nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒04‒12
twenty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Reviewing Indica and Japonica rice market developments By Tatsuji Koizumi; Stephan Hubertus Gay; Gen Furuhashi
  2. Cost-effective conservation in the face of climate change: combining ecological-economic modelling and climate science for the cost-effective spatio-temporal allocation of conservation measures in agricultural landscapes By Gerling, Charlotte; Drechsler, Martin; Keuler, Klaus; Leins, Johannes A.; Radtke, Kai; Schulz, Björn; Sturm, Astrid; Wätzold, Frank
  3. Genetically Modified Organisms: Promising or Problematic for Food Security? A Review of Major Developments in Selected Industrialized Countries - Part I By Isabelle Tsakok; Fatima Ezzahra Mengoub
  4. Organic Agriculture By Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
  5. Interdependence between research and development, climate variability and agricultural production: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa By Bannor, Frank; Dikgang, Johane; Kutela Gelo, Dambala
  6. Econometric model of children participation in family dairy farming in the center of dairy farming, West Java Province, Indonesia By Achmad Firman; Ratna Ayu Saptati
  7. Food vs. Food Stamps: Evidence from an At-Scale Experiment in Indonesia By Abhijit Banerjee; Rema Hanna; Benjamin A. Olken; Elan Satriawan; Sudarno Sumarto
  8. Genetically Modified Organisms: Promising or Problematic for Food Security? A Review of Major Developments in Selected Industrialized Countries - Part II By Isabelle Tsakok; Fatima Ezzahra Mengoub
  9. Geography and Agricultural Productivity: Cross-Country Evidence from Micro Plot-Level Data By Tasso Adamopoulos; Diego Restuccia
  10. Spatial analysis of early mangrove regeneration in the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia, using geomatics By Viviana Otero Fadul; Richard Lucas; Ruben Van De Kerchove; Behara Satyanarayana; Husain Mohd-Lokman; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
  11. Perceptions of Food Retailers Regarding Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Ayanda Pamella Deliwe
  12. On Policy Interventions and Vertical Price Transmission: the Italian Milk Supply Chain Case By Antonioli, Federico; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
  13. Adding Weight to a Thinning Live Cattle Market By Gary W. Brester; Kole Swanser; Brett Crosby
  14. Introducing Environmental Ethics into Economic Analysis: Some insights from Hans Jonas’ Imperative of Responsibility By Sylvie Ferrari; Damien Bazin; Richard B. Howarth
  15. Implementing the agroecological transition: an analysis of decision-making rules in banana farming systems in the French West Indies By Valérie Angeon; Samuel Bates
  16. The Focus on the Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia as a Result of Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation Number 12 of 2020 By Adinoto, Lely Puspitasari
  17. Farm Protests in India: A new menu needed By Ajay Chhibber
  18. What Do Hedonic House Price Estimates Tell Us When CAP Rates Vary? By Paul E. Carrillo; Anthony Yezer
  19. Fiscal Policies to Address Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific; Opportunities and Challenges By Era Dabla-Norris; James Daniel; Masahiro Nozaki; Cristian Alonso; Vybhavi Balasundharam; Matthieu Bellon; Chuling Chen; David Corvino; Joey Kilpatrick
  20. The Impact of Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation Number 12 of 2020 on the Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia By Hana, Mutiara

  1. By: Tatsuji Koizumi (OECD); Stephan Hubertus Gay (OECD); Gen Furuhashi (Policy Research Institute, MAFF)
    Abstract: Indica and Japonica are the two major types of rice traded on the global market. Product characteristics, production zones, consumer preferences, and government policies influence Indica and Japonica rice market structures. Using the Rice Economy Climate Change (RECC) model, which covers these rice markets in 24 countries and the global rice market, the international Japonica rice price is found to be more volatile than that for Indica rice under possible climate change scenarios. The simulation results also suggest that agricultural investments in major countries producing Indica and Japonica rice will contribute to their price stability over the medium and long term under climate change.
