the model by linking longitudinal surveys from Indonesia and Mexico, containing elicited measures of risk aversion for the same subjects years apart, with state-level real GDP growth time series capturing their lifetime macroeconomic experiences. In both countries measured risk aversion significantly increases in experienced growth volatility and significantly decreases in experienced mean growth. The effect of volatility is 0.9-4.3 times the effect of the mean, indicating that experiences of volatility are first-order drivers of risk attitudes.
    Keywords: Risk attitudes, experience effects, macroeconomic volatility, development
    JEL: D14 D81 D83 E32 G11 O11 O12
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uct:uconnp:2021-09&r=
  22. By: Levi, Sebastian
    Abstract: Agricultural biotechnology can help to sustainably intensify food production, but negative public opinion hinders the deployment of genetically modified crops and livestock. Previous research shows negative consumer attitudes in the Global North to be primarily driven by limited trust and religiosity, but public opinion in the Global South remains largely unexplored. Here, analyzing individual attitudes across 142 countries with a random forest model, I show that people in low-income countries are significantly more positive towards genetically modified food than those living in high-income countries. Globally, individual attitudes are primarily determined by living standard, agricultural output, and prevalence of undernourishment. Country income levels also moderate how demographic characteristics predict attitudes on bioengineered food. Highly educated urban men are most optimistic about agricultural biotechnology in high-income countries, while women, individuals living in rural areas, and those with little education are the most hopeful demographic in low-income countries. These results indicate that individual views are largely determined by the societal benefits expected from agricultural biotechnology and suggest that the conditions for further deregulation of genetically modified food are most favorable in low-income countries.
    Date: 2021–05–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:kqdje&r=
  23. By: Fernando Aragón (Simon Fraser University); Diego Restuccia (University of Toronto); Juan Pablo Rud (Royal Holloway, University of London/IFS)
    Abstract: This paper shows that the study of the farm size-productivity relationship hinges on the choice of productivity measure. Our main insight is that using yields, a partial measure of productivity commonly used in the literature, may not be informative. This occurs because, in addition to total factor productivity, yields pick up input markets distortions and deviations from constant returns to scale. We examine the empirical relevance of this insight using detailed microdata from Uganda. We find an inverse relationship between yields and farm size. We show the relationship turns positive when accounting for market distortions and returns to scale; or when using a farm- specific component of total factor productivity.
    Keywords: Farm size productivity yields land markets distortions agriculture policy
    JEL: O12 O13 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aoz:wpaper:44&r=
  24. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Christophe Perrot (IDELE - Institut de l'élevage); Emmanuel Beguin (IDELE - Institut de l'élevage); Marc Moraine (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Patrick Veysset (UMRH - Unité Mixte de Recherche sur les Herbivores - UMR 1213 - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In a context characterized by the existence of economic, social and environmental difficulties, this paper aims to present, in a synthetic way, a quantified inventory of the French cattle sector (milk and meat). It is based on the use of various sources of information available, including data from customs, the Farm Accounting Data Network and the Mutualité Sociale Agricole. The first two parts address the question of the dynamics of the dairy and beef markets (production, consumption and trade) by distinguishing successively between the external market (external competitiveness during the period 2000-2019) and the internal market (adequacy between supply and demand, end users of the products); a complementary analysis of the differentiation of supply makes it possible to address the role and speed of development of the various quality signs and new forms of commercial and territorial organizations. The last two parts deal with upstream players, focusing first on the competitiveness of French farms over the long term (1990-2018), then on jobs on farms (generational renewal, transformation of farm setting-up).
    Abstract: Dans un contexte caractérisé par l'existence de difficultés d'ordre économique, social et environnemental, cette communication a pour ambition de présenter, de façon synthétique, un état des lieux chiffré des filières bovines (lait et viande) françaises. Elle s'appuie pour ce faire sur l'utilisation de différentes sources d'informations disponibles, dont les données des douanes, du Réseau d'Information Comptable Agricole et de la Mutualité Sociale Agricole. Les deux premières parties abordent la question de la dynamique des marchés en produits laitiers et en viande bovine (production, consommation et échanges) en distinguant successivement le marché extérieur (compétitivité externe au cours de la période 2000-2019) puis le marché intérieur (adéquation entre l'offre et la demande, utilisateurs finaux des produits) ; une analyse portant sur la différenciation de l'offre permet également d'aborder le rôle et la vitesse de développement des différents signes de qualité et de nouvelles formes de démarcations commerciales et territoriales. Les deux dernières parties traitent des acteurs de l'amont, en s'intéressant d'abord à la compétitivité des exploitations françaises sur longue période (1990-2018), puis aux emplois dans les exploitations (renouvellement générationnel, transformation des formes d'installation).
    Keywords: Cattle sector,Animal sectors,Competitiveness,Foreign trade,Farms,FADN,Secteur bovin,Filières animales,Compétitivité,Commerce extérieur,Exploitations agricoles,France,RICA
    Date: 2020–12–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03215899&r=

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