    Keywords: Agricultural investments, Climate change, Price stability
    JEL: C63 Q11 Q16 Q17
    Date: 2021–04–09
  2. By: Gerling, Charlotte; Drechsler, Martin; Keuler, Klaus; Leins, Johannes A.; Radtke, Kai; Schulz, Björn; Sturm, Astrid; Wätzold, Frank
    Abstract: In agricultural landscapes, climate change has profound impacts on species that society aims to conserve. In response to climate change, species may adapt spatially (with range shifts) and temporally (with phenological adaptations), which may make formerly effective conservation sites and measures less effective. As climate change also has an impact on yields, opportunity costs of land use-based conservation measures may also change spatially and with respect to the timing of conservation measures. Due to these spatio-temporal modifications of the costs of conservation measures and their impacts on species, formerly cost-effective conservation sites and measures may no longer be so in a changing climate. We combine ecological-economic modelling with climate science to investigate climate change-induced modifications of the timing and spatial allocation of cost-effective conservation measures. We apply our model to the case study of conserving the large marsh grasshopper on agricultural grasslands in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein. Comparing the periods 2020-2039 and 2060-2079, our model indeed indicates that climate change induces modifications in the cost-effective spatial allocation of conservation measures and that measures which are adapted to phenological changes remain cost-effective under climate change.
    Keywords: climate ecological-economic model; conservation planning; large marsh grasshopper; cultural landscapes; biodiversity conservation
    JEL: Q15 Q54 Q57
    Date: 2021–01–27
  3. By: Isabelle Tsakok; Fatima Ezzahra Mengoub
    Abstract: Building on decades of biochemistry research, bioengineers have successfully transferred genes across species to produce living organisms (plants and animals, including fish) with desired traits. Unlike traditional breeding practiced over 10,000 years, this process takes years not centuries from initial conception to field testing and commercialization. Given its precision and range of application, biotechnology has even been compared to ‘playing God’. Since the mid-1990s, major genetically modified crops, including alfalfa, corn (maize), soybeans, sugar beet, and cotton, have been commercialized in the United States. Data from 2018 shows that GMOs are grown throughout the world but primarily in the Americas, not much in Europe, and none at all in Russia. The highest GMO acreage in the USA is no accident. The legal and regulatory framework in the USA for food, agriculture, and the environment is supportive of GMOs, whereas the equivalent European Union framework is not. In the U.S., the process of bioengineering itself is not regulated whereas it is in the EU. The EU adopts the precautionary principle (PP) in regulating GMOs, considering the scientific evidence on their impact to be uncertain. Indeed, in the EU, the cultivation and import of GMOs are subject to a law requiring prior authorization and the labelling and traceability system is mandatory. In the United States, mandatory labeling of GMOs will only start on 1 January 2022. Both legal approaches have been criticized: the U.S. for being too pro-business; the EU for being too anti- innovation. Perceptions of GMOs fall broadly into two opposing camps, although repeated surveys of consumers in both the U.S. and the EU show that the majority do not know much about GMOs. The pro-GMO camp sees in bioengineering the promise of agriculture that can improve food security including through higher yields, greater resistance to pests, more resilience to weather extremes like drought, and even better nutrition. They point to the fact that there has been no evidence of harm either to consumers or to the environment. The anti-GMO camp dismisses such support as biased, often without evidence for such bias. They assert that GMOs are bad for consumers, bad for biodiversity and bad for the environment. They see the control of bioengineered seeds by a handful of multinationals as a major threat to the livelihoods of millions of farmers, in particular smallholders, and the food security of nations dependent on these seeds.
    Date: 2021–01
  4. By: Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
    Abstract: Consumers are increasingly aware of the health- and safety-related implications of the food which they can buy in the market. At the same time, households have become more aware of their environmental responsibilities. Regarding the production of food, a crucial and multifunctional role is played by agriculture. The way vegetables, fruits, and other crops are grown and how livestock is raised has an impact on the environment and landscape. Operations performed by farmers, such as water management, can be dangerous for the soil and the whole ecosystem. Consequently, there is a search for natural ways of sustaining the impact of agriculture on the environment. In this context, one of the most popular ideas is organic agriculture. In the literature on the subject, there are many concepts that some authors consider to be synonymous even as others argue that these terms are not interchangeable. There is, for example, "organic agriculture," "alternative agriculture," "sustainable agriculture," "ecological agriculture," "biological agriculture," "niche farming," "community-supported agriculture," and "integrated pest management." Very often, techniques and products related to organic agriculture are described by marketing experts with the use of abbreviations such as "bio" and "eco." Products with such markings and labels are increasingly popular in stores that often give them separate shelves for their sale. Despite the higher price compared to conventional products, they are increasingly sought by consumers. The entry examines the various impacts of organic agriculture with a view to these trends.
    Keywords: Alternative agriculture; Biological agriculture; Ecological agriculture; Niche farming; Sustainable agriculture
    JEL: O13 Q01 Q18
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Bannor, Frank; Dikgang, Johane; Kutela Gelo, Dambala
    Abstract: The performance of the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains low compared to other regions. This is often attributed to the fact that agriculture in SSA is rain-fed, as well as to inadequate investment in research and development (R&D). It is well documented in the literature that climate variability is a possible reason for the low productivity observed in agriculture. It is similarly well documented that R&D investment affects the growth of agricultural productivity. This paper investigates whether public spending on R&D mitigates the negative effects of climate variability (measured by variability in rainfall) on agricultural productivity in SSA. We do so by employing a dynamic production model, and the Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM) technique. Based on cross-country panel data from the period 1995 to 2016, our empirical findings reveal that both climate variability and the interaction of R&D with climate variability are strongly correlated with agricultural productivity. As expected, climate variability reduces agriculture productivity by 0.433% to 0.296%. The interaction of R&D and climate variability enhances agricultural productivity by 0.124% to 0.065%. We also show that R&D is an absorption channel for the inimical effects of climate variability, and that the way in which climate variability impacts agricultural productivity depends on the magnitude of spending on R&D; in order to move from a negative to a positive impact of climate variability on agricultural productivity, public spending on R&D must increase by 3.492% to 4.554%. We conclude that to address the negative effects of climate variability, there is a need for governments to prioritise and increase spending on R&D.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Climate variability; R&D; Productivity; Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
    JEL: Q1 Q16 Q18 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2021–01–05
  6. By: Achmad Firman; Ratna Ayu Saptati
    Abstract: The involvement of children in the family dairy farming is pivotal point to reduce the cost of production input, especially in smallholder dairy farming. The purposes of the study are to analysis the factors that influence children's participation in working in the family dairy farm. The study was held December 2020 in the development center of dairy farming in Pangalengan subdistrict, West Java Province, Indonesia. The econometric method used in the study was the logit regression model. The results of the study determine that the there were number of respondents who participates in family farms was 52.59% of total respondents, and the rest was no participation in the family farms. There are 3 variables in the model that are very influential on children's participation in the family dairy farming, such as X1 (number of dairy farm land ownership), X2 (number of family members), and X6 (the amount of work spent on the family's dairy farm). Key words: Participation, children, family, dairy farming, logit model
    Date: 2021–02
  7. By: Abhijit Banerjee; Rema Hanna; Benjamin A. Olken; Elan Satriawan; Sudarno Sumarto
    Abstract: Governments seeking to provide food assistance have a choice between providing in-kind food directly to beneficiaries, or providing vouchers that can be used to purchase food on the market. To understand the differences between these policies, the Government of Indonesia randomly phased in the transition from in-kind delivery of subsidized rice to approximately equivalent vouchers usable to buy rice and eggs across 105 districts comprising over 3.4 million beneficiary households. We find the transition led to substantial changes in the allocation of aid in practice. The vouchers provided concentrated assistance to targeted households, who received 45 percent more assistance in voucher areas than in in-kind districts. As a result, for households in the bottom 15 percent at baseline, poverty fell by 20 percent. Vouchers also allowed households to purchase higher-quality rice, and led to increased consumption of egg-based proteins. We find vouchers have little effect on aggregate rice prices, although we observe modest price increases in remote villages. Overall leakage from the program was not affected, but the administrative costs of benefits delivery substantially fell. In short, the results suggest that the change from in-kind food aid to vouchers led to substantial impacts on poverty through the way it changed how programs were implemented on the ground.
    JEL: I38 O15
    Date: 2021–04
  8. By: Isabelle Tsakok; Fatima Ezzahra Mengoub
    Abstract: Selected experiences with GMOs in industrialized and developing countries show that the promise of bioengineering for strengthening food security cannot materialize unless and until GMOs are accepted by the vast majority of consumers as being safe and environmentally friendly. To date, the main effort has been on the supply side: bioengineered plants have desirable traits helpful to farmers, e.g., increased yields, resistance to pests, resilience to weather extremes in a warming world. But there has been little sustained official effort to inform and educate the public via trusted sources. Thus, the success of bioengineering in inserting desirable traits at the farm level has not been sufficient to remove the substantial opposition to GM foods, especially in the European Union but also in the United States and in developing countries including China and South Africa, where the governments have been supportive. Though undertaken in very different socio-economic contexts, surveys of public attitudes towards GM foods and drugs have some common findings. These are: (i) the public’s knowledge of GMOs is slim; (ii) there is widespread distrust of government’s ability to prevent food scandals; (iii) other sources of information such as from industry are also suspect, (and even from scientists although there is more trust); (iv) the main sources of information about GMOs are mainly from social media, and media including television and newspapers, and NGOs and activist groups, which are largely anti-GMO; and (v) there is no clear positive correlation between high level of formal education and favorable perception of GMOs. Is the opposition based mainly on ignorance, fear of the unknown, or breakdown in trust in government and industry? Or is the problem rather on the supply side in terms of the oligopolistic structure of the GM seed business, the market power imbalance between business and small farmers, the transparency of operations of bioengineers? Or is there a combination of both demand and supply factors? There is a lot to disentangle here. What is clear is that the powerful technology of bioengineering cannot be viewed as a ‘magic bullet’ to solve widespread food insecurity, as hoped for by its early advocates. For African leadership interested in operationalizing the Africa Continent Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) in the near future to realize the full contribution of GMOs to the food security of its people, among other things, now is an opportune time to reevaluate both the supply of GM technologies and potential demand for such products in terms of food and feed safety, biological diversity, and environmental sustainability. This holistic evaluation is essential to shape the launching of a coordinated and effective Africa-wide approach.
    Date: 2021–02
  9. By: Tasso Adamopoulos; Diego Restuccia
    Abstract: We quantify the role of geography and land quality for agricultural productivity differences across countries using high-resolution micro-geography data and a spatial accounting framework. The rich spatial data provide for each cell of land covering the entire globe, the potential yield for 18 crops, which measures the maximum attainable crop output given soil quality, climate conditions, terrain topography, and a given level of cultivation inputs. While there is considerable heterogeneity in land quality across space, even within narrow geographic regions, we find that low agricultural land productivity is not due to unfavourable geographic endowments. If countries produced current crops in each cell according to potential yields, the rich-poor agricultural yield gap would virtually disappear, from 214 percent to 5 percent. We also find evidence of additional aggregate productivity gains attainable through spatial reallocation and changes in crop production.
    Keywords: agriculture, land quality, productivity, spatial allocation, crop choice, cross-country.
    JEL: O11 O14 O4
    Date: 2021–03–31
  10. By: Viviana Otero Fadul; Richard Lucas; Ruben Van De Kerchove; Behara Satyanarayana; Husain Mohd-Lokman; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
    Abstract: Successful mangrove tree regeneration is required to maintain the provision of wood for silviculturally managed mangrove forest areas and to ensure mangrove rehabilitation in disturbed areas. Successful natural regeneration of mangroves after disturbance depends on the dispersal, establishment, early growth and survival of propagules. Focusing on the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR) in Peninsular Malaysia, we investigated how the location of a mangrove forest patch might influence the early regeneration of mangroves after clear-felling events that regularly take place on an approximately 30-year rotation as part of local management. We used Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) annual time series from 1988 to 2015 to indicate the recovery of canopy cover during early regeneration, which was determined as the average time (in years) for the NDMI to recover to values associated with the mature forests prior to their clear felling. We found that clear-felled mangrove patches closer to water and/or to already established patches of Rhizophora regenerated more rapidly than those farther away. In contrast, patches located closer to dryland forests regenerated slower compared to patches that were farther away. The study concludes that knowledge of the distribution of water, hydro-period and vegetation communities across the landscape can indicate the likely regeneration of mangrove forests through natural processes and identify areas where active planting is needed. Furthermore, time-series comparisons of the NDMI during the early years of regeneration can assist monitoring of mangrove establishment and regeneration, inform on the success of replanting, and facilitate higher productivity within the MMFR.
    Keywords: Mangrove regeneration; Mangroves; Silviculture; Spatial analysis
    Date: 2020–09–01
  11. By: Ayanda Pamella Deliwe (Nelson Mandela University, University Way, Summerstrand, 6019, Port Elizabeth, South Africa Author-2-Name: Shelley Beryl Beck Author-2-Workplace-Name: Nelson Mandela University, Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK Author-3-Name: Elroy Eugene Smith Author-3-Workplace-Name: Nelson Mandela University, University Way, Summerstrand, 6019, Port Elizabeth, South Africa Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This paper sets out to assess perceptions of food retailers regarding climate change, greenhouse gas emission and sustainability in the Nelson Mandela Bay region of South Africa. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the food retailers' greenhouse gas emissions strategies. Climate change catastrophic potential and the harmful effect that it has had on the community and businesses has led to it being given attention from social media and in literature. Methodology/Technique - This paper covered a literature review that provided the theoretical framework. The empirical study that was carried out included self-administered questionnaires which were distributed to 120 food retailers who were selected from the population using convenience sampling. Findings - The results revealed that most of the respondents were neutral towards the impact of operational factors regarding GHG emission in the food retail sector. Novelty - There is limited research that has been conducted among food retailers from the designated population. The study provided guidelines that will be of assistance to food retailers when dealing with climate change and greenhouse gas emissions impact in the food retail sector. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Food Retailers; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Perceptions; Strategies; Sustainability
    JEL: L66 Q54 Q59
    Date: 2021–03–31
  12. By: Antonioli, Federico; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
    Abstract: During the last two decades, the EU dairy sector has been interested by considerable changes and two policy reforms, the Fischler Reform and the Common Market Organization Reform, pushing toward economic liberalization. These changes affected the EU supply chains at different levels, altering the mechanisms of vertical price transmission. Against this background, we apply error correction models to assess how price signals are passed through, before and after the Italian milk supply chain reforms. In particular, we study the degree of price transmission asymmetries and conclude that market sluggishness has increased in the post-reform period, but the asymmetric dynamics are less evident. Reflections on future research needs are discussed.
    Keywords: Asymmetries; CAP reform; dairy sector; error correction model; Fischler reform; structural break
    JEL: L16 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2021–01–10
  13. By: Gary W. Brester; Kole Swanser; Brett Crosby
    Abstract: Many segments of the beef cattle industry have raised concerns that the live cattle negotiated market has become too thin. The percentage of live cattle procured through direct negotiations has declined to about 15%, while the percentage procured through formulas has increased to almost 70%. Most of these formulas are based on negotiated cattle prices. Proposed legislation mandating that a larger percentage of live cattle be procured through negotiations represents a market intervention. We show that live cattle futures prices are good proxies for negotiated cash prices, while being less restrictive for meeting proposed cattle procurement percentage requirements.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–02–26
  14. By: Sylvie Ferrari (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Damien Bazin (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (... - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Richard B. Howarth (Dartmouth College [Hanover])
    Abstract: This paper analyses how Hans Jonas' Imperative of Responsibility may provide useful insights into the analysis of sustainability issues. The challenges of environmental and social sustainability in terms of inter-generational fairness are analysed and involve a moral duty that is applicable to economic governance. To what extent responsibility is an alternative to utilitarianism and as a principle facilitating the coordination of the agents involved? Exploring this question may be a first step towards the long-term and sustainable conservation of Nature.
    Keywords: Environmental ethics,intergenerational fairness,responsibility principle,self-binding behaviour,sustainability
    Date: 2021–04–01
  15. By: Valérie Angeon (ECODEVELOPPEMENT - Unité de recherche d'Écodéveloppement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Samuel Bates (Université d'Angers, GRANEM)
    Abstract: This article deals with the implementation of the agroecological transition in the French West Indies. To address this challenge, a viability model is suggested. This approach offers an original framework to highlight agroecosystems dynamics by allowing consideration of simultaneously economic and agronomic dimensions. This holistic approach to agroecosystems is designed at the farming system scale. Farming systems, which are thought as socio-ecosystems (i.e., ecological systems inextricably connected to a socio-economic matrix), represent an essential component of the agricultural sector. Farming systems are a strategic level on which to tackle the different components of viability from a holistic point of view. Farming systems are at the crossroads of agro-technical, organizational, institutional and territorial innovations. They also constitute a consistent level on which to address the issues of complexity and uncertainty. A viability model with target (reaching a high soil quality threshold) is designed, tested and supports operational objectives. The viability analysis enables to answer different questions relating to a given state (i.e. initial state) concerning possible futures. It aims to reveal the set of decision-making rules to be followed to ensure a viable evolution of farming systems. The viability model is applied for banana farming systems. The model results allow to define to what extent a farm can undertake its agroecological transition. It helps to assess the costs and duration of the agroecological transition considering farmers' choices (practices and crops). It shows that postponing the implementation of viable decision rules is costly. The more farmers postpone, the longer it will take for their system to recover viable properties and the more it will cost.
    Abstract: Cet article porte sur la transition agroécologique des exploitations agricoles aux Antilles françaises. Il vise à déterminer les règles de décision à observer dès aujourd'hui afin d'assurer une évolution viable de ces systèmes de production. Un modèle de viabilité avec cible (atteindre un seuil élevé de qualité de sol) est proposé. Les résultats du modèle permettent de définir en combien de temps, à quel coût et selon quelles modalités de pratiques et de choix de production, une exploitation peut opérer sa transition agroécologique. Le modèle est appliqué aux exploitations bananières appréhendées comme des agroécosystèmes. Il permet de sélectionner les options de décision susceptibles d'orienter la trajectoire d'évolution de ces systèmes dynamiques dans le sens souhaité.
    Keywords: exploitation agricole,règle de décision,système dynamique,transition agroécologique,verrouillage,viabilité,decision-making rule,dynamic system,agroecological transition,lock in,viability,farming system
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Adinoto, Lely Puspitasari
    Abstract: The existence of Regulation of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Number 12 of 2020 provides pros and cons for the government and the people of Indonesia, especially for fisheries and marine animal cultivation businesses. On the one hand, this regulation benefits several parties and on the other hand is detrimental to shrimp and lobster cultivation business actors due to complicated regulations. In fact, this policy is also related to Government Regulation Number 75 of 2015 concerning Types and Rates of PNBP so that this government regulation cannot be enforced.
    Date: 2021–04–03
  17. By: Ajay Chhibber (George Washington University)
    Abstract: While the world has changed, India’s farm policy is stuck in a 50-year-old mindset. India’s response to food shortages in the 1960’s was to establish a mix of price (procurement, ration, and minimum support prices MSP’s) and non-price policies – irrigation, high yielding seed, subsidised fertiliser – which led a green revolution in cereals and a complex system of procuring and selling this grain through the Food Corporation of India and the Public Distribution System. But this system has outlived its usefulness for India but changing it is not easy as those whose livelihoods depend on it are unwilling to risk any changes as the farm protests show. This paper examines the issues behind the farm protests and suggests ways forward for India’s farm policy.
    Keywords: Farm protests, structural transformation, green revolution, farm price policy, farm subsidies
    JEL: Q1 Q2 O1 O2 O3
    Date: 2021–01
  18. By: Paul E. Carrillo (George Washington University); Anthony Yezer (George Washington University)
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates theoretically and empirically that estimated implicit prices from hedonic equations using house value do not reflect implicit willingness to pay for housing attributes unless very strong conditions are present. The argument is sim- ple. Implicit prices obtained from rental hedonics, consistent with theory, reveal the willingness to pay for current housing services. Therefore hedonic equations relating asset prices to current characteristics only reveal willingness to pay for structure and neighborhood services if CAP rates (rent to value ratios) are constant. In some cases, the sign of the bias inherent in using asset rather than rental prices can be anticipated. Some rules and tests for situations where CAP rates are constant are developed here.
    Keywords: Hedonic models, implicit markets, environmental valuation
    Date: 2021–03
  19. By: Era Dabla-Norris; James Daniel; Masahiro Nozaki; Cristian Alonso; Vybhavi Balasundharam; Matthieu Bellon; Chuling Chen; David Corvino; Joey Kilpatrick
    Abstract: Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing policymakers worldwide, and the stakes are particularly high for Asia and the Pacific. This paper analyzes how fiscal policy can address challenges from climate change in Asia and the Pacific. It aims to answer how policymakers can best promote mitigation, adaptation, and the transition to a low-carbon economy, emphasizing the economic and social implications of reforms, potential policy trade-offs, and country circumstances. The recommendations are grounded in quantitative analysis using country-specific estimates, and granular household, industry, and firm-level data.
    Keywords: Climate change;Fiscal policy;Environmental taxes;Climate policy;Asia and Pacific;Fiscal policy;Climate change;Environmental taxes;Green economy;Climate change mitigation;Climate change adaptation;Asia and the Pacific
    Date: 2021–03–24
  20. By: Hana, Mutiara
    Abstract: Citation of Pemikiran Ekonomi Bisnis
    Date: 2021–04–07

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